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Can. Aeronaut. Space J., Vol. 56, No. 1, pp. 17–30, 2010

using the MDO methodology

Liangyu Zhao, Gyung-Jin Park, Kwan Soo Lee, and Shuxing Yang

Abstract. The conceptual design of rockets is a system engineering that involves configuration, aerodynamics, engine,

dynamic stability, and coupling effects. To obtain benefits from the synergistic effects, the latest research achievements, and

the most powerful analysis tools efficiently, this paper focuses on how to apply the multidisciplinary design optimization

(MDO) technology to the conceptual design of the long-range, large length to diameter ratio wrap-around-fin (WAF)

rockets. The software iSIGHT was employed as the MDO framework, the multidisciplinary feasible (MDF) method as the

MDO architecture, and the multi-island genetic algorithm combined with sequential quadratic programming as the search

algorithm. By maximizing the payload ratio, the structural analysis, aerodynamics, engine, trajectory, and dynamic

stability were considered comprehensively. A case study demonstrated that MDO could improve the rocket

performance effectively.

Résumé. Le modèle conceptuel des fusées est associé au concept d’ingénierie des systèmes complexes qui comprend la

configuration, l’aérodynamique, le moteur, la stabilité dynamique ainsi que leurs effets de couplage. Afin de tirer profit

dans un souci de plus grande efficacité des effets synergétiques, des derniers développements en recherche et des outils

d’analyse les plus puissants, on met l’accent dans cette étude sur la façon d’appliquer la technologie d’optimisation

multidisciplinaire (OMD) au modèle conceptuel des fusées à ailettes enveloppantes (WAF) longue portée à rapport

longueur/diamètre élevé. Le logiciel d’optimisation iSIGHT a été utilisé comme cadre OMD, la méthode MDF

(« multidisciplinary feasible ») comme architecture OMD et l’algorithme génétique utilisant le modèle à ı̂lots multiples

(« multi-island genetic ») a été combiné à la programmation quadratique séquentielle à titre d’algorithme de recherche.

Dans une optique de maximisation du taux de charge utile, divers éléments ont été examinés en détail dont l’analyse

structurale, l’aérodynamique, le moteur, la trajectoire ainsi que la stabilité dynamique. Une étude de cas a démontré que la

technologie OMD pouvait s’avérer efficace pour l’amélioration de la performance des fusées.

[Traduit par la Rédaction]

LE length of engine

A equatorial moment of inertia Lf distance between WAF trailing edge and rocket

AT21 burn time of first stage tail

AT22 burn time of second stage Ln length of nozzle

c absolute thickness of WAF Lr length of WAF root

c relative thickness of WAF LW wingspan of WAF

D rocket diameter p value of thrust

DT delay time PR payload ratio

Isp mass-specific impulse Tp period of pitch oscillation

I% ratio of total impulse of first stage to total Tr period of roll oscillation

impulse of entire engine THn absolute thickness of nozzle

L length of rocket V* volume

LA length of arc segment d installation angle of WAF

Lb length of warhead lA length to diameter ratio of arc segment

LC length of control section lb ratio of warhead length to rocket length

L. Zhang, and K.S. Lee. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791, Republic of Korea.

G.-J. Park.1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, Gyeonggi-do 426-791, Republic of Korea.

S. Yang. School of Aerospace Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081, China.

1

Corresponding author (e-mail: gjpark@hanyang.ac.kr).

E 2010 CASI 17 转载

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Vol. 56, No. 1, April/avril 2010

lB length to diameter ratio of rocket applied to the design of a winged missile and a hypersonic

lW aspect ratio of WAF air-breathing missile (Jun et al., 2003; Starkey et al., 2008),

new-concept civilian airplanes such as the blended-wing-

r* equivalent density

body (BWB) aircraft and supersonic transport (Choi et al.,

h0 fire angle 2008; Herrmann, 2008; Ko et al., 2003), a reusable launch

vc critical rotation rate vehicle (Brown and Olds, 2006), the unmanned air vehicle

ve balance rotation rate (UAV) (Lee et al., 2009; Rajagopal et al., 2007), and so on.

x0 sweepback angle of WAF leading edge Researchers have benefitted greatly from the MDO

methodology.

