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FROM IPMS/USA Hints and tips Few other hobbies give as great a return on the hobbyist's investment as plastic modeling. Even a novice with few tools and little space can build handsome models from inexpensive plastic kits. Experienced modelbuilders create su- perbly detailed miniature aircraft, ar- mored vehicles, cars, trucks, ships, and other models using techniques that call for exquisite craftsmanship, but that still require only modest work space and a limited range of tools and materials. HINTS AND TIPS FOR PLASTIC MOD- ELING contains several hundred mod- elbuilding techniques compiled from publications of the International Plastic Modelers Society/USA and volunteered by IPMS/USA members. All these hints and tips have been tested and found useful to beginning, intermediate, and advanced modelers. for plastic modeling 1. Tools and Workbench Equipment 2. Assembly 3. Masking, Painting, and Decaling 4. Canopies and Cockpits 5. Detailing 6. Weathering and Figure Painting... 7. Displaying and Caring for your Models About IPMS/USA ... Acknowledgments . Editor: Burr Angle Art Director: Lawrence Luser Editorial Assistant: Marcia Stern Artist: Bill Scholz KALMBACH| "@BOOKS, First printing, 1980. Second printing, 1981. Third printing, 1983. Fourth printing, 1985. Fifth printing, 1986. Sixth printing, 1989. (©1980 by the International Plastic Modelers Society/USA. All rights reserved. This book may not be reproduced in part or in whole without written permission from the publisher, ‘except in the case of brief quotations used in reviews, Published by Kalmbach Publishing Co., 1027 North Seventh Street, Milwaukee, WI 53233. Printed in U.S.A. ISBN: 0-89024-546.0 1-1 Golf tee parts holder Mount wheels and similar parts on a wooden or plastic golf tee while trim ming or painting. 12 1-2 Spear parts with heated Heat a common pin or needle and stick it into the back of a part to be painted; the part will be much easier to handle. Pull the pin out when the paint is dry. 1-3. Safety pin parts mount Use safety pins of various sizes to hold parts for handling and painting. Un- bend the pin, heat the point and stick it into the part, and use the handle of the pin to provide a steady grip. 2 2 1-4 Toothpick parts holder Round toothpicks make excellent dis- posable holders for small, hollow parts 1-5 Reversed clothespins make improved clamp Ordinary spring clothespins make good clamps; reverse the halves and they make great clamps, we 1-6 Stat nery clamps such as wheels, gun barrels, and Stationery stores stock a variety of tubing, clamps useful to modelers. Especially handy are Bulldog and Hunt brand spring clips. Both are great for clamp- ing wing leading and trailing edges while cementing. 1-7 Bobby pin clamps Bobby pins and pin curl clips found in the cosmetic section of dime stores are good clamps where only gentle pres- Sure is required 1-8 Decoregger lathe ‘The Decoregger Easter egg painting lathe makes an excellent paint stand for parts that need to be painted on all sides. Simply attach the part to the Decoregger’s live center and turn the piece slowly while applying as fine a line of paint or ink as you desire. Ifyou can't find a Decoregger, make your own painting lathe from hard balsa and brass tubing. 19 1-9 Rubbermaid turntable Spray painting a tall cylindrical object such as a rocket fuel tank is much easier ifthe part is first mounted on an inexpensive Rubbermaid lazy-Susan turntable. Turn the turntable slowly as you spray to provide even coverage with little danger of the drips and runs that otherwise frequently occur. The turntable has many other uses— it’s even handy as a display base for a finished model, allowing spectators to view all sides’ of the model without picking it up. 1-10 Modeling clay bottle holder Tall, tippy cement bottles are less like- ly to spill if stuck into a wad of model- ing clay. 11_Light bulb melts sprue safely A.40-to 60-watt light bulb melts sprue without the dangerous open flame of candles or alcohol lamps. Hold the sprue near the bulb until it softens, then stretch away 1-12 { 1-12 Punk provides constant heat Firecracker punk or incense sticks provide a source of constant heat for sprue stretching. Mount the punk or incense stick in a vise, third-hand clamp, or other holder to leave both hands free for stretching, 1-13 Brass tubing sprue extruder Plug one end of a section of 4" brass tubing, drill a small hole near the plugged end, and then plug one endofa slightly longer section of 7." brass tubing to make a sprue extruder. To use, load the \.” tubing nearly full with small pieces of scrap plastic, in: sert the %a" plunger, and heat the en. tire assembly over a light bulb or flame until the plastic melts. Remove from the heat and gently push in the plunger. The molten plastic will be forced out the small hole forming a perfectly round extrusion that can be used for rigging, antennas, or wherev- er else small-diameter plastic strands are needed. Wooden dowel handles fas- tened to each end of the extruder will prevent burned fingers. 1-14 Copper pipe cap sprue crucible Accopper pipe cap, available at plumb- ing supply stores, makes a handy cru- cible for melting sprue. Fill the cap with scrap plastic, hold it over a heat source until the plastic melts, and pull out strings of sprue with the tip of a toothpick. The plastic in the crucible may catch fire, so always use this tech- nique outdoors and be aware that the fumes from all molten plasties are dan- gerous—don’t breathe them. Ha eal 1-15 Film canister paint storage Kodak 35 mm. film canisters can be used for short-term paint storage. Be- 4 cause the canisters are plastic, some acetone-based lacquers may dissolve them, so test first. 1-16 Container top palettes ‘The metal end pieces on frozen juice concentrate containers are handy paint mixing palettes 1-16 1-17. Aluminum foil paint palettes Cut dises of heavy duty aluminum foil from frozen food trays to make dispos- able paint palettes. 1-18 Watercolor palettes. ‘The watercolor mixing trays with many small depressions that are sold in art-supply stores make excellent palettes for mixing small quantities of paint. 119 Model airplane fue! pump Use a model airplane fuel pump avail- able at most hobby shops to transfer solvents from quart or gallon contain- ers. The pump makes neat work of an otherwise messy task. 1-20 1-20 Yogurt cup/Mason jar brush cleaner Punch numerous small holes in the bottom of a yogurt cup, place the in verted cup in a Mason jar, fill the jar to the level of the holes in the cup with thinner for your paint, and you've made a handy brush cleaner. The roughened edges of the holes act as a serubbing board to remove paint from even the dirtiest brushes. 1-21, Transfer Humbrol to bottles ‘The tiny cans or tinlets of Humbrol- brand model paints are attractive but make stirring difficult. Solution: transfer the paint to small bottles for irring, and blending, 4-21 1-22 Seal paint containers with candle wax Paint won't dry out during long-term storage if you seal the caps with mol- ten candle wax. Let the molten wax from a lighted candle drip around the cap to form an airtight seal. 1-23 Eyedropper dispensers for Plastic cement Drugstores sell a variety of small eye- droppers suitable for use as liquid plastic cement dispensers. To use, squeeze the bulb, dip the tip in the cement, release the bulb to suck up the cement, and press gently on the bulb to dispense the liquid on the parts to be cemented 1-24 Medical technician's blood pipette ‘The small pipettes medical technicians and nurses use for laboratory tests allow precise dispensing of liquid plastic ce- ment. applicator All plasties stores and most hobby shops sell precision needlepoint appli ators for use in cementing plastic. ‘They consist of a plastic squeeze bottle and a cap into which a thin hollow steel tube similar to a blunt hypoder- mic needle has been inserted. These applicators must be used carefully. Al- ways hold the tip of the needle up or the plastic cement will drip out. Also, always return the plastic cement to its glass container after each modelbuild- ing session or the volatile solvents in the cement will evaporate through the walls of the plastic bottle. 1-26 White glue dispenser Plastic needlepoint oil dispensers make good dispensers for white glue Wash the oil from the dispenser with detergent or denatured alcohol, dry, and fill with white glue. Dispense drops of glue just as you would drops of oil. Seal the tip between uses with a dab of modeling or florist’s clay. 4-27 Glue gun for body putty ‘The aluminum Austincraft glue gun is, a fine dispenser for body putty. The gun works just like @ grease gun—a plunger forces the putty out through the hollow needle, allowing precise control of the rate of application. In order to prevent the putty from hard- ening during storage, place the entire glue gun in a sealed glass jar contain ing a small quantity of lacquer thinner. 1-28 Sources of hard-to-find tools Three mail-order retail suppliers of small tools for modelbuilders are: ‘Brookstone Company, 127 Vose Farm Road, Peterborough, New Hamp- shire 03458, ‘# Jensen Tools, Inc., 1230 South Priest Drive, Tempe, Arizona 85281. Brookstone offers numerous tools and gadgets for the hobbyist. Many small files, machinist's squares, and scalpel blades are good plastic modeling tools. Jensen specializes in tools and supplies for electrical and electronics manufac- turers and service technicians; the firm carries an unequaled line of pliers, tweez- ers, and clamps. Both companies pub- lish free or inexpensive catalogs. 4-29 Dental burrs and bits If he's not a plastic modeler himself, your dentist may give you his castoft dental burrs and bits for the asking. ‘These fit the collets of hand-held and flexible-shaft motor tools and come in many shapes and sizes. 1-30 1-30 Needle-in-a-dowel tool Drill a small hole in one end of a short length of wooden dowel, epoxy a sew- ing needle in the hole, and you've made a simple tool with many uses. It is a seriber, a picker-upper for small pieces, a decal pricker, and an all- purpose pick. Biological dissecting needles can be used for the same jobs. 1-31. Architect's and engineer's scales Architect's and engineer's scales, available both in English and metric divisions, allow direct scale conver- sions. For example, to make a drawing in which %4" equals 1’ (1/16 seale) use the % scale on an architect's rule. To make a drawing in which %" equals 1' (1/96 scale) use the ¥% scale. En- gineer's scales are similar but read out in decimal feet and inches. 1-32. Contour gauge A contour gauge consists of many straight steel wires held together in a row by two steel plates. The tips of the wires conform to the contour of any surface they are placed against. The 1-32 curve of the tips is then traced onto a paper pattern. In this way complex curves such as those on aircraft fuse- lages and ship hulls are easily dupli- cated. 1-33 Machinist's step blocks Machinists step blocks can be used to ‘ion parts and tools accurately. The blocks look like sets of steps, with each step precisely the same as the others. They must be used on a flat surface such as a surface plate or a thick piece of plate glass. They are sold by industrial tool suppliers. 1-34 Drafting pens In order to make panel lines, control surface separation lines, and other lines that must be of constant width, use drafting pens such as Koh-i-noor Rapidograph or Staedtler. These pens use a permanent ink that makes very precise lines; line width depends on the size of the point that is used and can vary from extremely fine to 1/16" or more. These pens are not cheap and must be cleaned carefully after each use, 1-35 Lead holder miniature knit A draftsman’s lead holder with asmall blade, obtainable at drafting and art- supply stores, makes a convenient miniature knife that can be used to trim the edges of decals after applica- tion or to scrape away unwanted paint. E 1-36 Electric engraving tool An electric vibrating engraving tool or motor tool can be used to scribe clean lines in plastic. Use the finest tip and work carefully to maintain a constant depth groove. 1-37 1-37 Reverse teeth on motor tool saw blade The circular saw blade on a motor tool will not grab as often or dig into plastic as much if the blade is reversed so that the teeth take a smaller bite. 1-38 Flexible-shaft motor tool A flexible-shaft dental drill hand- piece, an old electric fan motor, Dremel or homemade speed control, switch, line cord, and plug can be assembled into a versatile tool for su- perdetailing plastic kits. The hand- pieces are available from Brookstone, Jensen, and National Camera, and dental supply houses. 1-39 Speed or temperature control for small electric tools A light dimmer switch can be made into a speed control for small electric motors and a temperature regulator for hot knives and hot-wire machines. 1-40. Dry-cell-operated hot-wire machine A safe, simple hot-wire machine for cutting thin plastic stock and trim- ming kit parts can be made from a 1¥s- volt dry cell, such as the glow-plug model airplane ignition cells available in all hobby shops, and a short length of No. 30 Nichrome resistance wire, which is available through advertisers 7 in model aviation magazines. (Model aviators use hot-wire machines to cut foam plastic wing cores.) Stretch the Nichrome wire in a coping saw or jig saw frame and cut away. Use only car- bon-zine dry cells—alkaline cells may explode, lead-acid cells will explode, and nickel-cadmium cells will be ruined in this application 1-41 Line current hot-wire machine A line-current-powered hot-wire machine is easy to make from a 6.3- volt, 1.2-amp filament transformer, a 6-ohm, 5-watt variable potentiometer, No. 30 Nichrome wire, a line cord with plug, and binding posts. Number 30 Nichrome wire has a resistance of about 1 ohm per foot, so a 6” piece will draw from % to 1 amp depending on the potentiometer setting. Use the pot to adjust the wire temperature to just under red hot. As with all applications of line current, securely insulate all wiring. 1-42 Keep your airbrush clean! Ninety per cent of all problems with airbrushes result from improper cleaning. All airbrushes must be thor- oughly cleaned immediately after each use. Always use the thinner rec ommended by the manufacturer of the paint you are using and flush the parts until the thinner comes out clear. 1-43 Q-tips and pipe cleaners Qtips and pipe cleaners work well as airbrush cleaning tools. Never force the pipe cleaners through an opening; soak the part in thinner or paint re- mover until the obstruction softens, outer oatcras ing” a a, one / /f sea / ‘Ro ome aterraie— @ J 1-44 then use the pipe cleaner to gently ream out the deposit. Use Q-tips dipped in thinner to swab up loose bits of paint, 1-44 Carbon dioxide propellant Industrial gas distributors can supply tanks of carbon dioxide and suitable valves and regulators so that you can convert from an air compressor to CO, propellant for your airbrush. The CO; is nontoxie, nonflammable, and mois: tureless. It works well in all air- brushes. Be aware, though, that the tanks must be handled very carefully 1-45 ote cap at sa Oat wpe 1-45. Pactra bottles fit Binks airbrushes: Pactra paint bottles fit the paint hold. eron Binks airbrushes without modi cation. Other standard bottles can be fitted to various airbrushes by the sim: ple technique shown in the drawing. a 1-46 1-46 Clean files with brass brushes Clean plastic-clogged files with a brass-bristle suede brush or shotgun bore cleaning brush. If even they don’t do a complete job, soak the file in lac- quer thinner or acetone for a few hours. 