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2010

Community Based Development of Trout


Fisheries.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan

PARC
Sardar Taimur Hyat-
Khan
06/07/2010
Table of Contents

Tables:

Figures:

Annexures:

Executive Summary: 2-6


1. Name of the project:................................................................................................3
2. Location:.....................................…………………………………………….. 3-4
3. Authorities responsible for: 5
4. Plan provision: 5
5. Project objectives and its relationship with sector objectives: 8
6. Description, Justification, Technical Parameter and Technology Transfer
Aspects: ..................................................................................................................10
7. Capital Cost Estimates..........................................................................................89
8. Annual Operating and Maintenance Cost after Completion of the Project....90
9. Demand and Supply Analysis:……………………………………………......90
10. Financial Plan and Mode of Financing:……………………………………...91
11. Project Benefit and Analysis:…………………………………………………..91
12. Implementation Schedule:……………………………………………………..91
13. Management Structure and Manpower Requirements Including Specialized
Skills during Construction and Operational Phases:……………………….93
14. Additional Project/Decisions Required Maximizing Socio-Economic Benefits
from the Proposed Project:……………………………………………………93
15. Certified that the Project Proposal has been Prepared on the Basis of
Instructions Provided by the Planning Commission for the Preparation of PC-1
for Production Sector Project…………………………………………………94

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY:

1. Cost estimates: Prepared in May, 2010 (Rupees in millions).


Cost Synopsis:
Sr Financial Base Costs
Activities
.# Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5 Total
A. Program Management Unit: Preparatory Phase: Sociological Component
Capital Cost 741.80 535.57 569.81 148.69 620.37 2,616.23
Operational Cost 36.26 44.57 45.78 44.56 50.26 205.46
Establishment Cost 121.62 133.78 133.78 147.16 147.16 683.50
TOTAL 899.68 713.92 749.37 340.41 817.79 3,505.19
B. Environment/ Water Component:
1 Rooftop & Surface Water Harvesting
382.3
Capital Cost 49.35 52.58 93.83 95.07 91.47 0
68.3
Operational Cost 10.85 13.41 13.96 15.71 14.45 7
TOTAL 60.20 65.99 107.79 110.78 105.91 450.67
2 Plantation
Capital Cost 28.85 2.09 2.09 2.30 2.30 37.63
Operational Cost 40.88 345.12 899.40 913.99 1,089.05 3,288.44
TOTAL 69.73 347.21 901.49 916.28 1,091.35 3,326.07
3 Municipal Solid & Liquid Waste Management/ Pollution Control
Capital Cost 58.90 66.31 64.79 71.27 71.27 332.54
Operational Cost 32.20 36.44 37.62 41.39 40.18 187.84
TOTAL 91.10 102.75 102.41 112.66 111.45 520.38
C. Energy/ Agri/ Horti/ Honey/ Mushroom/ Livestock/ Poultry/ Fish
1 Energy
Capital Cost 221.70 243.87 243.87 268.26 268.26 1,245.95
Operational Cost 3.45 5.69 6.90 6.26 6.26 28.56
TOTAL 225.15 249.56 250.77 274.51 274.51 1,273.99
2 Biosaline Agriculture/ Plantation/Honey Bees
Capital Cost 80.80 96.12 161.10 227.49 196.75 762.26
Operational Cost 6.65 6.72 7.94 7.40 7.40 36.11
TOTAL 87.45 102.84 169.04 234.89 204.14 798.36
3 Compost/ Kitchen Gardens/Mushrooms
Capital Cost 82.36 66.84 66.84 73.72 73.52 363.27
Operational Cost 8.41 9.93 9.93 12.14 10.93 51.35
TOTAL 90.77 76.77 76.77 85.86 84.44 414.62
4 Poultry/ Range Improvement/ Fish
Capital Cost 172.96 281.00 282.90 293.28 141.57 1,171.71
Operational Cost 16.94 32.02 33.66 35.50 34.11 152.24
TOTAL 189.91 313.02 316.56 328.78 175.68 1,323.95
D. Enterprise & R&D Component
1 Enterprise
Capital Cost 130.52 156.17 155.62 171.81 61.76 675.87
Operational Cost 12.97 16.01 16.00 18.82 16.14 79.93
TOTAL 143.49 172.17 171.62 190.63 77.90 755.80
2 R&D
Capital Cost 12.50 13.75 13.75 15.13 15.13 70.25
Operational Cost 5.01 5.71 5.71 6.28 6.28 28.98
TOTAL 17.51 19.46 19.46 21.40 21.40 99.23
Total Capital Cost 1,594.10 1,514.29 1,654.60 1,367.01 1,542.37 7,672.37
Total Operational Cost 173.68 515.62 1,076.90 1,102.05 1,275.05 4,127.32
Total Establishment
Cost 121.62 133.78 133.78 147.16 147.16 683.50
GRAND TOTAL 1,889.40 2,163.68 2,865.28 2,616.22 2,964.59 12,482.67

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# Activities Unit Quantities
Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5 TOTAL
A Aquifer Mapping Sq. Kms. 4 4 4 12
B Aquifer Improvement
1 Aquifer Recharging (Dry Bores) Nos. 12 12 12 36
2 Underground Weirs Sq. Ft. 10,000 10,000 10,000 30,000
3 Shallow/ Tube Wells No. 100 100 100 500 800
Sub Total
C Sustainable Development Action Plans/ Poverty 1 3 4
Map
D Workshops
1 Steel Fabrication Nos. 1 1
2 Electric/ Electronics/ Computer Nos. 1 1
3 Vehicles Nos. 1 1
Sub Total
E Cooling
1 Chilling Towers/ N Gas Cooling Nos. 4 4
2 Bore-wells/ Jack pumps Nos. 4 4
3 Solar Panels/ Battery Backup Nos. 4 4
4 Windmills for Jack Pumps Nos. 4 4
F Composting Machine Nos. 4 4
G Waste Water Garden Nos. 4 4
1 Roof top Rain Water Harvesting Repair Sq. M 1,000 1,000
A Roof top Rain Water Harvesting 5' Dia x 9'
Height
1 Jivni Nos. 50 50 100
2 Pasni Nos. 50 50 50 150
3 Gawadar Nos. 50 50 50 50 200
4 Ormara Nos. 50 50 50 150
5 Winder Nos. 50 50
6 Korangi Fishery Nos. 50 50
7 Bhains Colony Nos. 50 50 100
8 Keti Bander Nos. 50 50 50 50 200
9 Gharo Nos. 50 50
10 Chohar Jamali Nos. 50 50
11 Mirpur Sakro Nos. 50 50 50 150
12 Jati Nos. 50 50
13 Ghulamullah Town Nos. 50 50 100
14 10 Villages/ Ghoths per Sector (4 Sectors) 10
Hhs per Nos. 100 100 100 100 400
Sub Total 300 400 400 350 350 1,800
B Surface Rain Water Harvesting (Road Side 20'
x 10' x 5' ) (Village/ Ghoths 40' x 20' x 5')
1 Road Side Ponds with Roofing (Reed Mats) Nos. 500 500 500 500 500 2,500
2 Village/ Ghoths Ponds with Roofing (Reed
mats) Nos. 40 40 40 40 40 200
Sub Total 540 540 540 540 540 2,700
C Mini Dams/ Erosion Control
1 Mini Dam Earthen Nos.
(Cu.M) 5 (1,000) 5 (1,000) 5 (1,000) 5 (1,000) 5 (1,000) 25(5,000)
2 Stone Masonry Mini Dam Nos.
(Cu.M) 1 (2,500) 1 (2,500) 1 (2,500) 1 (2,500) 1 (2,500) 5 (12,000)
3 Check Dams/Protection Walls Nos.
(Cu.M) 10 ( 100) 10 ( 100) 10 ( 100) 10 ( 100) 10 ( 100) 50 (500)
4 Diversion Dams / Dykes Nos.
(Cu.M) 5 (500) 5 (500) 5 (500) 5 (500) 5 (500) 25 (2,500)
5 Stone-Wire Spurs (GI Wire, No.0.8 6x6 mesh) Nos.
(Cu.M) 5 (500) 5 (500) 5 (500) 5 (500) 5 (500) 25 (2,500)
6 Gabion Retaining Walls Nos.
(Cu.M) 5 (250) 5 (250) 5 (250) 5 (250) 5 (250) 25 (1,250)
7 Live Burshwood Retaining Walls (4' high) Nos. 100
(Cu.M) 20 (200) 20 (200) 20 (200) 20 (200) 20 (200) (1,000)
8 Pallisade / Burshwood Check Dams (4' high) Nos.
(Cu.M) 10 (500) 10 (500) 10 (500) 10 (500) 10 (500) 50 (2,500)
A Root Stock and Seedlings Nursery Nos. 8 8
B Seedling Production
1 Containerized seedlings M Nos. 2.00 4.00 4.00 6.00 6.00 22.00
2 Bare-rooted seedlings M Nos. 4.00 8.00 8.00 10.00 10.00 40.00

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Sub Total
C Grafting
1 Scions Purchase M Nos. 1.00 1.00 1.00 3.00
2 Grafting M Nos. 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 5.00
Sub Total
D Tissue Culture Laboratories Nos. 1 1
E Hydro Seed Mulching Nos. 4 4
F Linear plantation: Oil Palm, Jathropha curicas Kms. 100 150 150 200 600
Sub Total Nos. 200,000 300,000 300,000 400,000 1,200,000
G Dune Stabalization Ha 100 500 500 500 500 2,100
H Aesthetic Planting Km 10 10 10 10 40
Nos. 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 80,000
I Propogation of indigeneous/endangered tree
species M.No 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 5.00
J Block Plantation
1 Reforestation @ 4500/ha (1.5 m x 1.5m
spacing) Ha 100 500 500 500 500 2,100
2 Castor Oil,Salicornia,Fodder Trees/
Shrubs,Fuelwood Ha 1,000 5,000 5,000 10,000 21,000
A Municipal Soild & Liquid Waste Keti
Units Bander Gawadar Ormara Jivni Pasni 5
B Medium Composting/ Organic Fertilier Unit Nos. 20 20 20 20 20 100
A Salt-Gradient Solar Ponds (50 KW Summer:
20 KW Winter: 200 KW Peak)
1 Ponds 4 4 4 4 4 20
B Passive Solar Collectors/ Stills 100 100 100 100 100 500
C Active Solar Systems (1 KW) 100 100 100 100 100 500
D Wind Mills 500 500 500 500 500 2,500
E Bio Gas Plants 200 200 200 200 200 1,000
A Biosaline Centers Nos. 1 1 1 1 4
B Bio-Pesticide Unit Nos. 4 4
C Bio-Herbicides Unit Nos. 4 4
D Tissue Culture/ Rhizobium Production Nos. 1 1
Laboratory
E Demonstration cum Dissemination Blocks
1 Plots Development, Bunds, Laser Leveling Ha 50 100 200 200 200 750
F State and Private Farm Lands Full Scale
Plantation
1 Cultivation on Marginally Saline Areas Ha 400 800 1,600 3,200 6,000
2 Plots Development, Bunds, Laser Leveling Ha 400 800 1,600 3,200 6,000
3 Plantation from seed production Ha 500 1,000 2,500 3,000 7,000
4 Plantation of Salicornia Ha 1,000 3,000 5,000 5,000 14,000
G Honey Bee Unit
1 Honey Testing/ Standardization Laboratory Nos. 1 1 2
2 Queen Producing Centers Nos. 1 1 2
3 Bee Hives Nos. 400 400 800 800 800 3,200
4 Honey Harvesting and Processes Units Nos. 1 1 2
A Compost & Environment/ Predator Protected Nos. 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 5,000
Kitchen Gardens: 20"Dia
B Compost Pits: 4'x3'x3' Nos. 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 5,000
C Mushroom Spawn Production Labortory/ Kulla Nos. 2 2
1 Kulla (Dedicated Growing Structure) Nos. 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 5,000
A Poultry
1 Hatcheries Nos. 1 1 1 1 4
2 Grand Parent Flock (Layers) Nos. 8,000 8,000
3 Grand Parent Flock Breeding Sheds (100'*20') Nos. 8 8
4 Mini Feed Mills Nos. 1 1 1 1 4
5 Incubators Nos. 200 400 400 800 1,800
6 Insulated Backyard Poultry Coops (10'' x 10') Nos. 200 400 400 800 1,800
Sub Total
B Range Rehabilitation Sq. Kms. 1 10 10 10 10 41
1 Water Spreaders Kms. 1 10 10 10 10 41
Sub Total
C Barrelponics Sets 40 400 400 400 400 1,640
D Mariculture (Broodstock)
1 Hatchery Nos. 1 1 1 1 4

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2 Construction of brood stock pond (0.2 ha) Nos. 2 2 2 2 8
3 Larval rearing tank (Cemented, 1000 l) Nos. 12 12 12 12 48
Sub Total
E Mariculture (Rearing)
1 Rearing Stock Pond (0.2 kanals) Nos. 40 40 40 40 40 200
A Fish Processing Units Nos. 1 1 1 1 4
B Salt Processing from Sea water Nos. 5 5 5 5 20
C Garments/ Traditional Embroidery Nos. 200 400 400 400 800 2,200
A R&D
Exploring Native Shrubs useful for Bio-fuel.
Promotion of Indigenous Vegetation
Identification/ Conservation of Endangered
Species.
Exploration of Local Vegetation for Medicinal
Value.
Identification of indigenous plant species
bioremediation.
Site specific plantations.
Exploring native shrubs useful for Bio-fuel.
Food security.
Employment generation.
Stakeholders network
Sub Total 12 12 12 12 12 12

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Revised 2005
GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN
PLANNING COMMISSION
PC-1 FORM
(SOCIAL SECTORS)
1. Name of the Project: Community Based Development of Trout Fisheries.

