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NANO-COMPUTING-ENHANCING THE SCALE OF COMPUTING

A.RAMAKRISHNA VIDHATHA
CSE II YEAR
mailtovidhatha@in.com
G.SAITEJA
CSE II YEAR
saiteja24@in.com
VATHSALYA INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY-HYD

physics; and environmental and atmospheric


research.. Here we showcased what could just
prove big in next 10 years.
ABSTRACT:-
“The Next Big Thing Is Really Small”
- K. Eric Drexler, Founder and Chairman, HERE ON COMPUTING THE NANO-
Foresight Institute, and Predictions, observing WAY...
the rise of the human dependence on the sector
of Nano Technology. Nano technology is not just 1. NANO-COMPUTING:
studying every field in a larger scope but
deriving an enormous development in
Nano computing is an advanced stage of
improvable areas like
development due to recent nanotechnology
1. NANO COMPUTING
advances in these areas. These computers
2. QUANTUM COMPUTING
promise to be so fast and powerful that our
3. MOLECULAR/DNA COMPUTING
modern supercomputers will be little more than
4. NANO-MECHANICAL COMPUTING
toys in years to come. The problem is that here
5. Usage of NVRAM& larger memory storage in
sheer capacity for processing data means that
it.
they will likely be able to readily crack even the
6. Use of the nanomagnetism initiative which
most advanced encryption methods through brute
provides an interdisciplinary framework to help
force. Nano Computing can be justified as the
stage the next advance in complex materials
usage of Nanoparicles and Nanoprinciples in the
research that can be used in Computer sciences.
Computing domain which can be really very
7. Application of nanocrystals & nanocomputer...
useful.
8. Usage of Graphene chips instead of silicon...
and many more.
Driven by rapid technological advances within Computers play a pivotal part in nanotechnology
the past two decades, computing and high-speed as they allow us to develop atomic models and
networking have emerged as powerful tools for foresee the Nano devices we desire.
science and are even changing the ways in which Furthermore, as nanotechnology evolves, new,
modern science is conducted. DOE is a national more powerful computers will emerge, which
leader in the scientific computing field– will lead to breakthroughs in nanotechnology and
supporting fundamental research in advanced yet to more powerful computers. Hence we will
scientific computing, applied mathematics, have a cycle of scientific discovery
computer science, and networking. The DOE unprecedented in human history. It will be the
computational infrastructure provides world- singularity.
class, high-performance computational and
networking tools that enable scientific, energy, Because of the singularity, it is shortsighted to
environmental, and national security research. discuss the applications of nanotech, but here's
an attempt: In computer science, we would have
More than 2400 scientists in universities, federal nanocomputer that would open the door for
agencies, and U.S. companies use DOE- androids and artificial intelligences. Nanotech
(DEPARTMENT ODF ENERGY-Washington would develop an army of molecular robots and
D.C) funded high-performance computers. Nanodevices that would allow us to completely
Research communities that benefit from these dominate Nature. We now dominate it at a
resources include structural biology; macroscopic level; we would then dominate it at
superconductor technology; medical research and a microscopic level, too. With molecular
technology development; materials, chemical medicine we would eliminate many, if not all,
and plasma sciences; high energy and nuclear diseases with intelligent molecules capable of
NANO-COMPUTING-ENHANCING THE SCALE OF COMPUTING
A.RAMAKRISHNA VIDHATHA
CSE II YEAR
mailtovidhatha@in.com
G.SAITEJA
CSE II YEAR
saiteja24@in.com
VATHSALYA INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY-HYD