1-47 Small parts containers Keep small parts separated by storing them in egg cartons or TV-dinner trays. You also can tape Dixie cups toa sheet of cardboard and store parts in the cups 1-48 Foam sanding pads ‘The resilient foam plastic from egg cartons and meat trays makes first- rate sanding pads, especially for wet sanding. The plastic is firm enough to provide a solid backing for the sand- paper, but soft enough that it can’t damage the work. 1-49 Battery-powered paint mixer Novelty battery-operated cocktail mixers and toy electric motors can be converted to miniature paint stirrers by fabricating a short stirring stick to replace the mixing blade furnished with the mixer. Some modelers claim that this gadget mixes paints more uniformly than hand stirring. = ae 1-51 1-50 Disposable gloves Art-supply stores and paint stores sell disposable plastic gloves that are ideal for modeling tasks. Wear them while modeling and you'll never have to wor- ry about fingerprints and body oils on the model. Wear them while spray painting and you'll be less likely to develop skin irritations from paints and solvents. 1-51 Scalpels Brookstone and Jensen, as well as the biological supply sections of many col- lege bookstores, sell scalpels and blades that many modelers prefer to hobby knives. The scalpel blades are available in several sizes and shapes (the No. 25 blade is most popular), are made of stainless steel, are very sharp, and keep an edge for a long time. The blades are brittle and will snap if abused, but are otherwise perfect for modelbuilding, 1-52. Hair drier A hair drier set at “no heat” or “low” dries washed parts quickly. 2. Assembly 24 Pre-assembly sequence Before beginning to assemble a plastic kkit perform these steps: Step 1. Study the instruction sheet. Read every word and carefully note ali assembly sequences. Step 2. Read books and articles on the object being modeled and study accu- rate plans of it. Decide exactly which variant you intend to model and which color scheme you will use. Make notes to yourself. Step 3. Reread the instruction sheet and carefully make notes in colored ink on the sheet in regard to special construction techniques and devia- tions from the manufacturer's assem- bly sequence. Step 4. Study each part and observe how it fits into the overall scheme. Step 5. Cut the parts from the sprue trees (mark unnumbered parts) and place them in clean containers such as egg cartons. 10 Step 6. Using files, knives, and sand- paper remove flash and sprue and smooth all rough edges. Step 7. Test-fit mating parts and file or sand and test-fit again until alll mate perfectly. Step 8. Wash all parts, as well as the parts holders, in detergent and warm water. Rinse each part in cool, clear water and remove from the rinse with tweezers or gloves. The wash is neces sary to remove filings, mold release agents, finger oils, and other dirt. Step 9. Place each rinsed parton a lint- free cloth or paper towel and allow to ary. Step 10. Replace each part in its con- tainer and cover with clear plastic wrap to keep off dust. 2-2 Two weeks to a good model After the pre-assembly steps outlined above have been completed, observe this sequence during assembly. Most of the 14 days required is to allow for filler and paint drying time. An air. plane model is used for the example here, but the sequence applies to all types of models. Step 1. Paint and assemble all interior details, Step 2. Assemble fuselage, wings, and ‘empennage (tail assembly). Step 3. Install the eanopy. Step 4. Fill all seams and let dry for at Teast a day. Step 5. Correct all inaccuracies in shape or contour. Sand all rough areas with progressively finer grits, being careful not to leave any scratches. Step 6. Wash the entire model with detergent and lukewarm water. Rinse thoroughly and allow to dry. Step 7. Mask clear sections of the canopy, leaving the canopy frames un- masked so that they ean be painted or taped. Step 8. Prime the model with flat white or silver paint. Let the paint dry at least a day, preferably three days. Step 9. Carefully inspect the model for defects, Fill and sand any areas that are not yet perfectly smooth. Step 10. Paint the model. Mask as re- quired to paint details. Remove all masking except the canopy masking applied in Step 7. Step 11. Paint the entire model with a gloss finish such as Testor Glosscote to provide a smooth surface for decals. ‘Step 12. Apply all decals. Apply decal setting solution, Step 13. Apply a gloss or flat clear coat to hide decal edges. Step 14. Remove the masking from the ‘canopy. Step 15. Brush paint small details. Step 16. Install landing gear, propel- ler, and other parts. Add rigging as necessary and install antennas. 2-3. Attach clear parts with white glue Liquid plastic cements and alpha cyanoacrylate cements (ACC's) craze clear plastic parts, so use white glue such as Elmer's Glue-All to attach canopies, windshields, and other clear parts. The white glue will hold the part firmly enough for security and can even be used as a seam filler. Apply a small amount, let dry, then remove the excess with a dampened Q-tip. Experi- ment with different brands of white glue until you find the one that works best for you. 2-4 How to use epoxy glue Epoxy glues were developed for the aircraft industry during World War II and soon found application every- where. All epoxies are two-part mix- tures, all are impervious to most sol- vents after curing, and all cure by an exothermic polymerization process rather than by evaporation of a sol- vent. Curing times range from less than 5 minutes to more than a day, depending on the formulation. Many contain clay or metallic fillers. All are irritating to skin until cured, so they must be used carefully. Epoxies adhere to most clean, slightly roughened surfaces except a few plas: ties such as vinyl, polyethylene, nylon, Delrin, and Teflon. Epoxies are used in plastic model as glues and fillers. Epoxies sand eas ly toa hard, smooth finish. If you have only unfilled epoxy on hand and want to use it as a seam filler, add taleum powder or microballoons, then apply the filled epoxy with a toothpick, trimmed-down Popsicle stick, or other disposable instrument. Keep the tool moistened with water to prevent the epoxy from sticking to it. 2-5 How to use alpha cyanoacrylate cements Alpha cyanoacrylate cements (ACC's) are “liquid acrylate monomers that readily undergo anionic polymeriza- tion to form very strong bonds between most faying surfaces.” In plain En- lish, this means that ACC's are one- part liquid cements that cure within seconds and will glue almost anything to anything. Widely advertised as "su- per glues,” they became popular with hobbyists in the 1970's as special for- mulations were developed specifically for modelbuilders. Hobby shops sell brands such as Hot Stuff, Jet, and Zap that bond most clean substances in- cluding hardwoods and plastics, that have a shelf life at room temperature of about 6 months (longer if kept under refrigeration), and that have setting ‘times ranging from a few seconds to sev- eral minutes, ‘When using ACC's it is important to know that a small amount of cement forms a stronger bond than a large amount. Use ACC’s sparingly and be aware that they are very fluid; capil- lary action will draw the cement into every crack and crevice of a joint. Draw away excess cement before it sets with a wick made from a piece of paper towel. When cementing parts that cannot be mated closely, fill the gap with microballoons or baking soda, then apply ACC. ACC's are safe to use if two elementary precautions are observed: ‘© Never breathe the fumes emitted by the cement as it cures, © Don't tear apart bonded fingers. ACC's were developed partially as a liquid suturing material; they bond skin very well. If fingers do become bonded, gently pull them apart while applying acetone (nail polish remov- er). The cement is nontoxic after cur- ing so the only danger is tearing the skin —be gentle. Natural skin oils will cause any remaining coment to wear off in a few days. If the cement enters the eyes or throat do not attempt to remove it—seek medical attention immediately. Again, because the cured cement is nontoxic, you're in no danger unless you panic and tear flesh. 2-6 Home brew liquid plastic cements, Adventurous modelers may wish to ex- periment with xylene as a liquid plas- tic cement for styrene. Ethylene di- chloride also works well. Vinyls, which are difficult to cement, can be bonded with tetrahydrofuran. All of these substances are available through plastics supply houses. All are fammable, toxic, and irritating to 27 When to use tube-type Plastic glue ‘Tube-type plastic glues can be useful when attaching parts that will bear considerable stress: Examples are wing-to-fuselage joints and the joint where the main landing gear strut attaches to the wing. Use tube-type glue sparingly because drips and smears are difficult to remove without marring the plastic. A toothpick is the best applicator. 2-8 Seam filling basics ‘The first rule of seam filling is to do as much as possible to eliminate the need tofill the seam. Line up parts properly before gluing. Modify or remove locat- ing pins if they hinder perfect align- ment. When gluing, hold or clamp all parts until dry. If an unwanted seam " 28 persists, itis time to fill it in and sand it smooth. Any paste-like, waterproof, fine- grained, hard-setting material that doesn't dissolve styrene can be used as afiller. Such materials include spack- ling paste; filled epoxy; red, green, and gray automotive filler putties (also called glazing putties); and modeling putties such as Squadron green putty. ‘The automotive and modeling putties are best applied to small gaps with a brush, using lacquer thinner to reduce the viscosity of the putty. Larger gaps can be filled with unthinned putty ap- plied with a palette knife or a tooth- pick. The putty should be shaped as much as possible to the desired con tours to minimize the amount of filing and sanding to be done later. Use jeweler’s files (also called needle files) to remove excess putty after it has hardened. These are available at most hobby shops and some hardware stores. For most modeling applications only two files are required—a double- sided flat mill file with a pointed tip and a's" diameter rattail file. A half- round file, a triangular file, and a square file are also convenient. A fin- gernail file is handy. Filing should be done lightly because even the finest- toothed file can leave scratches in soft plastic and putty. Iffiling is done properly only two grits of sandpaper are necessary—No. 400 and No. 600. Use wet-or-dry sandpa- per wetted with water and sand with light, cireular motions. Use No. 400 for initial sanding, No. 600 for the final job. Mask adjacent detail with mask- ing or drafting tape to avoid marring. Further smoothing can be obtained with a mixture of kitehen cleanser or toothpaste and water rubbed on with a soft cloth. If a super-smooth finish is desired, use Brasso metal polish. 12 29 White glue a good crack filler ‘Small cracks that develop after seam filling can be eliminated with white glue. Smear the glue in place with your fingertip, let dry, and smooth with a damp cloth. 240 j _— / = om ~~ 240 Spackling compound storage Spackling compound, which is a good seam filler, will keep fresh longer if it is transferred from its metal container to a glass jar with a tight seal. Cover the spackling compound with 1/16” of clean water. 2 2-11 ACC seals body putty Ifbody putty on a model develops hair- line cracks, seal the cracks with a drop of ACC. Sd 242 Flex--Grit Flex-LGrit is a wet-or-dry sandpaper with aflexible clear polyester backing. Itisavailable in several grits from fine to extra fine and is sold by Moyeo and Testor. It’s perfect for sanding hard-to- reach places and compound curves. 242 2-13. Silver paint crack detector After seam filling, paint the filled areas with silver paint. This will prime the filler for subsequent coats of paint and will reveal any areas that aren't filled perfeetly. 214 Duratite Plastic Surtacing Putty Many modelers swear by Duratite Plastic Surfacing Putty, a white, plas ter-like substance sold in cans at most hardware stores. A thinner is also available; it is the only solvent that should be used with Duratite. Duratite Plastic Surfacing Putty has these vir- tues: @ It does not shrink noticeably even when thinned. © There are no subsurface air bubbles. © Drying time is usually less than an hour. © It does not clog sandpaper. ‘The material does absorb paint, so seams must be primed. 2-15 Micro Quick Silver and Microweld filler Mix Micro Quick Silver putty with Microweld liquid plastic cement to make a seam filler for small eracks The mixture brushes easily, dries rapidly, and requires little sanding. 216 2416 Liquid solder seam filler Liquid solder, sold in tubes at dime stores and hardware stores, can be used as a seam filler. It dries with a smooth finish that files and sands easily. 2-17 Isopropyl alcoho! Isopropyl alcohol (rubbing alcohol) is an excellent solvent for many body utties. It does not attack styrene, soit ‘can be used safely on all models. A rag soaked in isopropyl cleohol can be used to smooth filled joints without danger of marring adjacent surfaces. 2:18 Body putty thinner ‘Thin Squadron green putty and other body putties with lacquer thinner. Witlesprue inal cu at 219 219 Plug holes with sprue Filling large holes with body putty is frustrating. Chances are that the dried plug will fall out or crack when it is handled or scribed. A more reliable method of filling holes is to drill out the hole with a bit the size of a sprue fragment, coat the tip ofthe sprue with epoxy or plastic cement, and plug the hole with the sprue. After the cement has cured or dried, cut off the plug nearly flush with the surface of the patched piece and file and sand to the desired contour. This method works equally well for filling sink holes in castings 2-20 Wood fillers ‘Two methods may be used to seal the grain on wood parts. The first method is the oldest and has been used by mod- el aviators for many years. Use a com- mercially available product, Aero- gloss Balsa Fillercoat, or stir talcum powder (ordinary baby powder is fine) into clear model airplane dope until the mixture is the consistency of heavy ‘cream. Brush this onto the sanded wood part and let dry for several hours. Sand with No. 320 or No. 400 wet-or-dry sandpaper used dry until you almost reach bare wood. Apply a second coat of filler and dry sand again. The wood is now waterproof so additional coats can be wet sanded. Keep filling and sanding until the grain is completely filled. ‘Model airplane dope sets by evapora. tion of a solvent, so each coat leaves a very thin layer. That's why so many coats are needed and it’s also why such fine finishes are possible. 13 ‘The second filling method uses red ox- ide automotive primer, which is similar to very thin body putty. Brush or spray ‘on two or three coats of the primer, dry sanding after each coat. Because the red oxide primer has an alcohol-based sol- vent it won't attack plastic (as will the model airplane dope), so this method can be used to fill the grain of wooden parts that are surrounded by plastic. Both methods can also be used to seal Strathmore or bristol board when a ‘metallic appearance is desired. 