2. Location: Malakand and Hazara Divisions (Map attached as Annex).

3. Authority responsible for:


i. Sponsoring: Go Pakistan
ii. Execution: Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC).
iii. Operation and Maintenance: Organized Village Councils.
iv. Concerned Federal Ministry: Federal Ministry Food & Agriculture.

4. Plan Provision: It is proposed that a special budgetary allocation be made for the
Project in view of the importance of Post Terrorist Recovery; Poverty stricken areas &
Sustainable Development; Food Security and Prevention of Environmental Degradation,
under the present financial circumstances.

7
Project
Objectives
and its
Relationship
with Sectoral
Objectives

8
5. Project objectives and its relationship with Sectoral objectives
Being an apex research organization at Federal level, responsible for coordination and
promotion of agricultural research, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC) has the
mission “Poverty reduction through science-based improvements in agricultural
productivity, profitability, and competitiveness to ensure “food and livelihood security
for all in an environmentally sustainable manner”.

This project is highly critical in nature especially in the light of the present socio-
economic situation and is within the purview of the MDGs pertaining to the provision of
food security and Vision 2030 in the following sectors:

a. Poverty alleviation.
b. Nutrition enhancement.
c. Capacity building and human resource development of communities.
d. Female capacity development and empowerment.
e. Environment Protection.

The proposed project is in line with the Pakistan Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper,
Medium Term Development Framework (MTDF) 2005-10 of the Planning Commission of
Pakistan.

The proposed project will help in achieving the MTDF (2005-10) goals, targets and
objectives besides supporting the implementation of its sectoral strategies. It will help
Pakistan to fulfill international obligations of the Millennium Development Goal’s (MDGs)
targets; Goal-1 Halving extreme poverty and hunger; reduce the proportion of people who
live on less than one dollar a day. (Reduce by half the proportion of people who suffer from
hunger) and Goal-7; Ensure Environmental Sustainability. In addition, the proposed project
supports the National Agricultural and Environment Policy, National Conservation Strategy
(NCS) and National Environment Action Plan (NEAP).

General objectives of the proposed project are in line with the sectoral objectives of
the agricultural and livestock sectors besides supporting the green environment in MTDF
(2005-10). Accordingly, the Government of Pakistan is committed to increase production of
inland fisheries and reduce poverty besides combating environmental pollution in various
sectors and at various levels. Therefore, allocation for agriculture, livestock and fisheries
sector has greatly been increased in the Public Sector Development Program (PSDP), besides
providing necessary incentives to the private sector for making considerable investment in
this sector.

Fisheries sub-sector grew at a growth rate of 3.5 % during the last decade, however
the growth rate during 2004-05 was in negative (-2.5%) due mainly to shortage of water for
inland fisheries production. Since water availability is in plenty in the mountain areas, it
would be easy to achieve the objectives of the MTDF through the proposed project besides
developing and harvesting water and using it for nutrient enriched irrigation. MTDF has
estimated a target of 208,000 tons of inland fish production, which the proposed project will
try to achieve proportionately by 2010. An amount of Rs. 56.8 billions has been allocated for
the agriculture and livestock sector, for this purpose.

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Specific objectives of the proposed project are:

i. To develop water resources of the local Rivers and their tributaries for raising
trout fish.
ii. Establish partnerships with the communities in the raising and marketing of trout
fish.
iii. Combat rural poverty by increasing the income generation opportunities for the
communities.
iv. Identify potential markets in Pakistan and abroad, for earning increased income
per unit sale of trout fish
v. Increase protein production and ensure improvement in health of the communities.
vi. Establish partnerships with potential investors and local communities for
sustainable marketing of products.

10
Description,
Justification
and Technical
Parameters:

11
6. Description, Justification and Technical Parameters:
Description:

The proposed project is based on the concept that rural communities living in the
remote parts of Malakand and Hazara Divisions are mostly poor and do not enjoy adequate
income generation opportunities at the local level. They do follow agricultural, pastoral and
other subsistence level income generation activities and mostly depend on the forestry
resources for meeting their daily livelihood requirements and fuel-wood needs. Consequently,
forestry and range land resources in the eco-fragile mountains are exploited beyond
sustainable levels. With a view to enhance their income generation capacity and utilize
available natural resources by supporting the communities in developing trout fish enterprise,
the proposed project has been designed to exploit the potential of the available natural
resources using innovative techniques in trout fish farming and marketing. As trout fish is
known for its taste and quality, it can earn substantial income for the rural poor. Nutrient
enriched water leaving fish ponds and predatory control of insects by trout will add greatly to
field agricultural and horticultural yields by provision of organic nutrition and biological pest
control.

Rainbow trout are originally from western North America but have become
naturalized to this area. They are the fastest growing and prefer slightly warmer water than
brook trout.

Trout need cold (or at least cool), clean, high quality water with plenty of oxygen.
They need either sufficient flow or sufficient volume of water to maintain the quality of the
water. The ponds need to maintain a temperature of at most 65 0 F at the bottom of the pond
in mid summer. Ponds need sufficient depth so that in winter there is adequate oxygen in the
water under the ice to keep the trout alive.

In general, trout ponds in this area need about 8 feet of depth and a sufficient source
of cold water (such as natural springs) to provide the conditions that trout need. Shallower
ponds usually heat up too much in the summer and do not have sufficient volume under the
ice to allow a reasonable survival rate of stocked trout.

Under optimal conditions, a rainbow trout can grow as much as one inch per month,
but usually much less than that. If trout grow a total of six inches per year, they are growing
very well.

It is not recommended to stock trout smaller than 3 inches in length, because their
mortality rate in a pond is very high at that stage of life.

The need for mass production of quality fish seed can only be satisfied by artificial
propagation methods. These methods permit the incubation and hatching of eggs and the
rearing of seed under well protected conditions, independent of local weather. The production
process is under human control, and therefore 10–70% of the eggs produced can be raised to
viable fingerlings as compared with a survival rate of less than 1% in natural waters.

Artificial propagation is a chain of activities. These activities can be summarized as follows:

1. Rearing of brood fish.


2. Procurement of ripe sexual products by stripping and artificial fertilization.

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3. Incubation and hatching of eggs.
4. Rearing of larvae.
5. Rearing of fry and fingerling.

Steps 2, 3 and 4 take place in the hatchery component of the unit, while the others take place
in the ponds.

Ponds one acre or more in area are better for fish production than those of smaller
size; also, for a fish pond it is best to have 15 acres of watershed area for each surface acre of
water. Larger ponds also provide more stable sources of water for livestock.

Construction costs, fish production, usefulness, and length of life of the pond are all
affected by its location. A good pond site should have the following features:

1) Soil containing enough clay to hold water.


2) Land lying so as to permit the most economical construction.
3) Watershed area of the right size to assure a good water supply.
4) Location suited to the purpose the pond is intended to serve.

The project design comprises of establishing local hatcheries; developing community


fish ponds/processing of harvested fish and supporting/ training communities in trout rearing;
harvesting; rearing and marketing in Pakistan and abroad. Community organizations would
be established in the proposed project area. The project will organize and involve
communities in supporting development of fish ponds and processing facilities including all
technical inputs, on their common lands. The community components will include labor, fish
rearing, watch and ward, whereas the implementing agency (PARC) will cover cost of design
and construction, including construction material and establishing marketing chains.

PARC also has expertise in balancing conservation and use of natural resources,
promotes responsible inland fisheries and aquaculture and increases their contribution to food
security. Operation of the aquaculture facility needs to be in accordance with improvements
in a fisheries management plan that includes habitat maintenance, fish conservation, fish-use
allocation, education, enforcement, inventory, monitoring, research and improvements in
sport fishing regulations. Only then can we expect to see improvements in fisheries
resources.

These concepts are put into practical use in the field in order to increase food security
and enhance aquatic biodiversity.

According to the new global standards for the reduction of water use and for
decreasing the environmental load of aquaculture activities, the fish hatcheries will be based
on water recycling technology.

Introduction of fly fishing-based eco-tourism will be developed by release of


fingerlings/ mature fish in local waters to further develop an important source of income for
the local communities.

PARC will initially work with the communities; organize, educate, train and finance
the construction of water channels fish ponds and processing facilities, besides establishing
marketing chains including financing of mobile freezers. PARC will work to create self

13
sustainable marketing by communities over a period of five years. The PARC will establish
one hatchery in each of two Divisions of the target area, which will provide the required
fingerlings every year. The project will be implemented over a period of five years in 18
villages possessing suitable land and gravity flow water.

The implementing agency has got adequate facilities in terms of professionals,


technical inputs, resources and infrastructure. The professionals include highly qualified and
experienced experts in areas such as aquaculture; HID; livelihoods and environment; gender
based development; marketing; social mobilization and infrastructures, besides possessing a
highly committed and experienced team at regional level. Terms of Partnership (TOP) will be
signed with the communities for establishing an effective and long lasting partnership. The
proposed project comprises of the following components:

Trout Fisheries Development

Pilot Recirculation Aquaculture System (RAS)

As with all living organisms, fish affect their environment by consuming food and
discharging metabolites. The consumption, the quantity of released materials and the chain
of organisms that benefit from fish metabolites are well balanced in natural ecosystems.
Stationary populations of living organisms, including fish, can develop and be maintained in
these natural water systems. The ecosystem supplies the fish population with natural food
and purifies the environment of discharged materials. However, this balance is disrupted if
the fish population is artificially increased and its feed is supplied from outside the system.

With production of each ton of fish, about 300 kilograms of manure-quality material
is also produced, out of it only about 20 kg N is converted by bacteria to gas form and gets to
the atmosphere. The consequence is the modification of the natural environment. It can be
moderate, hardly appreciable in the short-term, but the process is also capable of rapid
damage to the system and deterioration of water quality.

To avoid the above-mentioned consequences without decreasing fish production, in


countries with high environmental consciousness, water-saving or water-reuse fish
production technologies are used, including the application of Recirculation Aquaculture
Systems (RASs). Of course, the quantity of discharged metabolites after consumption of a
unit of feed is no less in the RASs than in flow-through or pond systems; however, RASs use
mechanical and biological filtration to concentrate, degrade, and remove almost all of the
waste materials from the fish rearing tanks, so they do not get into natural waters. The
soluble wastes and feed are degraded in the biofilter by microbes, which use oxygen while
releasing other gases to the air. Extra air or pure oxygen can also be added to the water to
accelerate these processes.

The RAS technology is an energy-intensive production method. By preliminary


calculations, about seven kilowatts of electric energy is used for production of 1 kilogram of
fingerlings in the fish hatchery. Accounting for present prices of fingerlings and electricity,
energy costs make up about 30% to 40% of the total production cost, although this figure
depends strongly upon the magnitude of production.