x1 forward-swept angle of WAF tailing edge Some MDO strategies, also referred to as MDO

j opening angle of WAF architectures, have already been proposed. In general,

MDO strategies can be classified into two categories based

on the number of optimizers in the entire architecture. One is

Introduction single-level architecture, which has one optimizer and

includes the multidisciplinary feasible (MDF) method and

The long-range multiple launch rocket is a type of the individual discipline feasible (IDF) method (Cramer et

traditional and popular ground-to-ground munition. It has al., 1994; Renaud, 2002). The other is multilevel architecture,

received a lot of attention, and significant support has been which has two or more optimizers and includes the

provided for its unique advantages in many countries. A collaborative optimization (CO) method, the concurrent

large length to diameter ratio with a wrap-around fin subspace optimization (CSSO) method, and the bilevel

(WAF) is the most popular aerodynamic configuration. integrated system synthesis (BLISS) method (Braun, 1996;

Many long-range rockets in current use are designed using Hajela et al., 1992; Kodiyalam and Sobieszczanski-Sobieski,

these criteria, including the multiple launch rocket system 1999; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski et al., 1998). A comparison of

(MLRS) and guided multiple launch rocket system these MDO architectures with mathematical examples can

(GMLRS) developed by the US, the 9M55K series be found in Yi et al. (2008). In addition, analytical target

projectiles of the BM-30 ‘‘Smerch’’ system developed by cascading (ATC) and isoperformance are also considered by

the former Soviet Union, and the A-100 system developed some designers as two kinds of MDO strategies and have

by China. With developments in science and technology, been receiving more and more attention (Kim et al., 2003;

these kinds of rockets will be used not only in the military Weck and Jones, 2006). Each is briefly explained here. MDF,

domain but also in civil engineering, such as in the field of which is the foundation of other MDO strategies, is easy to

artificial rainfall. In the foreseeable future, rocket use, but a complicated system analysis has to be involved in

developments will be made in terms of longer range, every step of the iteration. IDF was proposed to eliminate

smaller miss error, greater interchangeability of parts, and the system analysis by solving every subdiscipline

higher intelligence level. With increasing pressure from independently. Multilevel MDO strategies were proposed

competition in the world weapons market, the cost of to handle large-scale problems. CO, a two-level MDO

rockets should be minimized at the same time as the strategy, does not have to perform system analysis by

performance is maximized. This is the prime motivation of decomposing subdisciplines. The system level manages the

the multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) method in overall process with the lower level, and all of the

the conceptual design of weapon systems just like it has been subdisciplines are performed concurrently. High-fidelity

used extensively in the aircraft design process (Kroo, 1997). models of subdisciplines are quite important in CO. CSSO,

Conceptual design is the first stage of the three major also a two-level MDO strategy, has a system optimizer and

phases in the design of a flying vehicle; the other two multiple subsystem optimizers. The system and the

stages are preliminary design and detailed design. subsystems optimizers have the same optimization

Designers have the greatest freedom at the conceptual objectives and the same or different design variables.

design stage, and decisions at this stage can directly affect Approximation techniques are fairly essential for CSSO.

the final performance of the flying vehicle (AIAA Technical BLISS was proposed based on the decomposition

Committee for Multidisciplinary Design Optimization, techniques. The key advantage of BLISS is that it allows

1991). The MDO, initiated in the 1980s, can be described designers to stop the optimization process at any time.

as a methodology for the design of systems where the ATC is based on the principles of the preliminary design of

interaction between several disciplines must be considered products, and isoperformance is based on the theories of

and where the designer is free to significantly affect the inverse design. However, we prefer to consider ATC and

system performance in more than one discipline (AIAA isoperformance as product design methods, such as MDO.