2-21 Nose weights Models of aircraft with trieyele land- ing gear may not balance properly un- less weight is added inside the nose. Several materials make excellent nose weights: © Self-adhesive wheel weights from auto parts stores. © Lead shot from gun shops. Mix the shot with epoxy and pour in place, © Lead wool from plumbing supply stores. Push a wad of wool in place and fasten it permanently with a small quantity of epoxy. © Pieces of solder. Epoxy in place. © Fishing sinkers. Epoxy in place. Any of these w. in place with nonhardening modeling clay if you prefer. 2-22 Bulkheads Many plastic kits do not include bulk- heads in engine intakes and exhausts, wheel wells, or radiator openings. If these aren't sealed, a see-through model results which is scarcely con- vincing. Bulkheads can be fabricated from sheet plastic, but trimming the sheet to the proper shape is tedious. Resilient foam plastic from egg car- tons and meat trays is easier to work with. Simply cut a piece to the approxi- mate shape of the required bulkhead, stuff in place, and apply a dab of tube- type plastic cement. Alternately, simply stuffin a wad of soft upholstery foam. 2:23. Mount ship hulls early in assembly Waterline ship models won't warp dur- ing construction if the entire hull is securely mounted early in construc- 14 tion. Attach the hull with epoxy to a flat mount at least 4" thick and you'll have no problems, 2:24 Reinforce thin stock Thin stock in vacuum-formed kits should be reinforced with filled epoxy before sanding. The epoxy backing will prevent the plastic stock from dis- torting during filling and sanding, and even if you do sand through the thin stock the epoxy backing material will prevent damage. 2:25. Rigid foam reinforcement Aerosol-dispensed urethane foam plastic suitable for reinforcing the in- terior of vacuum-formed models is available from Brookstone and most plastics suppliers. The material foams in place, producing only modest heat as it sets. It can be sawed, filed, and sanded a few hours after application. It does not attack most plastics and can be filled with all putties. A similar non-aerosol product is sold as a two- part mixture by Sig Manufacturing Co., Inc., a major supplier of kits and building materials for model aviators, Sig Superfoam has all the desirable qualities of the aerosol-dispensed product. It has a shelf life of about 6 months and is less expensive than aerosol varieties. 2-26 Another use for rigid foam Coat the insides of fuselage halves with wax, polyvinyl alcohol, or other mold release agent, clamp the halves together, add foam-in-place urethane, and you've made a casting of the fuse: lage interior. After the foam has cured, remove the clamps, clean off the re- lease agent, and carve the plastic foam to accept cockpit seats and instrument panels. In this way you can complete the details in the cockpit before assembling the fuselage. 2:27 Rivet removal Ifthe rivets on your kit are grotesque- ly out of scale or you just don't like rivets, they can be partially or com- pletely removed. Prepare a thick mix- ture of water and toothpaste ora kitch- en cleanser such as Ajax or Comet and rub this paste over the rivets, using a pad of aluminum foil to apply the paste. Keep rubbing until the rivets reach the desired size or are gone. 2-28 Stretched sprue panel lines Very finely stretched sprue makes good panel lines. Apply with liquid plastic cement or ACC and sand light- ly. Any round edges on the underside will be filled by paint later. 2:29 Molding flash Small rocket fins, gun sights, and other thin parts are best made from molding flash, 2:30 Scale thickness doors Wet sand the inside surfaces of sec- tions containing doors that you want to make scale thickness. As scale thickness is approached the plastic will become translucent. Stop sanding and cut out the door. 2-31 Free plastic stock Plastic stock for small parts can be found in many places. The pocket calendars given out by banks, playing cards, the clear covers from Christmas card boxes, and the lids from cottage cheese or yogurt containers are a few examples. 2-32 Tinted transparent plastic stock ‘The drugstore is your best source of tinted transparent styrene. For exam ple, Excedrin bottles are tinted green and prescription medicine containers are amber. Toothbrush handles come in all colors. 2:28 2-33 Casting parts from sprue You can make plastic castings of small parts from sprue. You'll need a pencil eraser, aluminum foil, sprue, and a candle or alcohol lamp. Step 1. Chop the sprue into small pieces to ensure rapid melting, Step 2. Place a piece of unwrinkled aluminum foil against the piece to be copied. Press the foil into the piece with the pencil eraser. The foil will take on the shape of the part. Step 3. Support the mold you have just made with wadded pieces of foil Step 4. Fill the mold with chopped ‘sprue and heat slowly over a flame un- til the plastic melts and flows into the cavities in the mold. Be careful not to heat the plastic too rapidly because the plastic develops air bubbles under high heat, Step 5. Let the plastic cool, remove the foil, and trim the rough edges on the side of the casting. 2-34 2-34 Stretch-forming canopies ‘Two techniques are commonly used to stretch-form clear acetate or plexi- glass when seratchbuilding canopies. Both techniques involve stretching heat-softened plastic sheet over a male mold of the canopy. In the first method the mold is mounted on a dowel which is in turn mounted in a vise. The plas- tie sheet is heated over an electric hot plate until it softens and the softened plastic is pulled over the mold. Wear thick gloves to avoid burns. In the second method the mold is ex- actly the same as in the first but the dowel is not clamped in a vise. The plastic is clamped in a heat-resistant frame with an opening in the center. ‘The frame is mounted on supports that hold the center area several inches from the workbench surface. The plas- tic is softened by heat, the mold is pressed into the soft plastic and held there until the plastic hardens. 15 2:35 Vacuum cleaner vacuum-former You can vacuum-form small parts with a canister vacuum cleaner, a jece of wire window screen, a heat source, and a thin piece of plastic. Place the screen over the suction hose opening, set a male mold of the part on the screen, heat the sheet plastic, drape the softened plastic over the mold, turn on the vacuum cleaner, and you've just vacuum-formed a part, 2:36 2-36 Proportional divider A drafteman’s proportional divider is used to convert drawings from one seale to another without calculations Itconsists of two legs held together by an edjustable screw which serves as the pivot for the legs. By sliding the serew toward one end or the other of the legs, any desired ratio between the distances spanned by the ends of the legs can be obtained. For example, let's say you want to make a drawing 2/3 as large as the plan you are working from. Set the adjustable serew at the ‘3° mark: the distance between the ends of the shorter legs is now 2/3 of the distance between the longer legs. 2:37 Conversion factor You are building a model (let's say an Me109E) and you want to add a detail that isn’t included in the kit. You ean determine proper dimensions of the detail item if you have a drawing or photograph of the prototype aircraft, a calculator, and a metric ruler. Begin by measuring the same parts on the drawing or photo and in the kit with the metric ruler. For example, mea sure the length of the fuselage on the rawing and kit part, the wingspan on 16 both, and the size of the insignia. Then plug the figures into this formula: yrement measurement in mm Shorten this to CF = KM PM (On our Me109E example: kM Outer wing pane! 51.0 mm. 61.4 mm. Fuselage length 99,0 mm. 118.9 mm. Wing root chord 25.3.mm. 29.2 mm. Cowiing 232mm. 20.1 mm, Prop diameter. = 17.5mm. 22.0 mm. Under-wing radiator 99mm. 125mm Canopy 170mm. 21.0 mm. The conversion factors for these parts are: outer wing paet oF = SL = 1.204 Fuselage onan oF = 1189 _ 4.291 Prop CF oF = 125 - There are. not the same for all the parts. These include distortions in the photos or drawings and discrepancies in the sizes of the kit parts, To get a working CF we average the individual CF’s. In our example: 1.204 + 1.201 + 1.15 + 1.154 + 1.257 + 1.263 + 1.235 = 8.464. Divide by 7 = 1.209, Round to one or two decimal places and CF = 12. Now the CF goes to work: CF x PM = KM in mm. Take a measurement on the photo, multiply that figure by the CFand the product is the actual length in mm. of the part you want to model Let's assume you are adding wing stores and must make the pylon. The PM's of the pylon are 12.7 mm. long and 4.8 mm. high with a CF of 1.2. So 1.2% 12.7 mm. = 15,.2mm,31.2 4.8 mm. = 5.8 mm. Make the pylon 15.2 x 5.8mm, ‘The scale of something has nothing to do with the formula; you don't even need to know the scale because you are establishing the ratios yourself with the CF. If the photo is larger than the kit the CF will be less than 1. Ifthe photo and the kit are the same size put away the calculator and measure directly from the photo. 2-98 Liquid masking fluid to parts Many models come with panels and doors that are to be removed from the ‘model for final display (such as the engine and gun access panels on the Hasegawa 1/32 scale P-51D Mustang). ‘These panels must be attached to the model during painting, decaling, and weathering, yet must be removed for display. The solution to this problem is to apply a small amount of liquid masking fluid (Magic Mask, Liquid Frisket, Squadron Mask, ete.) to the edges of the panel and immediately place the panel in the proper position ‘on the model. Clamp or tape the part until the masking agent dries. The masking agent will hold the part firm- ly during the painting and finishing stages yet allow it to be removed easily with tweezers when the model is finished. If you don’t have any liquid masking agent, use rubber cement. 2:39 Static electricity removers Unpainted styrene is a powerful generator of static electricity. This causes the plastic to attract dust parti- cles which interfere with paint appli- cation. Static electricity must be re- moved from all plastic parts before painting. Wipe the parts with a clean cloth slightly dampened with a phono- graph record cleaning solution or wash the part in a solution of lukewarm ter containing a drop or two of di washing solution and allow the part to air dry. Then paint. 3. Masking, Painting, and Decaling a4 34 Tack rag ‘Tack rags are pads of cheesecloth im- pregnated with a sticky, nondrying ‘substance. They are sold in paint and hardware stores and are used to re- move dust and sanding residue from surfaces to be painted. Buy a tack rag and use it before each application of paint and you'll have no trouble with dust spoiling the paint job. 3-2 Inconsistencies in color references ‘Treat all dogmatic statements about the colors of prototype equipment skeptically. Paint colors vary consid- erably from established standards and no color reference is completely accu- rate. Paint chips fade and otherwise change over time. Magazine and book photos inevitably contain distortions introduced by the type of film used and by the color printing process. Be con- tent if your colors give the appearance of general fidelity to the prototype and don't worry if an “expert” tells you the model is too green, or blue, or whatev- cer because there’s no way to prove who is right or wrong. 3:3 Armor paint variability Military vehicles that have been in service for any length of time may 33 have as many as five shades of green paint. These range from medium green todark olive drab. This is because spot painting has been done under field conditions, usually by GI's who seldom concern themselves with neatness or consistency of color. In the case of older tanks the entire vehicle may be brush painted with mixed shades of olive drab. Therefore, a model of a well-used tank with a perfectly consistent olive drab paint job would violate prototype fidelity. The best technique in paint- ing older AFV's is to first paint the model with a coat of olive drab and then paint over thisin places subject to hard wear with several other shades of olive drab, 7 3-4 Scale color Nearly everyone has had the experi- ence of picking colors from a paint chart to repaint something in his house, then finding on completion that the soft canary or pink he selected turned out to be a blazing yellow or vermillion when seen in its true scale. The same phenomenon takes place when painting models: colors that looked right on a color chip often look too bright, or toodark, or too flat, or too glossy on the model. Further, the more colors on the model, the greater the likelihood of clashes. These problems can be minimized by first painting the colors that will be used on a cardboard scrap the same size as the model. Often dark colors will have to be lightened, bright colors toned down, and flats and glosses made less flat or glossy. Try to be as faithful as possible to the pro- totype scheme, but keep in mind that when modeling what looks right is right. = 35 Federal Standard 595a Federal Standard 595a is a document containing several hundred paint chips of different colors, each color identified by a five-digit number. These colors are used by the federal government and federal contractors such as aircraft manufacturers. For example, the underside coloron a Viet- nam-era Phantom is Federal Standard 36622; the tan color on a “Snake” F5-E Aggressor is 23531 Increasingly, hobby paints are being formulated to Federal Standards. Even if you can't find a ready-mixed paint in the desired color, mixing your ‘own color is easy when you have the color chip to check for accuracy. 18 ‘To order the document, send a check or money order for $5.50 (price subject to ‘change) payable to the General Services ‘Administration, 7th and D Streets SW, Room No. 6654, Washington, DC 20407. 