repairing and changing our cells. Just for nanotechnology. Basically, the grey cloud is a
curiosity, my first idea towards ending aging, self-replicating airborne nanodevice that
inspired by the legendary TV series catalyzes carbon dioxide into graphite. Should
Transformers which we used to watch growing such nanodevice be unleashed and, in as little as
up, was to use microscopic devices capable of a few days, a solid wall would cover the earth,
turning our neurons into metal ones with a far block the sun, and eventually destroy life on
greater strength and therefore impossible to kill. earth. Robert Freitas Jr., a world expert on
nanotechnology, offers an optimistic but well-
In synergy with other technologies such as documented review of the dangers of nanotech.
genetic engineering, the changes each of us The dangers of nanotech are another reason for
could pursue would be staggering; from having a space colonization. Nanotech will forever change
skin invulnerable to bullets to augmenting our humanity.
physical and psychological capacities. Industrial,
agricultural, and environmental applications are Faster, lighter computers possible with
almost unimaginable at this stage: eradicating nanotechnology.-
hunger, creating molecular superconductors at
room temperature, developing nanomachines that Smaller, lighter computers and an end to worries
eliminate pollution, etc. about electrical failures sending hours of on-
screen work into an inaccessible limbo mark the
Importantly, we would be capable of space potential result of Argonne research Lab at
conquest and colonization. Each nanomachine Chicago on tiny ferroelectric crystals.
would be capable of amazing molecular
engineering achievements and even reproducing. "Tiny" means billionths of a meter, or about
Remember that every single adult human being 1/500th the width of a human hair. These
started as a tiny cell containing all the genetic nanomaterials behave differently than their larger
instructions to blossom into an adult being. In a bulk counterparts. Argonne researchers have
sense, these molecular assemblers are like a learned that they are more chemically reactive,
human egg. The goal behind nanotech is to exhibit new electronic properties and can be used
create such tiny Nanodevices that, if properly to create materials that are stronger, tougher and
coded, can give rise to machines with a high more resistant to friction and wear than bulk
level of complexity. Thus Nanodevices would materials.
make excellent scouts in space exploration. To
give an idea of the inherited power of
nanotechnology, just think that a bacterium with
a generation time of 20 minutes can in 48 hours,
if allowed to grow, reach a population 4000
times the weight of the earth. This means that a
nanodevice with enough mass/energy has the
potential to create planets, outposts and life
throughout the galaxy. Of course this is theory
but it shows the dimension of the powers we're
dealing with.

There are some dangers inherited to


nanotechnology, as I also mention elsewhere. For
example, the grey cloud, theorized by Ralph
Merkle as a doomsday offspring of
NANO-COMPUTING-ENHANCING THE SCALE OF COMPUTING
A.RAMAKRISHNA VIDHATHA
CSE II YEAR
mailtovidhatha@in.com
G.SAITEJA
CSE II YEAR
saiteja24@in.com
VATHSALYA INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY-HYD

DNA computing is a form of computing which


uses DNA, biochemistry and molecular biology,
instead of the traditional silicon-
based computer technologies. DNA
computing, or, more generally, molecular
computing, is a fast developing
interdisciplinary area. Research and
development in this area concerns theory,
experiments and applications of DNA computing.