Technical Committee for Multidisciplinary Design Unfortunately, very little literature on the MDO can be

Optimization, 1991). The MDO is responsible for many found in the field of WAF rocket design. The aim of this

achievements in the fields of aeronautics and astronautics research was to apply the MDO methodology to the

(Weck et al., 2007). Currently, this methodology has been conceptual design of WAF rockets. This paper is organized

18 E 2010 CASI

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in three major sections. First, the MDO problem and the characteristics can be calculated, such as mass, center of

interactions of concerned disciplines are described, and gravity, moments of inertia, aerodynamic coefficients (e.g.,

some of the geometry variables, geometry constraints, and coefficients of lift, drag, and pitch moment), and change of

optimization objectives are described based on the thrust against time. Substituting these characteristics into the

simplification of a benchmark rocket. Second, the mathematical model of the ballistics, the range and change of

subdisciplines including component configuration or angle of attack with time and the change of angle of sideslip

parametric modeling, aerodynamics, engine analysis, with time are obtained. Lastly, the stability can be analyzed

trajectory simulation, and stability analysis are described. based on the flight information. This is one iteration of the

Third, a case is used to demonstrate that MDO techniques entire design process. If the performance is not good enough,

can truly improve the rocket performance effectively. UG NX the iteration should be performed again and again. The

(Siemens Co., available from www.plm.automation.siemens. relationships and interactions of the required disciplines

com/en_us/products/nx/index.shtml), a commercial computer- are illustrated in Figure 1, and a more detailed description

aided-design (CAD) package, was used for the parametric is given in the following sections.

modeling. A surrogate model technique was involved in the Basically, an MDO problem is an optimization problem

aerodynamics discipline; the MDF method was adopted as the with or without constraints. Design variables, optimization

MDO architecture, and the multi-island genetic algorithm objectives, and design constraints are the three key factors.

(MIGA) was combined with sequential quadratic programming Before defining these factors, a simplified benchmark rocket

as the search algorithm. is defined. It is based on the sophisticated A-100 rocket

system (the weapon system and rocket are shown in

Figures 2 and 3). The body of the simplified rocket, which

Definition of the problem is illustrated in Figure 4, includes five main components,

Multidisciplinary design optimization of WAF rockets, namely the control section, the warhead, the engine, the

similar to the traditional design method (Zhou and Ju, nozzle, and the stabilizer (the tail fins – wings). The

2005), requires a number of iterations to achieve a balance control section consists of an arc segment that starts from

between performance and design parameters. First, the the rocket nose and a cylindrical segment just after the arc

aerodynamic configuration is determined based on former segment. The former is generated through rotation of a

experience or new concepts. The geometry parameters and specified generatrix along the longitudinal axis of the

type of engine propellant (fuel) are then determined. After rocket, and the latter is assumed to be a solid cylinder. The

the burn time of the engine is chosen, the rocket warhead and engine are both simplified similar to the

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Optimization objective

The selected optimization objective is to maximize the

payload ratio (PR), which is defined as the ratio of the

warhead mass (Mwarhead) to the rocket takeoff mass

(Mtakeoff). The objective is selected based on the designer’s

intention, and PR is defined as follows:

M warhead

PR ~

M takeoff

ð1Þ

V w rw

~

V ac rac z V cc rcc z V w rw z V e rei z V n rn z V s rs

subscripts ac, cc, e, ei, n, s, and w denote arc segment,

cylindrical segment, engine, initial engine, nozzle, WAF,

and warhead, respectively. Normally, the volume of the

Figure 2. A-100 weapon system. specified model can be calculated automatically using

CAD software. However, equivalent densities must be

cylindrical segment of the control section and consist of solid defined by the designer. The values and units of the

cylinders. The nozzle is a hollow cylinder. The profile of the concerned equivalent densities are shown in Table 3, and

simplified stabilizer, which is shown in Figure 5, consists of all were deduced based on the benchmark rocket.

six panels of WAF.

Design constraints

Design variables

The constraints of the geometry can be regarded as the

Based on the basic theory of rocket design (Zhou and Ju, design space. For example, the rocket diameter belongs in

2005) and the aforementioned simplifications, the the range of [100.0, 400.0] (in mm), and the rocket length to

independent parameters to define the rocket geometry are diameter ratio belongs in the range of [10.0, 30.0]. The design

shown in Table 1. They are also the design variables for space of the geometry is defined according to popular

the rocket geometry. rockets worldwide and the current industrial foundation of

Though the parameters in Table 1 are independent and a specified country (China). Some other design constraints in

generally used to describe the rocket geometry, they are the subdisciplines are discussed in detail later in the paper.

not convenient enough to construct the solid rocket model,

especially using CAD software. To fix this problem, the

Multidisciplinary design optimization

relevant design parameters, which can be deduced from the

aforementioned independent design variables and are more The MDF method, which is also referred to as the fully

convenient to construct the geometry model, are shown in integrated optimization (FIO) method or nested analysis and

Table 2. design (NAND) method (Keane and Nair, 2005), was

employed as the MDO architecture. The whole MDO

system includes structural analysis, aerodynamics, engine

analysis, trajectory simulation, and stability analysis, which

are described in detail in the following sections.