3-6 World War Il Russian aircraft color schemes ‘Most Russian aircraft during World War II (except foreign-built aircraft which were usually left in their deliv- ery color schemes until the ter) had one of four b: schemes: Scheme 1. Dark olive green over all upper surfaces, with light blue-gray or light gray below. This is probably the most widely used scheme and can be applied to any type of combat aircraft. Light gray was not as common as light blue-gray. Scheme 2. Dark olive green and dark earth brown over all upper surfaces, similar to British practice, but gener- ally with straighter edges to the color division, Applied to most of the fighter and bomber types after 1942. Not ap- plied to the earlier fighters such as the 1-16, 1-15, and early MiG's, which were usually finished in Scheme 1. Some in- truder aircraft exhibited this scheme with black undersurfaces, but Scheme 1 was more common. Scheme 3. Dark olive green and light olive green on all upper surfaces with undersurfaces as for Scheme 1. This is a nonstandard scheme not widely used, but application to an 11-2 has been confirmed. Scheme 4, Matte black overall. Ap- plied to various aircraft used on night intruder missions, for example the 11-2 and MiG-3. In the winter months, nearly all types exhibited a snow camouflage of white on all upper surfaces. This was appar- ently applied either by brush or sprayer and the quality varied consid- erably from aircraft to aircraft. This white was applied directly over the ex- isting summer scheme. One of the few deviations from these schemes was the use of red outer wing panels on snow-camouflaged aircraft as an aid in spotting downed aircraft. ‘The red panels covered from one-third of the wing to almost the entire wing depending upon aircraft type. Good ex- amples of red-paneled aircraft are the 1-15 and MiG-3. The formulas below, using Pactra paints, are close simulations of the actual Russian colors. Dark olive green: 3 parts Flat Black, 3 parts Anti-glare Green, 2 parts Flat ‘Yellow, and 2 parts Flat Roof Brown. Light olive green: 3 parts Hot Rod Primer, 3 parts Anti-glare Green, 1 part Flat Yellow, 1 part Flat Roof Brown, and 1 part Flat White. Dark earth brown: 2 parts Flat White, 5 parts Flat Yellow, and 7 parts Flat Roof Brown. Light blue-gray: 36 parts Flat White, 3 parts Flat Insignia Blue, and 1 part Hot Rod Primer. Light gray: 18 parts Flat White and 2 parts Hot Rod Primer. a7 3-7 Naphtha as enamel flattening agent Experiment with naphtha (cigarette lighter fluid) as a flattening agent for ‘enamel hobby paints such as Humbrol, Pactra, and Testor. 38 / / l paste ung, 3-8 Emptier for aerosols Occasionally, you may want to use a paint in your airbrush that is avail- able only in an aerosol can. Take an old spray head from an aerosol can, drill out the nozzle, insert a 6"- to 8"-length of brass or plastic tubing, and spray through the tubing into your paint bottle. 39 Future-brand floor wax gives a high gloss finish to completed models and protects them from dust and grime. It can be applied by brush or airbrush (use at least 25 psi—40 psi is better) Future doesn’t yellow and can be washed with warm water and dish- washing detergent. To remove, mix a strong solution of household ammonia and dishwashing detergent and soak until the wax loosens. Future floor wax 3-10 Airbrushing Polly S You'll have no trouble airbrushing Polly S paints if you thin the paint with up to 25 per cent water and main- tain a compressor setting of 25 psi. Many aireraft canopies and windows are tinted blue to screen out the sun. ‘To simulate this tint, buy a bottle of ‘Testor Metallic Blue and let it sit for a week until the pigment and metallic particles have settled. Brush or air- brush the blue liquid from the top of the bottle over the clear plastic parts Red lights on the port wing can simi- larly be tinted with Testor Ruby Red; green starboard lights can be tinted with Metallic Green. The green can also be used on celluloid for goggles on figures or green windows elsewhere. ———— ce 3412 3412 Smoked glass ‘The smoked clear parts on such air- craft as the 8-3 and the FB-111 can be simulated by adding seven or eight drops of India ink to Testor Glosscote that has been sprayed into an empty Jar. Mix the ink and Glosscote thor- oughly and practice on scrap plastic, adding more ink to the Glosscote until you are satisfied with the smokiness, Apply the mixture to the inside sur- faces of the pieces to be tinted. 313 Reynolds Wrap Bare metal finishes on aircraft can be simulated by covering the aireraft with panels of Reynolds Wrap alumi- num foil, using Hobseo DDV as an adhesive. DDV is a decal-dulling var- nish distributed to hobby shops by Wm. K. Walthers, Inc., a leading sup- plier of model railroad equipment, so look for it in the model railroad section of your hobby shop. Apply DDV to the surface to be covered by brush or spray and apply the aluminum foil panels, smoothing them down with a finger- nail, a smooth stick, a needle, or awad of tissue. It takes a lot of practice to become proficient at this technique, but mistakes are easily corrected by removing the damaged section of foil 3-14 Duro chrome plating enamel Bare metal finishes can be simulated effectively with an airbrushed mix- ture of Duro chrome plating enamel, Floquil Crystal-Cote, and Floquil Dio. Sol. Duro chrome piating enamel is available at many hardware and auto parts stores. Its color particles are ex- traordinarily fine, much finer than the pigments in many silver paints. To use, mix one part Duro chrome plating ‘enamel, one part Floquil Crystal-Cote, and eight parts Floquil Dio-Sol and apply this mixture with an airbrush. ‘Most of the solvents will have evapo- rated by the time the paint strikes the plastic, so it won't craze the surface. Work under a strong light and make quick passes with the airbrush. The result will be a metallic silver-gray finish without any of the graininess of even the finest silver paints. Decals stick well to it and it can be weathered or aged as you desire. 3-15 Rub ‘n Buff Rub ‘n Buff products are wax-based ‘compounds containing finely ground metallic particles that are used to simulate natural metal finishes in- cluding those on plastic models. The surface to be finished with Rub 'n Buff must be immaculately clean, primed with a flat paint, and free of all seratehes. Apply the paste with a soft, dust-free cloth, let dry, and buff with a second clean soft cloth or nylon stock- ing. Remove fingerprints by firm buf- fing with a nylon stocking. Use only very thin, perfectly trimmed flat de- 19 cals over Rub ‘n Buff. Simulate vari- able textures for different panels by leaving some panels unpolished or less highly polished. Don't use Dulleote or Glosscote over Rub ‘n Buff because doing so detracts from the bare metal effect. 3-16 Spray-N-Plate Spray-N-Plate is a metallic plating lacquer that produces realistic bare ‘metal finishes when airbrushed on smooth plastic. It is available in two formulations: Non-Buffing and Buf- fing. As their names imply, Non. Buffing Spray-N-Plate requires no fi- nal buffing with a soft cloth; Buffing Spray-N-Plate produces a high shine when buffed. Apply Non-Buffing Spray-N-Plate first even if you intend the last coat to be Buffing Spray-N- Plate and you'll be less likely to rub through to bare plastic when buffing. 3:17 Household chemicals as paint removers A number of modelers have reported that the chemicals listed below give good results when used as paint re- movers. Several are extremely dan- gerous, so wear rubber gloves, eye pro- tection, and a safety apron when work- ing with them. © Oven cleaner. Works best on old gloss enamel finishes, less effective on flats. Spray or brush on, let work for an hour or two, then serub off the loosened paint with an old toothbrush. © Household bleach. Soak the part in full-strength liquid household bleach until the paint starts to flake, then scrub with a toothbrush. © Liquid drain cleaner. Excellent for removing flats. Best used by pouring the cleaner into a jar, immersing the part, sealing the jar, and allowing the part to soak overnight. 20 © Heavy-duty household cleaners Fantastik, 409, and other heavy-duty household detergents, are the safest paint removers. Soak the part in full- strength liquid detergent for a day or ‘more until the paint softens, then scrub with a toothbrush © Charcoal starter fluid. This is high: ly refined kerosene. Soak the parts outdoors until the paint dissolves. ™~ 3-18 Lacquer thinner Lacquer thinner is an acetone- and sed solvent and cleaner. Use ‘metal parts before painting or soldering and experiment with it as ‘a cleaner for brushes and airbrushes. Do not use lacquer thinner as a thin- ner for hobby paints—these should al- ways be thinned with the particular solvent recommended by their manu- facturers. 3-19 Denatured alcohol removes Dullcote Denatured alcohol removes Testor Dulleote and Glosscote without damaging other paints. 3-20 Polyethylene dust cover To keep dust from settling onto painted surfaces, cover a freshly painted model with a tent made from the film that dry cleaners use to pro- tect clothes. 3-21 Sheen on matte finishes Many aircraft originally given amatte finish develop a slight sheen in ser- vice. A similar effect can be obtained on a model by gentle rubbing with a finger wrapped in a soft cloth after allowing the paint on the model two or three days’ drying time. 3-22. Drafting tape Drafting tape is similar to masking tape but has a less-sticky adhesive, which makes it suitable for use on plastic models where the stronger adhesion of masking tape might dam- age the model. Drafting tape is sold in art-supply stores and draftsman’s supply stores, 3-23. Rubber band mask ‘To airbrush a thin line around a part with compound curves, first paint the color of the stripe in the area, slip an appropriate-size rubber band around it, and position the rubber band exact- ly where you want the stripe. Then airbrush the surface color. Remove the rubber band by slicing through it with a sharp hobby knife. 3-24 Frisket paper Frisket paper is very thin translucent paint-proof paper that is self-adhesive and is used in the graphic arts as a masking material. It is supplied in sheets or rolls and is available at art supply stores. To use, trace the outline of the area to be masked on the frisket paper with a soft lead pencil, cut out the mask with a hobby knife fitted with a new blade (X-acto No. 11 is good), carefully peel the frisket from its backing sheet, apply to the model, burnish the edges with a smooth stick, and paint. The material is easier tocut than tape, and produces smaller color- separation ridges. It may be used with brush or airbrush and is not affected by any hobby paints. After painting pick up one corner of the mask with a needle or pin point and peel off the frisket. Because it is very thin, self-adhesive, and can be cut to any size, itean also be used to make canopy ribbing. Paint the frisket paper the desired color, let dry, and cutto the correct width. Apply these strips to the canopy and trim for final fit. 3-25 White glue as a liquid masking fluid Add a drop of food coloring and a drop of dishwashing detergent to a small quantity of white glue and you've made a liquid masking fluid that is well suited for masking clear parts. Brush the mixture onto the areas to be masked, let dry for an hour, and trim the edges of the mask to the exact shape required, Remove the mask after painting by gently lifting one corner, placing a drop of water under this flap, and peeling. 3-26 Toilet paper stuffing When spray painting a model stuff moistened toilet paper into the open- ings you don’t want to get paint into. It fills the openings nicely and you can start spraying as soon as it's in place. Wet the tissue with a few drops of wa- ter to make it easier to remove after it has dried. 3.27 3-27 Feathered edges Feathered edges on camouflage pat terns can be simulated by using a mask made from torn card stock. Hold the torn card a fraction of an inch from the model and spray on the desired col- or. The amount of overspray can be varied by adjusting the air pressure and by holding the card closer to or farther from the model, 3-28 Q+tip paint stamps You can obtain mottled camouflage patterns by dipping a Q-tip in the paint, stamping it against a piece of scrap paper until the desired shape has been attained, and then stamping the almost-dry Q-tip against the surface of the model 3-29. Mask with lead pencil When painting a multicolored camou- flage scheme with a brush, first mark a off the scheme on the model in pencil. ‘The pencil outlines will hold the paint in the desired areas. 3-30 Aluminum base coat A base coat of flat aluminum or silver paint serves three useful purposes: © It seals all fillers © Itreveals the most minute imperfec- tions in the filled surfaces and reveals all unwanted scratches so that you can fix these before applying the color coats. © It makes all color coats truer and more brilliant, especially when the light colors would otherwise be applied over dark plastic, 3-31 Plexiglass paint chisels Use homemade chisels made of plexi glass to remove unwanted paint and create sharp paint edges. The tips should have a 45-degree slant and should be ‘ic", ¥4", and 4’ wide. The handles should be long enough— about 4” —to provide a comfortable grip. Work from the clear area to the paint edge, scraping or chiseling off the oversprayed paint. The plexiglass cutting surfaces are sharp enough and smooth enough to remove the paint 22 ako soverl of itrore Reting cole Fagged pant edges cleanly, but are not hard enough to scratch even clear plastic. 3-32 Stop creeping paint Many aircraft kits show panel lines and control surface separations by en- graved markings on the plastic sur- face. This gives rise to the problem of paint creeping when working with ‘masked color lines, The remedy is sim- ple: Take some sewing thread, dip it in a dilute solution of white glue (about Ye water, Ys glue), and lay it into the engraved line as caulking. Mask as usual and cut off the end of the thread with a very sharp knife or new single- edge razor blade. The thread will eome away cleanly when the masking is re- moved and will prevent paint creeping. 3-33 Checkers Frisket paper is the best material for masking checkerboard patterns. Cut squares of frisket the exact size as the squares and press in place, being cer- tain that the corners of each square touch. Spray the surface with the de- sired paint, let dry, and remove the frisket paper. Any paint ridges left at the edges of the masked areas can be removed after the paint has dried for several days by buffing with a soft cloth. If you don’t have frisket paper, use Scotch Magic tape instead— it works well, but tears more easily than frisket paper. 3-34 Equal segments If you have ever run into trouble trying to divide a surface into equal segments for applying stripes, here isa tip that should help you. An example ofa real problem is shown to illustrate the method. A rudder is to be divided into 13 equal parts for striping. The surface to be striped is 194" high. Transfer the di- mensions to be divided onto a piece of paper or light eard stock and draw two 3:34 EY 1 Titgen We segments ol Tw N= parallel lines. Now choose a fraction to equal each segment, say %", Count the number of fractions equal to the total segments (13 segments at %” each equals "34" or 154") and lay a ruler diagonally across the parallel lines until the total segments intersect the parallel lines. Draw a line and mark off the segments along the diagonal line. Draw a line to extend each seg- ment to a common line. This is your template, Cut it out and use it to mark off the work. 3-35 Light colors first Less paint will be used and all colors will look better if lighter colors are applied before darker colors. In many cases it is possible to paint the entire model with the lighter color—this serves also as a primer—and then mask for the darker color. A2s a2s| <= 3-36 Apply decals to frisket paper Apply decals to frisket paper that has been painted the same color as the panel on which the decal is to be ap- plied. Then stick the frisket paper on the model and eutitto the exact size of the panel, The resulting decaled panel has no ugly decal-ilm edges 3-37 Decal restoration Old dried out and cracked decals can sometimes be salvaged by painting the top surface of the decal sheet with thin coat of varnish, 3-38 Add white glue to decal-soaking water Adding a few drops of white glue to the water used to soak the decals and to wet the surface being decaled im- proves decal adhesion. White glue is water-soluble so cleanup is easy. 3-39. Thick decals Very old plastic kits from the West and contemporary kits from Eastern Europe have thick, shiny decals. These can be thinned and made less glossy by gently sanding the decal sheet with 3:39 slightly dampened No. 600 wet-or-dry sandpaper. Back the sandpaper with a flat sanding block, rinse the sandpaper frequently, and work slowly. 