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Air pollution 1

Air pollution
Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or
biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other
living organisms, or cause damage to the natural environment or built
environment, into the atmosphere.
The atmosphere is a complex dynamic natural gaseous system that is
essential to support life on planet Earth. Stratospheric ozone depletion
due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human
health as well as to the Earth's ecosystems.
Indoor air pollution and urban air quality are listed as two of the Air pollution from World War II production
world's worst pollution problems in the 2008 Blacksmith Institute
World's Worst Polluted Places report.[1]

Smog over Santiago, Chile

Pollutants
An air pollutant is known as a substance in the air
that can cause harm to humans and the environment.
Pollutants can be in the form of solid particles, liquid
droplets, or gases. In addition, they may be natural or
man-made.[2]
Pollutants can be classified as primary or secondary.
Usually, primary pollutants are directly emitted from
a process, such as ash from a volcanic eruption, the
carbon monoxide gas from a motor vehicle exhaust
or sulfur dioxide released from factories. Secondary
pollutants are not emitted directly. Rather, they form
Before flue gas desulfurization was installed, the emissions from this
in the air when primary pollutants react or
power plant in New Mexico contained excessive amounts of sulfur
dioxide.
Air pollution 2

interact. An important example of a


secondary pollutant is ground level
ozone — one of the many secondary
pollutants that make up photochemical
smog. Some pollutants may be both
primary and secondary: that is, they are
both emitted directly and formed from
other primary pollutants.

About 4 percent of deaths in the United


States can be attributed to air pollution,
according to the Environmental
Science Engineering Program at the
Harvard School of Public Health.
Major primary pollutants produced by
Schematic drawing, causes and effects of air pollution: (1) greenhouse effect, (2)
human activity include:
particulate contamination, (3) increased UV radiation, (4) acid rain, (5) increased ground
• Sulfur oxides (SOx) - especially level ozone concentration, (6) increased levels of nitrogen oxides.
sulfur dioxide, a chemical
compound with the formula SO2. SO2 is produced by volcanoes and in various industrial processes. Since coal
and petroleum often contain sulfur compounds, their combustion generates sulfur dioxide. Further oxidation of
SO2, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as NO2, forms H2SO4, and thus acid rain.[2] This is one of the
causes for concern over the environmental impact of the use of these fuels as power sources.
• Nitrogen oxides (NOx) - especially nitrogen dioxide are emitted from high temperature combustion. Can be seen
as the brown haze dome above or plume downwind of cities. Nitrogen dioxide is the chemical compound with the
formula NO2. It is one of the several nitrogen oxides. This reddish-brown toxic gas has a characteristic sharp,
biting odor. NO2 is one of the most prominent air pollutants.
• Carbon monoxide - is a colorless, odorless, non-irritating but very poisonous gas. It is a product by incomplete
combustion of fuel such as natural gas, coal or wood. Vehicular exhaust is a major source of carbon monoxide.
• Carbon dioxide (CO2) - a colorless, odorless, non-toxic greenhouse gas associated with ocean acidification,
emitted from sources such as combustion, cement production, and respiration
• Volatile organic compounds - VOCs are an important outdoor air pollutant. In this field they are often divided
into the separate categories of methane (CH4) and non-methane (NMVOCs). Methane is an extremely efficient
greenhouse gas which contributes to enhanced global warming. Other hydrocarbon VOCs are also significant
greenhouse gases via their role in creating ozone and in prolonging the life of methane in the atmosphere,
although the effect varies depending on local air quality. Within the NMVOCs, the aromatic compounds benzene,
toluene and xylene are suspected carcinogens and may lead to leukemia through prolonged exposure.
1,3-butadiene is another dangerous compound which is often associated with industrial uses.
• Particulate matter - Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM) or fine particles, are tiny
particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. In contrast, aerosol refers to particles and the gas together. Sources
of particulate matter can be man made or natural. Some particulates occur naturally, originating from volcanoes,
dust storms, forest and grassland fires, living vegetation, and sea spray. Human activities, such as the burning of
fossil fuels in vehicles, power plants and various industrial processes also generate significant amounts of
aerosols. Averaged over the globe, anthropogenic aerosols—those made by human activities—currently account
for about 10 percent of the total amount of aerosols in our atmosphere. Increased levels of fine particles in the air
are linked to health hazards such as heart disease,[3] altered lung function and lung cancer.
• Persistent free radicals connected to airborne fine particles could cause cardiopulmonary disease.[4] [5]
• Toxic metals, such as lead, cadmium and copper.
Air pollution 3

• Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) - harmful to the ozone layer emitted from products currently banned from use.
• Ammonia (NH3) - emitted from agricultural processes. Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3. It is
normally encountered as a gas with a characteristic pungent odor. Ammonia contributes significantly to the
nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to foodstuffs and fertilizers. Ammonia, either
directly or indirectly, is also a building block for the synthesis of many pharmaceuticals. Although in wide use,
ammonia is both caustic and hazardous.
• Odors — such as from garbage, sewage, and industrial processes
• Radioactive pollutants - produced by nuclear explosions, war explosives, and natural processes such as the
radioactive decay of radon.
Secondary pollutants include:
• Particulate matter formed from gaseous primary pollutants and compounds in photochemical smog. Smog is a
kind of air pollution; the word "smog" is a portmanteau of smoke and fog. Classic smog results from large
amounts of coal burning in an area caused by a mixture of smoke and sulfur dioxide. Modern smog does not
usually come from coal but from vehicular and industrial emissions that are acted on in the atmosphere by
ultraviolet light from the sun to form secondary pollutants that also combine with the primary emissions to form
photochemical smog.
• Ground level ozone (O3) formed from NOx and VOCs. Ozone (O3) is a key constituent of the troposphere (it is
also an important constituent of certain regions of the stratosphere commonly known as the Ozone layer).
Photochemical and chemical reactions involving it drive many of the chemical processes that occur in the
atmosphere by day and by night. At abnormally high concentrations brought about by human activities (largely
the combustion of fossil fuel), it is a pollutant, and a constituent of smog.
• Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) - similarly formed from NOx and VOCs.
Minor air pollutants include:
• A large number of minor hazardous air pollutants. Some of these are regulated in USA under the Clean Air Act
and in Europe under the Air Framework Directive.
• A variety of persistent organic pollutants, which can attach to particulate matter.
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through
chemical, biological, and photolytic processes. Because of this, they have been observed to persist in the
environment, to be capable of long-range transport, bioaccumulate in human and animal tissue, biomagnify in food
chains, and to have potential significant impacts on human health and the environment.

Sources
Sources of air pollution refer to the various locations, activities or
factors which are responsible for the releasing of pollutants in the
atmosphere. These sources can be classified into two major categories
which are:
Anthropogenic sources (human activity) mostly related to burning
different kinds of fuel
• "Stationary Sources" include smoke stacks of power plants,
manufacturing facilities (factories) and waste incinerators, as well Dust storm approaching Stratford, Texas
as furnaces and other types of fuel-burning heating devices
• "Mobile Sources" include motor vehicles, marine vessels, aircraft and the effect of sound etc.
Air pollution 4

• Chemicals, dust and controlled burn practices in agriculture and


forestry management. Controlled or prescribed burning is a
technique sometimes used in forest management, farming, prairie
restoration or greenhouse gas abatement. Fire is a natural part of
both forest and grassland ecology and controlled fire can be a tool
for foresters. Controlled burning stimulates the germination of some
desirable forest trees, thus renewing the forest. Controlled burning of a field outside of
Statesboro, Georgia in preparation for spring
• Fumes from paint, hair spray, varnish, aerosol sprays and other
planting
solvents
• Waste deposition in landfills, which generate methane. Methane is not toxic; however, it is highly flammable and
may form explosive mixtures with air. Methane is also an asphyxiant and may displace oxygen in an enclosed
space. Asphyxia or suffocation may result if the oxygen concentration is reduced to below 19.5% by displacement
• Military, such as nuclear weapons, toxic gases, germ warfare and rocketry
Natural sources
• Dust from natural sources, usually large areas of land with little or no vegetation.
• Methane, emitted by the digestion of food by animals, for example cattle.
• Radon gas from radioactive decay within the Earth's crust. Radon is a colorless, odorless, naturally occurring,
radioactive noble gas that is formed from the decay of radium. It is considered to be a health hazard. Radon gas
from natural sources can accumulate in buildings, especially in confined areas such as the basement and it is the
second most frequent cause of lung cancer, after cigarette smoking.
• Smoke and carbon monoxide from wildfires.
• Vegetation, in some regions, emits environmentally significant amounts of VOCs on warmer days. These VOCs
react with primary anthropogenic pollutants—specifically, NOx, SO2, and anthropogenic organic carbon
compounds—to produce a seasonal haze of secondary pollutants.[6]
• Volcanic activity, which produce sulfur, chlorine, and ash particulates.