Structural analysis

Structural analysis computes the mass, center of gravity,

and moments of inertia of the rocket. Stress and fatigue have

not yet been considered. This subdiscipline can also be called

parametric modeling or components configuration.

A novel geometry representation method, called the ‘‘point-

orientation and vector-direction’’ method, is proposed based

on the simplified rocket and is illustrated in Figure 6. Five

points (solid circles) and one vector (solid line with an

arrowhead) are involved. Orientation points are employed

to describe the starting and end points of each component,

and the direction vector is used to describe the longitudinal

Figure 3. A-100 rocket. axis of the rocket (from nose to tail). Five orientation points

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Table 1. Design variables for the rocket geometry. Table 2. Design parameters for the rocket geometry.

D (mm) Rocket diameter; diameter of warhead, engine, and L (mm) Length of rocket; calculated as L 5 lBD

cylinder segment of control section LA (mm) Length of arc segment; calculated as LA 5 lAD

lB Length to diameter ratio of rocket; defined as ratio Lcy (mm) Length of control section cylindrical segment;

of rocket length to rocket diameter, and can be assumed to be a function of D and L; Lcy 5

described as lB 5 L/D f(D, L) 5 exp[(D 2 300.0)/D] 6 506.0 6 L/7600.0

lA Length to diameter ratio of arc segment; defined as LC (mm) Length of control section; LC 5 LA + Lcy

ratio of arc segment length to rocket diameter Lb (mm) Length of warhead; Lb 5 lb(L 2 LC)

lb Ratio of warhead length to rocket length (excluding Lf (mm) Distance between WAF trailing edge root and rocket

control section); can be used to describe the tail; Lf 5 L 6 121.0/7600.0

warhead power and calculate the payload ratio LW Wingspan of WAF; LW 5 D sin(j)/2, where j ƒ 2p/n

j (u) Opening angle of WAF; shown in Figure 5 and (n is the number of WAFs and is kept constant at 6

defined as angle between the chord and the for the benchmark rocket)

tangent to the surface of the nozzle section Lr (mm) Length of WAF wing root; Lr 5 LW/lW

lW Aspect ratio of WAF; defined as ratio of WAF span Ln (mm) Length of nozzle; assumed to be a function of Lf and

to chord length of WAF wing root Lr: Ln 5 Lf + Lr 6 1.1 + 10.0

c Relative thickness of WAF; defined as ratio of WAF THn (mm) Absolute thickness of nozzle; assumed to be a

thickness to chord length of WAF wing root function of D, THn 5 D/10.0

d (u) Installation angle of WAF; defined as angle between LE (mm) Length of engine; LE 5 L 2 LC 2 Lb 2 Ln

WAF wing root axis and the rocket longitudinal c (mm) Absolute thickness of WAF; c ~ cLr

axis; illustrated in Figure 5 x1 (u) Sweepback angle of trailing edge of WAF; constant

x0 (u) Sweepback angle of WAF leading edge; shown in and equals 20u for the benchmark rocket

Figure 5

Note: All of the mathematical relationships in the table are determined

based on the benchmark rocket. Some of these parameters are shown in

Figures 4 and 5.

combined with the direction vector can describe the nose, the

end plane of the control cabin and the starting plane of the There are two advantages with this geometry

warhead, the end plane of the warhead and the starting plane representation method. First, every component can be

of the engine, the end plane of the engine and the starting constructed in parallel as long as the orientation points,

plane of the nozzle, and the tail of the rocket. direction vector, and relevant parameters are known. The

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development of the commercial CAD package called UG

Value NX (Siemens Co., available from www.plm.automation.siemens.

