Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 4



In the second episode I would like to share a design project which I have completed about
two months back. This project was of a marriage hall given to us by our client XXXX. In
this project I was working as a Design engineer and the concrete design was assigned to
me by my head of department.


This marriage hall was constructed on right bank of Lahore Canal near Doctors hospital
Lahore. It comprises of 3 story building where 2 stories (ground and first floor) are of
concrete structure and second floor is of steel structure. Each story height is 10ft. This
hall is 60 ft wide and 230 ft in length. So it has a covered area of 36800 square ft. per
floor. It was designed for a capacity of 1000 person per floor.

since our company is specialized in pre-stressed concrete products; if a client wants to

use our pre-stressed roofing system then we provide him the facility of designing the
whole structure as an incentive. In this marriage hall Double Tee planks were to be used
so we provide him the facility of complete structural design also.

Sale department send this design request to Director Design and he assigned this project
to me. I had to design all the structural components of the frame structure that includes
column footings, columns, beams and roofing system i-e Double Tee planks. He
explained me the design requirements of the client and also advice me to have a sitting
with the client.

I had a detailed meeting with the client where I discussed all important issues regarding
design requirements of client. I came to know that client’s main requirement was that
each floor should accommodate at least 1000 people at a time along with furniture and
the design should be economical.

My particular work included calculation of design loads, analysis of structure using

software(Staad-pro), designing of various structural components i-e column footings,
columns, plinth beams, bracing beams, column etc according to ACI318-05, testing and
verifying my design, giving instructions to draftsman for drawings, checking of drawings
and finally issuing of drawings for approval by our head of department.


First of all I studied the architectural design of the marriage hall that was provided to me
by the client and found it a 3 storied frame structured building. I also studied the
Geotechnical report provided by the client. I found that the soil was clayey soil with a
bearing capacity of 0.9 tons per square foot.
After finalizing the layout plan I started my design work. I calculated the seismic and
wind loads according to Building Code of Pakistan (Seismic Provisions-2007) and load
combinations according to ACI389-05. Following were the Design criteria:

Firstly I worked on material properties. I decided to have Concreted Compressive

Strength: For foundations = 3000 Psi, For columns = 3750 Psi and For main beams
= 3500 Psi. Steel Reinforcement: Yield strength of deformed bar = 60,000 Psi,
Modulus of elasticity = 29000 Psi. Soil: Unit weight = 110 Pcf, Safe allowable bearing
capacity = 0.9 Tons per square ft.

I considered the following load: Dead Load: Unit wt. of concrete = 150 Pcf., Live Load:
Live load on floor = 80 Psf. This live load is mainly in the form of public gathering.
Seismic Loads . The seismic loads are as per Building Code of Pakistan (Seismic

The Seismic Provision are compatible with the UBC-1997, the American Concrete
Institute ACI318-05, American Institute of Concrete Construction ANSI/AISC341-05,
American Society of Civil Engineers SEI/ASCE7-05 and ANSI/ASCE7-93.

Design Base Shear: The total design base shear in a given direction shall be determined
from the following formula: V = Cv.I.W/R.T. Wind Load: Basic wind speed
of 80mph is taken and found to be governing. Design wind pressure was calculated by the
following formula:

P = Ce.Cq.qs.Iw

Load Combinations:-

Following are the load combinations used according to ACI318-05.

U = 1.4(D + F).
U = 1.2(D + F + T) + 1.6(L + H) + 0.5(Lr or S or R).
U = 1.2D + 1.6(Lr or S or R) + (1.0L or 0.8W).
U = 1.2D + 1.6W + 1.0L + 0.5(Lr or S or R).
U = 1.2D + 1.0E + 1.0L + 0.2S.
U = 0.9D + 1.6W + 1.6H.
U = 0.9D + 1.0E + 1.6H.


U = required strength to resist factored loads.

D = Dead load.
F = Load due to weight and pressure of fluids.
T = Cumulative effect of temperature, creep and differential settlement.
L = Live load.
Lr = Roof live load.
S = snow load.
R = Rain load.
E = Load effect of earth quake.
W = Wind load.
H = Loads due to weight and pressure of soil.

After that I started to make model of the structure using Staad-pro. After making model
loads were applied and load combinations were specified. Then, I gave command of
analysis and after having analysis; results of reaction forces and bending moments are

I then identify critical load combinations for every member and node. Then comes the
design work. I always started my work from footing. For footings unfactored load
combinations are used and for other structural components factored load combinations
are used.

I have made design flow sheets on Excel for all structural components except column
according to the code design criteria given in ACI318-05 and design the whole building
using those sheets. Columns are designed using PCACOL – Version 2.30 software.
Column section, reinforcement and material properties are provided to the software along
with shear force and bending moment. Interaction diagram shows whether it is a safe
design or need any revision.

After finalizing the design I gave instructions to draftsman about the drawings. I gave
them handmade sketches of all the structural components showing reinforcement details
for their assistance. After completion of drawings I checked them according to my design
and issue these drawings for approval by my Head of Department.

For my own satisfaction I also counterchecked my design results by analyzing the same
model using ETAB and results were compared. I found the same results of shear forces
and bending moments by both soft wares.

I also faced some problems. One of the problems was about the dimensions of the
footings of columns as the site is situated in urban area so less space is available all
around the building for rectangular or square footing. As the columns are located at the
edge of property line so one sided footing is possible only. In this type of footing the is
always a possibility of overturning of the column as the line of action of load and that of
soil pressure are at some eccentricity with respect to each other.

I discuss this matter with my senior and he suggested connecting the opposite columns
with a raft beam so that stability of the building would be ensured. Another problem was
that the footing was too wide I gave a suggestion that the ground floor and first floor
should be design as concrete structure and second floor as steel structure to reduce the
load of the building. This suggestion was accepted by the client.
I always prefer to work in a team. My team is always supportive to me. Whenever I face
some problem I prefer to consult it with my senior and he is always there to help me. My
assistants are also very efficient in performing the tasks which I assigned to them.


This project has enhanced my professional knowledge. Whenever I face some problem I
prefer to consult it with my senior or try to get solution of that problem by reading related
books or internet.