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Reactions - The fact that breastfeeding in public is even an issue speaks volumes about the

dominance of bottle-feeding in our culture. Recent generations have become so accustomed

to bottle-feeding that the normal, natural sight of breastfeeding is foreign to most. A lack of
tolerance, a sense that there is something wrong, even inappropriate or verging on taboo,
about contact between a child and a mother’s breast demonstrates how breastfeeding has
been undermined.
 Exposure to Breast Milk in Infancy and the Risk of Breast Cancer,” went on to also
conclude that women who were breastfed as infants have 25 percent lowered risks in
developing breast cancer compared to women who were bottle-fed as babies.
Early this year, according to the WHO, doctors and researchers from the University of
Southern California presented during the annual meeting of the American Association for
Cancer Research in Los Angeles the result of their study on the protective effects of
breastfeeding, particularly with late pregnancies.
“It [result] suggested that breastfeeding reduces the risk of developing both the common
and rarer form of breast cancer even as women choose to delay pregnancy after 25 years
old,” it said.
The country’s 2003 National Demographic Health Survey, the WHO noted, shows that in the
Philippines the breastfeeding rates are at dangerously low levels. “In fact, only 16.1 percent
are exclusively breastfed for four to five months of age and 13 percent of Filipino babies
were never breastfed at all.”
The WHO, Department of Health and United Nations Children’s Fund have all called on
renewed breastfeeding culture as a result of these alarming statistics.
Breastfeeding is “known to provide superior and long-term health benefits to babies. It also
provides health advantages to women. Apart from reducing the risk of breast cancer,
breastfeeding also decreases the chances for uterine, ovarian and endometrial cancer,”
. a public health strategy for improving child health survival, improving maternal morbidity,
controlling health care costs, and conserving natural resources.”
. all nations must take appropriate measures “to ensure that all segments of society . . . are
supported in the use of basic knowledge of . . . the advantages of breastfeeding .

Predisposing Factors of Pneumonia in Pediatric Ward

June 04, 2010

Public health is the promotion of health at a community level by the government. It includes prevention
of disease through supplying clean water, proper waste disposal, and legislation for clean air, health
education programs, and medical care for the whole community through doctors, nurses, and hospitals.
Recognizing the multi-faceted nature of health, its production and maintenance, the tendency has been
to assume that health promotion practice should encompass a similarly broad sweep. Whitelaw et al
(1997) have argued that this tendency is unhelpful because it masks tensions between competing
paradigms and agendas. Specifically, they warn that the creation of global health promotion models
could inhibit constructive debate around alternative perspectives on health. They conclude by noting
that permanent tensions exist that need not necessarily be resolved. They identify three initial areas
for attention: professional and political matters, technical and methodological dilemmas, and research
questions. The challenge for practitioners is how they manage these tensions in order to deliver action
that addresses contemporaneous policy agendas (Whitelaw et al, 1997). In accordance to this, this
paper aims to review the predisposing factors of pneumonia in pediatric ward.

Statement of the Problem

In this light, the following research questions serve as guidelines for the researcher to contribute to the
existing data and information regarding predisposing factors of pneumonia in pediatric ward in Kenya
focusing on the Healthcare Associated Infections in hospitals.
1. What are the current healthcare problems concerning pneumonia in pediatric ward in Kenya?
2. What are the problems and issues encountered among Kenyan hospitals with regards to
Ø lack of cleanliness in hospitals,
Ø poor levels of compliance with standard hygiene protocols and
Ø development of antimicrobial resistance?
3. How the healthcare provisions and policies are implemented and practiced among Kenyan hospitals
within the context of the general hospital strategies in response to Pneumonia in Pediatric Ward?
4. What policies should be reviewed in order to promote better healthcare provisions to the public
concerning predisposing factors of pneumonia in pediatric ward in Kenya?

Significance of the Study

The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of health promotion interventions are under increasing scrutiny
in the new evidence-based cultural climate within the health sector in the Kenya. While there is some
concern about the extent to which expectations relating to the success of health promotion practice are
more pronounced than those relating to clinical practice, the problem most commonly identified by
researchers is the unwillingness of funding and commissioning agencies to accept the validity and
viability of non-experimental evaluation strategies.
This study will be able to divert limited resources from knowledge development to collecting evidence
to satisfy a managerial agenda driven by searches for efficiency, cost effectiveness and quality assurance
in public expenditure, which, in the Kenya at least, has led to an obsession with targets and indicators.

Much better that those resources are invested in the development of approaches which address the

complex holistic nature of the social change processes that constitute health promotion. It is also important that the
methods and criteria of effectiveness used are consistent with the fundamental principles of health promotion,
empowerment, participation, collaboration and equity.