DNA computing is fundamentally similar


to parallel computing in that it takes advantage of
the many different molecules of DNA to try
many different possibilities at once.
Orlando Auciello uses this unique system,
DNA computing also offers much lower power
developed at Argonne, to understand
consumption than traditional silicon computers.
ferroelectric thin film growth and interface
DNA uses adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as fuel
processes critical to fabrication of smart cards
to allow ligation or as a means to heat the strand
based on ferroelectric random access
to cause disassociation. Both strand
memories. Individual atoms can be detected as
hybridization and the hydrolysis of the DNA
they land on a substrate surface.
backbone can occur spontaneously, powered by
the potential energy stored in DNA.
3. MOLECULAR Consumption of two ATP molecules releases 1.5
COMPUTING/DNA COMPUTING x 10−19 J. Even with a large number of
transitions per second using two ATP molecules,
power output is still low. For instance, Kahan
Molecular computing uses switches made of a
reports 109 transitions per second with an energy
single protein molecule. Proteins "can self-
consumption of 10−10 W,[8] and similarly
assemble complex arrays of molecules on a
Shapiro reports a system producing 7.5 x
surface [nanometer-scale patterns]....Many
1011 outputs in 4000 sec resulting in an energy
proteins do have charge-transfer and charge-
consumption rate of ~ 10−10 W.
switching properties, which could...be harnessed
to provide some aspects of the information
processing capability of a semiconductor device. For certain specialized problems, DNA
Longmuir-Blodgett films - thin films of lipids - computers are faster and smaller than any other
are known to be an essential part of the electrical computer built so far. But DNA computing does
properties of nerve cells, and can be made quite not provide any new capabilities from the
readily in the laboratory. Nerve-cell proteins are standpoint of computability theory, the study of
inserted into the lipid film which alters the film's which problems are computationally solvable
ability to let ions pass depending on what other using different models of computation. For
ions are present or on the electric field to which example, if the space required for the solution of
they are exposed. This has progressed to the a problem grows exponentially with the size of
stage of building films, putting proteins into the problem (EXPSPACE problems) on von
Neumann machines, it still grows exponentially
them, and demonstrating the electrical
with the size of the problem on DNA machines.
characteristics of the protein, which is similar For very large EXPSPACE problems, the
to the position with transistors in 1930. amount of DNA required is too large to be
NANO-COMPUTING-ENHANCING THE SCALE OF COMPUTING
A.RAMAKRISHNA VIDHATHA
CSE II YEAR
mailtovidhatha@in.com
G.SAITEJA
CSE II YEAR
saiteja24@in.com
VATHSALYA INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY-HYD

practical. (Quantum computing, on the other an appropriately designed quantum "computer"


hand, does provide some interesting new can be used as a quantum-mechanical
capabilities.) micromanipulator.
The quantum states of an effective manipulator
DNA computing overlaps with, but is distinct would need to correspond to useful
from, DNA nanotechnology. The latter uses the configurations of some kind of molecular arm.
specificity of Watson-Crick base pairing and Manipulators would be designed specifically for
other DNA properties to make novel structures that purpose rather than for carrying out general
out of DNA. These structures can be used for computations. Both types of devices would,
DNA computing, but they do not have to be. however, be based on the same general principles
Additionally, DNA computing can be done and would be controlled by sequences of light
without using the types of molecules made pulses. The area of quantum computing took off
possible by DNA nanotechnology. about 14 years ago after mathematician/physicist
Peter Shor created a quantum algorithm that
could factor large integers much more efficiently
3.1QUANTUM COMPUTERS
than a classical computer. Such an algorithm put
the computer world in a tizzy because many web
sites secure information like credit card and bank
“Quantum computing could be among the new account numbers over the Internet through the
ways of keeping up with Moore's Law in the public-key cryptography method known as RSA,
future, according to a new study on after its inventors Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman.
nanotechnology, the science of manipulating This method is based on the assumption that it is
matter on a molecular level.” computationally infeasible to factor very large
integers on classical computers.
The state of the spin can be used to store
Seth Lloyd of Los Alamos National Laboratory information and so by extending their life the
proposes computers "made of weakly coupled research provides a significant step towards
quantum systems arranged in one-, two-, or building a usable quantum computer.
three-dimensional arrays. Computations are “Silicon has dominated the computing industry
performed in response to sequences of light for decades,” says Dr Gavin Morley, lead author
pulses imposed upon the entire array of the paper. “The most sensitive way to see the
simultaneously. Lloyd shows that by an quantum behavior of electrons held in silicon
appropriate choice of materials and architecture, chips uses electrical currents. Unfortunately, the
and appropriate choices of pulses, each subunit problem has always been that these currents
in the array will change to a new quantum state damage the quantum features under study,
in a manner that depends both on its previous degrading their usefulness.”
state and upon the pulse sequence. He presents a Marshall Stoneham, Professor of Physics at UCL
simple proof that such an array could carry out (University College London), commented:
the full range of logic operations required of any “Getting the answer from a quantum
computer." computation isn't easy. This new work takes us
For any given pair of quantum states in the set closer to solving the problem by showing how
of allowed states of such a device, there are
we might read out the state of electron spins in a
sequences of pulses which, if applied at the
silicon-based quantum computer.”
proper times, will switch the device from one
To achieve the record quantum lifetime the team
state to the other. Since the physical
used a magnetic field twenty-five times stronger
conformation of an object is determined by its
than those used in previous experiments. This
quantum state, the conclusion is inescapable that
powerful field also provided an additional
NANO-COMPUTING-ENHANCING THE SCALE OF COMPUTING
A.RAMAKRISHNA VIDHATHA
CSE II YEAR
mailtovidhatha@in.com
G.SAITEJA
CSE II YEAR
saiteja24@in.com
VATHSALYA INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY-HYD

