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17.

Shaft Design Introduction


Objectives „ Shaft must have adequate torsional strength to
• Compute forces acting on shafts from gears, pulleys, and transmit torque and not be over stressed.
sprockets.
„ Shafts are mounted in bearings and transmit power
• Find bending moments from gears, pulleys, or sprockets that
are transmitting loads to or from other devices. through devices such as gears, pulleys, cams and
• Determine torque in shafts from gears, pulleys, sprockets,
clutches.
clutches, and couplings. „ Components such as gears are mounted on shafts
• Compare combined stresses to suitable allowable stresses, using keys.
including any required stress reduction factors such as stress „ Shaft must sustain a combination of bending and
concentration factors and factors of safety.
torsional loads.
• Determine suitability of shaft design and/or necessary size of
shafting.

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Standard diameters of shafts Torsion of circular shafts

Diameter (in.) Diameter


increments (in.)
Upto 3 1/16

3 to 5 1/8

5 to 8 1/4

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Torsion of circular shafts


TL
Angle of twist, θ =
GJ
„ θ = the angle of twist (radians)
„ T = the applied torque (in-
(in-lb.)
„ L = shaft length (in.)
„ J = polar moment on inertia of the shaft cross section
(in4)
„ G = shear modulus of elasticity of the shaft material
(lb/in2)

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1
Torsional Shear Stresses Shear Stress in a shaft

Torque Torque
16 T
Tc „ Shear stress, SS =
„ Torsional shear stress, SS = π D3
J Where
„ T = torque
J = Polar moment of inertia = π × d
4
„ 16 T
32 „ D = diameter of the shaft = 3
„ c = radius of the shaft π SS
„ T = Torque
„ d = diameter of shaft
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Forces on spur gear teeth Forces on spur gear teeth


„ Ft = Transmitted force „ Power, P = Tn or T = 63,000 P
„ Fn = Normal force or separating 63,000 n
force
„ Torque, T = Ft r and r = Dp /2
„ Fr = Resultant force
„ θ = pressure angle „ Combining the above we can write
„ Fn = Ft tan θ
2T 2 P × 63,000
Ft = =
Ft Dp Dp n
Fr =
cos θ
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Loads from Bevel gears Loads from Bevel gears

„ An additional axial force will be acting on the shaft „ Force transmitted, Fn = Ft tan θ cos γ
because of the bevel angle „ θ = Pressure angle
„ For the pinion it is relatively small, and can be „ γ = Cone angle
neglected. „ Axial Force, Fa = Ft tan θ sin γ
„ Resultant Force, Fr = 2
Ft + F2
„ For the larger gear it will be significant and will be
larger than the radial separating force. „ F = Fn or Fa depending on whichever is larger

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2
Loads from Worm gears Loads from Worm gears
To
„ Driving force on the worm gear, Ft =
Axial rwg
„ To = Output torque
Driving Ft sin φ
„ Separating force, Fs =
cos φ cos λ - f sin λ
where
„ λ = lead angle
Separating
„ ϕ = normal pressure angle

„ f = coefficient of friction

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Loads from Worm gears Loads from Worm gears


„ Axial force on the worm gear
⎛ cos φ sin λ + f cos λ ⎞
Fa(gear) = Ft(gear) ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟
⎝ cos φ cos λ - f sin λ ⎠
where
„ λ = lead angle

„ ϕ = normal pressure angle

„ f = coefficient of friction

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Loads from Belts and Chains Bending of circular shafts


„ For a belt, Total load, Ft = Ff + Fb „ Shafts transmit power through gears and
„ Net driving force, Fd = Ff – Fb pulleys
„ Driving torque, T = Fd r „ These produce bending load in addition to
„ r = effective radius of pulley or sprocket torsion
„ For a chain Fb = 0 „ Use strength of material approach to calculate
the reaction forces and bending moments

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3
Bending of circular shafts Bending of circular shafts

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Shaft Design Problems Example Problem 17-1: Design Stresses in Shafts


• Shaft shown drives a gear set that is transmitting 5
„ Step 1: Calculate the torque on the shaft from power hp at 1750 rpm.
„ Step 2: Find the torsional stress in the shaft • Shaft is supported in self-aligning ball bearings
„ Step 3: Calculate the loads coming from gears, belts and gears are both 10 pitch, 40 tooth, 20° spur
gears.
or chains
• Find torsional and bending stresses in shaft.
„ Step 4: Calculate the bending moment due to the
acting forces. If necessary combine the forces.
„ Step 5: Calculate the bending stress in the shaft
„ Step 6: Combine the bending stress and the torsional
stress using the theories discussed in chapter 4
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Example Problem 17-1: Design Stresses in Shafts (cont’d.) Example Problem 17-1: Design Stresses in Shafts (cont’d.)
• Find the torsional stress in the shaft.