The daily water loss from the fingerling unit (which is a consequence mainly of the
backwashing of the drum filter) is about fifteen to twenty cubic meters. This water, with

14
other wastewaters, flows out of the building. This sewage contains concentrated suspended
materials and dissolved metabolites. It will flow to a wetland system, where active
microorganisms and macrovegetation will remove dissolved metabolites and aid in
mineralization of the carbon-rich materials. The cleaned water will then flow back into use

In order to avoid the genetic degradation of the fish population, which would occur if
the same closed group of fish were bred year after year, Brood stock will be refreshed with
fresh parent stock on a regular basis.

A. Sites selection:

Potential sites will be selected in consultation with the KP Wildlife and Fisheries
Department and local communities in the trout zone on local rivers and their tributaries. The
communities will be approached and pursued for development of community trout fish ponds
on a cooperative basis. After consultations and agreements, formal Terms of Partnership will
be signed with the owner communities. The cooperatives will be expected to provide
unskilled labor for the work involved. A total of two hatcheries and eighteen rearing ponds
with processing facilities will be selected for developing fisheries on suitable sites during the
five year project period.

B. Community Mobilization:

The local communities in the potential areas will be contacted and informed about the
objectives, importance and benefits of the proposed project. PARC will identify motivated
members of the communities as catalysts for facilitation and implementation of the proposed
project and conflict resolution through advanced scientific Structural Deep Democracy
(SD2). This shall be followed by educating and training the community in trout fish rearing
and processing.

C. Water Resources Development:

Fresh water is an abundantly available resource in Malakand and Hazara Divisions,


mostly flowing down by gravity in various tributaries of local rivers. Water resources will be
developed by surveying and preparing designs for channelizing silt free water into the ponds
through developing gravity flow water channels and diverting them to the fish ponds. If
feasible and required in difficult terrain, hydram pumps, which operate using hydraulic
energy without using any external power source, will be used for lifting water. On an
average, 1,600 rft water channels will be constructed for supplying water to the fish ponds on
regular basis.

D. Development of Fish Ponds:

Designs for developing appropriate fish ponds on scientific basis will be prepared
using the services of an expert engineer followed by construction of the ponds and water
channels as per design. The construction of ponds will include a small diversion weir,
channel, silt settling tank and fish pond including hydram pump where necessary. The ponds
will be built as per design and based on the availability of leveled fields in areas where
gravity water flow is available. Where available, channelizing of spring water will be given
priority.

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E. Fish Fry Procurement:

Healthy and vigorous fish seed egg of excellent quality/breed will be procured from
two hatcheries to be established by PARC for seeding the ponds at appropriate season after
ensuring that the ponds are complete and regular water flow is provided on sustainable basis.

F. Fish Feeding and Rearing:

Fish feed would be procured in adequate quantity from a good source and stored near
the ponds for feeding of the fish on regular basis. The male/female members of the
cooperative will be trained in feeding and rearing of fish on scientific lines including health
and hygiene. Sorting of fish of various sizes and age will be done at appropriate time for
production of marketable fish. Gradually the female members will be trained in preparing fish
feed from local products, which is also organic. Initially fish feed will be procured from the
market, however, in the long term it will be manufactured locally using organic feed
components.

G. Fish Harvesting and Marketing:

Trout fish of desirable age and size will be harvested at appropriate time of the year
for marketing. The pond technicians will be trained in fish harvest and post harvest
treatments including packing and freezing. For freezing and storage marketing special
freezers will be mounted on the vehicle for transportation of fish. Market survey will be
conducted and potential markets identified in Pakistan and abroad for selling trout fish
depending on demand. Hotels and departmental stores in Islamabad, Punjab and KP are the
likely potential markets. Marketing will include publicity, packing and actual trading of trout
fish in the market.

H. Wetland:

Although the RAS system makes this facility incredibly water-efficient, it will still
see a net volumetric output of about fifteen to twenty cubic meters daily. This water,
although mechanically and biologically filtered, still contains excess nitrogen and other
particulates in concentrations that do not match the natural biogeochemistry. This imbalance,
in an extreme case, could lead to complications in the rivers such as eutrophication, hypoxic
zones, and trophic level disruptions. Hypoxia is especially dangerous to trout species, which
the fish hatchery is designed to protect. Although this represents an unlikely worst-case
scenario, it is still in the fish hatchery’s best interests to implement a third filtration system
for wastewater returning to the river.

These two issues can be remedied with the design of a single system: a protective,
small-scale wetland. The system will be built on the downstream side of the hatcheries and
fisheries, occupying a land area of about 1,000 to 1,200 square meters each. The wetland is
projected to provide several pools for the housing of broodstock in a more ecologically
familiar environment. The series of connected pools will also be home to an array of native
plant species, including aquatic vegetation, riparian trees (especially willows), and grasses.
Just as in natural catchments, a wetland provides a “buffer system” for water returning to the
rivers. Much of the volume of suspended particulates and other nutrients leaving the fishery
will be recycled in a vegetative ecological filter, bringing the water closer to the natural
biogeochemistry of the river before it eventually flows back into it.

16
Beyond the scientific function of the wetland, however, it also represents a unique
opportunity for outreach. The pools and vegetation will have great aesthetic appeal. Visitors
to the fishery will be able to see and understand the value of ecological design in human-
made systems. This is particularly important to the indirect project goal of promoting
environmental consciousness to the community. In this way, the wetland could become a
symbol for the entire project, showing a respect for ecological efficiency with the RAS

The conditions for food security are not sustainable. Sustainable development is not
possible without sustainable agriculture/ food production. Environmental pollution of soil,
water and air; resource depletion and nature degradation as well as socio-economic problems,
are seriously impacting the carrying capacity of the land. As such there is an urgent
requirement for farming systems to be redesigned and transformed into more sustainable
ones. Aquaculture should supply food in sufficient quantity and quality and the supply itself
must be stable, sustainable and accessible. Aquaculture can provide employment and
generate basic income and profit at village, regional and national levels; strictly avoid and
minimize land degradation and destabilization; eschew pollution of natural resources, protect
the great cycles of nature; as well as ensure the overall health and well-being of humans,
animals, birds, insects and microbes.

Rural Women do not have enough opportunities for services and other income
generating activities. Public sector services like teaching, health etc. are not available. A vast
majority of women are in need of income generating activities. The scope and potential for
such activities lies in food security enhancing measures. Women participation in the villages,
is the need of the hour, and would greatly help in supporting and be highly beneficial for the
uplift of rural economy in the future.

Justification:

The target area mostly comprises of rural areas and possesses peculiar bio-physical
conditions suited to pastoral activities, fish rearing and poultry husbandry. The communities
are mostly poor and meet their ends from a variety of subsistence activities. Poverty is wide
spread throughout the area.

Living in extremely cold weather conditions, especially in winters, coupled with


deforested terrain, income generation sources of communities are very limited. Consequently,
the local communities mostly exploit the trees, shrubs and rangeland resources to earn their
livelihoods. Thus the fragile ecosystem is exposed to erosion and the landscape is being
degraded at a very fast rate.

In view thereof, it is therefore assumed that the project is highly justifiable in terms of
its social acceptability, economic viability, environmental safety and technical excellence.
The positive value of benefit cost analysis of the project is an indicator that the proposed
project is justified, provided all necessary financial, technical and administrative inputs are
provided in time as per provisions of the PC-1.

As regards the governance aspects of the project, PARC has got the required expertise
in community mobilization, livelihoods, finance, HID, M&E and marketing units assisted by
sectoral specialists for implementation of the project and is therefore well equipped to
successfully implement the proposed project and achieve all its objectives as per schedule.

17
The proposed project is justified by the dire and pressing need to emplace a Support
Web for a disillusioned and bewildered populace. Social harmony and positive growth can
only be ensured with sustainability if the parameters of a just and egalitarian society ensure
that the minimum in requirements of every citizen are catered for in a participatory manner.
This will discourage extremism and foster stability. The principles of Bioenvironmental
Management and transparent records that are easily accessible and verifiable will be adhered
to.

A careful phasing with concurrent activities to cut down upon lead times will ensure
sustainability and success of the interventions. GIS will provide a powerful tool for
management and ensure effective monitoring and evaluation. Social Mobilization will ensure
participation and ownership. All activities will be carried out, after capacity building of the
beneficiaries through local communities who will themselves be encouraged to become
service providers.

18
Sociological:
a) Social Network
Analysis:

b) Economic
Gardening:

19
2. Sociological: The current situation in the Country and especially in Malakand and
Hazara needs to be tackled on the front foot but with care and understanding. The PARC is
confident that it can prove to be of immense benefit to Malakand, Hazara and indeed the
entire Country provided that the PC-1 is implemented in letter and spirit. The local populace
including the entire spectrum of society has to be brought on board through a series of dialogs
and demonstrated excellence. It is proposed to introduce an Appropriate, Integrated and
Sustainable Approach to Rural Development, keeping in view latest trends that are producing
“Results”. This is due to the fact that present mechanisms and Approaches have failed to
‘Deliver’. A short analysis is given below:

a) Social Network Analysis:


The mechanism for Community Interface based upon divisive and competition elected
office bearers is not efficient for service delivery or Appropriate Technology Transfer. Elite
capture and restricted participation on the part of marginalized groups of society, defeats the
intention to improve local conditions. Alternate, Page Rank Algorithm for Ranking and
Social Network analysis to pinpoint Centrality/ Nexus of Trust by uncovering Flow-
Betweeness to select Village Executive Committees in place of first past the post elected
office bearers, is bound to overcome this first stumbling block on the Path of Sustainable
Development.
Structural Deep Democracy (SD2) is Social Network Optimization approach to
sustainable development. SD2 uses PageRank as a centrality algorithm to analyze votes to
determine the center of TRUST and CONSENT in a human trust network. The top three or
five lead such an organization with one of them as the executive. This creates a small and
efficient locus of trust and accountability.
PageRank allows the best leaders to determine who the best leaders are, eliminating the
popularity game of conventional populistic-democracy. SD2 can be used by nonprofits,
businesses, government entities, but it is intended to be best for grass-roots activism for
groups thirty or more, and is scalable to a global level.
SD2's assumptions are:
2. Solving Community problems requires collective action
3. Collective action is best organized democratically
4. Democracy is based on voting.
5. Votes are processed with *centrality algorithms*
6. Representative democracy is based on the idea that, if given the opportunity, people
generally vote for those more qualified than themselves
7. The *centrality algorithm* that takes step #5 as many steps as mathematically possible
is PageRank.
8. SD2 uses PageRank to select three or five leaders of the group, then keeps those leaders
accountable with frequent rank recalculations
PageRank: rank = (# of in-votes) x (avg. strength of in-vote), AND strength of out-vote =
rank / (# of out-votes).

20
b) Economic Gardening:
Using local resources to grow their own jobs through entrepreneurial activity—
Economic gardening—instead of recruiting them from outside the community, or Economic
Hunting. The idea evolved from work by Dr. David Birch at MIT who argued that a majority
of all new jobs in any local economy were produced by small local businesses. However, as
local communities are unaware of potential soft technologies for increasing livelihoods and
improving standards of living, it is essential that innovative technology packages be tried on
ground and presented to them for capacity building. This will enable them to make informed
choices and ‘Own’ the interventions. To date there are many instances of ‘Band-Aid’
Development as standalone interventions which fail to take root as firstly, enabling
atmosphere is absent and secondly, Integrated and cross supporting interventions have not
been emplaced.

Core Elements of Economic Gardening:

Financial Base Costs


Activities
Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5 Total
Program Management Unit: Preparatory
Phase: Sociological Component

21
Accountant/
Project Director/
Consultant CashierComputer
PS
Operator

Director
Director HatcheriesSub Admin Officer
Computer Operator FisheriesSub
Engineer
Engineers 2
Vehicle Mechanic 1
Hatchery Technicians 2
Computer Operator
Store Keeper
Store Keeper 2
Driver 2
Driver 3
Watch Man/Peon 2
Watch Man/Peon 4 Gender Specialists 2 Director Processing/
Sweepers 1 MarketingMarketing
Sweeper 2 Fishery Technicians 18 OfficerSales Assistants
2Computer OperatorFood
Store Keeper 2 Technicians 2Store
KeeperDriver 5Watch
Driver 2
Man/Peon 4Sweeper 2
Watch Man/Peon 36

Sweeper 18

Job Title Nos. Job Title Nos.