advantage in the quest for practical quantum exponential advantage over classical computers
computing: it put the electron spins into a is not possible. Quantum Computers however do
convenient starting state by aligning them all in not allow one to compute functions that are
one direction not theoretically computable by classical
computers, i.e. they do not alter the Church–
Quantum computing and quantum computers are Turing thesis. The gain is only in efficiency.
in advanced stages of development due to recent
nanotechnology advances in these areas. These
computers promise to be so fast and powerful 4. NANOMECHANICAL COMPUTERS
that our modern supercomputers will be little
more than toys in years to come. The problem is Even with a billion bytes of storage, a
Nanomechanical computer could fit in a box a
that their sheer capacity for processing data micron wide, about the size of a bacterium.
means that they will likely be able to readily Although mechanical signals move about 105
crack even the most advanced encryption times slower than the electrical signals in today's
methods through brute force. machines, they will need to travel only 10-6 as
far, and thus will face less delay."
3.1 BRUTE-FORCE CODE BREAKING
A nanocomputer system will be able to direct the
There is nothing elegant or subtle about brute disassembly of an object, record its structure, and
force code breaking. It simply means trying then direct the assembly of perfect copies. An
millions of different combinations in order to advanced assembler could have as many as ten
come up with the right one. The more digits in a thousand moving parts, each containing an
password for example, requires more attempts at average of one hundred atoms."
guessing correctly. When the number of Bumpy polymer molecules can code information
permutations is measured in the millions or like a punched paper tape. A tape reader behind
billions, the time taken to break a code using the assembler box provides mechanical signals to
brute force can be excessive. However a devices within that move the arm and changes
quantum computer can work at such high speed the molecular tools at its tip. Conveyers bring
it could crack an encryption code in seconds, molecules to the assembler system to supply
whereas current computers may take hundreds of energy to motors that drive the tape reader and
years to do the same job arm; others supply groups of atoms for assembly.
Together these parts from the essentials of a
replicator.
3.2 USE AND FUNCTION
Nanocapacitors increase memory storage
If large-scale quantum computers can be built,
they will be able to solve certain problems much
Ferroelectric materials are promising alternatives
faster than any current classical computers (for
to magnetic and dielectric materials for non-
example Shor's algorithm). Quantum computers
volatile data storage. However, the problem is
are different from other computers such as DNA
that ferroelectrics are easily damaged by
computers and traditional computers based
conventional lithographic techniques. A different
transistors. Some computing architectures such
approach, called stencil patterning, could be a
as optical computers may use classical
solution.
superposition of electromagnetic waves. Without
some specifically quantum mechanical resources
such as entanglement, it is conjectured that an
NANO-COMPUTING-ENHANCING THE SCALE OF COMPUTING
A.RAMAKRISHNA VIDHATHA
CSE II YEAR
mailtovidhatha@in.com
G.SAITEJA
CSE II YEAR
saiteja24@in.com
VATHSALYA INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY-HYD