3-40 3-40 Decal setting solutions Decal setting solutions such as Solva- set should be applied just after the de- cal is in place, then at repeated inter- vals until the decal snugs down per- fectly. As many as eight applications may be required. Allow the decal to dry at least a day after the last applica- tion of the setting solution before coat- ing it with clear protective finish, 341 Decal paper consists of a backing pa- per coated with thin layers of water- soluble adhesive. It is available in the model railroad section of your hobby shop. To make your own decals from decal paper first paint the paper with ‘one or two thin coatsof clear varnishor lacquer. Varnish is generally more flexible than lacquer, so use it until you gain proficiency with the tech- nique. The more coats of varnish you apply, the stronger—and thicker— the decal will be. Experiment until you can produce decals that don’t break Decal paper 23 when handled, but aren't obtrusively thick. After the varnish has dried, paint the design using enamels. Let ry several days, then cut out, trim, and apply. 3-42 Dry transfers and decal Paper To make your own decals that have lettering surrounded by a contrasting color (for example, black letters on a yellow background), first prepare the decal paper as explained above and paint the background color. After this has dried thoroughly, apply the letter- ingusingdry transfers. Protect the dry transfers with a light spray coat of clear varnish, let dry, and apply as you would regular decals, 3-43. Onionskin lettering and markings Onionskin stationery can be inked or painted with lettering or other mark- ings, cut out, trimmed, and applied to the model with clear varnish used as a coment. 3-44 Decal transfer medium Decal transfer medium is a gooey white substance that is brushed onto black and white or colored illustra- tions made on coated paper. It is allowed todry, then the coated paper is, soaked in water until it softens. The softened paper is gently rubbed away leaving behind the transfer medium and the impression of the object being transferred. This decal is now attached to any surface with a small amount of the transfer medium. Decals made by this technique are not as thin as those made from decal pa- per, but they are strong, and as sharp as the printed illustration on which they are based. Decal transfer medium (one brand is Decal-it) can be found in the crafts sec- tion of your hobby shop. 3-45 Paper stencils Many identifying marks and airliner logotypes are painted on prototype equipment with stencils. You can make your own stencils to create con- vineing simulations. Find a printed copy of the lettering or logo you want and cut it out or make a copy on an 24 office copier. Coat the back of the paper with rubber cement thinned 1:1 with rubber cement thinner. Press the pa- per, cement side down, on a sheet of glass and cut out the stencil. Use a new blade in your hobby knife and use a straightedge to ensure straight lines. Cut out and save the center portion of closed letters like O. When the stencil has been completely cut out gently lift from the glass and stick it on the model, Attach the cut out centers of open letters. Now spray with the color you desire, let dry, and remove the ‘stencil. 3-46 Cutting very thin paper ‘The thinnest cigarette and tissue pa- pers can be cut accurately, without tearing, if the pattern is first drawn or traced on a sheet of ordinary typing paper. Make a three-layer sandwich consisting of a sheet of blank typing paper, the thin paper, and the sheet of typing paper with the pattern drawn on it. Tape this sandwich to flat glass and cut out the pattern, making sure the knife penetrates all three layers. All layers of paper will remain in per- fect register until your last cut. Now remove the tape, discard the typing paper, and use the thin paper wher- ever desired. 3-47 3-47 Bow compass Circular outlines on flat surfaces can be painted with a bow compass, using gloss enamel instead of India ink in the pen point. Flat paints do not run as freely as gloss, so if a flat effect is re- quired, use a flattening agent after the gloss enamel has dried. Clean the pen point immediately after each use 3-48 Dry-transfer masks Dry transfers produce clean-edged let- tering when used as masks. First paint the area to be lettered the color of the letters. When thoroughly dry, apply the dry transfers, Now spray the model with the color to surround the letter- ing. Let this paint dry, then remove the dry transfers with a piece of Scotch ‘Magic tape or masking tape. Clean up any rough edges with a plastic scraper. 349 3-49. Invasion stripes Allied aircraft supporting the Nor- mandy invasion in June 1944 were marked with broad black and white bands to aid in identification. These have become known as invasion stripes. All aircraft taking part in the June battles were given these mark- ings, but these comments apply only to aircraft of the Eighth and Ninth USAAF’s, Applied on June 5, 1944, the bands consisted of five alternating white (three) and black (two) stripes painted on both lower and upper wing surfaces and completely around the rear of the fuselage or tail boom, On P-47’s and P-51's the fuselage stripes were 18" wide, with the rearmost line 18" forward of the horizontal stabiliz- er. The wing stripes were also 18° wide, starting approximately 12° outboard of the wing root. On the twin-boomed P-38 the stripes were either 18" or 24" wide, beginning 18" from the horizontal stabilizer and 18" from the engine nacelles on the wing. The medium bombers of the Ninth US.A.A-F., A:20's, A-26's, and B-26's, were identified by 24’-wide stripes on the rear of the fuselage and on the wing outboard of the engine nacelles. Due to the immense job of painting the stripes in a short time, these dimensions should be considered approximate. On most aircraft the stripes were omitted from the area of the national insignia, squadron code, and aircraft letter. ‘Two or three weeks after the invasion the stripes were ordered removed or painted over on all upper surfaces. On olive drab aircraft the stripes were painted over with olive drab, though not always the same shade as the rest of the aircraft. On bare metal planes the stripes were removed with whatev- er solvents the ground crews had on hand—in many instances this led to incomplete removal or staining of the metal, During the German winteroffensive of 1944-1945 many P-51's were painted with olive drab or dark blue upper sur- faces which contrasted greatly with the natural metal undersurfaces and the undersurface invasion stripes. 3-50 Hand-letter AFV's Much prototype armor has lettering and insignia painted on without much regard for neatness. Discard the kit decals that came with your armor mod- el—they are far too neat—and hand paint the markings for a more realistic effect. 3-51 Protect dry transfers After application, dry transfers should be lightly sprayed with a compatible clear varnish for protection. Experi ment with scraps first because the sol- vents in some clear sprays will dis- solve the lettering, 3-52 Cut on glass Artist's tables in the graphic arts trades are invariably glass-topped Why? Partly because glass provides the best cutting surface when trim ming thin paper, frisket paper, or thin plastic sheet. Plastic modelers often cut similar materials, so buy a 12" square of ordinary window glass, tape the edges with masking or plastic tape to prevent cuts and work like a 25 4. Canopies and Cockpits 4-1 Kit canopies The clear plastic canopies furnished with plastic aircraft model kits ean be made more realistic if grossly out-of scale framework is sanded almost com- pletely away. Use No. 400 and No. 600, wet-or-dry sandpaper used wet and back up the sandpaper with firm sup port. Work carefully to avoid marring Adjacent clear areas. When the framework is almost invisi ble, mask over it with plastic striping tape (many brands are available at hobby shops, art-supply stores, and draftsman’s supply stores in widths as narrow as Ye"). Then fill in all clear areas with liquid masking fluid or rub- ber cement. When the fluid or rubber cement has dried, carefully cut out around the framework lines with a new knife blade and remove the strip- ing tape. Brush or spray the entire canopy, applying a dark-colored base coat first to prevent light transmis sion, When the paint has dried, re- 26 serie ws a cease - rar movethe masking agent by gentlylift- peat this filling process until the ing it with a dull needle point. ‘Now install the canopy on the model with white glue used both as an adhe- sive and filler. Let the white glue dry, then shape it to the exact contour de- sired with a water-wetted Q-tip. Re- canopy looks like part of the structure of the aireraft. 4-2 Scratchbuilt canopies Use a vacuum-former to produce realistic canopies: Step 1. Makea male mold ofthe canopy from air-hardening clay, wood, plas- ter, or other heat-resistant material and place it in the vacuum-former. Step 2. Vacuum-form the first layer, which will be the inner frame, using opaque plastic sheet. Trim away the excess but leave the plastic on the mold. Vacuum-form a sheet of clear plastic over the second. Trim the ex- cess and vacuum-form the third layer (the outer frame) from opaque plastic. Step 3. Remove the second and third layers of plastic, leaving the first on the mold. Draw the frame outlines on this piece and cut out all the openings. Dothe same with the third layer. Place the inner and outer frames together and carefully file and sand until they have exactly the same frame widths, that is, until they are identical Step 4. Paint the frames inside and out. Leave a thin unpainted line on the outside of the inner frame and the in- side of the outer frame. Step 5. Place the inner frame back on the mold and place the clear piece over it. Trace the outlines of the frame on the clear piece with a soft pencil. Re- move the clear piece and apply a very small quantity of liquid plastiecement inside the pencil lines on the clear plastic and to the frames on the inner piece. Gently place the clear piece over the inner frame, being careful not to liquid cement to mar the tic. Now cement the outer 42 Ccoloea Colored plate t tose cutout everyting bt he bs on bth paces f colored paste Make a san Ve, Micro Kristal-Kleer 43 fal-Kleer from Krasel In- is the best clear adhesive for attaching canopies and other clear parts because it will not craze clear plastic. 4-4 Scratch remover Minor scratches on clear plastic parts can be concealed with a thin coating of Future-brand floor wax. It can be wiped, brushed, or sprayed on. 45 pik % 4-5 Canopies need not be clear Clear canopies and windows seldom look realistic in very small scales (1/ 100.and smaller). Solve the problem by painting the clear areas gloss navy blue on light-colored models and gloss blue-silver on dark-colored models, 4-6 Hand-painted canopy ribs Before hand painting canopy ribs on one-piece plastic canopies scribe be- side each rib with the back of the tip of a No. 11 hobby knife blade. The scribe mark will prevent paint from flowing off the rib onto the clear plastic. 47 Paint a strip of LePage’s Thriftape (a cellophane tape sold in many dime stores) stuck toa piece of flat glass. Let the paint dry, then cut the ribbing for your canopy from the painted tape. Stick in place on the canopy. Other cellophane tapes may be used, but sev- eral modelers have reported that Le- Page's is more tear resistant than other brands, Thriftape canopy ribbing 4-8 Dial face template Drill holes of several sizes in a flat sheet of thin aluminum or brass and you've made a template for scribing dial faces on instrument panels. To use, place the template over the plastic or metal instrument panel face and seribe the dial faces with any sharp- pointed instrument such as a needle mounted in a dowel. 48 ‘Dra te holes of 27 Trace insrumant pane on thin sheet. Serbo 49 49 Sandwich instrument panel Realistic instrument panels can be made from card stock, sheet plastic, or thin sheet metal; magazine photos of instrument faces; and white glue or any other clear-drying cement. Here's how. Step 1. Determine the size and shape of the instrument panel and trace it onto asheet of card stock, plastic, or metal. Fasten the sheet to a wooden backing, use the dial face template mentioned above to scribe the dial face outlines, and drill or cut out the dial faces, Step 2. Select photos of suitable instru- ‘ment faces from articles and advertise- ‘ments in modeling and aviation maga- Step 3. Cut out the instrument photos tofit the size of the holes on the panel, slightly moisten them, and insert in the appropriate holes. Let dry. Apply cellophane tape to the back of the panel to fix the faces in place. Trim the tape. Step 4. Simulate glass dial covers by placing a drop of white glue over each instrument dial face—the glue will fill the hole and loo like glass when it 4-10 Scribed instrument panel A realistic instrument panel can be made from a piece of white sheet plas- tic painted with black lacquer or 28 Dratsman's cco 4-10 enamel. After the paint dries, draw in the instruments with a needle, scratching through the paint to reveal the white plastic. Put a drop of gloss varnish over each dial face to simulate the glass cover. Use yellow plastic in- stead of white where appropriate (most World War II U.S. aircraft were ‘equipped with yellow figures and nee- dles on the instruments). ‘The circles are best made with the use ofa clear plastic circle template ava able at most office supply stores and draftsman’s supply stores. An artist's material called scratch- board can be used in place of the painted plastic. Scratchboard is high- quality cardboard that has been coated with two layers of color. Scratching off the top color reveals the bottom color layer. The material is available at art- supply stores in a variety of top and bottom colors. 4-11. Vacuum-formed sandwich instrument panel An extremely realistic instrument panel can be made by vacuum-forming the glass dial faces on the panel and using the kit decals behind these faces, mounting both the vacuum-formed clear plastic and the decal on a cutout card panel. Here's how Step 1, Cut the instrument pdnel decal to shape by trimming the edges. Cut a duplicate of the trimmed deeai from thin cardboard. Using a hobby Knife with a new blade, cut out the instru- tment holes on this eard. Seal any rag- fed edges with white giue Step 2. Place the cardboard panel up- side down on the vacuum-former, cov- er with a sheet of thin clear plastic heated until itis flexible, and pump ‘The clear plastic will be sucked into the openings on the card, Trim the plastie to size Step 3. Paint the cardboard panel the appropriate color. Cut a sheet of very thin opaque plastic to the shape of the panel, paint the back of this sheet black’to prevent light leakage, and apply the instrument panel decal toits front, Now glue the three-part sand- wich together with white glue and i stall in the cockpit. cu crate smape fod eat os hoes — 4-12. Dry-transfer dots Letraset dot sheet, catalog No. 2838, contains hundreds of dry-transfer dots of many sizes suitable for simulating instrument faces. Sheet No. 2454 con- tains both dots and squares. 