Symbol Description (6103) com/en_us/products/nx/index.shtml) using C++ programming

rac Equivalent density of arc segment 1.3840 language (Kirch-Prinz and Prinz, 2001). The three-

rcc Equivalent density of cylindrical segment 1.1399 dimensional (3D) solid model of one WAF rocket with a

rw Equivalent density of warhead 1.7856 Karman nose and six WAF panels is shown in Figure 7, and

rei Initial equivalent density of engine 1.7856 the six 3D WAF panels are shown in Figure 8. The opening

ref Final equivalent density of engine 0.5603

angle of the WAFs is shown in Figure 9, which is the right tail

rn Equivalent density of nozzle 0.5603

rs Equivalent density of WAF 7.8000 view of the rocket. The characteristics of the rocket, such as

mass, center of gravity, and moments of inertia, can be

obtained using the nested function of UG NX. The

rocket model is obtained just by assembling these generation of invalid designs is avoided during the process

components. Second, this method is compatible with of parameterization. This can increase the robustness of the

various fidelity models, which is very important and very entire optimization process. A more detailed description of

useful for MDO. parametric modeling can be found in Zhao (2007).

Based on the theory of Samareh (2001), parametric This section provides rocket geometry parameters for the

modeling techniques can be classified into three categories, aerodynamics subdiscipline, mass, center of gravity and

namely the discrete approach, free-form deformation moments of inertia for the ballistic simulation, and

methods, and CAD-based approaches. The last category is relevant geometry parameters for the engine analysis. In

the most widely used because there are so many benefits addition, it provides two-dimensional (2D) figures and 3D

from the current CAD software. The code of parametric models for the design documentations.

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(Anderson, 1995), but there are still some problems integrating

CFD techniques into the MDO system. For instance, CFD

tools are not automatic and robust enough, especially on mesh

generation. In addition, the CFD technique is time-

consuming. As a compromise in terms of computation

accuracy and time, the surrogate model technique was

employed in our MDO system. This technique is a key

element of MDO methodology and has been used in almost

every MDO application (Simpson et al., 2004; 2008).

The orthogonal array is employed as the design of

experiment (DOE) technology and radial bases function

(RBF) neural network as the approximation method (Hick

and Turner, 1999; Keane and Nair, 2005). High-fidelity data

are obtained using the commercial CFD package FLUENT

(Tu et al., 2007). A structured mesh of a representative WAF

rocket is shown in Figure 10, and the mesh of the WAF and

its vicinity are shown in Figure 11. Figure 12 shows a typical

velocity contour near the nose of the WAF rocket from a

high-fidelity model. In this case, the Mach number is 3.0 and

the angle of attack is 0.0. Steady flow fields were simulated to

obtain the static aerodynamic coefficients, such as the

Figure 8. Six panels of the WAF. coefficients of lift, drag, and pitch moment. Unsteady flow

fields with a dynamic mesh were simulated to obtain the

Aerodynamics dynamic derivatives, like the coefficient of the derivative of

the roll damping. The governing equations here were the

The MDO methodology emphasizes that the high-fidelity Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations with

computation models should be employed. In terms of the Spalart–Allmaras 1 equation turbulence model (Tu et al.,

aerodynamics, experimental data obtained using wind 2007). More information about how to calculate relevant

tunnels are undoubtedly closest to reality but are too aerodynamic coefficients and validation of this calculation

expensive and time-consuming to be practical and method can be found in Mao et al. (2007a). A more detailed

necessary at the conceptual design stage. Computational description of how to construct surrogate models and

comparisons of several surrogate model techniques, such

as the polynomial response surface, the Kriging method,

and the RBF neural network, are given in Zhao (2007) and

Zhao et al. (2007). The RBF neural network has been

identified as having the highest approximation accuracy

(relative error less than 5.0%) for our problem (Zhao,

2007). It is also known that the RBF neural network will

provide higher approximation accuracy if it is constructed

for every coefficient of the aerodynamic force–moment

separately (Zhao et al., 2007). The neural network toolbox

of MATLAB was employed to construct an RBF neural

network (The MathWorks, Inc., 2006), and the surrogate

model was constructed off-line.

This section describes the key element of the MDO system.

It provides a fast and effective method to integrate an

aerodynamics high-fidelity model into the MDO system.