For computer chips, 'smaller and faster' just isn't


good enough anymore. Power and heat have
become the biggest issues for chip manufacturers
and companies integrating these chips in
everyday devices such as cell phones and
laptops. The computing power of today's
computer chips is provided mostly by operations
switching at ever higher frequency. This
physically induced power dissipation represents
the limiting factor to a further increase of the
capability of integrated circuits. Heat dissipation
of the latest Intel processors has become a widely
discussed issue. By the end of the decade, you
might as well be feeling a rocket nozzle than
touching a chip. And soon after 2010, computer
chips could feel like the bubbly hot surface of the
The M’SERV S2100 WHICH HAS A NANO sun itself. As the electronics industry continues
PROCSSOR IN IT.
to churn out smaller and slimmer portable
devices, manufacturers have been challenged to
5. NEXT GENERATION find new ways to combat the persistent problem
NANOTECHNOLOGY COMPUTER of thermal management. New research suggests
MEMORY MADE OF GRAPHENE: that the integration of carbon nanotubes (CNTs)
as heat sinks into electronic devices might
Carbon comes in many different forms, from the provide a solution to this problem.
graphite found in pencils to the world's most
expensive diamonds. In 1980, we knew of only HEAT is becoming one of the most critical
three basic forms of carbon, namely diamond, issues in computer and semiconductor design.
graphite, and amorphous carbon. In recent times There are six fundamental ways the electronics
Graphene was also discovered which caused a lot industry faces growing thermal distress:
of fuzz and interest.
1. Shortened product lifetimes - Every increase
Experiments with Graphene have revealed some of 10°C in operating temperature cuts product
fascinating phenomena that excite lifetimes in half.
nanotechnology researchers who are working
towards molecular electronics. It was found that 2. Increased operating costs — Keeping devices
Graphene remains capable of conducting cool increasingly requires more and faster
electricity even at the limit of nominally zero spinning fans, which use more electricity.
carrier concentration because the electrons don't
seem to slow down or localize. This has to do
3· Consumer acceptance — More heat requires
with the fact that the electrons moving around
more cooling fans which create more noise.
carbon atoms interact with the periodic potential
of grapheme’s honeycomb lattice, which gives
rise to new quasi particles that have lost their 4. Reduced reliability — There have been several
mass, or 'rest mass' (so-called mass less Dirac recalls and product failures due to heat.
fermions). This means that Graphene never stops
conducting. 5· Degraded performance — With RF amplifiers
as much as 90% of power is lost through heat, a
NANO-COMPUTING-ENHANCING THE SCALE OF COMPUTING
A.RAMAKRISHNA VIDHATHA
CSE II YEAR
mailtovidhatha@in.com
G.SAITEJA
CSE II YEAR
saiteja24@in.com
VATHSALYA INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY-HYD

serious problem affecting battery life on all kinds RAM – Random Access Memory – is used when
of wireless devices. someone enters information or gives a command
to the computer. It can be written to as well as
6. Increased build costs — Ever-larger and more read but - with standard commercial technology -
complex heat sinks and fans, and even more holds its content only while powered by
exotic approaches are driving up costs. electricity. Argonne materials scientists have
created and are studying nanoscale crystals of
To reduce high temperatures, today's heat sinks ferroelectric materials that can be altered by an
– finned devices made of conductive metal such electrical field and retain any changes.
as aluminum or copper – are attached to the back
of the chips to pull thermal energy away from the Ferroelectric materials – so called, because they
microprocessor and transfer it into the behave similarly to ferromagnetic materials even
surrounding air. though they don't generally contain iron – consist
of crystals whose low symmetry causes
Using micro fin structures made of aligned spontaneous electrical polarization along one or
multiwalled carbon nanotube arrays mounted to more of their axes. The application of voltage
the back of silicon chips have proven that can change this polarity. Ferroelectric crystals
nanotubes can dissipate chip heat as effectively can also change mechanical to electrical energy–
as copper – the best known, but most costly, the piezoelectric effect – or electrical energy to
material for thermal management applications. optical effects.
And the nanotubes are more flexible, resilient,
and 10 times lighter than any other cooling A strong external electrical field can reverse the
material available. Discovered only in 2004, plus and minus poles of ferroelectric
Graphene is a flat one-atom thick sheet of polarization. The crystals hold their orientation
carbon. Existing forms of carbon basically until forced to change by another applied electric
consist of sheets of Graphene, either bonded on field. Thus, they can be coded as binary memory,
top of each other to form a solid material like representing "zero" in one orientation and "one"
graphite, rolled up into carbon nanotubes (think in the other.
of a single-walled carbon nanotube as a
Graphene cylinder), or folded into soccer ball Because the crystals do not revert spontaneously,
shaped fullerenes., just like the Carbon C6 or RAM made with them would not be erased
Buck MinisterFullerine. So Graphene can be should there be a power failure. Laptop
used for not only the sole purpose of replacing computers would no longer need back-up
the silicon chip but also for better and fast batteries, permitting them to be made still
operations of the Computer. smaller and lighter. There would be a similar
impact on cell phones.