4-13 Radar screens Color print film, processed unexposed or exposed to plain cards of desired col- ors, can provide enough tinted plastic to make thousands of radar screens and other cathode ray tube faces, 4-14 Aircraft throttle quadrants ‘The throttle quadrant stick included in most plastic aircraft model kits is too large. Trim it to more realistic proportions—it's about right when your scale pilot could fit his hand around it. 4-15 Representation, not ‘duplication Superdetailing scale models, especial- ly in the smaller scales, calls for re- straint. No matter how fine your craftsmanship, any attempt to repro- duce every last nut, bolt, and rivet ona model will produce an unpleasant effect. For example, an aircraft pilot's seat that contained all the wiring har- nesses, cables, oxygen hoses, and other fittings of the original would be hope- lessly cluttered—the viewer could not distinguish the important details from the unimportant. A seat that was de- tailed with a few cables, a seat belt, and an oxygen bottle would better rep- resent the object being modeled. 4-16 Aluminum foil seat belts Seat belts and shoulder harnesses can be made of strips of aluminum foil painted tan. Cut the foil to size with a new single-edge razor blade, bend to shape, and attach with rubber cement. 4-17 Oxygen hoses In many World War Il aircraft, partic- ularly fighters, the oxygen hose was a prominent piece of cockpit equipment. It led from the regulator, usually mounted forward in the cockpit, to the quick-disconnect fitting for the pilot's oxygen mask. The hose was flexible, about 114" in diameter, 36" to 48 long, and corrugated. A realistic, though somewhat fragile, model oxygen hose can be made by wrapping fine soft copper wire (avail- able in spools at hardware stores) around a music-wire mandrel. Coat the wrapped wire with rubber cement, paint flat black, slide off the mandrel, and carefully install in place. Hoses in 444 any scale can be made by varying the diameter of the music-wire mandrel and the gauge of the copper wire. An alternative approach is to dis- assemble a camera cable release and use the flexible spring cable as the hose. 4-18 Test pilot The pilot figure included in Mono- gram’s 1/72-scale Fairchild A-10 is ex- traordinarily true to scale. When you want to know if a 1/72-scale seat is correct, use the Monogram pilot to check for fit. Use the figure to check the position of the control sticks as well. 4-19 Cockpit coaming ‘The edges of open cockpits are covered with leather padding to protect the pilot from injury. This coaming ean be simulated with lengths of insulating 418 spaghetti tubing or insulation pulled from electrical wire. Slit and slide in place. 29 St Small aircraft windows and ship portholes can be made by pulling a dab of white glue across the window open- ing on the inside surface of the win- dow. For larger windows, use the same technique but first place a piece of tape over the outside of the window open- ing, Seal the sticky side of the tape with Testor Glosscote, and apply the glue. When the glue has dried, remove the tape. The resulting windows are not perfectly clear, but they do look realistic. Experiment with different brands of white glue until you find the one that works best for you. White glue windows 30 White glue is water-soluble, so seal the windows with clear gloss varnish. 5-2 Plastic wrap windows Transparent windows complete with frames can be made from plastie food wrap. Measure the size of the window ‘you wish to make. Cut apiece of plastic wrap Yio" oversize, which allows a ‘4a frame. Using a small brush, apply clear varnish around the window opening. Apply the window plastic and pull smooth. Once dry, paint the frame to match the surrounding surface. ‘The same technique can be used to make landing light covers. 5-3 Cement for stretched sprue Stretched sprue antennas and rigging wires can be cemented in place with a mixture of liquid and tube-type plastic coments. Mix the two together until the consistency is such that a tiny drop of glue adheres to the end of a piece of stretched sprue dipped in it. Use a pin orneedle to apply glue to the sprue and the object to which it will be attached. 5-4 Sagging ropes ‘Thread or string used to simulate rope will sag or take any desired shape if it is wetted with a solution of one part white glue and three parts water, then put in position and allowed to dry 55 5-5 Straightening wire Thin soft wire is supplied on spools similar to thread spools. Consequent- ly, the wire is not straight as it comes off the spool. It can be straightened by hanging several feet of it from the edge of a table or bookcase and weighting the loose end with a medium-size fishing sinker or similar object. Let the wire hang for a day or two. ‘The same technique can be used to straighten lengths of freshly pulled sprue. 5-6 Epoxy insulators Use a drop of 5-minute epoxy or white glue to simulate insulators on wire antennas. Neither attacks plastic, so they can be used even on stretched sprue. cutnere 5-7 Radio direction finder loop antenna Radio direction finder loop antennas can be made by wrapping a length of stretched sprue around a dowel of suit- able diameter. Slide the loop off the ends of the dowel and glue in place. 5-8 Stainless steel wire Modelers with access to medical sup- ply stores may wish to use stainless steel eye sutures for aircraft rigging wires. The sutures are strong and are available in many diameters. Attach to the model with epoxy cement. 5-9 Sources of very fine wire Junk parts from discarded radio and television sets contain numerous com- ponents incorporating fine wire of var- ious diameters. Unwind coils, trans- formers, and wire-wound resistors and you'll have a supply of fine wire that ‘can be used to simulate tubing, recoil springs, antennas, and ring sights, Straighten by the hanging method ex- plained above. J san sre O20! 5-10 5:10 High-strength hardened wire Guitar strings, available at all music stores, make excellent steel rigging wires for aircraft models and stays for ship models, 511 5-11 Pitot tubes Make pitot tubes from lengths of wire ccut from paper clips. 31 512 5:12. Use clove hitch ‘No matter what fancy knots were used ‘on the prototype, most model ship rig- ging looks best if knots are tied with simple clove hitches. 5-13 Drill first Biplanes and other aircraft that re- quire extensive rigging are easier to rig if the anchor holes for the rigging wires are drilled before the model is assembled. Use small drill bits (num- bers 61-80—available at your hobby shop and most hardware stores) held ina pin vise or miniature drill. Lubri- cate the drill with beeswax and work slowly. Rigging wire can be any stiff wire such as small diameter music wire. Cut it to length, feed the ends into the drilled holes, and fasten in place with a minute quantity of white glue or epoxy. Control wires, gear bracing wires, and antennas are best made from cotton or polyester thread which has been run through a cake of beeswax. Beeswax prevents the thread from raveling and helps control un- wanted sagging. Beeswax is sold in the ship model section of hobby shops, in all sewing stores, and most art-supply stores, 5-14 Matchbox wheels Die-cast metal toy vehicles such as those manufactured by Matehbox and 32 Dinky Toys are a good source of spoked wheels for aircraft models. The tires that come with the wheels are usually oversize—substitute O-ring faucet washers of the correct scale. 515 5:15 Wheel masking template Use a draftsman’s circle template to mask wheel hubs. Select the correct size hole for your model's wheels, cover all the rest with a sheet of paper, hold the template against the hub, and spray paint onto the hub, 5-16 Cigarette paper treads Patterned cigarette paper cut to size and attached with thinned white glue makes excellent treads for tires in the larger seales, 517 5-17 Flat tires ‘Tires flatten slightly under the weight of the vehicle they support. Simulate this effect by partially melting the tire from your kit with an iron. Here'show: Step 1. Allow the iron to heat up. Step 2. Cover the sole of the iron witha sheet of waxed paper. Step 3. Press the tire against the waxed paper until the plastic softens and the tire flattens, Step 4. Set the tire aside to cool. Re- move and discard the waxed paper. Wipe off the sole of the iron with a soft cloth to remove any wax residue. Un- plug the iron and allow it to cool. Experiment with scrap tires until you master the technique and be careful not to overdo the flattening, 518 Mudguards Model mudguards can be made from household aluminum foil by this pro- cess: Step 1. Fold a soft paper towel in half four times to make a pad 16 sheets thick. Step 2. Cut a piece of aluminum foil slightly larger than the desired size of the mudguard. Step 3. Select the wheel which the mudguard is to cover. Step 4. Place the aluminum foil on the towel pad and press the wheel gently into the foil. Step 5. Rub the wheel from front to rear of the foil along the long dimen- sion. The mudguard will form into a double concave shape with a larger radius than the wheel being used to form it. Step 6. Trim the front and rear por- tions of the mudguard to the desired size with nail scissors, Ab weet \ Step 7. Wash the foil in denatured alcohol. Let dry. Spray paint and attach it to the model with ACC or epoxy. 5-19. Light bulb-filament springs The filaments from incandescent light bulbs can be used to simulate springs on models. The bigger the bulb the big- ger the spring. Og 518 5-22 parts ‘The landing gear struts and other plastic parts provided in many kits are oversized. Trim them to more realistic proportions with a hobby knife, files, and sandpaper. In some instances, even trimming won't produce a proper- ly sealed strut—in these cases seratchbuild your own from brass or plastic tubing. 5-21 Hypodermic needles Unless their possession is forbidden by state or local laws, used hypodermic needles are an excellent modeling material for pitot tubes and gun bar- rels. They are most easily cut to correct length with an abrasive cutoff disc ‘mounted in a motor tool, 5-22 Felt-tip marker barrels The barrels that hold the ink in long marking pens can be emptied of their contents and stretched over a heat source to make gun barrels and other tubes, a nee = = Shape 2 on 5-23 Assembling pitot tubes and fuzes: ‘One problem facing the builders of models of recent aircraft is the fact that the pitot tube is on the nose of the aircraft. If the fuselage halves join at this point or the base of the kit tube is small, it's hard to get a smooth nose contour. Here's a way to improve the appearance of the nose: After cement ing the fuselage together, saw off a small portion of the nose and replace it with a short piece of scrap plastic. Ce- ment the scrap solidly in place with liquid plastic cement, ACC, or epoxy. When dry, shape to the exact contour desired, drill a small hole for the pitot tube, and glue the tube in place with a drop of ACC. Use the same technique to install fuzes on ordnance, 5-24 Brass tube propeller shafts Telescoping brass tubing, available at all hobby shops, comes in many diame- ters, each fitting snugly into the next larger size. It is the perfect material for propeller shafts. Remove the shaft 33 from the kit propeller and ACC or epoxy a short length of brass tubing in the spinner after drilling a hole for the tube. Similarly, mount a piece of the next larger size of tubing in the fuse- lage. Slide the smaller tubing into the larger tubing and you've made a shaft which allows the prop to spin. The prop can be removed when the model is painted, washed, or transported. 5-25 5-25 How to cut brass tubing Small-diameter brass tubing is easily cut with a special modelbuilder’s tub- ing cutter manufactured by K&S En- gineering, To use, insert the tubing in the cutter’s V-slot, tighten the knob until the cutting wheel is held firmly against the tubing, and rotate the tub- ing or the cutter, tightening the cutter periodically. After several turns the tubing will be cleanly cut. Remove any burrs with a jeweler's file ‘Tubing may also be cut with a razor saw, although this dulls the blade quickly 5-26 Soldering and gluing brass tubing It is best to solder brass-to-brass con- nections. Use 60140 resin-core or solid 5-26 solder (that is, solder which is 60 per cent tin, 40 per cent lead), and a solder- ing pencil or gun. Soldering is easy if the pieces to be joined areimmaculate- clean. Sand or file the surfaces to be joined until they are shiny, wash in denatured aleohol, clamp in place, and solder by first heating the brass with the soldering instrument, then apply the solder to the heated brass and the tip of the soldering instrument simul- taneously. Use no more solder than necessary to fill the joint, withdraw the soldering instrument, and let the solder cool. A good solder joint is ‘smooth and shiny. A bad solder joint is lumpy, eracked, and dull. If the first attempt fails, reheat the joint and the solder may flow into place. If this second attempt fails, the brass was probably incompletely cleaned. Clean tagain and solder. Clean the tip ofthe soldering instrument frequently with a damp sponge. Use the same tech- nique to solder brass to copper, lead, steel, iron (except cast iron), tin, and many other metals. Lead-tin solder Will not solder aluminum o stainless steel to brass. Brass tubing can be fastened to non- solderable metals, wood, and plastic with ACC or epoxy. The surfaces to be joined must be absolutely clean. White glue does not adhere well to brass, but can be used if the joint need not be very strong. 5-27 How to paint brass Brass parts can be painted with any hobby paint. Brass has little tooth for the paint to adhere to, so a clean, oil- free surface is even more important than with plastie. Dip the part in dena tured aleohol (or acetone, lacquer thin- ner, or mineral spirits) or brush it thoroughly with one of these degreas- ing agents, let dry, and paint. 5-28 Painting bras aluminum to simula A realistic natural-aluminum finish can be given to brass parts with one or two coats of Aerogloss Silvaire Alumi- num model airplane dope. Model air plane dope attacks styrene, but is ex- cellent for brass, 5-29 Strathmore Strathmore board is a high-quality artist's paper suitable for modeling. It consists of one or more plies of hard white paper with a smooth or matte finish, and ranges in thickness from 005" (1-ply) to .025" (5-ply). Strath- ‘more is available at art-supply stores. Itis dimensionally stable, cuts cleanly with a sharp hobby knife, and accepts all hobby paints. It can’be glued to itself and other materials with white glue, aliphatic resin glue (Franklin Titebond), or epoxy. It is too porous to use any of the ACC's. A special glue, Wilhold R/C 56, is perhaps the best glue for Strathmore. R/C 56 bonds firmly, has a longer working time than white glue or aliphatic resin glue, has tremendous tack, and dries clear. 5-30 Ball-point pen refills and springs ‘The springs from ball-point pen refills are occasionally useful in modelbuild- ing, but contrary to many suggestions, the refills themselves are best dis: carded. Brass tubing is available in many sizes and is infinitely easier to work with than the hard brass used in pen refills. Further, the ink residue in the refill adheres to everything it touches and is difficult to remove. 