Emission factors
Air pollutant emission factors are representative values that people attempt to relate the quantity of a pollutant
released to the ambient air with an activity associated with the release of that pollutant. These factors are usually
expressed as the weight of pollutant divided by a unit weight, volume, distance, or duration of the activity emitting
the pollutant (e.g., kilograms of particulate emitted per megagram of coal burned). Such factors facilitate estimation
of emissions from various sources of air pollution. In most cases, these factors are simply averages of all available
data of acceptable quality, and are generally assumed to be representative of long-term averages.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency has published a compilation of air pollutant emission factors for
a multitude of industrial sources.[7] The United Kingdom, Australia, Canada and many other countries have
published similar compilations, as well as the European Environment Agency.[8] [9] [10] [11] [12]

Indoor air quality (IAQ)


A lack of ventilation indoors concentrates air pollution where people often spend the majority of their time. Radon
(Rn) gas, a carcinogen, is exuded from the Earth in certain locations and trapped inside houses. Building materials
including carpeting and plywood emit formaldehyde (H2CO) gas. Paint and solvents give off volatile organic
compounds (VOCs) as they dry. Lead paint can degenerate into dust and be inhaled. Intentional air pollution is
introduced with the use of air fresheners, incense, and other scented items. Controlled wood fires in stoves and
fireplaces can add significant amounts of smoke particulates into the air, inside and out.[13] Indoor pollution fatalities
may be caused by using pesticides and other chemical sprays indoors without proper ventilation.
Air pollution 5

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning and fatalities are often caused by faulty vents and chimneys, or by the burning of
charcoal indoors. Chronic carbon monoxide poisoning can result even from poorly adjusted pilot lights. Traps are
built into all domestic plumbing to keep sewer gas, hydrogen sulfide, out of interiors. Clothing emits
tetrachloroethylene, or other dry cleaning fluids, for days after dry cleaning.
Though its use has now been banned in many countries, the extensive use of asbestos in industrial and domestic
environments in the past has left a potentially very dangerous material in many localities. Asbestosis is a chronic
inflammatory medical condition affecting the tissue of the lungs. It occurs after long-term, heavy exposure to
asbestos from asbestos-containing materials in structures. Sufferers have severe dyspnea (shortness of breath) and
are at an increased risk regarding several different types of lung cancer. As clear explanations are not always stressed
in non-technical literature, care should be taken to distinguish between several forms of relevant diseases. According
to the World Health Organisation (WHO) [14], these may defined as; asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma
(generally a very rare form of cancer, when more widespread it is almost always associated with prolonged exposure
to asbestos).
Biological sources of air pollution are also found indoors, as gases and airborne particulates. Pets produce dander,
people produce dust from minute skin flakes and decomposed hair, dust mites in bedding, carpeting and furniture
produce enzymes and micrometre-sized fecal droppings, inhabitants emit methane, mold forms in walls and
generates mycotoxins and spores, air conditioning systems can incubate Legionnaires' disease and mold, and
houseplants, soil and surrounding gardens can produce pollen, dust, and mold. Indoors, the lack of air circulation
allows these airborne pollutants to accumulate more than they would otherwise occur in nature.