For example, an evaluation using FLUENT needs about

3 h, and an evaluation using the well-established surrogate

model needs only 8 ms.

Engine

Generally, the WAF rocket uses a solid rocket engine as a

Figure 9. Tail view of the rocket. thrust generator. It is unnecessary to design the engine in

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changes in thrust and rocket mass with the burn time. In

response to this characteristic, two types of simplified

propulsion were introduced, one with a single combustion

chamber with a single thrust value (type 1), and one with a

two combustion chambers with two thrust values (type 2)

(Dong and Shang 1996), as sketched in Figure 13. It is

assumed that the mass-specific impulse (Isp) of the solid

engine is constant and is obtained using the following

equation based on the benchmark rocket: Figure 13. Thrust changes versus operating time.

24 E 2010 CASI

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independent design variable, the thrust value of the second

stage (p2) is calculated as follows:

p2 ~ I ð1 { I% Þ = AT22 ð8Þ

calculated as

time and changes of the engine mass center against the flight

time to the trajectory simulation sub-discipline.

Trajectory simulation

The six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) trajectory equations

of a spinning missile were employed to simulate the rocket’s

Figure 14. Mass changes versus operating time. flight ballistics (Qian et al., 2000). MATLAB/Simulink was

employed as the solver of the ballistics ordinary differential

equations (ODEs). This discipline contributes a design

I sp ~ 839:31=333:55 ~ 2:5157kN:s:kg{1 ð2Þ

variable (h0) called the fire angle, which is defined as the

The changes in mass with burn time for the two types of angle between the ground floor and the longitudinal axis

engines are sketched in Figure 14. This discipline provides of the rocket when launching. In addition, this discipline

five more design variables, namely the propulsion type (PS), offers a constraint, the range, which is one of the major

the ratio of the total impulse of the first stage to the total criteria to evaluate the rocket performance.

impulse of the entire engine (I%, equals 1.0 for type 1), the

delay time (DT) between the first stage burning and the Stability analysis

second stage burning, the burn time of the first stage The stability analysis consists of the static stability

(AT21), and the burn time of the second stage (AT22). analysis and the dynamic stability analysis. Dynamic

PS is equal to zero (type 1) or one (type 2). The mass stability analysis includes the coning motion analysis, the

difference of the engine before and after burning (Dm) can following stability analysis, and the resonance effects

be calculated as follows: analysis. This discipline will introduce four more

constraints into the MDO system as follows: the static

Dm~Ve (rei {ref ) ð3Þ

stability margin must be larger than 10.0%, the ratio of the

The total impulse of the solid engine (I) can be then be pitch oscillation period to the roll oscillation period must be

determined using the following equation: larger than one safe factor (1.2 for this kind of rocket) when

the rocket is flying, the dynamic equilibrium angle must be

I ~ Isp Dm ð4Þ smaller than 3.0u at the highest flight point, and the

difference between the balanced rotation rate (ve) and the

For type 1, I% equals 1.0, only the total burn time of the critical rotation rate (vc) must be smaller than 0.0.

first stage (TAT1) is the independent design variable, and p The static stability margin (ssm) is calculated as follows:

can be calculated as follows:

ssm ~ ðxF { xG Þ = L ð10Þ

p ~ I = TAT1 ð5Þ

where xF is the distance between the nose and the center of

For type 2, I% is an independent design variable, so the the pressure from the air, xG is the distance between the nose

total impulse of the first stage (I1) can be calculated as and the center of gravity, and L is the length of the rocket. If

follows: ssm . 0, the rocket has static stability; ssm 5 0 means a

transient static stability; and ssm , 0 means a static

I1 ~I|I% ð6Þ

instability. More information on how to calculate static

Taking the burn time of the first stage (AT21) as another stability can be found in Qian et al. (2000).

independent design variable, the thrust value of the first The following stability is caused by the gravity of the

stage (p1) is calculated as follows: rocket (Xu, 2004). To avoid this phenomenon, the

dynamic equilibrium angle (Da) must be smaller than 3.0u

p1 ~ I1 = AT21 ð7Þ at the highest flight point. This equilibrium angle, also

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Vol. 56, No. 1, April/avril 2010

considered as the total angle of attack at the highest point, is MDO framework and search algorithm

defined as the angle between the longitudinal axis and the

The commercial software iSIGHT developed by

vector of the flying velocity of the rocket and can be

Engineous Software, Inc. was employed as the MDO

calculated using the following equation (Xu, 2004):

framework. Because it is a highly nonlinear problem, the

kzd kzd MIGA combined with sequential quadratic programming

Da~ 2 h_ 2 2 g cos h ð11Þ nested in iSIGHT was employed as the search algorithm

k V k V

(Engineous Software, Inc., 2004).