Achieving such permanence is a long-standing


dream of the computer industry.

Companies such as AT&T, Ford, IBM, RCA and


Westinghouse Electric made serious efforts to
5.1. COMPUTING APPLICATIONS: develop non-volatile RAMs (NVRAM) in the
1950s, but couldn't achieve commercial use.
5.1.2 RAM & NVRAM. (Nonvolatile RAM)
NANO-COMPUTING-ENHANCING THE SCALE OF COMPUTING
A.RAMAKRISHNA VIDHATHA
CSE II YEAR
mailtovidhatha@in.com
G.SAITEJA
CSE II YEAR
saiteja24@in.com
VATHSALYA INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY-HYD

Back then, NVRAMs were based on expensive paramedics in an emergency. Unlike magnetic
ferroelectric single crystals, which required strips on credit cards, these memories do not
substantial voltage to switch their polarity. This, come in contact with their readers and will not
and cross talk inherent in the then recently wear out.
devised row matrix address concept, made them
impractical.

FIG: A SMART CARD

Fig: An NVRAM Current smart cards carry about 250 kilobytes of


memory. Argonne researchers are collaborating
The usage of NVRAM is a good option in the with the Colorado Springs, Colo., Symetrix
field of computers as it may lead further towards Corp. to develop a higher capacity card with a
the development of Data Storage and unearths more flexible and longer-lasting memory.
new concepts in the arena of data mining and
Data storage. Nanomaterials have been studied at Argonne
since the 1980s. They are now one of the hottest
Working on the nanoscale changes this. It means research topics worldwide. Several nanoscale
higher density memories with faster speeds and materials research centers are being planned by
megabyte (the amount of memory needed to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), with one
store one million characters of information) - or likely to be built at Argonne.
even gigabyte (one billion bytes) - capacity. It's
not clear how soon such capacity will be Nanomaterials challenge researchers
available, but competition is heavy, stakes are
high, and some companies claim they will have The effort to understand ultra-small materials is
the first fruits of this research within less time. on the frontier where physics, chemistry and
biology meet. Chemists work with atoms and
It also depends on us like how seriously we molecules, moving from the smallest particles to
larger ones, while physical scientists work from
( Indian Government )is taking the issue). larger materials down. They come together as we
approach the nanoscale.
5.1.3 SMART CARDS
Materials behave differently in the range of size
below 100 nanometers (billionths of a meter.
Scientists are using their expertise in
Atomic and molecular clusters at this size may
ferroelectrics to improve smart cards. These are
be different colors from the same elements or
the size and shape of credit cards but contain
compounds in bulk. They become more
ferroelectric memory that can carry substantial
chemically reactive and display new electronic
information, such as its bearer's medical history
properties. Objects assembled from them can be
for use by doctors, pharmacists and even
NANO-COMPUTING-ENHANCING THE SCALE OF COMPUTING
A.RAMAKRISHNA VIDHATHA
CSE II YEAR
mailtovidhatha@in.com
G.SAITEJA
CSE II YEAR
saiteja24@in.com
VATHSALYA INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY-HYD