Health effects
The World Health Organization states that 2.4 million people die each year from causes directly attributable to air
pollution, with 1.5 million of these deaths attributable to indoor air pollution.[15] "Epidemiological studies suggest
that more than 500,000 Americans die each year from cardiopulmonary disease linked to breathing fine particle air
pollution. . ."[16] A study by the University of Birmingham has shown a strong correlation between pneumonia
related deaths and air pollution from motor vehicles.[17] Worldwide more deaths per year are linked to air pollution
than to automobile accidents. Published in 2005 suggests that 310,000 Europeans die from air pollution annually.
Causes of deaths include aggravated asthma, emphysema, lung and heart diseases, and respiratory allergies. The US
EPA estimates that a proposed set of changes in diesel engine technology (Tier 2) could result in 12,000 fewer
premature mortalities, 15,000 fewer heart attacks, 6,000 fewer emergency room visits by children with asthma, and
8,900 fewer respiratory-related hospital admissions each year in the United States.
The worst short term civilian pollution crisis in India was the 1984 Bhopal Disaster.[18] Leaked industrial vapors
from the Union Carbide factory, belonging to Union Carbide, Inc., U.S.A., killed more than 25,000 people outright
and injured anywhere from 150,000 to 600,000. The United Kingdom suffered its worst air pollution event when the
December 4 Great Smog of 1952 formed over London. In six days more than 4,000 died, and 8,000 more died within
the following months. An accidental leak of anthrax spores from a biological warfare laboratory in the former USSR
in 1979 near Sverdlovsk is believed to have been the cause of hundreds of civilian deaths. The worst single incident
of air pollution to occur in the United States of America occurred in Donora, Pennsylvania in late October, 1948,
when 20 people died and over 7,000 were injured.[19]
The health effects caused by air pollution may include difficulty in breathing, wheezing, coughing and aggravation
of existing respiratory and cardiac conditions. These effects can result in increased medication use, increased doctor
or emergency room visits, more hospital admissions and premature death. The human health effects of poor air
quality are far reaching, but principally affect the body's respiratory system and the cardiovascular system. Individual
reactions to air pollutants depend on the type of pollutant a person is exposed to, the degree of exposure, the
individual's health status and genetics.
Air pollution 6

A new economic study of the health impacts and associated costs of air pollution in the Los Angeles Basin and San
Joaquin Valley of Southern California shows that more than 3800 people die prematurely (approximately 14 years
earlier than normal) each year because air pollution levels violate federal standards. The number of annual premature
deaths is considerably higher than the fatalities related to auto collisions in the same area, which average fewer than
2,000 per year.[20]
Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major contributor to combustion derived particulate matter air pollution. In several human
experimental studies, using a well validated exposure chamber setup, DE has been linked to acute vascular
dysfunction and increased thrombus formation.[21] [22] This serves as a plausible mechanistic link between the
previously described association between particulate matter air pollution and increased cardiovascular morbidity and
mortality.

Effects on cystic fibrosis


A study from around the years of 1999 to 2000, by the University of Washington, showed that patients near and
around particulate matter air pollution had an increased risk of pulmonary exacerbations and decrease in lung
function.[23] Patients were examined before the study for amounts of specific pollutants like Pseudomonas
aeruginosa or Burkholderia cenocepacia as well as their socioeconomic standing. Participants involved in the study
were located in the United States in close proximity to an Environmental Protection Agency. During the time of the
study 117 deaths were associated with air pollution. Many patients in the study lived in or near large metropolitan
areas in order to be close to medical help. These same patients had higher level of pollutants found in their system
because of more emissions in larger cities. As cystic fibrosis patients already suffer from decreased lung function,
everyday pollutants such as smoke, emissions from automobiles, tobacco smoke and improper use of indoor heating
devices could further compromise lung function.[24]

Effects on COPD
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) includes diseases such as chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and some
forms of asthma.[25]
A study conducted in 1960-1961 in the wake of the Great Smog of 1952 compared 293 London residents with 477
residents of Gloucester, Peterborough, and Norwich, three towns with low reported death rates from chronic
bronchitis. All subjects were male postal truck drivers aged 40 to 59. Compared to the subjects from the outlying
towns, the London subjects exhibited more severe respiratory symptoms (including cough, phlegm, and dyspnea),
reduced lung function (FEV1 and peak flow rate), and increased sputum production and purulence. The differences
were more pronounced for subjects aged 50 to 59. The study controlled for age and smoking habits, so concluded
that air pollution was the most likely cause of the observed differences.[26]
It is believed that much like cystic fibrosis, by living in a more urban environment serious health hazards become
more apparent. Studies have shown that in urban areas patients suffer mucus hypersecretion, lower levels of lung
function, and more self diagnosis of chronic bronchitis and emphysema.[27]

