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AP US History

Review Sheet – Chapters 23 and 24

1. In the Presidential election of 1868, U.S. Grant’s victory was due to the votes of
former black slaves.
2. In the late 19th century, those political candidates who campaigned by ‘waiving
the bloody shirt’ were reminding voters of the treasonous Confederate Democrats
during the Civil War.
3. A weapon that was used to put Boss Tweed, leader of New York City’s infamous
Tweed Ring, in jail was the cartoons of the political satirist Thomas Nast.
4. The Credit Mobilier scandal involved railroad construction kickbacks involving
the Union Pacific Railroad.
5. One cause of the Panic of 1873 was the construction of more factories than the
market could bear.
6. As a solution to the panic of 1873, debtors suggested inflationary policies.
7. One result of Republican ‘hard money’ policies was to help elect a Democratic
House of Representatives in 1874, and later the creation of the Greenback Labor
party.
8. During the Gilded Age, the Democrats and the Republicans had few significant
economic differences.
9. The presidential elections of the 1870s and 1880s aroused great interest among
voters.
10. One reason for the heavy turnouts and partisan fervor was the Gilded Age was
sharp ethnic and cultural differences in the membership of the two parties.
11. During the Gilded Age, the lifeblood of both the Democratic and the Republican
parties was political patronage.
12. The major problem in the 1876 presidential election centered on the two sets of
election returns submitted by Florida, South Carolina, and Louisiana.
13. The Compromise of 1877 resulted the end Reconstruction, and the withdrawal of
federal troops from the South.
14. The seque3nce of presidential terms of the ‘forgettable presidents’ of the Gilded
Age (including Cleveland’s two non-consecutive terms) was Hayes, Garfield,
Arthur, Cleveland, Benjamin Harrison, and Cleveland.
15. In the 1896 case of Plessy vs. Ferguson, the Supreme Court ruled that ‘separate
but equal’ facilities were constitutional.
16. At the end of Reconstruction, Southern whites disenfranchised African-
Americans with poll taxes (made illegal in federal elections via the 24th
Amendment in 1964, and in state elections subsequent to that via Supreme Court
ruling), literacy tests (made illegal by the Voting Rights Act of 1965), grandfather
clauses (made illegal by Supreme Court decision in 1915), and economic
intimidation.
17. The legal codes that established the system of segregation were called Jim Crow
laws. Jim Crow was the name of a character in a minstrel show.
18. The railroad strike of 1877 started when the four largest railroads cut salaries by
ten percent.
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19. Labor unrest in the 1870s and 1880s resulted in the use of federal troops during
strikes.
20. In the wake of anti-Chinese violence in California, the U.S. Congress passed a
law prohibiting immigration of Chinese laborers to American (the Chinese
Exclusion Act of 1882.)
21. One of the main reasons that the Chinese came to the U.S was to dig for gold.
22. Abraham Lincoln was the first president to be assassinated while in office; the
second was James Garfield. The third was William McKinley, and the fourth and
last was JFK.
23. President James A. Garfield was assassinated by a deranged, disappointed office
seeker.
24. The Pendleton Act required appointees to public office to take a competitive
examination, and outlawed the requirement that federal workers contribute to
election campaigns.
25. With the passage of the Pendleton Act, politicians now sought money from big
corporations.
26. The 1884 election contest between James G. Blaine and Grover Cleveland was
noted for its personal attacks on the two candidates.
27. U.S. Grant, Rutherford B. Hayes, James Garfield, and Chester Arthur were all
Republicans. Grover Cleveland was a Democrat. Cleveland and Wilson would
be the only Democrats elected between 1860 and 1928.
28. On the issue of the tariff, President Grover Cleveland advocated a lower rate.
29. The major campaign issue of the 1888 presidential election was tariff policy.
30. In the later decades of the 19th century, it was generally true that the locus of
political power was Congress.
31. The early Populist campaign to create a coalition of white and black farmers
ended a racist backlash that eliminated black voting in the South.