Overview of Methodology

This research study will be conducted under the qualitative paradigm using the qualitative means of
data gathering. According to Gereffi (1999), in general, qualitative method is concerned with the quality
of the collected data rather than the bulk of informants who participated. As such the study will operate
primarily under the qualitative research approach wherein the quality of the information gathered
rather than the quantity of sources that are available to the researcher, is highly recommended so as
not to compromise the quality of the data (Gummesson, 2000).Due to the limited capability of the
quantitative method as a single resource there is a need to provide a qualitative exploratory research
procedure that will enable the researcher to perform in-depth analysis and extensive interpretation of
the findings of the study.

Gereffi, G 1999, International trade and industrial upgrading in the apparel commodity chain,J o u r na l
of International Economics, vol. 48, pp. 3770.
Gummesson, E 2000,Qualitative Methods in Management Research, 2nd edition, Sage, Thousand Oaks,
Whitelaw A.,McKeown K., Williams J. 1997 Global health promotion models: enlightenment or
entrapment?Health Education Research 12: 479-90
Mothers Know and Do the Best
Ti, Maybelle, Tet Siasco and Beverly Sevilleno
Health News
Jan. 2009.Vol 13.No.1
The article depicts the essential of breastfeeding practice in relation to how this oneaffects incapacity of mothers
with general nursing problems. It features three women withbreast cancer, urticaria, and even pre-eclampsia. First
case is with Maybelle Ti who was initiallydiagnosed with breast cancer five years ago. This made her think of it a
hopeless state insettling someday. Not until three years later, came a miracle when she was claimed cancer-freeand
finally got pregnant and married. Although, a dilemma on breastfeeding stops her afterknowing during a biopsy on
her third trimester showed severed milk ducts. And so her husbandKen helped her research on this. On April 30, 2005 she
delivered via cesarean section todaughter Sophie Therese; which is boardly premature. She admitted that breastfeeding
isdifficult especially that Sophie seems unfulfilled with it. As to solve this, Ti keep on trying tobreastfeed; which
resulted to Sophies remarkable feeding development up to toddler, thistime. Next is with Tet Siasco which was also diagnosed with
allergic urticaria (red skin whealshives all over the body). This made her confused on breastfeeding her son Izech with
regards totraditions learned on advantages of this in the first place. Wherein, she undergoes three weeksof treatment and a goal to
finish this as a sacrifice. Thus, Izech was breastfed with as a productof minimal effort. And lastly, the case of
Beverly Sevilleno who got pregnant after two years of marriage and was diagnosed with pre-eclampsia on 26
week of pregnancy. After five moreweeks, she undergoes emergency delivers to a 798 grams or less than 1 kilo Benito.
And soimmediate care on neonatal intensive care unit temporarily cuddled her child from severecondition. Wherein, her goal for
significant breastfeeding practice through breast pump comesin regular routine. This in return helped Benito overcome his condition for 77
days in the
hospital. Going home finally made Sevilleno comfortable to breastfeed her child.
With my reaction, Ive seen this article meaningful one with regards to the mereimportance of breastfeeding to all of us. Considering that at
the first day of life, everyoneundergone breastfeeding as an essential requirement of life. But on the difficult
thingexperienced by these parents, a lot of sacrifice tends to be a process to look upon withbreastfeeding. As to
picture this, mothers instinct to her child is reflected in the article bycustomed efforts committed to stop this thing.
Whereas, as a student, I came to realize that lifeof a mother is not that an effortless responsibility but rather a miserable challenge.
And ismainly concerned with utilizing your innermost emotional tendencies to finally solve this in thesame time. This
definitely would need a lot of maternal ability to trust what she believes to be aright thing to do with her child.
As an implication to nursing education, this article could help students gainunderstanding on the fundamental role of
breastfeeding in maternal child nursing. As to relatethis, one informs them to study the process of neonatal feeding patterns including
importanceof initially. Whereas, knowing those gives them the concept of dealing it to post-partumpatients who are
needing to be advised in clinical setting. Next to this is implication to nursingresearch that involves basically the
special field of medicinal science. As to represent cases of the breastfeeding difficulties in perspective to inform
other mothers with this. To the point of explaining it simply to guide mothers in the first place. And finally
implication to nursingpractice would be on conducting care indicated to those patients that is most suitable to
bothchild and mothers. Whereas, nursing skills are applied practically in this situation
Mootthheerrss KKnnooww aanndd DDoo tthhee BBeesstt