Effects on children
Cities around the world with high exposure to air pollutants have the possibility of children living within them to
develop asthma, pneumonia and other lower respiratory infections as well as a low initial birth rate. Protective
measures to ensure the youths' health are being taken in cities such as New Delhi, India where buses now use
compressed natural gas to help eliminate the “pea-soup” smog.[28] Research by the World Health Organization shows
there is the greatest concentration of particulate matter particles in countries with low economic world power and
high poverty and population rates. Examples of these countries include Egypt, Sudan, Mongolia, and Indonesia. In
the United States, the Clean Air Act was passed in 1970, however in 2002 at least 146 million Americans were living
in non-attainment areas—regions in which the concentration of certain air pollutants exceeded federal standards.[29]
Air pollution 7

Those pollutants are known as the criteria pollutants, and include ozone, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen
dioxide, carbon monoxide, and lead. Because children are outdoors more and have higher minute ventilation they are
more susceptible to the dangers of air pollution.

Health effects in relatively "clean" areas


Even in areas with relatively low levels of air pollution, public health effects can be significant and costly. This is
because effects can occur at very low levels and a large number of people breathe in such pollutants. A 2005
scientific study for the British Columbia Lung Association showed that a small improvement in air quality (1%
reduction of ambient PM2.5 and ozone concentrations) would produce a $29 million in annual savings in the Metro
Vancouver region in 2010.[30] This finding is based on health valuation of lethal (death) and sub-lethal (illness)
effects.

Reduction efforts
There are various air pollution control technologies and land use planning strategies available to reduce air pollution.
At its most basic level land use planning is likely to involve zoning and transport infrastructure planning. In most
developed countries, land use planning is an important part of social policy, ensuring that land is used efficiently for
the benefit of the wider economy and population as well as to protect the environment.
Efforts to reduce pollution from mobile sources includes primary regulation (many developing countries have
permissive regulations), expanding regulation to new sources (such as cruise and transport ships, farm equipment,
and small gas-powered equipment such as lawn trimmers, chainsaws, and snowmobiles), increased fuel efficiency
(such as through the use of hybrid vehicles), conversion to cleaner fuels (such as bioethanol, biodiesel, or conversion
to electric vehicles).

Control devices
The following items are commonly used as pollution control devices by industry or transportation devices. They can
either destroy contaminants or remove them from an exhaust stream before it is emitted into the atmosphere.
• Particulate control
• Mechanical collectors (dust cyclones, multicyclones)
• Electrostatic precipitators An electrostatic precipitator (ESP), or electrostatic air cleaner is a particulate
collection device that removes particles from a flowing gas (such as air) using the force of an induced
electrostatic charge. Electrostatic precipitators are highly efficient filtration devices that minimally impede the
flow of gases through the device, and can easily remove fine particulate matter such as dust and smoke from
the air stream.
• Baghouses Designed to handle heavy dust loads, a dust collector consists of a blower, dust filter, a
filter-cleaning system, and a dust receptacle or dust removal system (distinguished from air cleaners which
utilize disposable filters to remove the dust).
• Particulate scrubbersWet scrubber is a form of pollution control technology. The term describes a variety of
devices that use pollutants from a furnace flue gas or from other gas streams. In a wet scrubber, the polluted
gas stream is brought into contact with the scrubbing liquid, by spraying it with the liquid, by forcing it
through a pool of liquid, or by some other contact method, so as to remove the pollutants.
• Scrubbers
• Baffle spray scrubber
• Cyclonic spray scrubber
• Ejector venturi scrubber
• Mechanically aided scrubber
Air pollution 8