32. The political developments of the 1890s were largely shaped by the most severe
and extended economic depression up to that time.
33. Economic unrest and the repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act led to the rise
of a pro-silver leader – a charismatic young Congressman from Nebraska –
William Jennings Bryan.
34. President Grover Cleveland aroused wide-spread public anger by his action of
borrowing $65 million in gold from J.P. Morgan’s banking syndicate.
35. During the Gilded Age, most of the railroad barons built their railroads with
government assistance.
36. The national government helped to finance transcontinental railroad construction
in the late nineteenth century by providing railroad corporations with land grants.
37. The only transcontinental railroad built without government aid was the Great
Northern.
38. The greatest single factor helping to spur the amazing industrialization of the
post-Civil War years was the railroad network.
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39. The U.S. changed to standard time zones when the major rail lines established the
division of the continent into four zones so that they could keep schedules and
avoid wrecks.
40. Agreements between railroad corporations to divide the business in a given area
and share the profits were called pools.
41. Efforts to regulate the monopolizing practices of railroad corporations first came
in the form of action by state legislatures.
42. The first federal regulatory agency designed to protect the public interest from
business combinations was the Interstate Commerce Commission.
43. One of the most significant aspects of the Interstate Commerce Act was that it
represented the first large-scale attempt by the federal government to regulate
business.
44. After the Civil War, the plentiful supply of unskilled labor in the U.S. helped to
build the nation into an industrial giant.
45. One of the methods by which post-Civil War business leaders increased their
profits was elimination of as much competition as possible.
46. Carnegie – steel; Rockefeller – oil; Morgan – banking; Duke – tobacco;
Vanderbilt – railroads.
47. The steel industry owed much to the inventive genius of Henry Bessemer (the
Bessemer Process, which made it possible to make a better grade of steel, at a
better price.)
48. J.P. Morgan monitored his competition by placing officers of his bank on the
boards of companies that he wanted to control. This method was known as an
interlocking directorate.
49. America’s first billion-dollar corporation was United States Steel.
50. The first major product of the oil industry was kerosene.
51. The oil industry became a huge business with the invention of the internal
combustion engine.
52. John D. Rockefeller used the following tactics to achieve success in the oil
industry – extorting rebates from railroads, pursing a policy of rule or ruin,
employing spies, and using high-pressure sales methods.
53. The gospel of wealth, which associated godliness with wealth, discouraged efforts
to help the poor.
54. The Fourteenth Amendment was especially helpful to giant corporations when
defending themselves against regulation by state governments.
55. The Sherman Anti-trust Act was at first primarily used to curb the power of labor
unions.
56. During the age of industrialization, the South remained overwhelmingly rural and
agricultural.
57. In the late 19th century, tax benefits and cheap, nonunion labor attracted textile
manufacturing to the “new South.”
58. The group most effected by the new industrial age was women.
59. The image of the “Gibson Girl” represented an independent and athletic “new
woman.”
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60. Generally, the Supreme Court in the late nineteenth century interpreted the
Constitution in such a way as to favor corporations.
61. In its efforts on behalf of workers, the National Labor Union won an eight-hour
workday for government workers.
62. The Knights of Labor believed that conflict between capital and labor would
disappear when labor would operate business and industries.
63. The most effective and most enduring labor union of the post-Civil War period
was the American Federation of Labor.
64. By 1900, American attitudes toward labor began to change as the public came to
recognize the right of workers to bargain collectively and strike. Nevertheless,
the vast majority of employers continued to fight organized labor.
65. By 1900, organized labor in America had begun to develop a positive image with
the public.
66. Historians critical of the captains of industry and capitalism concede that class-
based protest has never been a powerful force in the U.S. because America has
greater social mobility than Europe has.
67. The following were important factors in post-Civil War industrial expansion: a
political climate favoring business; a large pool of unskilled labor; an abundance
of natural resources; and American ingenuity and inventiveness.
68. The first transcontinental railroad was completed by the construction efforts of the
Union Pacific and the Central Pacific railroads.