Project Director/ Consultant 1 PS to Program Director 1
Director Hatcheries 1 Accountant Cashier 1
Gender Specialists 2 Hatchery Technicians 2
Director Fisheries 1 Field Technicians 18
Director Processing & Marketing 1 Food Technicians 2
Admin Officer 1 Stenographer/Computer Opr. 4
Sub Engineer 3 Store Keeper 6
Marketing Assistant 1 Vehicle Mechanic 1
Sales Assistants 2 Drivers 12
13 Watchman/ Peons 46
Sweepers 23
129 116

Staff Nos.

22
Staff 13
Support Staff 116
Total Staff 129
Vehicles
4WD Heavy Duty 1
4 WD Double Cabin Pickup 1
Jeep 6
Truck 4
Motorcycle 20
Total Vehicles 88
Pre-Fab Structures
Pre-Fab Office Buildings 30' Dia 6
Pre-Fab VIP Guest Building 40' Dia 2
Pre-Fab Residential Building 40' Dia 25
Pre-Fab Store/ Control Rooms 20' Dia 6
Pre-Fab Sheds 12x50 ft 20
Pr-Fab Garages 12
Total Pre-Fab Structures 71

Activities Financial Base Costs


Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5 Total
Program Management Unit: Preparatory Phase: Sociological Component
Capital Cost
Operational Cost
Establishment Cost
TOTAL

Sr. Activities Unit Quantities


# Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5 Total

A Aquifer Mapping Sq. Kms. 4 4 4 12


B Aquifer Improvement
1 Aqifer Recharging (Dry Bores) Nos. 12 12 12 36
2 Underground Weirs Sq. Ft. 10,00 10,00 10,00 30,000
0 0 0
3 Shallow/ Tube Wells No. 100 100 100 50 800
0
Sub Total
C Sustainable Development Action Plans/ Poverty 1 3 4
Map
D Workshops
1 Steel Fabrication Nos. 1 1
2 Electric/ Electronics/ Computer Nos. 1 1
3 Vehicles Nos. 1 1
Sub Total
E Cooling
1 Chilling Towers/ N Gas Cooling Nos. 4 4
2 Borewells/ Jack pumps Nos. 4 4
3 Solar Panels/ Battery Backup Nos. 4 4
4 Windmills for Jack Pumps Nos. 4 4
F Composting Machine Nos. 4 4
G Waste Water Garden Nos. 4 4

23
Sr. Activities Unit Financial Base Costs
# Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5 Total
A Aquifer Mapping Sq. Kms. 421.52
348.800 383.680 0 1,154.00
B Aquifer Improvement
1 Aqifer Recharging (Dry Bores) Nos. 1.200 1.320 1.320 3.840
2 Underground Weirs Sq. Ft. 20.000 22.000 22.000 64.000
3 Shallow/ Tube Wells No. 110.00 605.00
100.000 110.000 0 0 925.000
Sub Total 133.32 133.32
121.200 0 0 605.000 992.840
C Sustainable Development Action Plans/
Poverty Map 2.500 8.250 1.000 11.750
D Workshops
1 Steel Fabrication Nos. 0.200 0.200
2 Electric/ Electronics/ Computer Nos. 0.400 0.400
3 Vehicles Nos. 1.000 1.000
Sub Total 1.600 1.600
E Cooling
1 Chilling Towers/ N Gas Cooling Nos. 4.000 4.000
2 Borewells/ Jack pumps Nos. 2.400 2.400
3 Solar Panels/ Battery Backup Nos. 1.600 1.600
4 Windmills for Jack Pumps Nos. 0.600 0.600
F Composting Machine Nos. 6.000 6.000
G Waste Water Garden Nos. 4.000 4.000
Grand Total 555.84 133.32
371.500 513.130 0 0 605.000 2,178.79

24
7. Capital cost estimates: Prepared in May, 2010 (Rupees in millions).
Cost Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5 Total
Total

8. Annual operating and maintenance cost after completion of the


Project: To be borne by Communities through individual beneficiaries.

9. Demand and supply analysis


Local self-reliance for food security in the face of spiraling prices, increasing
populations and destabilized socio-economic situations, call for activating emergency and
medium/ long-term measures. Supply of goods is mostly from outside the area, which is not
sustainable in the light of strong possibilities of natural and man-made disasters. A strong
local production base needs to be rebuilt by replacing under producing food production
infrastructure. Localization for Globalization (Glocalization) is the best target under the given
sociological circumstances.

10. Financial Plan and mode of Financing:


Sr. Financial Base Costs
Activities
# Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5 Total
A. Program Management Unit:
Preparatory Phase: Sociological
1 Component
B.
2
3
4

25
C.
5
6
7
4
D.
8
9
TOTAL

11. Project benefits and analysis :


i. Financial: Attached as Annex.
ii. Social Benefits with Indicators :
1. Self Employment (Employment Statistics).
2. Individuals able to positively contribute to society (Market Analysis).
3. Food Security (Nutrition Standards).
4. Individuals able to meet needs and desires of self and family (Market
Analysis).
5. Promotion of social harmony (Crime Record).
6. Avoidance of extremism (Crime Record).
7. Growing Economy (GDP Analysis).
8. Local self-reliance (GDP Analysis).
9. Formation of Village Committees in all villages.
10. Involvement of women members in useful activities
11. Increased supply of proteins.
12. Improvement of health of the citizens.
13. Production of organic and hygienic products.

The main outputs of the project are:

1. Implementation of 2 fish hatcheries in the target area.


2. Trained hatchery staff.
3. Fingerlings of trout fish produced by the hatcheries.
4. Income generated from the sale of fingerlings.
5. Implementation of 18 Trout Raising & Processing Projects.

26
6. Trained Fish Raising & Processing staff.
7. Number of mature Fish successfully raised.
8. Income generated from the sale of mature fish.

The main outcomes of the Project are:

1. Increased fish in the target area


2. Increased income of the local population from working at the hatcheries and
raising ponds and sales of fingerlings/ mature fish, and subsequently the
improved nutrition because of human consumption of fish.

iii. Employment generation (direct and indirect):


------- Households self employed. Direct employment ----------- individuals.
Indirect -------- (----- per household) plus minimum average -- downstream
and upstream linkages, say ------ individuals. Total of -------- Indirect
employment.

Expected Employment – Indicators


Category Numbers
Direct Employment
Self-employed 10,000
Service Providers 500
Other - daily wages 5,000
Total direct employment 15,000
Dependents 150,000
Indirect Employment 52,000
Wholesale & Retail 500
Commission Agents, Brokers &
100
Transporters
Total indirect employment 52,600
Grand Total Employment 67,600

27
Table: Expected Employment – Indicators.

iv. Environmental Impact:


All efforts will be made to firstly avoid damage to the environment and
secondly and more importantly, positively contribute to environmental
stability by deploying sound bioenvironmental practices. Use of ecologically
safe inputs will be ensured and capacities will be developed to understand the
cycles and interdependence of Nature.

v. Impact of delays on project cost and viability:


The poverty stricken are already in the midst of a survival crisis due to
spiraling prices. This is leading to social discontent. Rising prices due to lack
of local production will impact the economic viability of the project on a daily
basis.

12. Implementation schedule: Attached as Annex.


13. Management structure and manpower requirements including:
Specialized skills during execution and operational phases:
PARC will maintain a Program Management Unit at its headquarters which
will comprise of highly qualified and skilled professionals in Livelihoods and
Environment, Social Mobilization, Gender Development, Human and Institutional
Development, Marketing and Enterprise Development and Finance besides having a
Regional Offices in the target area. The proposed project will be implemented through
local communities in coordination with the concerned Government and Non-
Government Departments, Organizations and Institutions.
13.1 Implementing & Execution Responsibility
The PARC shall be responsible for the following, pertaining to the execution and
implementation of the project:
• Developing and updating guidelines to ensure cost-effective and ethical
practices in execution.
• Providing advice and information on technical cooperation, equipment, sub-
contracting matters and related policy questions
• Issuing of Purchase Order or Contracts above Rs. 0.30 million on behalf of
Project authorities.
• Conducting Market Research and identifying New Technologies, Products and
Services.
• Endeavoring to obtain equitable geographical distribution of resources
• Liaising with Government Departments for approvals, if required, for
ordering, installation, commissioning and operation of equipment, and other
material.
• Assisting and advising on special terms and conditions, if any, to be included
in Contracts e.g. staggered payments, special penalty provisions, liquidated
damages, time schedule for contract performance and follow-up action where
necessary.
• The PARC supervises the work of the Project Manager.

13.2 Financial Management

28
Financial Management in respect to Budgetary Controls, Accounting
Procedures, Financial Reporting and Audit Requirements for all projects executed by
the PARC, the established financial guidelines of the PARC are conceived with
reasonable assurance that adequate controls are in place for:

a) Budget Revisions.
b) Banking.
c) Disbursement of Funds.
d) Financial Reporting.
e) Statutory Audit.

13.3 Monitoring and Evaluation


To monitor Field Projects, the PARC has established a separate section for
Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E). The basic function of this section is to keep track
of the progress of program activities and carry out backstopping for conformity with
the standards set by PARC. M&E section would continuously monitor all project
activities and would provide technical advice to the staff in tasks related to
mobilization and execution of project interventions under the project. In executing its
interventions the M&E section follows the under mentioned guiding principles.

• Conducting visits in the field to monitor project activities based upon actual
findings to gauge the progress of various components.
• Determine what the beneficiaries themselves feel about the activities of the
project.
• Verify both technical and physical indicators of progress and relate them to the
components of the approved project PC-1 for implementation.
• Preparation of regular project monitoring reports with the cooperation of the
Project Manager by the monitoring team.
As a routine activity, the Monitoring Section carries out participatory evaluations
of project activities along with community groups. The Project itself is subject to
evaluation, according to policies and procedures established by the PARC. The
Project timing and Terms of Reference of the evaluation will be decided by PARC
after receipts of Project Funds.

13.4 Project Steering Committees


A Steering Committee would be set up to provide advice and decide strategic
aspects of the Project. The chair of the Project Steering Committee (PSC) will be
decided by the Board of Directors of the PARC. The PSC will meet on quarterly or on
need basis.
The PSC meeting would be arranged by the Secretary of PARC on behalf of
the Chairman PARC. The other participants of the meeting are Officials from the
Concerned Line Ministries, P&D Department, Representatives from the Provincial
Government, Contributing Donors, Project Manager, all Sector Heads of the PARC
and Beneficiaries, where appropriate and feasible.
The typical agenda for a PSC meeting would deal with the following items:

a) Project concept and design.


b) Follow-up to any previous PSC or evaluation of the Project.

29
c) Assessment of the relevance, performance and potential success of the
Project; issues and problems in design and implementation;
conclusions; and recommendations.
d) Management actions required the parties responsible and the time
frame for implementing the action.
e) Progress expected before the next PSC, proposed follow-up to the
Project, if any.

14. Additional projects/decisions required to maximize socio-economic


Benefits from the proposed project:

More importance and a sense of urgency have to be focused upon provision of food
security through local self-reliance. Projects for rehabilitation of irrigation water,
rehabilitation of farm-lands, planting of orchards, honey bee farming, intensive horticulture in
all its forms, livestock and rangeland rehabilitation, check upon soil erosion and slope
destabilization, solid and liquid waste management, fisheries, poultry and protection of
natural resources need to be conceptualized and launched with priority.
A number of crucial factors are required to be managed for the successful
implementation of the project. The steering committee of the project would be taking these
critical decisions at different stages of project implementation.

i. The Executing Agency will have to identify local institutions and citizen’s
organizations that take full responsibility to execute project activities
ii. The implementing agency has to appoint some core staff for smooth functioning of
the project and successful marketing of products
iii. The growers must be supported for the supply of critical inputs for production and
linkages for marketing of outputs and products development
iv. The community will provide land for the production of, and space for, establishing
field units and storage buildings.
v. The respective Local Governments will help in the identification of suitable sites for
and provide land.
vi. The use and maintenance of equipment and buildings would be the responsibility of
the communities which will be reviewed by a committee constituted by the Steering
Committee of the Project.
vii. Use and maintenance of machinery and equipment after the completion of the project
life would be responsibility of the local communities
viii. Linkages will be developed with the private sector for product development and
marketing

Other additional project decision will be suggested based on achievements to be made


on implementation of the project.