• Spray tower
• Wet scrubber
• NOx control
• Low NOx burners
• Selective catalytic reduction (SCR)
• Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)
• NOx scrubbers
• Exhaust gas recirculation
• Catalytic converter (also for VOC control)
• VOC abatement
• Adsorption systems, such as activated carbon
• Flares
• Thermal oxidizers
• Catalytic converters
• Biofilters
• Absorption (scrubbing)
• Cryogenic condensers
• Vapor recovery systems
• Acid Gas/SO2 control
• Wet scrubbers
• Dry scrubbers
• Flue gas desulfurization
• Mercury control
• Sorbent Injection Technology
• Electro-Catalytic Oxidation (ECO)
• K-Fuel
• Dioxin and furan control
• Miscellaneous associated equipment
• Source capturing systems
• Continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS)

Legal regulations
In general, there are two types of air quality standards. The first class
of standards (such as the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality
Standards) set maximum atmospheric concentrations for specific
pollutants. Environmental agencies enact regulations which are
intended to result in attainment of these target levels. The second class
(such as the North American Air Quality Index) take the form of a
scale with various thresholds, which is used to communicate to the
public the relative risk of outdoor activity. The scale may or may not
distinguish between different pollutants.
Smog in Cairo
Air pollution 9

Cities
Air pollution is usually concentrated in densely populated metropolitan areas, especially in developing countries
where environmental regulations are relatively lax or nonexistent. However, even populated areas in developed
countries attain unhealthy levels of pollution.

Carbon dioxide emissions


[31]
Most Polluted World Cities by PM

Particulate City
matter,
μg/m³ (2004)

169 Cairo, Egypt

150 Delhi, India

128 Kolkata, India (Calcutta)

125 Tianjin, China

123 Chongqing, China

109 Kanpur, India

109 Lucknow, India

104 Jakarta, Indonesia

101 Shenyang, China

Total CO2 emissions

Countries with the highest CO2 emissions

Country Percentage of global total


Carbon dioxide emissions
per
year (106 Tons) (2006)

 China 6,103 21.5%

 United States 5,752 20.2%

 Russia 1,564 5.5%

 India 1,510 5.3%

 Japan 1293 4.6%

 Germany 805 2.8%

 United Kingdom 568 2.0%

 Canada 544 1.9%

 South Korea 475 1.7%

 Italy 474 1.7%

Per capita CO2 emissions[32]


Air pollution 10

Countries with the highest per capita CO2 emissions

Country Carbon dioxide emissions per


year
(Tons per person) (2006)

 Qatar 56.2

 United Arab Emirates 32.8

 Kuwait 31.2

 Bahrain 28.8

 Trinidad and Tobago 25.3

 Luxembourg 24.5

 Netherlands Antilles 22.8

 Aruba 22.3

 United States 19

 Australia 18.1

Atmospheric dispersion
The basic technology for analyzing air pollution is through the use of a variety of mathematical models for
predicting the transport of air pollutants in the lower atmosphere. The principal methodologies are:
• Point source dispersion, used for industrial sources.
• Line source dispersion, used for airport and roadway air dispersion modeling
• Area source dispersion, used for forest fires or duststorms
• Photochemical models, used to analyze reactive pollutants that form smog
The point source problem is the best
understood, since it involves simpler
mathematics and has been studied for a
long period of time, dating back to
about the year 1900. It uses a Gaussian
dispersion model for buoyant pollution
plumes to forecast the air pollution
isopleths, with consideration given to
wind velocity, stack height, emission
rate and stability class (a measure of
atmospheric turbulence).[33] [34] This
model has been extensively validated
and calibrated with experimental data
for all sorts of atmospheric conditions.