stronger and tougher than their bulk counterparts. hard to read individually, but interleaved
However, the science that is the foundation for nanolayers of cobalt, copper, iron and chromium
the technology is still not understood. show substantial changes in resistance in
magnetic fields because the layers are so close
Nanoscale ferroelectrics allow us to develop together. IBM and the magnetic recording
better multilayer capacitors, which could be used industry have used this to create ultra sensitive
in even smaller cell phones, application in hard-drive read mechanisms. The Nano-
motors to power micro- and Nano-electro- community looks at a wide range of phenomena.
mechanical systems. The research initiative in nanomagnetism
research that DOE recently approved for funding
Nature likes to put things together in certain at a rate of $1.2 million a year. It includes atoms,
ways. As we learn more about nanoscience - molecules and small clusters, and carries forward
when we can control construction at the some existing technologies - such as
nanoscale - we will be able to engineer the semiconductors - by understanding bulk
nanoworld differently and create novel materials from a micro-structural view.
combinations. We should find new materials,
things we can't even imagine yet. We want to know how properties change at the
smaller scales and are finding new effects, some
It is synergistic with a broader strength in of which are commercially viable. Nanoscience
complex oxide materials, including related high- draws some of its importance from how quickly
temperature superconductors and thermal barrier we've been able to turn these into technological
coatings and colossal magneto resistive applications."
materials.
The nanomagnetism initiative provides an
Ferroelectrics are just one of the hot new areas in interdisciplinary framework to help stage the
nanomaterials, Gibson said. Argonne's work with next advance in complex materials research. It
ultra-Nano crystalline diamond films for micro takes a broad approach, working with materials
machines for medical, transportation, industrial that fall from around one micron (one millionth
and aerospace uses was featured in logos Nano of a meter) in size to less than 10 nanometers. As
Science Summit. Although many novel nanosize the scale decreases, the dominant physics
effects have been found in ferroelectrics, there changes, and new materials, properties and
are as many or more in magnets, applications emerge.
superconductors, metals, etc…In addition, there
are composite materials, where two or more of Computer world might one day be based in
the above are combined, introducing proximity magnetic properties instead of electrical. This
effects, which can be dominant on the nanoscale. might make it possible to build computers with
The possibilities for creating new useful architectures that could be restructured
materials through nanotechnology are endless. depending on the task of the moment. The same
machine could be configured like a Macintosh
Closeness breeds material changes: for tasks that a Mac operating system performs
best and like a PC when Windows OS is
preferable. Also possible could be magnetic
Such proximity effects – changes in material configurations that would not be limited by
behavior because the materials are so close – binary logic, making them more like the human
show up in giant magneto-resistance, a brain. This is far away, but promising .Studies on
phenomenon discovered in 1988 and used in the nanoscale could lead to better bulk magnets
computer hard drives. Tiny magnetic bits are and more efficient motors with consequent
NANO-COMPUTING-ENHANCING THE SCALE OF COMPUTING
A.RAMAKRISHNA VIDHATHA
CSE II YEAR
mailtovidhatha@in.com
G.SAITEJA
CSE II YEAR
saiteja24@in.com
VATHSALYA INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY-HYD

savings in the use of fossil fuels. It may also develops every field into a larger bioscope
become possible to incorporate magnetic through which a man can live more
molecules in polymers, creating plastics that comfortable life.
could be used where traditional magnets cannot,
for example in certain corrosive environments 7. STEPS FOR
DEVOLOPEMENT OF NANO
6. MERITS OF TECHNOLOGY:-
NANOTECHNOLOGY
1. The government should lay emphasis on
1. Through NVRAM large amount of data research and development of
can be stored and can be used for large Nanotechnology
scale operations. New concepts
regarding the operational Speed of 2. South Asian Countries which are booming
Computers can be developed. economies such as India China have a great
2. The use of Molecular nanotechnology chance of being first to develop a field such
improves technically the areas of as nanotechnology.
genetically engineering indirectly and
also serves the purpose of Large Data
base management. 3. Students should show more interest on
deep sectors such as nanotechnology and
3. The Use of Graphene can reduce the
Biotechnology.
heat of electronic devices. It also
Graphene remains capable of
conducting electricity even at the limit 4. Artificial Intelligence and Android
of nominally zero carrier concentration applications must be used instead of relying
4. A nanocomputer system will be able to upon overloaded Servers.
direct the disassembly of an object,
record its structure, and then direct the 5. Nan Biotech News estimates there also
assembly of perfect copies. An are 130 Nano-based drugs and delivery
advanced assembler could have as many systems, and 125 medical devices or
as ten thousand moving parts, each diagnostic tests in preclinical, clinical or
containing an average of one hundred commercial development, an increase of 68
atoms. percent since last year. By 2015, the
5. Androids and Artificial intelligence can National Science Foundation estimates that
be developed thereby developing Nano nanotechnology will have a $1 trillion
robotics. impact on the global economy and employ 2
6. Excellent and multifaceted servers can million workers.
built upon so that they handle more
complexity within less time. Commercially though a difficult task, it may
7. Nanoelectronics hold the promise of not be an impossible one.
making computer processors more
powerful than are possible with
conventional semiconductor
fabrication techniques.