5-31 Metallized Mylar ‘The Apollo lunar lander and other United States spacecraft are shielded in several areas by a distinctive orange Mylar foil. A similar foil is used tomake inexpensive survival blankets and auto emergency blankets that are sold in camping stores, Cut out a small section and use it to make the foil shields on your spaceship model. Ifyou can’t find the blankets, some art- supply stores sell metallized Mylar sheet that is similar and looks almost ‘as convincing. 5-32 Landing lights Landing lights can be modeled by the following procedure: Step 1. Assemble the wing in the usual fashion and sand the leading edge smooth. Step 2. Cut out the landing light area, and trim and sand carefully until ali edges are perfectly straight. Step 3. Fill the hole with thin plastie sheet cut to approximate size. Glue in place with liquid plastic cement, epoxy, or ACC. When the cement has set, trim the plastic sheet to the exact contour. Step 4. Paint the model Step 5. Smooth the rounded tip of a piece of clear plastic sprue and cut it off. Glue this lamp in place. Step 6. Paint the inside of the landing light silver. Step 7. Stretch a piece of clear Scotch tape over the landing light. The tape is the lens. Step 8. Trim carefully around the eriges of the Scotch tape and remove the excess. 5-33 Dayglo Dayglo and other fluorescent colors are more brilliant ifa flat white under- coat is applied first. Dayglo colors are used on aircraft as markers on the empennage and fuselage and for warn- ing panels elsewhere, 5-34 Scotchlite Scotchlite and other brands of reflec- tive tape are available at most hard- ware stores in red and yellow. These tapes can be used to model strip lights on modern aircraft and tail lights and side reflectors on car models. Because the tapes are almost Ye" thick they should be inset in the model. 5:35 Mirrors Mirrors on models can be simulated with small pieces of aluminum foil, si ver gift wrapping tape, metallized My- lar, or pieces cut from metallic-coated plastic paillettes sold in the craft sec- tion of most dime stores. 5-36 Beacon lights ‘The red beacon lights on aircraft can be modeled by filing a piece of red tinted clear sprue to the correct shape, drilling a small hole from the bottom, dripping @ minute quantity of silver 5-36 ‘Shape. dri ee ~j paint in the hole to make the bulb, and inserting the beacon light in place on the model 5-37 Medicine-capsule lenses Medicine capsules are available in hundreds of sizes, shapes, and colors. Empty the contents, fill the capsule with epoxy, coat the outside with clear varnish, and you've made a convincing colored light for your airplane, ship, or car. The capsules are made of gelatin, so handle them carefully until they have been filled and varnished, 5-38 Wooden propellers Wooden propellers on plastic models often look better if they are made from wood. Hobby shops stock basswood, mahogany, walnut, cherry, and other fine-grained woods, all of which are suitable for making propellers, struts, wheel chocks, and other wood parts on aireraft and other models. 35 Zs a sl ‘Add pec of shes syrne, cement eS) Orginal propa bade 5-39 Modifying propellers If the propeller blades in your kit are inaccurately shaped, modify them with pieces of sheet styrene securely glued in place. Shape the sheet plastic with a knife, files, and sandpaper, then paint. 5-40 Simulate wood grain To simulate wood grain on propellers or other parts, first paint the part gloss light brown or tan, Before this dries, brush over with a darker gloss brown, With practice, a good wood grain effect can be achieved. 5-41 Black on black To obtain a contrast between black propeller blades and the black finish on night fighters and bombers, gently rub the propellers with your fingers. The body oils on your fingers will slightly alter the reflectivity of the black paint, giving the props the cor- rect appearance. 5-42 Sagging tracks If photographs reveal that the tank or other tracked vehicle you are model ing had sagging tracks, use white glue, ACC, or epoxy to put sag in your mod- el’s tracks, Press the tracks to obtain the proper degree of sag, then apply glue to keep them in place. 5-43 Zimmerit From mid-1943 to the end of World War I, many German armored vehi cles were coated on their sides and tur. rets with an antimagnetic paste called Zimmerit. The material was troweled on by hand in several patterns, most often fairly regular parallel lines. Zimmerit can be simulated with any body putty applied with a palette knife and worked into rows or other patterns with a pointed stick such asa manicur- ist’s orange stick. Work on only a small area at a time and roughen the plastic with medium-grit sandpaper to pro- vide tooth for the putty. 5-44 Control-surface balance weights Simulate control-surface balance weights with tiny drops of epoxy on the ends of short sections of rigid steel wire, Use the same wire-and-epoxy- drop technique to make control knobs and gear shift sticks. / é 5-45 5-45. Folding wings Most naval aircraft have folding wings, but relatively few plastic kits of naval aireraft incorporate this fea. ture. A good hinge can be made from two pieces of wire. Bend one piece into a U-shape, then wrap five or six turns of the other piece around the bottom of the U-shaped wire. The result is a high-strength, lightweight hinge that can be attached to the model with epoxy. 5-46 SS ee Foxe 9 ——§— = 5-46 Modeling Fowler flaps ‘The Fowler flap is a simple form of slotted flap used on many low-speed aircraft. The flap moves backward on tracks, opening a slot between the wing and flap surface. High-pressure air from the bottom of the wing flows through this slot into the low-pressure area on the top surface of the flap, helping to keep the boundary layer attached and delaying the onset of a stall. ‘The retracted Fowler flap rests par- tially in a hollow on the underside of the wing and is visible farther forward on the underside than on the top. Be- gin construction by cutting out the en- tire flap from the broken line back. Lay this piece aside. Reconstruct the top of the wing by cutting a piece of sheet plastic as wide as the flap open- ing, with a chord equal to the distance between the broken and dashed lines. Glue this piece into the gap in the wing, flush with the top surface. Fill the flap cavity with body putty or a sheet of thin plastic to form the curved top of the flap cavity. Cut the flap tracks from plastic sheet and cut slots in the top of the flap cav ity to fit these tracks. Glue securely. File the flap that was cut out earlier to the desired airfoil. Cut slots for the flap tracks and attach the flap to the tracks. er rs 5-47 Deicer boots Simulate deicer boots with black Con- tact or a similar self-adhesive vinyl covering material. 5-48 Color codes The plumbing and wiring of United States aircraft in World War II were color coded for safety and ease of maintenance. Color bands were gener- ally in 1" sections wrapping entirely around the pipe, hose, or eable. Where only a single color was used, such as white or green, this was sometimes ap- plied only to ‘a junetion connection. ‘The colors were: Anti-icing red and white Compressed air— Low pressure light blue and light green High pressure... yellow and light {green Exhaust analyzer ... light blue and brown Fire extinguisher. .... brown Fuel red Hydraulic light blue, yellow, and light bive Manifold pressure. .. white and light blue oil yellow Oxygen light green Pitot pressure black Coolant white, black, and white Static pressure black and light ‘green Steam. light blue and black Vacuum white and light green Vent red and black Water . white Contemporary aircraft use a similar system, but with multiple identifica- tion on each pipe—color coding, a geometric symbol, and written labels. Only the color coding is listed here, because the symbols and lettering would be next to invisible on a model. ‘The colors are: Fuel Rocket fuel Rocket oxidizer: Water injection red red and gray ‘green and gray red, gray, and red Lubrication yellow Hydraulic blue and yellow Solvent blue and brown Pneumatic air Instrument air orange and blue orange and gray Coolant. blue Breathing oxygen... green Air conditioning... Brown and gray Monopropeliant..- yellow and orange Battery activator yellow and gray 5-49 Radiators and oil coolers Oil coolers and radiators on scratch- built aircraft models can be fabricated from the grilles provided in model ear kits. 5-50 5-50 Exhaust pipes Exhaust pipes can be made from resin- core solder. The solder is available in many diameters; remove the resin flux by heating the solder over a light bulb until the flux drips out. Attach with ACC or epoxy, 5-51 re 5-51 Wing walks Model striping tape or graph tape makes excellent wing walks on air- craft such as the B-52 37 5-52 Rivets, buttons, and small knobs If you hold a piece of stretched sprue near a heat source the end curls back to form a perfect dome. This can be cut off with a short stem and glued into a hole to model rivets, tunic buttons, or small knobs. Ifa whole row is required, pieces of stretched sprue can be in- serted into the holes, cut to equal lengths, then heated, ——__ = = 5-53 Hinges Here are two ways to make hinges: © Obtain a short length of rigid in- sulating tubing or small-diameter brass tubing. Cut the tubing into three equal sections. Thread a length of rigid wire or smaller tubing through all three pieces. Glue the two outer pieces to fixed portion of the model, the inner piece to the movable surface. Use only epoxy because ACC's will run inside the tubing, ruining the hinge. © Obtain a piece of thick plastic sheet. Saw or cut this piece to the approxi- mate size of the desired hinge. Drill the hinge pivot hole with a smail drill bit held in a pin vise. The hole should be slightly larger than the diameter of the rigid wire that will serve as the hinge pin. Insert the wire pin, then saw, cut, and file the plastic until you have separated the plastic into two halves, one with a projecting center section, one with projecting sections at both sides, In essence, you are making a miniature leaf hinge similar to those ‘on music boxes. When the two leaves are completed, cap the ends of the out- 38 cr leaf to prevent the wire from slip- ping out and install the hinge on the model with epoxy. 5-54 Flags, banners, and pennants ‘Model airplane covering silk is avail- able in several weights. It accepts paints and dyes readily, is very finely woven, and is carried by most hobby shops. It is the best material for flags, banners, and pennants. Stretch the silk on a flat surface such as a piece of glass and paint the design with any hobby paint or acrylic fabric paint, or use colored pencils. Size the painted flag with white glue thinned with at least 50 per cent water or with acrylic matte medium thinned approximately 70 per cent. When this has dried, cut the fabric to shape with a new single- edge razor blade. 5-55 Sails Model airplane silk makes excellent sails on ship models. It can be weath- ered by soaking in tea and can be sized with diluted white glue or acrylic matte medium to hold any desired shape. You can also use silk for life- boat covers, truck tarpaulins, and equipment covers. 5-56 Davits Use the plastic lifeboat davits pro- vided in ship model kits as patterns for sturdier wire davits, The wire will also be more realistic because the davits will be closer to scale. 5-57 5-57 Splices Rigging material to be spliced must first be thoroughly coated with bees- wax to prevent raveling and to stiffen the thread or small rope. Unlay the strands (usually three) for the re- quired length of the splice. Thread each strand through a small sewing needle and splice by mating the ends of the cordage to be joined. Take at least four tucks with each strand, then cut off the loose ends. Roll the splice be- tween your fingers to flatten it and seize with fine thread if desired, 6. Weathering and Figure Painting 61 Don't overdo weathering Military equipment, even that kept in primitive conditions, should not be overly weatherbeaten. Keep in mind that the military loves inspections, that crew chiefs must answer to pilots for every imperfection on aireraft, and that men whose lives depend on prop: erly functioning equipment take very good care of it. Consider the effect of scale as well: In 1/72 scale 1” equals 6’ and an average viewing distance of 12" is the equiva- lent of 72’. How much dirt can you see at 72'? In 1/32 scale a 12° viewing dis tance is equal to 32’ and dirt is more visible, so weathering can be applied more freely 62 Casein colors as weathering agents Casein colors are water-soluble artist's paints made from a milk-based protein emulsion to which dyes and pigments have been added. They are sold in tubesin art-supply stores under many brand names, including Winsor & Newton and Grumbacher. The col- ors are more opaque than watercolors but less brilliant than most acrylics. This quality renders them ideal for weathering. They can be thinned with water to any consistency and applied by spray or brush. They adhere well to all porous materials and to primed plastics. Colors are easily mixed to achieve any effect. 63 Pastel chalks Pastel chalks have long beena favorite weathering medium. They are widely available, inexpensive, and easy to use. They are applied to the finished model with a dry watercolor brush loaded with particles of the pastel seraped or rubbed off the chalk stick with a knife or piece of sandpaper. If too much powder is applied, simply brush or blow it off and start again, Many brands of varying hardness and particle size are sold, so experiment until you find the type you prefer. Af ter the pastel particies have been arranged to your taste, overcoat them with a light spray of a ‘clear, flat fixa- tive such as Testor Dulleote. Other. wise the model will soon display nu- merous full-scale fingerprints, 64 Charcoal as weathering agent Artist's charcoal pencils are excellent for simulating exhaust stains, blast effects, and other smoky, dirty areas, ‘Tone down the stark black of the char- coal with gray pastel chalk for greater realism, 39 6-5 Floquil-Polly S Color Corp. weathering agents Plastic modelers who venture into the model railroad section of their hobby shop will discover that Floquil-Polly 8 Color Corp. manufactures an exten sive line of paints sold as Railroad Col- ors. Floquil is an acrylic lacquer. Polly Sisa water-base acrylicenamel Floquil’s manual R243, “Painting Miniatures,” gives complete informa- tion on how to use both kinds of paint. Ofparticular interest to plastie model. ers is the fact that the Floquil and Pol- ly Slines include a number of weather- ing agents such as Dust, Rust, Mud, Grime, and Grimy Black that can be used straight out of the bottle. 6-6 Powdered graphite Powdered graphite lubricant is excel lent for simulating grease stains on models. Peneil shavings can also be used. 6-7 White paint chips Small areas of chipped paint on models ‘of metal aircraft look more realistic if the chips are simulated with flecks of white paint. Aluminum or silver might at first seem the appropriate color, but white usually looks better 68 6-8 Talcum powder salt deposits ‘The effects of salty air on the paint on the undersides of naval aircraft can be simulated by lightly dusting the bot- tom surfaces of a model with talcum powder. Brush on the powder and blow away the excess. 