The roadway air dispersion model was


developed starting in the late 1950s Visualization of a buoyant Gaussian air pollution dispersion plume as used in many
and early 1960s in response to atmospheric dispersion models

requirements of the National


Environmental Policy Act and the U.S. Department of Transportation (then known as the Federal Highway
Administration) to understand impacts of proposed new highways upon air quality, especially in urban areas. Several
research groups were active in this model development, among which were: the Environmental Research and
Air pollution 11

Technology (ERT) group in Lexington, Massachusetts, the ESL Inc. group in Sunnyvale, California and the
California Air Resources Board group in Sacramento, California. The research of the ESL group received a boost
with a contract award from the United States Environmental Protection Agency to validate a line source model using
sulfur hexafluoride as a tracer gas. This program was successful in validating the line source model developed by
ESL inc. Some of the earliest uses of the model were in court cases involving highway air pollution, the Arlington,
Virginia portion of Interstate 66 and the New Jersey Turnpike widening project through East Brunswick, New
Jersey.
Area source models were developed in 1971 through 1974 by the ERT and ESL groups, but addressed a smaller
fraction of total air pollution emissions, so that their use and need was not as widespread as the line source model,
which enjoyed hundreds of different applications as early as the 1970s. Similarly photochemical models were
developed primarily in the 1960s and 1970s, but their use was more specialized and for regional needs, such as
understanding smog formation in Los Angeles, California.

Environmental impacts of greenhouse gas pollutants


The greenhouse effect is a phenomenon whereby greenhouse gases create a condition in the upper atmosphere
causing a trapping of heat and leading to increased surface and lower tropospheric temperatures. Carbon dioxide
from combustion of fossil fuels is the major problem. Other greenhouse gases include methane, hydrofluorocarbons,
perfluorocarbons, chlorofluorocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and ozone.
This effect has been understood by scientists for about a century, and technological advancements during this period
have helped increase the breadth and depth of data relating to the phenomenon. Currently, scientists are studying the
role of changes in composition of greenhouse gases from natural and anthropogenic sources for the effect on climate
change.
A number of studies have also investigated the potential for long-term rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide to
cause increases in the acidity of ocean waters and the possible effects of this on marine ecosystems.

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Air pollution 12

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[17] "Study links traffic pollution to thousands of deaths" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ society/ 2008/ apr/ 15/ health). The Guardian (London,
UK: Guardian Media Group). 2008-04-15. . Retrieved 2008-04-15.
[18] Simi Chakrabarti. "20th anniversary of world's worst industrial disaster" (http:/ / www. abc. net. au/ worldtoday/ content/ 2004/ s1257352.
htm). Australian Broadcasting Corporation. .
[19] Davis, Devra (2002). When Smoke Ran Like Water: Tales of Environmental Deception and the Battle Against Pollution. Basic Books.
ISBN 0-465-01521-2.
[20] (http:/ / www. sacbee. com/ 378/ story/ 1393268. html) , http:/ / www. latimes. com/ features/ health/
la-me-pollute13-2008nov13,0,5432723. story , http:/ / www. sfgate. com/ cgi-bin/ article. cgi?f=/ c/ a/ 2008/ 11/ 13/ MNQP143CPV. DTL
[21] Diesel exhaust inhalation increases thrombus formation in man† Andrew J. Lucking1*, Magnus Lundback2, Nicholas L. Mills1, Dana
Faratian1, Stefan L. Barath2, Jamshid Pourazar2, Flemming R. Cassee3, Kenneth Donaldson1, Nicholas A. Boon1, Juan J. Badimon4,
Thomas Sandstrom2, Anders Blomberg2, and David E. Newby1
[22] Persistent Endothelial Dysfunction in Humans after Diesel Exhaust Inhalation Ha°kan To¨rnqvist1*, Nicholas L. Mills2*, Manuel
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External links
Air quality science and general information
• International Conference on Urban Air Quality (http://www.urbanairquality.org/).
• UNEP Urban Issues (http://www.unep.org/urban_environment/)
• European Commission > Environment > Policies > Air >Air Quality (http://ec.europa.eu/environment/air/
index.htm).
• UNEP Partnership for Clean Fuels and Vehicles (http://www.unep.org/pcfv/)
Air quality modelling
• Stuff in the Air (http://www.stuffintheair.com/airqualitymodeling.html) Standard air quality modelling
procedure for industrial sources.
• Wiki on Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling (http://atmosphericdispersion.wikia.com/). Addresses the
international community of atmospheric dispersion modellers — primarily researchers, but also users of models.
Air pollution 13