where A is the equatorial moment of inertia, k 5 (|kz|)1/2, kz 5 Similar to other widely used genetic algorithms, the

rSLmz/2A, kzd 5 rSL2mzd/2A, mz is the coefficient of the MIGA employs a so-called elitism technique which

pitch moment, mzd is the derivative of the coefficient of the guarantees that the best genetic material is carried over to

damping of pitch moment, r is the air density, L is the the child generation and allows the best individuals from the

reference length, S is the reference area, and h is the angle previous generation to be preserved without alteration. In

of the obliquity of the trajectory. addition, the selection operation in MIGA employs the

The period of the pitch oscillation Tp is just the period of so-called ‘‘tournament selection’’ scheme. The main feature

the angle of attack and can be calculated as of MIGA that distinguishes it from traditional genetic

algorithms is the fact that each population of individuals is

Mz z Mzvz ~ Aa

€ ð12Þ

divided into several subpopulations called ‘‘islands.’’ Some

where Mz is the pitch moment, Mzvz is the damping of the individuals are then selected from each island and migrated

pitch moment, and a is the angle of attack, and with the to different islands periodically. This operation is called

initial condition described as follows: ‘‘migration.’’ Two parameters control the migration

process, namely the migration interval, which is the

at~0 ~a0 number of generations between each migration, and the

ð13Þ

a_ t~0 ~0 migration rate, which is the percentage of individuals

migrated from each island at the time of migration

where t is the time. (Engineous Software, Inc., 2004).

The period of the roll oscillation Tr is calculated by solving

Flow chart and realization

Tr ~ 2p = vx ð14Þ

Based on the previous descriptions, the flow chart of an

Thus, the following equation must be satisfied to avoid the MDO system of the conceptual design of WAF rockets is

resonance effects: illustrated in Figure 15. First, all of the independent design

Tp variables are organized into four groups based on the special

§1:2 ð15Þ requirement of each subdiscipline. The organizations are

Tr

shown in Table 4. Each group is then transformed to the

Equation (15) can also be written as corresponding solver. After that, the mass, center of

gravity, moments of inertia, and PR are obtained through

vx § 1:2 | 2p = Tp ð16Þ structural analysis; coefficients of aerodynamic force and

aerodynamic moments, both of which depend on the flight

More detailed information on how to deal with the following

velocity and the angle of attack or the angle of sideslip, are

stability and resonance effects can be found in Xu (2004).

calculated by the surrogate model in the aerodynamics

The balanced rotation rate (ve) and the critical rotation

discipline; the change in thrust with burn time, the change

rate (vc) can be calculated as follows:

in engine mass with burn time, and the change in engine mass

c1 V center with burn time are deduced in engine analysis; and the

ve ~{ ð17Þ launching system module in the flow chart is to set the fire

c3 L

angle and submit it to the trajectory simulation. All of the

c7 c9 qSL2 outputs of the aforementioned four disciplines are provided

vc ~ ð18Þ to the trajectory simulation. Then, the range, PR, thrust

(C{A)c5 V

value of the first stage, ratio of the first thrust to the

where V is the velocity of the rocket, q is the dynamic second thrust, static stability margin, ve, vc, ratio of the

pressure, C is the pole moment of inertia, and c1, c2, c5, c7, pitch period to the yaw period, and equilibrium angle are

and c9 are obtained based on the aerodynamic coefficients obtained. The latter four outputs are used to evaluate the

by the weighted least squares method. stability of the rocket in the stability analysis module, and

When ve , vc for every point of the ballistics of the the other outputs are used to evaluate the rocket

rocket, the coning motion would result in asymptotic performance. The entire process is under the control of the

stability. More detailed discussions on coning motion can MDO framework, and the realization on the iSIGHT

be found in Mao et al. (2006; 2007b) and Zhao (2007). platform is shown in Figure 16.