RESULTS BASED/PERFORMANCE BASED MONITORING INDICATORS:

The Project is expected to provide outcomes for environment protection through


science based improvements in Project Management, to ensure “stable eco-systems in an
environmentally sustainable manner”. The performance/outcome indicators given below will
be measured during and after the successful implementation of the project:

30
i. Adoption of an integrated approach, rational resource use, and the introduction of
water efficient techniques.
ii. Institutional strengthening, capacity building & human resource development.
iii. Improving quality of and easy access to livelihoods, especially for women.

PERFORMANCE INDICATORS :

S# COMPONENT/OBJECTIVE ACTIVITIES EXPECTED OUTPUT EXPECTED IMPACT


1 Site Survey Survey Map of Aquifer Rechargeable Storage
2 Site Mapping Poverty extent and location Targeted Support
3 Social Mobilization Motivation/ Organization Civil Society Organizations Self-reliance
4 Hatchery Establishment Construction Tanks/ Ponds Pure water
5 Fishery Establishment Propagation/ Plantation Fruit/ Fodder/ Fuelwood Increasing Biodiversity
Protecting Environment
Generating economy
Prosperity
6 Wetland Construction Sorting/ Composting/ Waste Waste Management Clean environment
Water Gardens Health benefits
Promoting Tourism
Stimulated Economy
7 Energy Backup Alternate Sources: Solar, Power generation Increased economic
Wind, Solar Ponds activity
Social harmony
8 Plantation Biosaline Culture Increased produce Prosperity
9 Fish Operations Barrelponics/ Mariculture Increased Production Prosperity
Nutritional Security
10 Marketing Queens/ Hives/ Processing Honey Increased pollination
Nutritional Security
Health benefits
11 Value Addition/ Cottage Industry Embroidery, Stitching Garments for export Prosperity
Gender Balance
12 R&D Indigenous species propagation Plants study Adaption
Knowledge

31
15. Certified that the project proposal has been prepared on the basis of
instructions provided by the Planning Commission for the
preparation of PC-I for Social Sector projects.

Prepared by
Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan
0301 5456088

Checked by

Approved by

32
Hatchery Layout.

The incubation unit has 24 standard hatchery troughs with horizontally installed
incubation trays. The outflow water of troughs goes to a mechanical filter (Hydrotech drum
filter) for removing suspended materials. The filtered water is directed to a water reservoir
tank, then pumped to an overhead tank and sprayed onto the biofilter, which is mounted to
this tank. About 150 liters per minute of water goes back to the incubation trays through an
UV filter with a 120-watt capacity.

The mechanical and biological purifiers and the UV filter of the incubation unit work
together to sustain good water quality in the hatchery.

33
The fingerling production unit is installed in an area of 400 square meters. There are
twenty-two fish rearing tanks, holding three cubic meters each, in the system. The outflow of
water from the tanks goes first to the Hydrotech drum filter and then flows to the biofilter.

The biofilter is submerged with a volume of water of about sixty cubic meters. It is
comprised of Bio Blocks, with the dimension of 55 x 55 x 55 centimeters. The unit surface
of the Bio Blocks suitable for settling the active bacteria is 200 square units per cubic unit
volume. Two 2.2 kilowatt SAER pumps, with water transferring capacity of ninety cubic
meters per hour, are each used to maintain recirculation. One of the pumps lifts the water
directly to the top of a degassing tower (with a height of three meters and degassing column
height of 1.5 meters) in order to remove carbon dioxide from the water and saturate it with
oxygen. The other pump transfers water to the second degassing tower through a large-
capacity UV filter (for decreasing the concentration of circulating microorganisms). Two
overhead tanks are located under the towers. The fish rearing tanks get water from these tanks
by gravity.

An automatic stand-by generator is an essential part of the equipment to avoid any


losses due to power failure. For increasing the security of production, a multi-purpose alarm
system will also be installed. This system, in addition to local warning signals, sends
telephone messages to the staff in case of electrical shortage, and abnormalities in water and
air supplies. For further improving the security of the operation, an Oxygard system will also
be used. The Oxyguard equipment is standard equipment on recirculation systems. The
equipment constantly measures the oxygen level in the different compartments of the three
water recirculating plants. It is possible to send emergency messages via telephone if the
oxygen level drops under a user specified level. On a later stage when an artificial oxygen
system is installed, the system will also be able to dose oxygen automatically.

The maximum allowed stocking (carrying capacity) of the fish rearing tanks is about
twenty-five kilograms of fingerling per cubic meter (seventy-five kilograms per tank), which
is equivalent to about 1.6 tons of fish in the system. This quantity of fish can be produced in
a five- to six-month period. However, the biofilter capacity is about 100 kilograms of feed
per day, which would allow for increases in fish production, depending on the possibility of
aeration (to about 2.2 to 2.3 tons per cycle). Producing up to 3.5 tons per cycle would be
possible if locally generated or liquid oxygen could be supplied to the system.

Stocking a pond with different sized trout can also result in losses of the smaller
trout. Trout are carnivores and will eat other fish (including other trout) if the other fish are
small enough. The rule of thumb in a trout hatchery situation (where fish densities are
relatively high and there is no place to hide for the smaller trout) is to never have a trout less
than half the length of another trout in the same tank. In a simple small pond, that hatchery
rule of thumb should be followed. The larger the pond and the more places in the pond that
small fish can hide, then the more that the hatchery rule of thumb can be relaxed.

Trout are basically carnivores. That is, they eat animals, not plants. Trout consume a
wide variety of aquatic insects, flying insects, worms, frogs, frog eggs, smaller fish and other
under water animal life forms. They can also be fed commercially prepared fish food or trout
feed. Note that not all fish feed is trout feed. Some fish feed is a general purpose
supplemental feed for fish (not specifically for trout). The advantage of general purpose fish
feed over trout feed is that it is somewhat less expensive, and is all right to use as a small
portion of the total trout diet. The disadvantage of general purpose fish feed in comparison

34
with trout feed is that if it is too large a portion of a trout's diet then the eating quality of the
harvested trout will suffer and ultimately the health of the trout can suffer if very large
portions of their diet is general purpose fish feed. Using trout feed avoids these problems, but
costs more.

Trout are cold blooded animals. That is, their body temperature is just about the same
as the water temperature they are swimming in. Therefore they are very sensitive to rapid
increases in water temperature. For example, if trout are taken from a trout farm's holding
tank which is at a temperature of 460 F stocked into a pond that is at a temperature of 650 F,
then a significant portion of the trout so stocked will probably die within two days of that
stressful (for the trout) stocking. To avoid such occurrences, most pond stocking is done
when pond temperatures are close to fish farm holding tank temperatures. It depends on the
weather, but usually the prime pond stocking times in are May in the spring and October in
fall.

Construction cost is less if the dam can be located where the banks of the proposed
pond basin come close together. The area to be flooded should be as flat and wide as possible
to obtain the most water volume in relation to dam height, but sufficient depth to prevent
excessive growth of water weeds in the shallower areas. The banks of the proposed water line
should be fairly steep to avoid shallow water in which these weeds may become a problem. If
the ground below the dam slopes gently, you can use a sod spillway; if it is steep, you may
have to make a more expensive concrete spillway.

The water temperature in spring-fed ponds is too low for good production and growth
of pond fish, and spring water increases the problem of weed control. If the spring is large
enough that the pond overflows, suitable water fertility and a stabilized spillway are hard to
maintain. The ideal watershed will provide enough silt free water to keep the lake full with
water seldom running over the spillway. Use of the Bottom Withdrawal Spillway may make a
spring source a more viable solution

Size and condition of the drainage area are very important. The ratio of watershed
area to pond surface recommended by agricultural agencies and the U.S. Conservation
Department ranges between 10 to 1 and 15 to 1. The type of soil, steepness of the watershed
slope, the amount and kind of vegetative cover, and the proposed use of the pond all make a
difference in determining the best ratio. The watershed should be proportionately larger if the
pond is intended for irrigation or for watering large herds of livestock. In a good dam site
where the watershed is too large or too small, the proper proportion can be attained by
building a terrace to divert water either from the pond or into it to control the water level.

For fish ponds a minimum drainage area (10 to 15 acres per surface acre of water) is
desirable because the pond will fill more slowly and the total water volume will change much
less often. A low rate of water change is important to fish production. If the watershed is too
large, even normal runoff will flush out much of the microscopic plant and animal life a
fertile pond supports, and much fish food can be lost. Large fish can escape or unwanted fish
can get in by swimming up a stream over the spillway during heavy overflows. Too small a
watershed will not provide adequate water to keep the pond reasonably full

The watershed must be protected from erosion. Permanent grass cover or unburned
woodland free from erosion is best. All gullies and bare soil in the watershed should be
revegetated. Ponds should be located so that they do not receive barnyard, feed lot or septic

35
tank drainage which may stimulate the growth of undesirable filamentous algae ("moss" or
"pond scum"). Sites which permit drainage from roads should be avoided. Road drainage
adds greatly to the watershed area, is a source of contamination, especially silt, which keeps
the water muddy.

Diversion Terraces:
A diversion terrace may solve the problem of a deficient pond site. If the watershed is
too large, part of the runoff can be diverted with a terrace: if it is too small, the watershed
could be increased by terracing in more area. Terraces often can be operated to suit different
weather conditions: in times of drought, the entire runoff from a large watershed can be
diverted into the pond; in wet years runoff can be by-passed after the water reaches spillway
level.

Building the Dam:


Figure 1 shows the construction detail of a dam. The dam site will be cleared and
staked off before beginning excavation. The topsoil is removed in the staked area to a depth
of a foot or more (depending on its thickness) and is stockpiled. The topsoil from the borrow
area is also removed and stockpiled. When the dam is finished, this topsoil is used to cover
the back slope, top and front slope down to the water line. This helps in getting the nurse crop
and sod started. Since topsoil usually is too porous to hold water, it should not be placed in
the dam itself.

Construction detail of a dam:

After the topsoil is graded aside, a trench is excavated (core cutoff ditch) along the
dam centerline for the entire length of the dam. The trench is extended up the side of each hill
to spillway level. The trench should be at least seven feet wide, down into (but not through)
the clay subsoil. Next, a ditch is dug at right angles to the cut-off ditch, for the water tank
supply line. This ditch must be deep enough for the pipe to be below the frostline on the
downstream side of the dam. Every pond used for watering livestock should have a pipe no
smaller than 1¼ inches in diameter.

The water supply pipe is bedded firmly with anti-seep collars installed and extended
one end to the stock tank site, and the other end along the pond bottom to about the center of
its deepest part. At that point, a concrete platform 6 inches thick for a solid base for the filter
is constructed. A 50-gallon metal barrel is used for the filter box. Both ends are knocked out

36
and the drum is placed on its end on the base over an upright extension of the pipe. The
upright pipe is capped, and has several rows of ¼ -inch holes bored in it to allow water to
flow to the tank. If a 1- ¼ -inch pipe is used, about 40 holes are drilled to give a full flow of
water. Several holes cut in the side of the barrel will also improve flow of the water. After the
pipe and barrel are in place, the barrel is filled with coarse gravel.

All ponds should have a drain pipe in addition to a water supply pipe. It may be
installed separately or as a combination drain and water supply pipe. As a fish management
tool, the drain pipe may be used to empty the lake to draw down the water level. This pipe
should be large enough to drain the lake rapidly. A 6 to 8 inch pipe is recommended for
ponds up to approximately 3 acres and a 8 to 12 inch pipe for larger lakes. A gate valve on
the downstream end of this pipe is recommended. Anti-seep collars must be installed on this
pipe also.

