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Berlin

Erin Maryse C. Aralar


Arch 162
BERLIN
Location: 52° 32’ N, 13° 25’ E Population: 5M In 2006 the German capital was
Area: 883 km2 Capital and largest city of Germany awarded the title “UNESCO City of
Altitude: 30m above sea level Second densest city after Munich Design”.

Country: Germany State: Berlin but with in BERLIN


Brandenburg
Berlin (Google Earth)
Close up of Berlin (Google Earth)
Beginnings
1237
Official founding of Berlin
Emerged from the 2 merchant
settlements of Berlin and Cölln.
1389
Berlin and Cölln formed a union,
joined the Hanseatic Legue and
prospered as a trading and fishing
town.

Extent of Hanseatic League


Geography. Social Forces. Technical Influences.
FORMATION OF BERLIN
Geography
•Located at the wide glacial valley of
the Spree River
•Mainly built on sandy glacial soil,
surrounded by forest-rimmed lakes
•Marshy terrain
•First settlements: Spandau, Köpenick,
Berlin and Cölln, arose near fords and
dry areas

Old illustration of Berlin and Cölln


Early years
•Started as a merchant and fishing
settlement in the 1200s (Berlin
and Cölln)
•Prospered as an agricultural and
merchant village
•Interconnections between the
old villages became the major
highways of Berlin today

Berlin 1652
Middle Ages
•Fortifications were put up during
the 16th and 17th centuries due to
the advancement in artillery
techniques
•Surrounding areas are still
agricultural and evidence of grid
formations

Berlin 1740
Industrial Period
•Berlin grew without any
development concepts
•Creation of highways and
waterways
•Industries to the north and east
•Country houses to the west

Berlin 1833
Industrial Period
Peter Joseph Lenne- (arch and
L.arch) designed Tiergarten Park
and the Sanssouci Gardens,
mostly open spaces and canals
•attempted to layout Berlin in
1840, but was not successful
due to economic interests
HIS PLAN:

Tiergarten Park 1765, Berlin


Industrial Period
Peter Joseph Lenne’s Plan:
•Organize scattered structures
into a designed urban layout
with a ring road
•Open spaces with English
landscaping and urban planning
principles

Tiergarten Park
Industrial Period
•James Hobrecht- created a
zoning ordinance for Berlin, no
building regulations, just
transportation and drainage
systems
•Plan included housing blocks of
approximately the same size,
distributor roads to connect to
main radial roads
•plan led to very dense
development especially in the
city's core and provided regular
open spaces and public squares.

Hobrecht Plan 1862


Hobrecht Plan 1862
Hobrecht Plan area and built-
up areas by 1860
Mid 19th Century
•8 private railway companies
built rail lines between Berlin
and other German cities
•tied to a long distance rail
system by a railway ring only
when it became necessary for
military reasons
•The city grew into the rural
areas alongside the new
suburban road and rail routes at
the end of the 19th century
•concentric growth was replaced
by radial growth.

Berlin’s railway system, 1902


20th Century
•The moat and fortifications of
the 17th century are now
occupied by the S-Bahn (took
place in 1922)
•1910- one of the first urban
planning competitions included
the draft of a radial system with
green wedges
•Access is more than 26
radial speed railways, which are
connected by belt lines. For road
transport, a radially
oriented network consists of
five main roads will be provided.
Jansen Plan 1910
Greater Berlin Act
•Greater Berlin Act- law passed
by the Prussian government in
1920 that greatly expanded the
size of Berlin into 20 boroughs

•Berlin acquired 7 towns:


Charlottenburg, Köpenick, Lichte
nberg,Neukölln, Schöneberg,
Spandau and Wilmersdorf, in
effect, acquiring also green areas

Photo: Map showing new merged territories


to Berlin, 1920 (Old Berlin indicated in
purple)
Zoning Plan 1925
Nazi and WW II
•Adolf Hitler wanted a new city
plan for Berlin to create a world
capital called “Germania”
•Hitler wanted a north-south axis
•Planning themes: garden cities,
town extension plans

Albert Speer- proposed a general


zoning ordinance with a main axis
as the backbone of the new
urban shape
•Work started in 1930 but
stopped in 1942

Speer Plan and Model 1939 (Southern part of the main axis)
Existing development areas
Planned construction sites
Planned development
Old village sites
Green Areas
Sports facilities
Industrial recovery area
Re-planned industrial and warehouse sites
Axes rings arterial roads and motorway ring
Railroad equipment
Existing passenger stations
Scheduled passenger stations
Fast tracks
Waterways
Old city limits
New city limits

Speer Plan 1939


Speer Plan 1939
Speer Plan 1939
Major Roads
Nazi and WW II
•Berlin was one of the most
important targets for the
bombing war
•Not much construction has been
made due to World War II
•A lot of buildings in Berlin were
destroyed including the
Brandenburg Gate