6-9 Mud stains Mud stains on armored vehicles can be simulated with @ paste of flat dark brown paint and talcum powder. A slightly thicker and grainier mud can 40 be made by using microballoons in- stead of talcum powder. Microballoons are tiny glass or phenolic spheres used asa filler material by model aviators. Look for them in the flying model sec- tion of your hobby shop. 6-10 6-10 Blacken chains Metal chains are difficult to paint be cause the paint chips off when the chain flexes. Blacken the chain by dip. ping it for a few seconds in a product called Hobby Black. Hobby Black will darken most metals except aluminum, Ifyour chain is aluminum, blacken it by holding the chain over a match flame for a short time ett Weathering steel ships Floquil Rust is an accurate color for the orange shade of rust often seen on ships. Use the dry-brush technique to apply this color to the upper surfaces that are not often washed by the sea. Dry-brushing is a painting technique in which the brush is wiped nearly dry and then daubed or whisked over the area to be painted. It allows the trans- fer of very small quantities of paint. ‘Those areas subject to a washing ae- tion by the sea (decks, lower super- structures, and hulls) should be rusted with a wash of one part Rust to five parts Dio-Sol. Apply the wash carefully to drainage ports and open ings, guiding the flow downward to creaie.a streaked effect. Do this along the waterline and the top edge of the bull Utmost care should be taken when ap- plying this wash because the thinner will attack the base coat of the model. ‘This can be minimized by light appli- cations of the wash. If you should craze the paint when applying the wash, do not try to wipe it off. Let it dry thor- oughly—the crazing may disappear upon drying. Ifit doesn't, itis easier to sand off and repaint a small area than to sand and repaint the much larger area that would be smeared by wiping off the thinner. ‘The high salt content of the air over the ocean has a bleaching effect upon painted surfaces. Lighten the base col- or by adding 10 to 40 per cent white First spray the ship with the straight base color, then add the white and ap- ply the second coat very lightly Copper and brass fittings can be given a patina with a heavy wash of Floquil Light Green. Wooden decks can be weathered with Floquil Grime and | Floquil Reefer Gray. 612 New and old rust Ships, tanks, trucks, and other objects made from steel will all show varying, amounts of rust. When weathering, keep in mind that new rust is brilliant orange-red, middle-aged rust is light brown, and old rust is dark brown. 613 Calamine lotion mud Convincing mud can be made from calamine lotion. Add powdered char- coal, ground pastel chalks, or India ink to vary the color. Apply to tires, wheels, or tank treads as appropriate. 6-14 Beat-up bogey wheels Rubber-covered bogey wheels on tanks and other tracked vehicles become chipped, cut, and torn rapidly even in light service, Simulate this wear and tear on your model by roughening the bogey wheels with coarse sandpaper. 6-15 Battle damage to tanks Since the early 1940's nearly all anti- tank ordnance has used shaped-charge explosives. These melt through the tank's armor, spewing fragments and hot gases inside the cockpit. The entry hole is fairly inconspicuous, as is the rest of the exterior damage. A knocked-out tank might show only a small entry hole, black smoke marks around hatches and exhausts, and a few displaced accessories. Even tanks that have suffered numerous hits often show little visible damage. Exercise restraint when showing battle damage on tanks—a little goes a long way 6-16 Scatter bullet holes A machine gun is not a sewing machine. Bullet holes never fall into 615 the neat patterns typical of Hollywood movies; they are always random and seldom appear in batches of more than half a dozen. Why? Consider the vari- ables in gun design, powder loads, movement of the weapon and target, and the fact that the bullets may well be tumbling upon impact. Also, again contrary to Hollywood, standard mili- tary practice has always been to fire ‘machine guns in bursts of five to ten rounds. Machine guns on aircraft may be fired in longer bursts; even so, sel- dom do more than a half dozen rounds in a burst strike the target. a 6-17 Field rep: damage Simulate field repairs of battle dam- age to aircraft by sticking small patches of very thin plastic over the damaged areas. Paint these patches a darker color than the rest of the air- craft 's of battle 6-18 Spilled gasoline Allow one small drop of thinned black paint to dribble from the fuel tank cap on the wing of an aireraft model to the trailing edge to simulate spilled gaso- line. 6-19. Figure painting basics When painting figures, start with the flesh areas and work outward—face first, then bare arms and legs, followed by clothing and accessories. Because they dry slowly and can be retouched for several days after application, artist's oil paints work best. Apply the paint with a brush wetted in turpen- tine and work the paint into the de- sired areas. A No. 0or No. 00 red sable watercolor brush performs well. Eyes and flesh are the hardest parts of figure painting. To paint eyes, start by painting the entire eye socket white or blue-white. When the white is dry,add a dark brown circle to represent the iris. When this has dried, add a pin- point dot of gloss black for the pupil ‘The iris should be in a line with the corners of the mouth, and each must face in the same direction or the figure will be cross-eyed. Paint the face and other flesh an appropriate shade. Keep in mind that white skin is most often pinkish- white, black skin is light or dark brown, and American Indians and Orientals are yellow-brown. Each hu- man being has a unique skin color, so use a slightly different flesh color for each figure in a group. Hair and eye~ brows should be nearly the same color, but beards and whiskers may be a shade or two darker or lighter. Most 42 armed forces have strict rules about shaving even under combat condi- tions, so go easy on beards and un shaven faces. Uniforms are usually slightly faded; mix white with the uniform paint to achieve this effect. Vary the equip- ment carried by each soldier unless you are representing a formation at inspection. 6-20 Duro E-pox-e Ribbon A useful compound for figure modelers can be found in most hardware stores. It is Duro E-pox-e Ribbon, a two-color, clay-like substance in ribbon form, one color being resin and the other harden: er. By snipping off a section and kneading the cut portion until the blue and yellow mix to form a uniform green, you have formed a tacky mix- ture which can be used to modify metal orplastic figures. The compound hard- ens in 24 hours, after which it can be sawed, filed, drilled, or carved. It accepts paint well ‘The uncured material will not stick to hands or tools if you keep them moist- ened with water. 6-21 Weathering figures Don't paint dirt on uniforms, grease on. hands, or mud on boots on your figures. Do all this with pastel chalks ground to powder and applied with a water- color brush, just as armor and aircraft models are weathered. Pastel chalks also make effective whiskers. 6-22 6-22 Patches and rags ‘Simulate patches and rags on figures with bits of cigarette paper cut to shape and attached with rubber ce- ment 6-23 Old tires Black rubber tiresturn dark gray after afew months’ exposure to sunlight, so add a few drops of white to your black paint when painting tires, 7. Displaying and Caring for your Models 7-1 Basswood Many hobby shops sell basswood in a variety of shapes and sizes. Basswood is a lightweight, fine-grained, light- colored hardwood that saws and carves easily, takes paints and stains readily, and can be glued with white glue, epoxy, or model airplane cement. It is the first choice for most wooden parts of dioramas. 7-2 Snow Snow for dioramas can be simulated with bleached flour or baking soda Flour is cheaper and softer in appear- ance, but yellows with age and attracts weevils, Baking soda is more expen- sive, sharper in appearance (it looks like very cold snow), and impervious to insects. Both materials can be sprin- kled over equipment, figures, bushes, and the landseaped base of a diorama. When the snow has been arranged to your satisfaction, seal it with several light applications of a flat clear spray such as Testor Dulleote. As with all weathering projects, mod eration is the key to success, Don’t pile snow indiscriminately around the scene—imitate the drifts and varied patterns of nature. 7-3 Water Bill McClanahan's SCENERY FOR MODEL RAILROADS contains a full treatment of how to simulate smooth, rippled, or turbulent water using plas: ter, glass, Plastic Wood, casting res- ins, and other materials. This book is widely used by diorama builders be- SCENERY FOR MODEL RAILROADS Peete) ‘cause it contains clear descriptions of how to model miniature landscapes. 7-4 Formica marble Scraps of Formica counter-top lami. nate make excellent marble facades for buildings in dioramas. —— wrote na (ip each bate 75 7-5 Barbed wire Miniature barbed wire for large-scale dioramas can be made by this proce- dure: Step 1. Obtain spools of .025" — 030" soft copper wire, thin-nose tweezers, side-cutting pliers, and a ‘wooden board about 24” long with two nails hammered into each end. Step 2. Tie one end of the wire to one nail and run it around the other. Tie it, again to the first nail, being certain it is taut. Step 3. Using tweezers, take a shorter piece of wire and tie a double loop around the two strands of stretched Step 4. Pull the loop tight and cut off the ends about Yse" from the loop. Step 5. Repeat steps 3 and 4, making loops approximately every 4" Step 6. Cut the barbed wire from the nails and install on the diorama. 7-6 Fruit ‘Model apples, oranges, and other fruit an be made from small glass beads such as those used for American In- dian beadwork, 7-7 Tarpaulins and tar paper Soak pieces of toilet paper or Kleenex in diluted white glue or acrylic matte medium tomake tarpaulins. Drapethe soaked tissue over the object to be cov- ered, arrange the folds, let dry, then paint and weather, Toilet paper or Kleenex treated the same way and painted black makes convincing tar-paper roofs. 7-8 Trees ‘Woodland Scenics manufactures a line of model tree kits that assemble into a variety of typical North American and European trees. There are many other manufacturers of model trees and tree- making materials—consult the clerk. in the model railroad section of your hobby shop for details. 7-9 Gravity Whatever diorama-making tech niques you use, be aware that gravity exerts its force on all objects. Be cer- tain that tanks settle into the mud or snow of the scene, that soldiers’ fect impress themselves into sand, and that objects sink into snow 7-10 Cleaning your models Most models can be cleaned with a solution of lukewarm water and dish washing detergent. Swish the model through the water for a few seconds, then rinse with cool water and allow to air dry 73) If stronger cleaning agents are re- quired, try 409, Fantastik, or one of the other kitchen cleaners —they are unexcelled in removing grease from plastic. Do not allow the cleaner to re- main on the model for more than a few minutes and be sure to rinse thor- oughly. 7-11. Transporting models safely Plastic models are easily and securely transported in sturdy cardboard boxes filled with ground foam plastic or foam plastic peanuts. Fill the box halfway with foam plastic, insert the model in a plastic sandwich or trash bag, put the 45 ‘model in the box, cover with more foam plastic, and seal the box. The sandwich or trash bag will prevent any parts of the model that break off from dis- appearing and the plastic foam will protect the model. 7-12 Model photography ‘Two useful books on model photogra- phy are Pieter Stroethoff's Photogra hy for the Sealemodeller (Drake, New York, 1978) and Otto Croy's Camera Close Up (Focal Press, New York, 1961). Stroethoffs book deals specifi- cally with techniques used to photo- graph plastic models; Croy’s is a general discussion of closeup photog- raphy. 7-13. Novelty models Although you may be interested main- ly in modeling aircraft, armor, ships, cars, or trucks, you should occasional” ly venture into other modeling sub- jects. Kits of dinosaurs, birds and animals, hand weapons, and other ob- jects are available and provide the basis for striking displays. They also allow you to take a breather from your “serious” modeling. 46 About IPMS/USA The International Plastic Modelers Society/USA was started in 1964 as a branch of the parent organization in the United Kingdom. Today, the U.S. organization is, independent. There are IPMS groups all around the world IPMS/USA is a nonprofit society dedicated to ad- vancing the art of plastic modeling. The Society is made up of local chapters grouped into 10 regions. IPMS/USA members are not required to belong to a chapter, but many join to show off their modeling ef- forts and to enjoy the companionship of fellow model- ers. Each year one chapter hosts the National Conven- tion and Model Contest, our big event. IPMS/USA members receive 10 publications each year—four Quarterlies and six Updates. The Quarterly contains in-depth articles on modelbuilding, kit con- versions, prototype color schemes and markings, and historical subjects. Our newsletter, the Update, con- tains modelbuilding hints and tips, letters from mem- bers, kit reviews, and other items of interest. Members use the Wants and Disposals column to buy, sell, or trade kits and supplies. The articles in both publica- tions deal with aircraft, armor, ships, cars, figures, and other modeling subjects. All articles are writ- ten by members, and neither publication contains advertising, The motto of IPMS/USA is “By Modelers/For Model- ers.” We feel this accurately reflects the attitude of the membership and the style of our publications. If you are interested in joining IPMS/USA, please write: IPMSIUSA Information P.O. Box 6369 Lincoln, NE 68506 Happy Modeling! AF ll? — Gary T. Anderson IPMS/USA President, 1978-80 a7 48 Acknowledgments Many individuals contributed the information in HINTS AND TIPS FOR PLASTIC MODELING. We thank all members, chapter newsletter editors, and editors of the IPMS/USA Quarterly and Update. Special thanks g0 to Boyd Waechter, who provided a complete collec- tion of chapter newsletters. The convention committee and contestants at the 1979 National Convention and Model Contest graciously allowed Kalmbach Books to photograph prize-winning models. Many of the studio photos appearing in this book are by Art Schmidt of Kalmbach. The primary source of modelbuilding photos, however, was a team of California modelers led by Mickey Bednar, helped by Gary Anderson and Ed Boll, with further assistance by Dick Bartlett, Fred Jache, and Dale Sakurai. We greatly appreciate their hard work. IPMS/USA Executive Board, 1978-80 Pred roma etd Whether you’re a beginner or seasoned modeler, you'll discover that these books add to the enjoyment you get from your hobby. 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Payable in US. Tested modelbuilding techniques from members of the International Plastic Modelers Society/USA KALMBACH ,@BOOKS ISBN: 0-89024-546-0