Once the pipe is properly installed, the dam can be built. The entire fill should be of
the same quality clay for the core. If there is not enough good clay, the best is used for the
core, the next best to fill the front (water) side, and the poorest material on the back side. The
front side of the dam should be built to a 3 to 1 slope, and the back side to a 2 to 1 slope.
Steeper slopes will erode badly or will slough off and ruin the dam. The top of the dam
should be about 3 feet above the floor of the spillway or waterline when the pond is full. This
space between the waterline and the top of the dam is call the freeboard, and is very
important in protecting the dam from overflow and from biological damage. The dam should
be slightly crowned in the center to allow for settling. It should be at least 12 feet wide at the
top to avoid biological damage and to provide a roadway across it.

The dam can be protected from wave action in at least three ways. A dense sod is
protection enough where ponds are not exposed to strong winds. Appropriate grass variety
should be sown with a nurse crop, or plugs of grass sod may be set out at intervals of about 2-
½ feet across the slope of the dam about at waterline. If the threat of wave-cut banks is
serious, the bank can be ripraped.

Spillway Construction
The most common cause of dam failure is poorly designed spillways. Frequently, they
are built too narrow and with not enough freeboard. A well designed and constructed
spillway is important for good fish management and biological control. The spillway should
be located on solid soil next to the dam and should be wide and level enough to carry the
overflow in a slow, shallow stream not more than 3 to 6 inches deep. With such a shallow
outlet flow, large fish are less likely to leave the pond, and undesirable fish have less chance
of swimming up into the pond. To prevent erosion by flowing water, the slope of the spillway
should be as gentle as the topography allows. The floor must be level from side to side. Even
the slightest depression can lead to serious erosion. The spillway should be fertilized and
seeded as soon as it is finished to provide a tough protective sod. A screen across the spillway
"to keep from losing fish" should not be erected The spillway is the "safety-valve" of the
pond. Screens inevitably get plugged with trash, causing water to back up, overflow, and
damage the earth fill. An auxiliary spillway can be built at the other end of the dam if the
slope behind the dam is steep.

A pipe spillway system can be an important alternate. It may be desirable to install a


pipe spillway in conjunction with the vegetative spillway. This may be particularly true if the
watershed is larger than that recommended. Under normal conditions the pipe inlet should be

37
placed approximately 1 foot below the elevation of the vegetative spillway. In this manner
the pipe spillway will handle the burden of all but the very heavy rains. This will limit the
amount of erosion on the vegetative spillway and will also help keep out undesirable fish that
might otherwise enter the pond from a gently sloping vegetative spillway. The size needed
will depend upon the volume of outflow but a 10-inch size is recommended as a minimum to
prevent clogging. This pipe should have a concrete apron or other erosion control device at
the lower end. The upper end may be open or it may have a riser or enter a concrete box drop
inlet. Drop inlets or risers provide for more efficient drainage of the water. The pipe spillway
should be placed in undisturbed soil to one side of the dam if possible and should have anti-
seep collars. If placed in the dam, the soil should be well compacted.

The diversion terrace should have the same gentle slope as the spillway. Its design
depends on the amount of water it is expected to carry. It must be well sodded to prevent
erosion that might ruin the terrace and muddy the pond. The opening through which water is
diverted into the pond should be at least 6 feet wide. The opening may be blocked if you want
to run the water around the pond instead of into it.

Deepening the Pond Edges:


One important construction feature in fish ponds is the deepening of the edges of
waterline to eliminate very shallow water. Most weed problems start in shallow water. By
grading the edges down at a rather steep slope (2 to 1) to a depth of 4 feet, this can be
avoided. The water level is staked out at the same time as the dam and spillway. Excess dirt
removed in edge-deepening is used on the surface of the dam or spread above the waterline to
give a higher bank. The entire marginal area is then smoothed down and planted with grass to
protect the shoreline.

Number Surface area (ha)


Brood fish ponds 4 0.48
Nursery ponds 6 0.60
Rearing ponds 8 3.20
Donor ponds 3 0.90
Total pond surface 5.18
The slopes of dikes are 1:2 on both sides. The side slopes of drainage canals are 1:15, but
should be modified to 1:2 if soil conditions require it.

38
The drainage structures serve as harvesting places, and therefore should be accessible
by small trucks. The contour dikes will have the crest width of 3.00 m. However, where
transportation is considered, the crest should be widened to 4.00 m. Partition dikes between
nursery ponds will have 2.00 m crest width; all other crests will be 2.50 m wide.
The pond bottoms have 20 cm slope running from the pond inlet to the drainage structure.
There are trenches along the contour dikes to collect seepage water from the ponds.
The site is fenced around to protect against unauthorized persons.
Pond filling 219 000 m3
Evaporation loss 172 300 m3
Seepage loss 276 500 m3
Rainfall 7 400 m3
Annual water demand
675 000 m3
(rounded)
If soil conditions require, lining should be employed to eliminate seepage loss.
At each pond an inlet branch pipe with a gate valve runs from the main. The end of
the pipe should be about 25–30 cm over the water level in the pond. For improved aeration a
perforated steel plate can be fixed to spread the inflow water. This should be arranged to
splash the water as much as possible. Below the pipe outlet the dike slope should be protected
against erosion by a 1.5–2.0 m wide strip of lining. The diameter of the inlet pipes is 125
mm; valves should be at least 100 mm.
Drainage of ponds
The ponds are drained through drainage structures. The nursery ponds are paired, and
one structure serves two ponds. In other ponds, the structures are of single monk type.
A double set of wooden control boards is used to allow the farmer to control the pond
water level in 25 cm steps (the depth of each board) and allows the release of surface water
when draining is needed.
The water is collected and evacuated from the site in drainage canals. If soil
conditions are unfavorable, lining may be necessary. Its function is only that of protection
against erosion, and therefore it is not required to be watertight. The side slope of drainage
canal is 1:1.5.
Service roads
Harvesting takes place at the drainage structures and they must therefore be accessible
by transport vehicles (e.g. pick-ups). The dikes where drainage canals are located are
widened and the crest width is 4.0 m.

The dominant wind direction is not recorded, but the effect of wind may be
considerable. A 0.40 m freeboard in nursery ponds and 0.50 m in other ponds is therefore
provided.
Contour dikes 3.00 m
Dikes along drainage
canals } 4.00 m
Any dike with roads
Partition dikes between
2.00 m
nursery ponds
Partition dikes between other
2.50 m
ponds

39
The drainage structures are constructed on the opposite sides to the inlets to ensure
flow through the ponds.
To make harvesting easier a certain area around the structure (as indicated on the
drawings) is covered by cement concrete slabs on a sandy-gravel bedding.
The lined sections in the canals as well as those in the ponds should be bordered with a
c.c. beam.
i. There are three grooves on the structures: the outer one is for the steel screens and the
two inner ones are for the control boards.
ii. The control boards are placed in the grooves in a double row as high as the desired
pond water level.
iii. The space between the two rows of control boards is filled with some impermeable
material (e.g. clay) to minimize seepage.
iv. The dimension of control boards allows 25 cm steps in water level. Excess water
automatically overflows the top board.
v. When the water level is to be decreased, the upper boards should be removed. After
dropping the water level 25 cm, the next pair of boards should again be removed. This
procedure ensures gradual draining of ponds and limits erosion of dikes due to rapid
dewatering.
vi. As the water level decreases the fish move together in front of the drainage structure,
where the water is the deepest. This can be helped by using nets to move the fish
towards the outlet.

Good and watertight closure of control boards is an important factor in minimizing


seepage loss at the structure. The grooves are lined with steel channel of 50 × 50 × 5 mm.
They must be made with steel bar fixing pins, set at appropriate distances. These are
concreted into the structure. The control boards should be individually fitted and numbered
by structure and by groove.
The steel screens are to prevent the escape of fish through the drainage structure. The
gap between the bars is too wide for small fish and larvae, and so an additional net of suitable
mesh size must be attached.
The monk is a structure which is U shaped in plan, open at the front, facing the pond.
Its internal dimensions are 0.40 m wide, 1.00 m deep and 2.50 m high. Three grooves are
formed to accommodate the steel screens and control boards.
The water is conveyed to the drainage canal through a prefabricated cement concrete
pipe of internal diameter 300 mm.
The slope of the dike is 1:2, but around the structure this is increased to 1:1.5. Thus
the crest width is widened by 1.25 m, the cross section of dike is strengthened and the area of
lining is reduced. The structure is placed at the toe of the original slope.
A widened foundation slab is provided to avoid overturning. The opening area is
spread out to provide better flow towards the drainage part.
The monk outlet is designed specifically to prevent the pipes sliding apart.
The length of the pipe basically depends on the distance between the axis of dike and
the axis of drainage canal.
Harvesting is managed as follows:
i. Firstly the overall water level is decreased in the pond, and then the front boards are
removed, and one row of boards is placed in the first groove. In the groove behind it a
net of appropriate mesh size fixed on a wooden frame is fitted.
ii. The first set of boards is removed to allow the fish to move into the net.
iii. If the net becomes full, the first set of boards is replaced in the groove and the net is
lifted out for emptying.

40
iv. During harvesting, fresh water is syphoned from the neighbouring pond.
v. During harvesting, the water level is adjusted by the boards in front of the pipe.

The internal dimensions of the structure are 1.00 m wide, 1.70 m high and 7.10 m long.
The openings of the structure run out to a 1:1.5 slope. The slopes around the structure change
to 1:1.5 from 1.2. The cross section of the dike is thus reduced, but as the dike is only a
partition dike, it is not endangered. This also helps to reduce the amount of concrete works.
7 Pressure pipes
The pressure pipes conveying water to the ponds may be either placed on the crest or
on the slope over the water level. They must be fixed to the dike body by buttresses at tees,
turnings and at 30–40 m intervals of straight sections.
HATCHERY
Building
The hatchery building is a single storey structure with reinforced concrete flooring
and a pitch roof. The skeleton is of r.c.c. columns with steel trusses. The roof is covered with
corrugated asbestos sheets. The outer walls and some of the inner walls are of double skinned
brick, 23 cm/19“/wide. Partition walls are also made of brick, of 12 cm/4 ½” width. The
foundation of the columns depends on the specific conditions on each site. However, single
pad foundations will probably be sufficient.
The building has the following rooms:
Hatching - rearing hall 111.0 m2
Laboratory - office 9.0 m2
Store room 7.8 m2
Staff room 10.0 m2
Two toilets for ladies and gents 8.4 m2
Passage 6.8 m2
Total 153.0 m2
The hatching - rearing hall accommodates the following equipment:
1
- 20 l incubator
0
2
- 60 l incubator-rearing jars
4
- 200 l incubator-rearing jar 8
- Multipurpose r.c.c. twin
2
tank/volume 2 × 1.3 cu.m.
The Chinese type r.c.c. circular spawning tanks and the two fibre glass rearing tanks
are located outdoors. Two multipurpose r.c.c. twin tanks are also constructed outdoors to
increase the operational flexibility of the hatchery.
The large space between the incubator - rearing units enables the staff to carry out
different operations conveniently at each point.
Free communication between indoor and outdoor facilities is provided through three
large double doors. Sufficient ventilation is maintained through windows. Generally, the
great amount of water in the hatching-rearing hall gives excellent air temperature. However,
in the other rooms a false ceiling is designed for heat insulation purpose.

41
The outdoor tanks are sheltered to avoid overheating. The shelter is a simple light
steel truss with a corrugated a.c. cover mounted on steel columns. This structure is not shown
on the drawings.
The elevations in the drawings of the hatchery are given in local system and the ±
0.00 level is to be considered the floor level of the building.
Hatchery systems
The hatchery accommodates facilities for two methods of propagation:
i. Hormone induced ovulation with artificial fertilization of eggs, hatching and larval
rearing in vertical flow-through jars of different size.
ii. Chinese method for induced spawning and hatching in circular tanks.

