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Simplified Periodic Table of the Elements

I VIII
1 2
H He
Hydrogen II III IV V VI VII Helium

Li 3 Be 4 B 5
C 6
N 7
O 8
F 9
Ne 10
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Flourine Neon

Na 11 Mg12 Al 13 Si 14
P 15
S 16
Cl 17 Ar 18
Sodium Magnesium Aluminum Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
19
K Ca 20 Ga 31 Ge 32 As 33 Se 34 Br 35 Kr 36
Potassium Calcium Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
37 38 49 50 51 52 53
Rb Sr In Sn Sb Te I Xe 54
Rubidium Strontium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon

Cs 55 Ba 56 Tl 81 Pb 82 Bl 83 Po 84 At 85 Rn 86
Cesium Barium Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Schematic Representation of Silicon Crystal
covalent bond

Si Si Si
valence electron

Si Si Si Si
silicon atom
Si Si Si

intrinsic silicon crystal


Electrons and Holes in the Silicon Crystal

Si Si Si
hole

Si Si Si Si
(conduction)
electron
silicon atom
Si Si Si

intrinsic silicon crystal


Electrons and Holes in the Silicon Crystal

Si Si Si
hole

Si Si Si Si
electron
silicon atom
Si Si Si

intrinsic silicon crystal


Silicon Crystal Doped with Donor Impurities
extra electron
donor atom (loosely bound)

Si P Si

P Si Si Si
phosphorus atom
(donor for silicon) Si Si Si

doped silicon crystal: n-type


Silicon Crystal Doped with Donor Impurities
extra proton
ionized donor (space charge)

+
Si P Si
electron
P Si Si Si
phosphorus atom
(donor for silicon) Si Si Si

doped silicon crystal: n-type


Silicon Crystal Doped with Acceptor Impurities
extra hole
acceptor atom (easy to fill)

Si B Si

B Si Si Si
boron atom
(acceptor for silicon) Si Si Si

doped silicon crystal: p-type


Silicon Crystal Doped with Acceptor Impurities
extra electron
ionized acceptor (space charge)

Si B Si
hole

B Si Si Si
boron atom
(acceptor for silicon) Si Si Si

doped silicon crystal: p-type


Electrostatics in 1-D
Relationship between E-field and charge density (Gauss’ Law):
electric
field charge
density
∂E r
=
∂x e dielectric
constant

Relationship between electrical potential (voltage) and E-field:


voltage

∂V electric
= -E field
∂x
E-field boudary condition at a dielectric interface:
e1E1 = e2 E2
Mechanisms of Carrier Transport
Drift: movement of charge carriers due to an external field.
electron
electron
current I µ qmE energy
carrier electric voltage
charge carrier field slope µ E
mobility
hole
Diffusion: movement of carriers due to a concentration gradient.
∂N
current I µ qD
∂x
carrier concentration
charge diffusion gradient
constant

D kT
Einstein relation: =
m q
Equilibrium at a Potential Barrier
!y n2
Idrift = qnmE = -qnm diffusion
!x Electron n1 y2
Energy
Dy
!n Voltage
Idiff = qD y1
!x drift
x x1 x2
Idrift + Idiff = 0
!y !n !n !y 1 !n m !y
 -qnm + qD = 0  D = nm  " = "
!x !x !x !x n !x D !x
x2 x2 n2 y2
1 !n 1 !y dn 1
 Ú " dx =
n !x
Ú
UT x1 !x
dx  Ú n
= Ú dy
UT y1
x1 n1

n 2 y2 - y1 n2
= e (y 2 -y1 ) T
U
 log = 
n1 UT n1
Boltzmann distribution
Generation and Recombination

Generation: a bound electron is


knocked out of a covalent bond, generation
leaving a hole behind (i.e., cre-
ating a new electron-hole pair).

Recombination: a free electron


falls into an unsuspecting hole, recombination
removing both from circulation.
Electrostatics of a pn Junction

p– n

ionized hole electron ionized


acceptor donor
Electrostatics of a pn Junction

p– n

depletion E-field
region line
Electron
Energy
Voltage V = 0
Electrostatics of a pn Junction

p– n

depletion E-field
region line
Electron
Energy
Voltage V = 0 built-in
y0 potential

d
depletion
region width
Equilibrium in a pn Junction

p– n

diffusion

EC dri
ft
Electron
Energy y0
Voltage EF
EV
dr
ift

diffusion
Equilibrium in a pn Junction

p– n

diffusion
dri
EC ft
Electron y<y0
Energy
Voltage EF
EV
dr
ift

diffusion
Equilibrium in a pn Junction

p– n

diffusion

EC dri
ft
Electron
Energy y>y0
Voltage EF
EV
dr
ift

diffusion
Reverse-Biased pn Junction

p– n

V=0 built-in
Electron potential
Energy y0
Voltage d
depletion
region width
Reverse-Biased pn Junction

V
p– n

V=0
Electron
Energy V + y0
Voltage
d
Reverse Junction Leakage Current

V
p– n

EC
Electron
Energy
Voltage EF
EV V
generation
Electrostatics of the MOS Structure

VG = Vfb
p–

Electron
Energy
Voltage V = 0 VG = Vfb
Electrostatics of the MOS Structure

VG>Vfb
p–

yox

Electron
Energy
ys
Voltage V = 0 Vfb =
VG-Vfb
VG

d
depletion
region width
Electrostatics of the MOS Structure

VG>Vfb
p–

yox

Electron
Energy
ys
Voltage V = 0 Vfb =
VG-Vfb
d VG
depletion
region width
Electrostatics of the MOS Structure

VG>Vfb
p–

yox

Electron
Energy
Voltage V = 0 ys Vfb =

VG-Vfb
d
depletion VG
region width
Electrostatics of the MOS Structure

VG>Vfb
p–

yox

Electron
Energy
Voltage V = 0 ys Vfb =

VG-Vfb
d
depletion VG
region width
Electrostatics of the MOS Structure

VG>Vfb
p–

yox

Electron
Energy
Voltage V = 0 ys Vfb =

VG-Vfb
d
depletion VG
region width
Electrostatics of the MOS Structure

n+

Vfb

p–
Electrostatics of the MOS Structure

n+

VG

p–
Electrostatics of the MOS Structure

n+

VG

p–
Electrostatics of the MOS Structure

n+

VG

p–
Electrostatics of the MOS Structure

n+

VG

p–
Electrostatics of the MOS Structure

n+

VG

p–
Electrostatics of the MOS Structure

n+

VG

p–