Devastation of Berlin after the war


Devil’s Mountain
(Teufelsberg)- one
of the hills
constructed from the
rubble left by WW II
Post war
•Opportunity to modernize the
urban form of Berlin
2 different groups to plan Berlin:
a) “Collective”- car-friendly
b) Zehlendorf District Council-
transport networks and open
spaces

Collective Plan 1946


Zehlendorfer Plan 1946
Bonatz/ Moest 1946
Division
•1948
•Germany and Berlin were divided
into four sectors
•Soviet sector- East Berlin (GDR)
•other 3- West Berlin (FRG)
•The rest of Germany was divided
the same way due to the Cold War
•Resulted to the creation of 2
“Germanies”
•West Berlin became an enclave to
East Germany and Bonn became
the capital of west Germany
•East Berlin became the capital of
East Germany
Division
•1961- Berlin Wall was
constructed, physically separating
East and West Berlin. Even roads
and railways were blocked.
•The Berlin Wall was 155km (96
miles) long and 3.6m (11.86 ft)
high with 302 watchtowers.

Berlin Wall
West Berlin
•reunified urban layout, continuing
the discussion on much the same lines
as before and after World War II
•Green space policy, based largely on
the early open space plan and the
post-war concept of the car-friendly
city
•Urban development concentrated on
the inner-urban situation, providing
specific working concepts for the
redevelopment of both buildings and
districts
•Detailed concepts were displayed at
the International Building Exhibition
of 1987

Land Use and Zoning of West Berlin, 1972


Building and
Land Use Plan
1961 (West)
East Berlin
•demographic problems associated
with the GDR general housing policy,
concentrating as it did on industrial
locations and the inner cities
•Concentrated on industrial mass
production of flats and buildings on
the urban fringe.
•Hellersdorf – Largest prefabricated
housing estate with 150, 000 flats

East Berlin Plan 1964-1970


General Development Planning (East)
Fall of the Wall
•1989
•Urban design principles which
were conservative and
idealistically orientated towards
a historic Berlin.

Successful Urban Ideas:


•Green space and wedges
•Axis/ Axes
•Redevelopment of the inner
city blocks

Demolishing the Berlin Wall


General
Development Plan
1989
Recent Years
•Challenge: connect
infrastructures of former East and
West Berlin
•The German Parliament voted to
move the capital back to Berlin
•Important development projects
during the 1990's were adjacent
new government district on the
bank of the Spree river
•Most of the existing buildings
were restored or renovated
•In 1999, the restored Reichstag
building was used for the
parliament’s first meeting
Restored Reichstag Building
General
Development Plan
1994
Recent Years
•Redevelopment of Potsdamer
Platz was another major project
that bridged the eastern and
western parts of the city and
showcased new ideas in
architecture and urban design.
•Reduced the number of
boroughs from 23 to 12 to make
the city more cost effective

Potsdamer Platz
23 Boroughs of
Berlin (2000)
12 Boroughs of
Berlin (2005)
Recent Years
• Joint State Planning
Department- joint planning
for Berlin and Brandenburg
Joint Planning Framework:
• Decentralization
• Rail network with rapid transit
links
• Well-protected natural parks

Berlin Star- model of urban dev’t


along the S-bahn lines into the
surrounding country side
U- and S-Bahn
General
Development Plan
2004
Open Space Plan
END
Sources
Cultures of the World: Germany. Time Books international: Singapore, 1995.
• http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/62055/Berlin/21636/Physical-and-human-geography
• http://baerentouren.de/berlin_graphics.html (Old pictures)
• http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Maps_of_Berlin (Old maps)
• http://www.historicmapsrestored.com/international/europe/berlin1833.html (old maps)
• http://www.stadtentwicklung.berlin.de/planen/basisdaten_stadtentwicklung/monitoring/index.shtml
• http://www.stadtentwicklung.berlin.de/planen/fnp/en/historie/index.shtml (land use maps)
• http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/google_map_Berlin.htm
• http://www.umich.edu/~csfound/545/1997/sca/DOCUMENT.html
• http://www.newberlin.org/government/departments/community-development/gislis-services/maps/zoning.aspx
• http://www.berlin.de/berlin-im-ueberblick/geschichte/index.en.html
• http://www.indianchieftravel.com/en/germany/berlin/berlin/berlin-germany-5
• http://www.qub.ac.uk/ep/research/costc10/findoc/cs07-ber.pdf
• http://www.aviewoncities.com/berlin/berlinfacts.htm
• http://courses.umass.edu/latour/Germany/ljennings/index.html
• http://www.etsy.com/listing/33503400/1902-antique-print-of-the-berlin-railway?image_id=99095145