Some facilities serve both methods of propagation. The combination of the two
technologies, together with the possible spawning in ponds, may considerably increase the
flexibility of the complex.
Incubators and rearing jars
The hatching of eggs and rearing of hatchlings take place in the vertical flow-through
fiber glass incubators and rearing jars. The jars are grouped on modular steel stands. The
stands are manufactured from round steel bar with welded joints and should be protected
against corrosion.
The base frame holds the water distributing pipe and the fiber glass drain trough.
Additional elements are welded on the base frame to hold the 20 l and 60 l jars. The
200 l jars have individual stands due to their weight.
The jars are connected to the inflow distribution pipe with flexible, e.g. rubber, pipe
of 20 mm. The water current is adjusted by the globe valves. Each unit is equipped with two
additional globe valves to supply water for additional units. One valve is for drainage.
The jars are grouped in units as follows:
- 20 l incubators:
10 jars are mounted on one stand 1 unit
- 60 l incubator-rearing jars:
8 jars are mounted on one stand 3 units
- 200 l incubator-rearing jars:
4 jars each mounted on separate stand
2 units
are grouped to one base frame
All jars have a removable filter of fine mesh sieve (0.5–0.6 mm) fixed on plastic or
fiber glass frame. The large filtering surface is to avoid overflow due to choking.
The units are connected to the main pipe by flexible pipe of ID 50 (2").
Circular spawning and hatching tanks
The circular spawning and hatching tanks are located outdoor.
The spawning tank is constructed from reinforced concrete. Its inner diameter is 2.50
m, the depth is 1.50 m. The water enters the tank through four nozzles, in the direction of 45°
to the axis. This position ensures the continuous circulation of water. The water level is
regulated by the plastic (PVC) turn-down pipe (ID 50) that also serves as a drain. The water
depth in the tank is 1.35 m. A brick platform is set around the tank to make it easier to
operate.
The hatching-rearing tanks are made of fiber glass. The diameter is 1.2 m and the
depth is 1.00 m. The water supply is through a pipe of ID 40. Water control and drainage is
via a turn-down pipe of ID 50.

42
Both tanks have conical bases from which the drainage pipes are connected.

Multipurpose r.c.c. twin tanks


Four twin tanks of r.c.c. will be constructed to serve various purposes, such as holding
brooders during propagation course, holding larvae before stocking and in case of medical
treatment, etc.
Three out of the four have the internal dimensions of 2 × 2.00 × 0.80 × 1.00 m. One
set is located outdoors. The fourth one is larger, with dimensions of 2 × 4.00 × 0.80 × 1.00 m.
The bottom slopes toward the ID 50 (2") turn-down pipe. The inner surfaces of the smaller
tanks are glaze-tiled for easy cleaning and sterilization. The grooves are for holding wooden
framed screens to segregate fish.
Water supply and drainage
Safe operation in a hatchery requires a sufficient amount of water at each phase of the
propagation process. The water supply is therefore designed for peak water demand.
Type and number of Water demand per Total water
device device demand
Min. Max. Min. Max.
l/min l/min
10
20 l jar 2.0 7.0 20.0 70.0

24
60 l jar 3.0 10.0 72.0 240.0

200 l jar 8 5.0 12.0 40.0 96.0


3
1.3 m tank 6 10.0 10.0 60.0 60.0
3
2.6 m tank 2 15.0 15.0 30.0 30.0
Total water demand in the hatchery 222.0 496.0

Thus the minimum water demand is 3.70 l/s


maximum water demand is 8.30 l/s, and
mean water water demand is 6.00 l/s.
For all units tube wells are used as a source of water. Pumping capacity is 9.05 l/s
using two pump units.
The water is pumped to an elevated reservoir, where additional aeration is provided.
The elevated reservoir also stores water for emergency purposes. Its storage capacity is 84.0
m3. The emergency reserve is for two hours of operation.
From the elevated reservoir the water is conveyed to the two overhead tanks by
gravity through ID 125 galvanized iron (G.I) pipe.
The two overhead tanks serve only to provide balanced static water pressure and do
not provide emergency reserves.
The water is distributed to the devices through PVC pipes. In case of any repair
works, the system can be sectioned by gate valves. However, maintenance of the system
should normally be done out of spawning season.
The water flows through the jars vertically, entering at their bases and leaving them
on through an upper outlet point. The shape of the jars produces smooth, vortex-free flow.
Used water is collected in a trough and conveyed to floor drains.

43
In the circular tanks and in the r.c.c. tank the water flows horizontally. The supply
valves (ID 40) are about 10 cm over the edge (approx. 30 cm over the water). Drainage is
through a turn-down pipe to the floor drain.
The floor drain collects water and evacuates it from the building. It is made of cement
concrete with light reinforcement and covered with a steel grate. At the exit point a syphonic
drainage trap is installed. Before disposal, the water can in emergency be repumped to the
overhead tank.
There is a washhand basin and laboratory sink in the passage and in the laboratory
office respectively.
The sanitary installations and plumbing in the toilets need no detailed drawings. The
sewage from the toilets is disposed in septic tanks separately from the drained water of the
hatchery system.
Miscellaneous
Lighting of the building is by fluorescent lamps fixed to the steel trusses. Power lines
should only be provided in the passage and in the rooms, but must be leakage-protected
according to standards. The building must be protected against lightning.
In general the fish ponds should be partly excavated and dikes are partly filled. It is difficult
to achieve an exact balance between excavation and filling, but for economy of construction
an effort should be made to reach it. A well detailed land and soil survey is therefore
essential.
The most important data to be displayed on the layout map are:
• the elevation of ground surface plotted on the map at 20–25 cm contour line intervals;
• the boundary of the site and any natural formations which may influence the pond
pattern;
• geodetical identification marks, the north direction;
• structures, existing buildings, etc.;
• connection to transportation facilities (e.g. roads);
• electric and telephone lines;
• source of water and possible receiver of drained water;
• cross and longitudinal sections of natural depressions, or of existing canals.
The soil survey must provide data for soil consistency, soil components and for index
properties.
In case of structures in ponds, the safe bearing capacity of soil is usually sufficient if
other properties satisfy the requirements. In case of the hatchery building and elevated
reservoir, the requirements of soil properties are as in other civil engineering works.
It is necessary to underline that in pond design, the impermeability of the dike is
important, but not absolutely essential. As long as the seepage loss does not exceed 20 mm
per day (except for the absorption loss of first filling after a long period of drying), it will be
acceptable. Applying a clay, clay loam layer on the slopes and on the pond base along the
dike may reduce the seepage. Seepage will also be reduced by using manure. It must be
emphasized however that the free communication between the soil of the pond base and the
pond water is one of the most important factors in the production of fish in ponds. Solid pond
lining must therefore be avoided as seepage protection.
If it is possible, the pond location and elevation should be selected to avoid cutting
into permeable (gravel) layers.
To avoid unexpected seepage problems, it is recommended to take soil samples along
the proposed contour dike area at an interval of 50–75 m.
The dikes should be well compacted by mechanical rollers, rammers, vibrators or
other approved means so as to produce a minimum dry density equal to 90% of the maximum
dry density determined in accordance with “Standard methods of tests for moisture-density

44
relation of soils using 10 lb hammer and 18 inch drop” ASTM Designation D 1557 - Method
A, or equivalent. The compacted fill should consist of approved material spread and
compacted in layers approximately horizontal and of uniform thickness not exceeding 25 cm
with a slight outward slope.
The terrain correction and land leveling prescribed in the plan should be accomplished
with ± 5 cm tolerance and the same should be applied for the pond bed correction.
The surface upon which the dikes are to be placed should be cleared and all
depressions backfilled. The area must then be scarified prior to placing the dikes.
The above specifications are the most important ones in pond construction, but the
usual recommendations of earthworks must also be considered.
Protection against predators
This is an important factor in pond operation. Predators may be either aquatic
organisms or birds. Filtering the inflow water provides good protection against wild fishes or
their eggs, but, for example, against frogs, additional protection must be provided.
Frogs are harmful for the larvae and must therefore be kept away from the nursery
ponds. The ponds should be fenced around with a net of small mesh size. Thus netting should
be regularly checked. The smallest damage on the fencing can reduce its success in
protection.

NURSERY POND UNITS


Earthwork (rounded)
Removal of top soil: (farm centre excluded)
9.0 ha × 0.20 m 21 000 m3
Excavation and filling:
The estimated amount of excavation in ponds is one-third
of the pond depth × pond surface area
0.40 m × 0.60 ha + 0.50 m × 3.20 ha + 0.60 m × (0.48 ha +
27 000 m3
0.90 ha)
Excavation of canals including water supply canal
(250 m + 300 m + 180 m) × 5.00 m2/m 4 000 m3
Lining of canals
(250 m + 300 m + 180 m) × 4.2 m2/m 3 000 m2
Structures
Drainage structure of brood fish and donor ponds 7 units
Drainage structures of nursery ponds 3 units
Drainage structures of rearing ponds 8 units
Culverts 3 units
Water supply of ponds
Construction of pump station, 2 units of pumps, capacity
1 unit
30 l/s each
Laying of pipes ID
125 G.I. pipe 350 m + 190 m + 470 m 1 010 m
Gate valves ID 125 25 units
Hatchery component
Hatchery building detailed further below

45
Tube well Q = 4, 5 l/s each 2 units
Feeder pipe of the hatchery (approx.) ID 125 200 m
Elevated reservoir with aeration tower One
Miscellaneous
Service road 1 200 m
Standby generator One
Structures
Drainage structures of broodfish and donor ponds 10 units
Drainage structures of nursery ponds 145 units
Drainage structures of rearing ponds 16 units
Culverts 3 units
Water supply of ponds
Construction of tube wells, 2 units, capacity of 51 l/s each 2 units
Laying of pipes, ID 100
440 m + 550 m + 530 m 1 520 m
Gate valves, ID 100 40 units
Hatchery component (except building)
Tube well, Q = 9.0 l/s 1 unit
Elevated reservoir with aeration tower 1 unit
Feeder pipe to the hatchery 60 m
Miscellaneous
Service road 2 000 m
Access road (blacktopped) 200 m
Standby generator 1 unit
CONSTRUCTION OF POND STRUCTURES
Earthwork:
Cutting in dike and back filling 70 m3
Monk-tower and outlet:
R.c.c. 1:2:4 3.0 m3
Reinforcement (diameter 10, 200 m c/c approx.)
150 kg
50 kg/l m3 concrete
Blinding concrete, 1:4:8 1 m3
Lining c.c. slab 30 × 30 × 8 cm on sand bedding 50 m2
Control boards - Type 3 18 units
Steel screen - Type 3 9 units
ID 300 concrete pipe 12 m
Drainage structures of rearing ponds
Approximately the same as for brood fish ponds
Drainage structures of nursery ponds
Earthwork - cutting in dike and backfilling 90 m3

46
Twin sluice
R.c.c. 1:2:4 5 m3
Reinforcement (diameter 10, 200 c/c approx.) 300 kg
Blinding concrete - 1:4:8 2 m3
Lining, c.c. slab 30 × 30 × 8 cm on sand bedding 70 m2
Control boards - Type 1 24 units
Control boards - Type 2 6 units
Steel screen - Type 1 12 units
Steel screen - Type 2 6 units
ID 200 G.I. pipe (approx.) 15 m
HATCHERY COMPONENT
5.1 Building
Single storey, r.c.c. columns on pad foundation, steel trusses with corrugated asbestos
cement sheet cover. Brick walls, steel windows and double doors, wooden doors in rooms.
R.c.c. floor with expansion joints, layed on blinding concrete and sandy gravel. False ceiling
in laboratory/office, staff room and in toilets.
Columns: 30 × 30 cm × 4.0 m, r.c.c. 1:2:4 with
10 units
reinforcement approximately 50 kg 0/ 16 each
Pad foundation: r.c.c. 1:2:4, 0.5 m3 concrete and 50 kg
10 units
reinforcement per column
Floor: 160 m2, 15 cm thick r.c.c. with diameter 10
26 m3
reinforcement approximately 7 kg/m2
Walls: brick, double-skinned in outer walls (23 cm) and
11.5 cm in partition walls. Inside plastering 1:4, outside
plastering 1:3 45 m3
Roof: steel trusses, pinch roof approx. 15 kg/m2; corrugated 2 400 kg 240
asbestos cement sheet cover m2
Doors: Double door, made of steel, 2 mm steel sheet, angle
iron frame,
dimensions: 2.00 m (w) × 2.10 m (h) 3 units
Wooden doors on rooms (flush door)
dimensions: 1.05 m × 2.10 m 3 units
0.85 m × 2.10 m 2 units
Windows: Steel framed, openable with single glazing and
with wire mesh
dimensions: 1.40 m × 1.50 m 13 units
2.60 m × 1.00 m 1 unit
1.00 m × 1.00 m 2 units
5.2 Indoor water supply
Overhead tank: fibre glass mounted on 3 steel columns
Storage capacity 2.5 m3