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Table 4. Organization of the design variables into groups based on the requirements of each subdiscipline.

D lB lA lb Dj lW c d x0 PS I% AT21 DT AT22 h0

Structural analysis ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 6

Aerodynamics ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 6 6 6 6 6 6

Engine ! ! ! ! 6 6 6 6 6 ! ! ! ! ! 6

Trajectory simulation 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 !

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Vol. 56, No. 1, April/avril 2010

Table 5 is calculated as follows:

One case is studied here. The design variables and design

space are described in Table 5, and the objective and Dj ~ j0 { j ð19Þ

constraints are described in Table 6. To evaluate the

optimization results more conveniently, the propulsion where j0 is the opening angle of the benchmark rocket and is

type was not considered as an optimization variable and equal to 60.0u.

kept the same as that of the benchmark rocket. Based on In this case, the relevant parameters of MIGA are

the current industrial capability, the thrust value of the first described as follows: the size of subpopulation is 20, the

stage was limited to 250.0 kN. The range was supposed to be number of islands is 10, the number of generations is 100,

70.0 km but was set in the range of [69.95, 70.05] km because the rate of crossover is 1.0, the rate of mutation is 0.01, the

variable variable limit value limit result

D (mm) ! 100.00 300.00 400.00 395.76

lB ! 10.00 25.30 30.00 21.33

lA ! 2.00 2.30 2.50 2.49

lb (%) ! 10.00 35.00 50.00 44.45

Dj (u) ! 0.00 0.00 20.00 7.27

lW ! 0.400 0.600 0.800 0.628

c ! 0.010 0.015 0.020 0.012

d (9) ! 30.0 40.0 60.0 48.0

x0 (u) ! 15.00 20.00 30.00 20.67

PS 6 0 1 1 1

I% (%) ! 30.0 70.0 90.0 58.2

AT21 (s) ! 0.00 5.00 20.00 5.00

DT (s) ! 0.00 2.00 50.00 9.04

AT22 (s) ! 0.00 10.00 20.00 12.65

h0 (u) ! 40.00 45.00 60.00 58.00

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Objective

Payload ratio (q) 0.0000 0.3446 — 0.4248

Constraint

Range (km) 69.950 47.770 70.050 70.026

Difference between ve and vc (s–1) — 246.96 0.00 243.02

Ratio of pitch period to roll period 1.20 2.30 — 2.20

Equilibrium angle at highest point (u) — 0.87 3.00 0.95

Static stability margin (%) 10.0 23.6 — 22.9

Thrust value of first stage (kN) — 108.37 250.00 134.96

Ratio of first thrust to second thrust 2.00 4.70 — 3.51

rate of migration is 0.5, and the interval of migration is 5. The experiences of subdiscipline experts are absolutely

Based on these parameters, there would be more than 5000 ignored. The collaborative optimization (CO) method is

iterations. We assumed that it was enough to find a good considered to be the most practical because its

result. iSIGHT decided the final result based on the configuration is consistent with the divisions in the current

feasibilities of all of the valid design points. The final industry organization. We also plan to apply the CO method

results are shown in Tables 5 and 6. to the conceptual design of the WAF rocket in the future.

The final results showed that the payload ratio was

improved from 0.3446 to 0.4248. Additionally, the range

increased significantly. To achieve these goals, the diameter

Acknowledgments

should be increased, and the rocket length to diameter ratio This research was supported by the Second Brain Korea

was decreased. This results in the rocket length increasing 21 Project in the year 2009 and by the World Class Univer-

from 7.95 m to 8.44 m. With the increase in lA, the arc sity (WCU) program through the Korea Science and Engin-

segment length of the control section increased from 0.69 m eering Foundation funded by the Ministry of Education,

to almost 1.0 m. The cylindrical segment length of the control Science and Technology (No. R32-2008-000-10022-0). The

section increased from 0.55 m to 0.72 m, which means that authors are thankful to Mrs. MiSun Park for her correction

there is much more space for the control system. The warhead of the manuscript.

length increased from 2.24 m to 3.00 m. In addition, the ratio

of the total impulse in the first stage to the total impulse for

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