Its purpose is to pool experiences gained by dispersion modellers during their work.
• Air Dispersion Modeling Conversions and Formulas (http://www.air-dispersion.com/formulas.html) One of
six technical articles devoted to air quality and air pollution dispersion modeling.
Effects on human health
• World Health Organization Fact Sheet on Air quality and health (http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/
fs313/en/)
• Air Pollution Triggers Blood Clots (http://www.planetark.com/dailynewsstory.cfm/newsid/44436/story.
htm)
• American Lung Association of New England on air quality (http://www.ownyourair.org/).
Air pollution monitoring data and maps links.
• Air pollution monitoring worldwide (http://arthurzbygniew.blogspot.com/2011/01/
air-pollution-monitoring-worldwide.html).
Article Sources and Contributors 14

Article Sources and Contributors


Air pollution  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=414201248  Contributors: 10014derek, 2D, 2kentjd, 5 albert square, A D Monroe III, A Softer Answer, AKA MBG,
AbsolutDan, Acather96, Accas1, Adam Bishop, Adriaan, AgentPeppermint, Ahm2307, Ahmiguel, Ahoerstemeier, Akendall, Alan Liefting, Alansohn, Alchimista, Aleenf1, Alex dacosta,
Alex3917, Alexandra mb, Alexius08, All Is One, Allstarecho, Alnokta, Alphatwo, Altermike, Amaury.lecocq, Ameliorate!, Andre Engels, Andrewmc123, Andrewpmk, Andycjp, Anetode,
Angela, Anlace, Anneman, Antandrus, Antonrojo, Apppooos, Aqwis, Aricco, ArielGold, Arpit123, Artaxiad, Arturo zuniga, AtheWeatherman, Avoided, Awesdh, BCAttwood, BTDenyer,
Babban12, Babyface123, Bad words suc, Badanedwa, Barneca, BarretBonden, Beagel, Beetstra, Beland, Bergsten, Betterusername, Beurk, BillFlis, Billtubbs, Binksternet, Blanchardb,
Bluemoose, Bobak, Bobo192, Boccobrock, Boing! said Zebedee, Bongwarrior, Bookgrrl, Bookofjude, Boorvix, BoredTerry, Borisblue, Bradeos Graphon, Brentleefrog, Brett R. Stone, Brianga,
Brolin Empey, Bronc4lyf237, BryanFrazar, Btyner, BuickCenturyDriver, Bushcarrot, CBowers, CIreland, CJ King, CL, CUSENZA Mario, CWii, Caiaffa, Caknuck, Caltas, Calvin 1998,
Cambrasa, Camw, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, CanadianLinuxUser, Canterbury Tail, Capricorn42, Carlosguitar, Carterdriggs, Caster23, Catmoongirl, Chato, Cheesus55, Chet1234567,
Chikinnugget, Cholerashot, Cholpon.tuzabaeva, Chrislk02, Chrisw404, Chrkl, City-state, Clemifornia, Closedmouth, Closenplay, Cobaltbluetony, Coemgenus, Coffee, Colonel oneill,
Cometstyles, Cool Blue, Cool3, Corpx, Courcelles, Covalent, Cst17, Ctbolt, D. Recorder, DARTH SIDIOUS 2, DFS, DVD R W, DabMachine, Dacostaallenm, Daniel 1992, Daniel5127,
DanielEng, DanielleHurley, Darkspots, Dasani, Davidduck, Dawn Bard, Deathmoose12, Definetely coolash2007, Delldot, DennyColt, Dentren, Deor, DerHexer, Derek Ross, Dethme0w,
Diannaa, Dicklyon, Digitalme, Diliff, Dinnerbone, Dirkbb, Discospinster, Dj7amood, Dlary, Dodo bird, Dolphin51, Doomer4life, DotComCairney, Download, Dpeters11, Dr. Blofeld, DrABomb,
Drc79, DrumCarton, DualHelix, Duja, Dust Filter, E9, ESkog, EVCM, EagleFan, Edalgarden, Edderso, Eeekster, Elassint, Eleland, Eleven even, Elio96, Ending-start, Envirocorrector, Epbr123,
Eric-Wester, Erpbridge, