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CE 804.

INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS

Professor: Bruce Sparling


Office: 3B34
Telephone: 966-5366
Email: Bruce_Sparling@engr.usask.ca
Recommended Texts:
1. “Structural Dynamics: Theory and Computation”, 3rd Edition,
by Mario Paz,Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1991.
2. “Dynamics of Structures”, 2nd Edition, by R.W. Clough and
J. Penzien, McGraw-Hill,1975.
3. “Dynamics of Structures”, by W.C. Hurty and M.F.
Rubinstein, Prentice-Hall, 1964.
4. “The Dynamical Behaviour of Structures”, 2nd Edition, by
G.B. Warburton, Pergammon Press, 1976.
5. “Structural Dynamics by Finite Elements”, by William
Weaver Jr. and Paul Johnston, Prentice Hall, 1987.
6. “Vibration of Mechanical and Structural Systems: With
Microcomputer Applications”, 2nd Edition, by M.L. James,
G.M. Smith, J.C. Wolford, and P.W. Whaley, Harper Collins
College Publishers, 1994.
7. “Dynamics of Structures: Theory and Applications to
Earthquake Engineering”, by Anil K. Chopra, Prentice Hall,
1995.
8. “Structural Dynamics: Theory and Applications”, by Joseph
W. Tedesco, William G. McDougal, C. Allen Ross, Addison-
Wesley, 1999.

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1. BASIC CONCEPTS AND TERMINOLOGY


• Static structural analysis:
Ø Loads applied slowly
Ø No significant motion of structure
• Time dependence of loads and responses:
Ø Generally invariant with time
Ø May vary slowly
• Static equilibrium:

∑ F = 0, ∑ F = 0, ∑ F = 0
x y z
[1.1]
∑ M = 0, ∑ M = 0, ∑ M = 0
x y z

• Structural dynamics:
Ø Time-dependent motion
Ø Significant inertial effects
Ø Nature of motion:
♦ Often oscillatory & periodic
♦ Depends on characteristics of loading and system
• Newton’s Second Law:

∑F = ma ; ∑M = I o α [1.2]

where m = Mass of structure [kg]


a = Linear acceleration [m/s2]
Io = Mass moment of inertia [kg-m2]
α = Angular acceleration [rad./s2]

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1.1. DYNAMIC FORCES ACTING ON A SIMPLE SYSTEM

Fig. 1.1 Single degree-of-freedom structural system

where m = Mass [kg]


k = Linear spring constant [N/m]
c = Viscous damping coefficient [N-s/m]
F(t) = Time-varying external force
applied to mass [N]

• Assumptions:
Ø Mass moves in horizontal (x) direction only
Ø Spring is unstretched when x = 0
Ø Mass on frictionless rollers

• Single degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system:


Ø Time-varying position of mass described by single variable
Ø x(t) measured with respect to fixed reference point

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• Free Body Diagram (FBD) of mass: (Horizontal forces only)

Fk
F( t )
FD

Fig. 1.2 FBD of SDOF system

where Fk = Spring restoring force


FD = Damping force due to dashpot
Ø Note: Fk and FD always oppose motion of mass
• Newton’s Second Law:
F (t ) + Fk + FD = m &x& [1.3]

where &x& = Acceleration of mass in x direction


d2 x
=
dt 2
• Elastic force for linear spring:
Fk = − k x [1.4]

Ø Spring acts to return mass to its undeflected position


Ø Assumption of perfect elasticity:
♦ No energy lost to internal friction
♦ Work done by the mass on the spring stored as elastic
potential energy
♦ Recoverable
♦ Path independent

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• Dashpot force:
Ø Relies on viscous fluid forces
Ø Proportional to velocity of mass
FD = − c x&
dx [1.5]
= −c
dt
Ø Damping force opposes the motion of mass
Ø Work done by FD :
♦ Dissipative (nonconservative)
♦ Converted to heat or some other form of energy
♦ Can not be recovered by reversing the path of motion

• Dynamic equilibrium equation:

F (t ) − k x − c x& = m &x& [1.6]

Ø Static equilibrium exists only when &x& = 0


♦ x& may be non-zero

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1.2. D’ALEMBERT’S PRINCIPLE: DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM


• Re-statement of Newton’s 2nd Law
• State of dynamic equilibrium defined
• Assume a fictitious inertial force FI :
FI = − m &x& [1.7]

Ø Acts on mass during motion


Ø Direction is opposite to acceleration of the mass
• FBD including the fictitious inertial force:

+ x , + x& , + &&
x
Fk

FI F( t )

FD

Fig. 1.3 FBD using D’Alembert’s Principle

• State of dynamic equilibrium:


F (t ) + Fk + FD + FI = 0 [1.8a]

or m &x& + c x& + k x = F (t ) [1.8b]

Ø Instantaneous sum of elastic, damping, and inertial forces


must equal external force
Ø Basis for study of structural dynamics
Ø Governing differential equation of motion for SDOF system

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1.3. MATHEMATICAL MODELS USED IN STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS


• Two basic types of mathematical models:
Ø Lumped mass models
Ø Distributed mass models
• Lumped mass model:
mn ηn ( t )
Ø Simple
Ø More approximate m n −1 ηn −1 ( t )
Ø Mass concentrated at selected locations
♦ Lumped masses treated as particles m2 η2 ( t )
– no physical size
m1 η1 ( t )
♦ Remainder of structure is massless
♦ Rotary inertia generally neglected
– translation only
– no rotation
Ø Easily implemented in Finite Element Method (FEM)
• Distributed mass models:
Ø Mass is continuously distributed along structure
Ø More realistic of physical structure
Ø Generally more accurate
Ø Used in:
♦ Rayleigh-Ritz method
♦ Finite element analysis
• Lumped vs distributed mass models:
Ø Results converge for as number of lumped masses
increases
Ø Refinement depends on required accuracy

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1.4. STRUCTURAL DEGREES OF FREEDOM (DOF)


• The number of independent coordinates required to define the
position of every location on a structure
• Depends on:
Ø Type of model
Ø Degree of refinement
• Lumped mass models
Ø DOF’s associated with lumped masses
Ø Each lumped mass has up to three DOF’s
♦ x, y, z displacements
Ø DOF’s may be reduced by physical constraints or simplifying
assumptions
♦ Example - Shear buildings

δ2

δ1

Fig. 1.4 Two storey shear building

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• Structures with distributed mass and stiffness:


Ø Infinite number of degrees of freedom
Ø Position of every point must be specified independently
Ø Analytical simplifications:
♦ Finite number of DOF’s considered
♦ Position specified only at selected locations
♦ Motion of remaining structure inferred using assumed
displacement patterns
Ø Use of geometric “shape” functions:
♦ DOF’s = Amplitudes of shape functions

Rigid Beam Flexible Beam: Stiffness = EI


Mass = m [kg / m] Mass = m [kg / m]
k

c c

(a) Rigid Beam (b) Flexible Beam

Fig. 1.5 DOF’s for distributed mass systems.

♦ Part (a): Rigid beam

♦ Part (b): Flexible beam

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Ø Consequences of using assumed shape functions:


♦ Approximation errors
♦ Depends on similarity between assumed and actual
deflection pattern
Ø Improved accuracy obtained by expressing deflected shape
by a series of assumed shape functions:
♦ Amplitude of each shape function = 1 DOF
♦ Used in Rayleigh-Ritz analysis method
• Effectiveness of stiffness, damping and mass elements:
Ø Depends on amplitude of motion at element location
Ø A generalized (or effective) stiffness, mass and damping
defined for each displacement pattern

1.5. TYPES OF DYNAMIC LOADS


• Dynamic response depends on applied loading
Ø Dynamic excitation.
• Dynamic load types:
Ø Free vibration
Ø Periodic excitation
Ø Transient excitation
Ø Random excitation
1.5.1.Free Vibration
• Structural system set in motion initially
• No external dynamic excitation during vibration
Ø F(t) = 0

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1.5.2. Periodic Loads


• Load patterns repeated exactly at regular intervals
• Possible sources:
Ø Rotating or reciprocating machinery
Ø Vortex shedding
Ø Waves
• Harmonic loading:
Ø Horizontal or vertical components of a vector rotating at a
constant angular velocity
Ø General form:
F (t ) = Fo sin (ω t + φ) [1.9]

where Fo = Amplitude [N]


ω = Circular frequency [rad/s]
φ = Phase angle [rad]
Ø Frequency in Hz, f :
ω=2π f [1.10]

F (t ) = Fo sin (2 π f t + φ) [1.11]

Ø Period of a harmonic function, T :


1 2π
T = = [1.12]
f ω

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1.5.3. Transient Loads


• Non-periodic loading histories of short duration
Ø Known time history

Fig. 1.6 Example transient load history.

• Possible sources:
Ø Collisions
Ø Impacts & moving equipment
Ø Blast loads
Ø Manufacturing processes
Ø Earthquakes
• Loading histories defined by analytical expression or measured
data
Ø Repeatable & predictable
Ø Deterministic process

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1.5.4. Random Loads


• Random processes cannot be predicted accurately
Ø Never repeat themselves exactly
F(t)

F(t)

Fig. 1.7 Example random load due to wind

• Possible sources:
Ø Wind
Ø Earthquakes
Ø Traffic loads on roadways and bridges
• Quantifying random loads:
Ø Often exhibit well defined characteristics
Ø Quantified on a statistical basis
Ø Characterize all possible loading events with similar
statistical characteristics
♦ Eg. Wind & earthquake loads

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1.6. FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES


1.6.1. Structural Stiffness, k
• Elastic restoring forces:
Ø Strains induced in structural members
Ø Bending, axial contraction or extension, or twisting
Ø Always act to return the structure to undeformed position
• Mathematical model of elastic restoring force:
Ø Spring with stiffness ( spring constant) = k
Ø k = static external force (or moment) required to produce a
corresponding unit displacement in the structure
• Elastic restoring force, Fk :
Ø Linear behaviour: Fk ∝ x for all x
Ø Nonlinear behaviour: Fk = − k ( x ) x [1.13]
♦ Hardening spring: Fk ↑ at an increasing rate as x ↑
♦ Softening spring: Fk ↑ at a decreasing rate as x ↑

Fk

x
Fig. 1.8 Linear and nonlinear springs.

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Table 1.1 Stiffness constants for common structural elements.

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1.6.2. Damping, c
• Damping used to describe all types of energy dissipation
• Energy dissipation:
Ø Reduction in kinetic and potential energy
Ø Non-recoverable
• Sources:
Ø Imperfect elasticity → Hysteresis loops

Fig. 1.9 Schematic of hysteresis loop.

Ø Friction: Depends on construction


♦ Welded steel structures
♦ Bolted steel structures
♦ Reinforced concrete structures
Ø Aerodynamic damping
♦ Drag exerted by air as the structure moves.
♦ Important in wind-induced vibrations of dynamically
sensitive structures
Ø Elastic waves through soil away from vibrating foundations
Ø The generation of heat and sound during impact

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• Mathematical model:
Ø Exact nature and magnitude uncertain
Ø Simple model - Dashpot (piston in perfectly viscous fluid)
♦ Damping force directly proportional to velocity
♦ Viscous damping constant c defined as force associated
with a unit relative velocity between ends of dashpot
♦ Accuracy:
§ Adequate for aerodynamic, hysteresis & radiation
damping
§ Very approximate for friction damping

1.7. COMPLEX NUMBER ARITHMETIC


• Convenient for phase (i.e. time shift) relationships between
harmonic functions
Ø Eg. Loading & response
• Used extensively in structural dynamics
• Complex number, C:
Ø Sum of real and imaginary components
C = a + ib [1.14]

where a = Real component


b = imaginary component
i = −1
• Addition & subtraction: ( C = a + i b and D = d + i e )
C ± D = (a ± d ) +i (b ± e ) [1.15]

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• Multiplication:
C ⋅ D = (a + i b ) (d + i e )

= a⋅d + i (b⋅d + a⋅e ) + i 2 (b⋅e ) [1.16]

= (a⋅d − b⋅e ) + i (b⋅d + a⋅e )

• Division:
C a + ib
= [1.17]
D d + ie

C a + ib d − ie
=  
D d + ie  d − i e 

=
(a⋅d +b⋅e ) + i (b⋅d − a⋅e )
d 2 + e2

a⋅d + b⋅e  b⋅d − a⋅e 


= + i  2 2 

d +e
2 2
d +e 

• Vector form of complex number:


C = r (cos θ + i sin θ) [1.18]

where r = Modulus of complex value


= a2 + b2 [1.19]
and
b
tan θ =
a

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• Relating standard and vector forms:


a = r cos θ
[1.19]
b = r sin θ

Ø Analogy: Rotating vector of length r


♦ Complex plane: Real & imaginary axes
♦ Argand diagram

Fig. 1.10 Example Argand diagram.

♦ Note: +θ denotes counter-clockwise rotation


• Euler’s equation:
eiθ = cos θ + i sin θ
[1.20]
− iθ
e = cos θ − i sin θ
Therefore:

C = r ei θ [1.22]

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