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World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 55 2009

Three Dimensional Analysis of Sequential


Quasi Isotropic Composite Disc for Rotating
Machine Application
Amin Almasi

 hence do not support parametric studies. This paper develops


Abstract—Composite laminates are relatively weak in out of a new analytical formulation for laminated composite rotating
plane loading, inter-laminar stress, stress concentration near the edge disc fabricated from symmetric sequential quasi isotropic
and stress singularities. This paper develops a new analytical layers to predict three dimensional stress and deformation.
formulation for laminated composite rotating disc fabricated from
First, sequential quasi isotropic laminates as a sub-group of
symmetric sequential quasi isotropic layers to predict three
dimensional stress and deformation. This analysis is necessary to quasi isotropic laminates with more isotropic characteristics
evaluate mechanical integrity of fiber reinforced multi-layer are introduced. Three dimensional governing equations are
laminates used for high speed rotating applications such as high written for rotating disc in most general form. The key step to
speed impellers. Three dimensional governing equations are written effective analysis is to take advantage of "First Order Theory"
for rotating composite disc. Explicit solution is obtained with and mechanical characteristics of symmetric sequential quasi
"Frobenius" expansion series. Based on analytical results, there are
isotropic laminates to simplified three dimensional complex
two separate zones of three dimensional stress fields in centre and
edge of rotating disc. For thin discs, out of plane deformations and equations. Obtained partial deferential equations are solved
stresses are small in comparison with plane ones. For relatively thick with expansion series and three dimensional analytical results
discs deformation and stress fields are three dimensional. are obtained.

Keywords—Composite Disc, Rotating Machine. II. SEQUENTIAL QUASI ISOTROPIC LAMINATES


For optimum arrangement of laminated fiber composites
I. INTRODUCTION especially for rotating disc applications, quasi-isotropic

C OMPOSITE materials are increasingly found new


applications in rotating machines [1], [2]. One of the
important topics is high speed impeller. Composite laminates
lamination was introduced. This arrangement [1],[2] has
isotropic properties for stretching stiffness. It was introduced
to obtain isotropic stretching stiffness for composite
offer extended strength in fiber directions. However they are lamination assembly, uniform loading and minimum stress
relatively weak in out of plane loading. Three dimensional concentration where as using fiber laminates with extended
stress fields need to be obtained to evaluate mechanical strength in fiber direction. Fiber direction of quasi-isotropic
integrity, reliability and safety assessments of composite for "N" layer laminations can be expressed as (1).
rotating disc. Previous researches and papers on composite
S
three dimensional and inter-laminar stresses were mainly Tk k k 1,2,..., N (1)
concentrated on rectangular plates [3]-[5] and relatively little N
works have been reported for composite rotating discs. In In this paper new arrangement "Sequential Quasi-Isotropic"
addition near edge and singularity stresses in composites have as a sub-group of quasi isotropic is introduced. "Sequential
taken considerable attention in recent years [6]-[9]. Stresses at Quasi-Isotropic" arrangement has odd number (equal or more
near edge or singularity points present challenge to composite than three) of layers as (2).
application in rotating machine component due to local N 1
concentrated stresses and possibility of crack initiation, N 2m 1 o m
2
fatigue, fracture and machine failure. Previous works [10] > T m / ... /  T 3 /  T 2 /  T1 / 0 / T1 / T 2 / T 3 / ... / T m @ (2)
were using finite element method to prediction of the three
S
dimensional stress and strain which need very special meshes Tk k k 1,2,..., m
N
and are very sensitive to type, topology and density of the
Flexural stiffness of sequential quasi isotropic laminates can
meshes. Furthermore results cannot be readily generalized and
be expressed as (3). According to (3), four elements of
flexural stiffness matrix are same as isotropic materials.
Amin Almasi is with the Tecnicas Reunidas S.A., Madrid 28050, SPAIN Sequential quasi isotropic materials have very close isotropic
(phone: +34 91 409 8254; fax: +34 91 750 4165; e-mail: aalmasi@trsa.es
amin_almassi@yahoo.com).
properties to isotropic materials, not only in stretching
stiffness, but also in major elements of flexural stiffness

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World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 55 2009

matrix (as shown in (3), except B16 and B26, all other flexural Governing equations can be written for half of symmetric
elements are same as isotropic materials). In the other words laminated disc as (6) and (7).
by using these arrangements in high speed disc or similar
applications, most uniform loadings, minimum stress wV r V r  V T wV rz
   UZ 2 r (6)
concentrations and minimum distortions can be obtained wr r wz
where as using uni-directional extended strength fiber wV rz wV z 1
composite layers.   V rz 0 (7)
wr wz r
ª h2 h2 º
« U1 U4 B16 » Multiplying (6) by "ur" and integration from zero to "h/2",
ª B11 B12 B16 º « 22 2 » lead to governing equations for stretching and flexural as (8)
«B «h U h2 (3)
B22 B26 »» U1 B26 »
« 12 «2 4 2 » and (9) respectively.
«¬ B16 B26 B66 »¼ « h 2 »
« B16 B26 (U 1  U 4 )»
¬ 4 ¼ dN r 1 h
 ( N r  NT )  U Z 2 r (8)
dr r 2
III. ROTATING DISC FORMULATION dM r 1 h2
 Qr  ( M r  M T )  U Z 2 r (9)
Fig. 1 shows an example of laminated composite rotating dr r 8
disc fabricated from symmetric sequential quasi isotropic Using same method (multiplying by "uz" and integration)
layers (Fig. 1 shows N=3, arrangement [-60/0/60]s ). for (7) leads to (10) and (11). Equations (10) and (11) are
governing equations for shear and out of plane direction
respectively. Inter-laminar vertical stress between two halves
of symmetric disc (out of plane stress) can be noted as (12).
dQ r 1
 Qr  P(r ) 0 (10)
dr r
dR r 1
 Rr  N z 0 (11)
Fig. 1 Rotating disc fabricated from symmetric sequential quasi
dr r
isotropic layers (N=3, arrangement [-60/0/60]s ). where
P (r ) V z r , z 0 (12)
For steady state high speed rotating disc fabricated from
symmetric sequential quasi isotropic layers, three dimensional
By substitution of resultants as per (5) in equations (8), (9)
deformation functions can be expressed in "Tyler Series"
and (11), three partial differential equations as (13) will be
about "z" according to "First Order Theory". With respect to
obtained for laminated rotating disc.
symmetric lamination and isotropic properties of stretching
and flexural stiffness properties, (4) can be obtained. 1 1 1 1
a1ucc  a2 uc  a3 2 u  a4\ rcc  a5 \ rc  a6 2 \ r  a7\ cz a8r
r r r r
ur (r , z ) u (r )  z\ r ( r ) 1 1 1 1
b1ucc  b2 uc  b3 2 u  b4\ rcc  b5 \ c  b6 2 \ r  b7\ r  b8\ cz
uT (r , z ) 0 (4) r r r r
(13)
1
u z (r , z ) z\ z (r )  b9 \ z b10r
r
By three dimensional "Hook´s Law" and integration of 1 1 1
d1uc  d2 u  d3\ rc  d 4 \ r  d5\ czc  d6 \ cz  d7\ z d8
equations, resultants can be expressed as (5). r r r
u \ Boundary conditions are as (14).
Nr A11u c  A12  A13\ z  B11\ rc  B12 r  N rT
r r r 0 o u 0 ,\r 0 , Qr 0
u \r (14)
NT A12 u c  A22  A23\ z  B12\ rc  B22  N TT r a o Nr 0 , Mr 0 , Qr 0
r r
u \
Nz A13 u c  A23  A33\ z  B13\ rc  B23 r  N zT
r r (5)
Qr 2 2
K 5 A55 ( wc  \ r )  K 5 B55\ cz IV. ANALYTICAL SOLUTION

Rr 2 2
K B55 ( wc  \ r )  K D55\ cz Explicit analytical solution of (13) can be expressed in
5 5
exponential series. According to "Frobenius" theory [11],
u \
Mr B11u c  B12  B13\ z  D11\ rc  D12 r  M rT [12], explicit solutions are written as (15).
r r
u \r
MT B12 u c  B22  B23\ z  D12\ rc  D22  M TT
r r

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World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 55 2009

f
rotating disc fabricated from symmetric sequential quasi
u (r ) ¦A r n s isotropic layers (N=3). This schematic non-scale deformation
n
n 0 shape is plotted based on analytical results of presented
f method and formulations.
\ r (r ) ¦B
n 0
n r n s (15)
f
\ z (r ) ¦C
n 0
n r n s 1

By substitution of (15) in (13), equations for "s" 0


characteristic values are obtained as (16).
-5
P1 ( s ) A0  P2 ( s ) B0 0 P(r )
-10
P3 ( s ) A0  P4 ( s ) B0 0 (16) PDL
-15
P5 ( s ) A0  P6 ( s ) B0  P7 ( s ) C0 0
-20
where
0 0.5 1 1.5
P1 ( s ) a1 s 2  ( a 2  a1 ) s  a3 , P2 ( s ) a 4 s 2  ( a5  a 4 ) s  a 6
r (mm)
Fig. 2 Out of plane stress P(r) vs. radius for composite disc, diameter
P3 ( s ) b1 s 2  (b2  b1 ) s  b3 , P4 ( s ) b4 s 2  (b5  b4 ) s  b6
to thickness ratio: 4, layer arrangement: [-60/0/60]s .
P5 ( s ) d1 s  d 2 , P6 ( s ) d3s  d4
2
P7 ( s ) d 5 s  (d 5  d 6 ) s  d 6