Thus Nano technology serves well, the


purpose of future mechanisms and the
NANO-COMPUTING-ENHANCING THE SCALE OF COMPUTING
A.RAMAKRISHNA VIDHATHA
CSE II YEAR
mailtovidhatha@in.com
G.SAITEJA
CSE II YEAR
saiteja24@in.com
VATHSALYA INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY-HYD

[15].http://www.dtsc.ca.gov/TechnologyDevelop
ment/Nanotechnology/index.cfm

[16]. http://www.nanotech-
now.com/nano_intro.htm
8. BIBILOGRAPHY
[17]http://www.nanotech-
[I]- K. Eric Drexel’s [Founder and Chairman, now.com/nano_intro.htm
Foresight Institute, and Predictions,] work papers
on nanotechnology. Source:-www.doe.gov.com [18]. http://www.inanot.com/
www.arogonne.gov.us
[19]http://www.visel.net/goals/motivation-en
[2]www.stearling.com/research/
nanoworld/nanotechnology
[20]https://engineering.purdue.edu/NRL/index.ht
ml
[3]www.indiananotechnology.com for different
data on nanocomputing and the status of Indian
nanotechnology. [21]http://www.wildirisdesign.com/nano/nanoco
mputing.html
[4]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSour
ces/1588830012 [22]http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-
3401200582.html
[5]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanotechnology
[23]http://www.worldscibooks.com/nanosci/v014
.html
[6]http://www.nanotechproject.org/news/archive/
the_twinkie_guide_to_nanotechnology/
[24]http://leitl.org/docs/intel/Bourianoff
%2520012703.pdf
[7]www.google.com/images for the images of
NVRAM and nanotubes.
[25]http://www.mitre.org/tech/nanotech/
[8]http://www.dei.ac.in/CentresWeb/qancentre/co
llaborations.htm. [26]http://www.scribd.com/doc/18525852/Nano-
Computing
[9]www.therling.com
Our lectures, Professors& Advisors:--
[10]IEEE research papers on Nanotechnology.
[27]Sri SureshBabu HOD-Department of CSE
and IT, Vathsalya Engineering College
[11]http://ewh.ieee.org/tc/nanotech/ Hyderabad.
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/tocresult.jsp?
isnumber=4359107
[28]Sri Madhu HOD-Department of ECE,
Vathsalya Engineering College.
[12]http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp
?punumber=4451717
[29]Sri G.R.Rohit M.Tech, Nanotechnology
Amity Institute of Science and Technology
[13]http://ewh.ieee.org/r6/san_francisco/nntc/

[14]http://www.nanotechproject.org/news/archive
THANK YOU
/successful_commercialization_depends_on/
NANO-COMPUTING-ENHANCING THE SCALE OF COMPUTING
A.RAMAKRISHNA VIDHATHA
CSE II YEAR
mailtovidhatha@in.com
G.SAITEJA
CSE II YEAR
saiteja24@in.com
VATHSALYA INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY-HYD