− First find Z':


• Find the torsion in the shaft: (Appendix 3)

(2-6) π D3
Z' =
Tn 16
hp =
63,000
π (.75 in)3
Z' =
then: 16

(17-1) Z' = .083 in3


63,000 hp (3-6)
T = T
n Ss =
Z'
63,000 (5)
T = 180 in-lb
1750 Ss =
.083 in3
T = 180 in-lb
Ss = 2170 lb/in2

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4
Example Problem 17-1: Design Stresses in Shafts (cont’d.) Example Problem 17-1: Design Stresses in Shafts (cont’d.)
• Find the resultant force on the shaft:
• Find the load at the gear pitch circle: (12-2)
Ft
Fr =
(11-4)
cos θ
NT
Dp =
Pd
90 lb
Fr =
cos 20°
40
Dp =
10 Fr = 96 lb

Dp = 4 inches • Find the maximum moment:


(12-3) (Appendix 2)
2T FL
Ft = Mm =
DP 4

2 (180 in-lb) 96 lb (15 in)


Ft = Mm =
4 in 4

Ft = 90 lb Mm = 360 in-lb

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Example Problem 17-1: Design Stresses in Shafts (cont’d.) Combined Stresses in Shafts
• Find the stress:

M
„ As seen in Chap 4
S =
Z

(Appendix 3)
π D3
Z =
32

π (.75 in)3
Z =
32

Z = .041in3

M
S =
Z

360 in-lb
S =
.041 in3

S = 8780 lb/in2

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Combined maximum shear stress Example Problem 17-2: Combined Stresses in


Shafts
„ τ = Maximum combined shear stress • From previous example problem, find the combined stress using
the maximum shear stress theorem:
„ S = normal stress ⎡ 2 ⎛ S ⎞2 ⎤
1/2

„ SS = shear stress τ = ⎢ SS + ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ (4-5)

⎣⎢ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎦⎥ ⎛ ⎛ S ⎞2 ⎞ ½
τ = ⎜Ss2 + ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎟
„ This can be rewritten as ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ ⎠

− Substituting stresses from previous example problem:

D3
(T + M 2 ) 1/2
5.1 2
τ=



2
τ = ⎜(2170 lb/in2) + ⎜ 2
⎛ 8780 ⎞2 ⎞ ½
lb/in2⎟ ⎟
⎠ ⎠

„ T = Torque in the shaft τ = 4900 lb/in 2

„ M = Maximum moment − This should be compared to shear stress allowables.

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5
Example Problem 17-3: Combined Stresses in
Maximum Normal Stress Theory Shafts
• From Example Problem 17-1, find the combined stress using the
„ σ = equivalent combined normal stress maximum normal stress theory:

⎛ ⎛S⎞ ⎞
2
„ S = normal stress from bending or axial loads σ =
S
± ⎜ Ss2 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎟
1
2
2 ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎟⎠

„ SS = shear or torsional stress
1/2 – Substituting stresses from Example Problem 17-1:
S ⎡ 2 ⎛S⎞ ⎤
2

σ= ± ⎢SS + ⎜ ⎟ ⎥
2 ⎣⎢ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎦⎥ ⎛ ⎛ 8780 in 2 ⎞ ⎞⎟
2
8780 lb / in 2 ⎜ 1
σ = + ⎜ ( 2170 lb / in 2 ) 2 + ⎜⎜ ⎟
⎟ ⎟⎟
2
2 ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎠
„ This can be written as ⎝
σ = 9300 lb / in 2
5.1
[
σ = 3 M + (T 2 + M 2 )1/2
D
] – This should be compared to the normal stress allowable.

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Solid Circular shaft Critical speeds of shafts

D =3
τ
(T + M 2 ) 1/2
5.1 2

D= 3
5.1
σ
[
M + (T 2 + M 2 )1/2 ]

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Critical speeds of shafts


„ Operating speed should be 20% away from the critical speed.
„ Vibration frequency, f is given by
1 kg
f=
2π W
„ f = frequency in cycles per second, Hz
„ k = force constant, force per inch of deflection
„ g = acceleration due to gravity, 386.4 in./s2
„ W = weight in pounds, lb

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6
„ Change the frequency to rpm Shaft with n concentrated loads
„ Critical speed, Nc = 60 × f
„ Rayleigh’
Rayleigh’s equation is used.
„ Also k is weight divided by deflection
W
k=
δ W1 δ1 + W2 δ 2 + W3 δ3 + ... + Wn δ n
60 Wg N c = 187.7 2 2 2 2
Nc = W1 δ1 + W2 δ2 + W3 δ3 + ... + Wn δ n
2π Wδ

1
N c = 187.7
δ

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Example Problem 17-5: Critical Speed Example Problem 17-5: Critical Speed (cont’d.)
• Find the estimated critical speed for the shaft in Example Problem 17-1
(assume the entire shaft diameter is ¾ inch).
188
− First, find deflection: Nc =
FL 3
(Appendix 2)

δ = – 48 EI (17-14)
188
(Appendix 3)
Nc =
I =
π D4 .21
64
Nc = 410 rpm
π (.75 in)4
I =
64

I = .016 in4

96 lb (15 in)4
δ = – 48 (30 x 106 lb/in2) (.016 in4) • This is approximate, and additional multiples would exist at 820,
1230, and 1640 rpm.
δ = .21 inch

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