Characteristics equations for "s" values are as (17). It leads


to six values for "s" which only three values are acceptable
0
with respect to boundary conditions (14). By this method, -5
three sets of general solutions can be obtained in form of (15). P(r )
PDL -10
[ K 52 D55 ( s 2  2s  1)] [ ( A11 s 2  A22 ) ( D11 s 2  D22 ) 
(17) -15
( B11 s 2  B22 ) 2 ] 0
-20
Particular solutions can also be obtained in the same 0 1 2 3
manner. For loading of constant rotation, particular result r (mm)
corresponds to "s=3". For uniform thermal loading "s=1".For
Fig. 3 Out of plane stress P(r) vs. radius for composite disc, diameter
both general and particular solutions, (An), (Bn) and (Cn) are
to thickness ratio: 8, layer arrangement: [-60/0/60]s .
calculated from recurrence relations obtained by substitution
of (15) in (13).

V. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Fig. 2, Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 show out of plane stress "P(r)" (as
(12)) for rotating disc fabricated from ´´T300/5208´´ material 0
composite layers with arrangement ( [-60/0/60]s ) for diameter
to thickness ratio (D/h = (2a)/h) equal by 4, 8 and 16 -5
respectively. P(r ) -10
Out of plane stress "P(r)" is dimensionless with proper
PDL
stress values to study three dimensional stress fields. There are -15
two out of plane zones in rotating discs, one in edge and other
in centre. For relatively thick discs (Fig. 2 for diameter to -20
thickness ratio: 4 and Fig. 3 for diameter to thickness ratio: 8) 0 2 4 6
stress fields are three dimensional, however, for thin disc (Fig. r (mm)
4 for diameter to thickness ratio: 16) there are relatively two
distinct three dimensional zones in centre and edge of disc. Fig. 4 Out of plane stress P(r) vs. radius for composite disc, diameter
For edge zone, out of plane stress is varying and try to balance to thickness ratio: 16, layer arrangement: [-60/0/60]s .
force.
Fig. 5 presents schematic three dimensional deformation of

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World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 55 2009

Simulations and numerical results show that for relatively [9] A. Soyucok and Z. Soyucok, "Stress Distributed in Multilayered
Composites Near Loading Edges", Int. Appl. Mech. Vol. 44, No. 4, pp.
thin discs, presented three dimensional solution leads to 471-480, 2008.
deformations and stress field very similar to plane analysis. It [10] Yu. V. Kokhanenco, "Numerical Solution to the Buckling Problem for
shows robustness of proposed method. This modern tool of Sandwich Plate under Uniaxial Compression", Int. Appl. Mech., Vol. 42,
analysis enables rotating equipment engineers to study three No. 9, pp. 1045-1051, 2006.
[11] S. J. Farlow, "Partial Differential Equations for Scientists and
dimensional and especially out of plane stresses and Engineers", Dover Books, 1993.
deformations. Out of plane loading, inter-laminar stress and [12] E. A. Coddington, "An Introduction to Ordinery Differential Equations",
deformation, stress concentration near the edge and stress Dover Books, 1995.
singularities can be investigated by this analytical method.
This can provide valuable knowledge to develop laminated
composite materials for high speed impellers and other high
speed rotating machine applications.

Amin Almasi is lead rotating equipment engineer in Technicas Reunidas S.A.,


Spain, Madrid. He is Chartered Professional Engineer (CPEng). He holds
M.S. and B.S. in mechanical engineering. He specializes in rotating machines
including reciprocating, centrifugal and screw compressors, gas and steam
turbines, process pumps, engines, electric machines, condition monitoring and
reliability. Before jointing TR, he worked as rotating equipment engineer in
Fluor.
Fig. 5 Schematic three dimensional deformation of rotating disc Mr Almasi is active member of IEEE, Engineers Australia, IMechE, ASME
fabricated from symmetric sequential quasi isotropic layers (Disc is (American Society of Mechanical Engineering), CSME (Canadian Society of
symmetric, each half has three layer N=3, half of disc is shown). Mechanical Engineering), CMVI (Canadian Machinery Vibration Institute),
SPE (Society of Petroleum Engineers), Vibration Institute, SMRP (Society for
Maintenance and Reliability Professionals) and IDGTE (Institute of Diesel
and Gas Turbine Engineers). He has authored several papers and articles
VI. CONCLUSIONS dealing with rotating machines, condition monitoring, offshore and reliability.

Three dimensional analysis of laminated composite rotating


disc fabricated from symmetric sequential quasi isotropic
layers are presented in this paper for high speed impeller
applications. Explicit formulations are derived and analytical
solutions are obtained by expansion series. Based on
analytical results, there are two "Three Dimensional" stress
fields, in centre and edge of rotating discs. For thin discs, out
of plane deformations and stresses are small in comparison
with plane ones. For relatively thick disc, deformations and
stress fields are completely three dimensional.

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