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Maximum water level + 3.30 m
Minimum water level + 2.30 m
Drain valve diameter 25 (1") + 2.10 m
Supply pipe G.I. diameter 125 + 3.65 m
Discharging pipe PVC, class B, diameter 125 + 230 m
Automatic water level adjusting by float valve 2 units
Piping: PVC, class D (excluding water distributing pipe on
stands, but including turndown pipes)
ID 125 (diameter 5") 10 m
ID 100 (diameter 4") 2m
ID 75 (diameter 3") 20 m
ID 60 (diameter 2 ½") 18 m
ID 50 (diameter 2") 25 m
ID 40 (diameter 1 ⅝" or diameter 1 ½") 20 m
ID 25 (diameter 1") 18 m
Gate valves (excluding those on water distributing pipe on
stands)
ID 125 2 units
ID 75 3 units
ID 60 1 unit
ID 50 8 units
ID 40 10 units
ID 25 2 units
5.3 Drainage
Floor drains. U shaped r.c.c. 1:2:4
drains with light reinforcement 40 m
and steel grate covering 1 unit
Sump: r.c.c. 1:2:4 with chequerplate cover
dimensions: 0.70 m × 0.70 m × 1.00 m (inner) 2 units
1.00 m × 1.00 m × 1.20 m (outer)
dimensions: 0.20 × 0.20 × 0.60 (inner)
0.40 × 0.40 × 0.80 (outer) 1 unit
Pipes to connect sumps, ID 200 a.c. pipe 26 m
Pipes to disposal area ID 300 c.c. pipe (approx.) 100 m
5.4 Hatchery equipment
Circular spawning tank: r.c.c. 1:2:4
with reinforced 70 kg/m3 3 m3
on foundation slab 1:4:8 1 m3
ID 300 perforated G.I. pipe 1.5 m

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Brick platform 1 m3
Circular hatching-rearing tank
2
Fiber glass diameter 1.20 m × 1.00 m
units
20 l incubator unit: Fiber glass funnel type incubators
mounted on module steel stand, made of rounded steel bars
with welded joints. Installed with:
20 l incubators with filter screens 10
Fibre glass trough 1
Connection pipe to main:
ID 50 rigid PVC 0.50 m
ID 50 flexible pipe 2.50 m
ID 125 PVC distributing pipe 2.10 m
ID 20 PVC pipe (0/ 3/4") 1.00 m
ID 20 globe valve 13
ID 20 rubber pipe (for jars) 1.00 m
Module steel stand 43 kg
To be manufactured 1 unit
60 l incubator unit: Fiber glass funnel type incubators
mounted on module steel stand, made of rounded steel bars
with welded joints. Installed with:
60 l incubator-rearing jars with filter screens 8
Fiber glass trough 1
Correction pipe to main
ID 50 rigid PVC 0.50 m
ID 50 flexible pipe 2.50 m
ID 125 PVC distributing pipe 2.10 m
ID 20 PVC pipe 1.00 m
ID 20 globe valve 11
ID 20 rubber pipe (for jars) 1m
Module steel stand 48 kg
3
To be manufactured
units
200 l incubator-rearing unit
200 l incubator-rearing jar, fiber glass with screens, each
mounted on steel stand separately:
jars 4
stand (total) 40 kg
Module steel stand, made of round steel bars with welded
33 kg
joints installed with:

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Fiber glass trough 1
ID 125 PVC pipe 2.10 m
ID 50 rigid PVC pipe 0.50 m
ID 50 flexible pipe 2.50 m
ID 20 PVC pipe 1.00 m
ID 20 globe valve 7
ID 20 rubber pipe (for jars) 4m
2
To be manufactured
units
Multipurpose r.c.c. twin tanks: volume 2 × 1.3 m3
R.c.c. 1:2:4 2.20 m3
reinforcement 100 kg
glazed tiling 15 m2
8
To be constructed
units
Multipurpose r.c.c. twin tank: volume 2 × 2.6 m3
r.c.c. 1:2:4 3.80 m3
reinforcement 200 kg
To be constructed 1 unit
5.5 Miscellaneous
Outdoor pavement 30 × 30 × 8 cm c.c. slabs on 5 cm sand
120 m2
bedding
Sheds for outdoor tanks; steel trusses with a.c. corrugated
60 m2
sheets, mounted on steel columns
Sanitary installations in toilets with bowl, cistern,
handwash basin and shower including plumbing works 2 sets
3
Septic tank for sewage approximately 20 m 1 unit
Replacement of evaporation losses
The ponds operate during different periods throughout the year and evaporation losses are
computed as follows:
Brood fish ponds January – December Evaporation = 3 913 mm
Nursery ponds February – August Evaporation = 2 712 mm
Rearing ponds March – October Evaporation = 3 188 mm
Donor ponds January – December Evaporation = 3 913 mm

3 913 mm × 18 800
Brood fish pond (rounded)
0.48 ha = m3
2 712 mm × 16 300
Nursery pond (rounded)
0.60 ha = m3
3 188 mm × 102 000
Rearing pond (rounded)
3.20 ha = m3

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3 913 mm × 35 200
Donor pond (rounded)
0.90 ha = m3
172 300
Total evaporation loss
m3
Replacement of seepage losses
In the absence of soil tests the seepage is estimated to be 20 mm/day. The length of operation
period is also taken into account.
20 mm/day × 365 35 000
Brood fish pond (rounded)
days × 0.48 ha = m3
20 mm/day × 28 23 500
Nursery pond (rounded)
weeks × 0.60 ha = m3
20 mm/day × 34 152 300
Rearing pond (rounded)
weeks × 3.20 ha = m3
20 mm/day × 365 65 700
Donor pond
days × 0.90 ha = m3
276 500
Total seepage loss
m3
Inflow due to rainfall
The water source for pond filling is the main canal. Therefore the amount of rain is only
considered on the pond surface.
162 mm ×
Brood fish pond 800 m3 (rounded)
0.48 ha =
126 mm ×
Nursery pond 800 m3 (rounded)
0.60 ha =
135 mm ×
Rearing pond 4 300 m3 (rounded)
3.20 ha =
162 mm ×
Donor pond 1 500 m3 (rounded)
0.90 ha =
Total inflow from rainfall 7 400 m3
Summary
The annual water demand is the sum of the above amounts with the appropriate sign.
Pond filling + 219 000 m3
Evaporation loss + 172 300 m3
Seepage loss + 276 500 m3
Rainfall - 7 400 m3
Annual water demand + 675 200 m3
(Rounded to) 675 000 m3
Most surface waters pick up large quantities of mud and become extremely turbid
whenever it rains, and also during the spring snow-melt. This high silt content makes the
water unsuitable for incubating and hatching trout eggs, and for rearing fry, unless it is first
filtered. Further, many of the mountains are virtually devoid of vegetation cover, rendering
rivers and streams prone to flooding during the wet season. There are few springs in the
Province which could provide sufficient clear water from underground to supply a sizeable
trout hatchery.

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In addition to the requirement for a reliable supply of clean water, the hatchery site
must be served by an adequate road (passable at all seasons by truck), and be close to electric
power and telephone connections.
Larvae first-fed, probably with Artemia salina nauplii.

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Figure 4. Cross section of the hatchery

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Figure 5. Tank for spawners

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Figure 6. Details of the hatching jars

Figure 7. Details of the larvae rearing tank

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Figure 8. Closed pressure filter
Machines
Gasoline engine driven water pump (2" suction and discharge ports,
self priming, total head: 30 m, capacity 600 1/min) Type: Honda WA- 2 pieces
20X or equivalent
1. Gasoline engine driven electric generator
(220 V/50 Hz/1.3 kW) 1 piece
Type: DENYO Model ACX-140 or equivalent
Gasoline engine driven air blower
(capacity: 40 m3/hour, Head: 700 mm H2O) 2 pieces
Type: ELMO BH Ring Compressor No. 20310 or equivalent
Tanks and Incubators
Head tank with level gauge and supports
1 piece
(Volume: 4 m3, height: 3.0 m)
Hatching jars with support and fittings
2. * 8 pieces
(8 liters)
Larvae rearing tanks with support and fittings (200 liters) 3 pieces
Tank for spawners (2 m3)
4 pieces
Type AGK Model 03370 or equivalent
3. * Pipes and Fittings
Flexible pressure pipe (high pressure water supply pipe connected to
50 m
the water pump)  2"
PVC Pressure pipe (high pressure water supply pipe)  2" with
threaded end connectors:
connectors 30 m
90° bend 3 pieces

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T 2" 1 piece
reducing T 2 × 2 × 1" 5 pieces
flanged piece 2" 2 pieces
PVC valve 2" 1 piece
PVC pressure pipe (high pressure water supply pipe)  1" with
threaded end connectors:
connectors 6m
90° bend 1" 4 pieces
PVC valve 1" 5 pieces
PVC pipe light (low pressure water supply pipe connected to the head
tank):
 3" with threaded end connectors 10 m
90° bend 3" 2 pieces
T 3" 1 piece
12
reducing T 3 × 3 × ½"
pieces
flanged piece 3" 1 piece
12
PVC valve 1/2"
pieces
PVC pipe light (drainage pipe)
60 m
 150 mm
PVC pressure pipe (air distribution pipe connected to the air blower):
 32 mm extended with threaded end connectors 10 m
reducing T 32 mm/20 mm 4 pieces
PVC valve 20 mm 4 pieces
Spiral hose (discharge pipe from the Zug jars and the larvae rearing
tank):
 63 mm int. 6m
 30 mm int. 20 m
plastic funnel  200 mm 4 pieces
PVC hose (air supply pipe for the spawner tank)
20 m
 19 mm int.
Air distributor (with a hose connection of  20 mm). Type AGK
4 pieces
Model 20722 or equivalent
Instruments
Binocular microscope with Petri dish 1 piece
Quick balance 200 g 1 piece
4. Quick balance 10 kg 1 piece
Dissolved oxygen meter 1 piece
pH meter 1 piece
Water thermometer 3 pieces
5. Devices and tools for propagation and experiments

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- fish manipulation table
- dipnet for spawners
- plastic bowls (3–4 l and 10–12 l)
- plastic buckets (15–20 l)
- glass measuring cylinders
- pipettes
- syringes
- medical scissors, scalpels, forceps, surgical needles with thread
- plastic tubings
- magnifying glasses
- oxygen bottles (for packing of larvae)
- plastic bags (for transport of larvae)
- plastic boxes (for transport of larvae)
- towels and cloths
- tool kit
Furniture
6. Storage cabinet for chemicals and tools
Working table with chair
Electric Equipment
Main connection box with main fuse and main switch
Cables for power transmission and lighting
Outdoor lighting
7. (2 × 125 W mercury vapor lamp mounted on posts)
Internal lighting (8 × 120 W fluorescent lamps, 6 in the hatchery, 2 in
the support unit)
Switches for lighting, plug sockets
Electric water heater

A variety of fish smoking methods are available to small-scale rural farmers, from
traditional ‘alter smokers’ to heavy smoking chambers made of welded metal. The output
from traditional methods is small but uses a lot of fuel wood. It also carries a high risk of fire
outbreak and may pose a health hazard, mainly to women and their children, who are
typically responsible for processing.
Some farmers may salt and dry fish. Chorkor (oven with trays) smoking kilns,
designed in Ghana, have a high smoking capacity and are very well suited for backyard
operation. The kiln can be made and easily repaired with locally available and low-cost
materials.

The farmers used integrated irrigation practices to fertilize the ponds with small
animal husbandry units for chickens, ducks and/or rabbits located next to the ponds. The
ponds, once stocked, were managed more as a capture than a culture fishery; the farmers
catching fish with nets or hook-and-line whenever the family needed fish to eat and rarely
draining the impounded water. The water was siphoned from the ponds through plastic
hosepipes and applied through fixed sprinklers to the downhill maize and ginger crops.

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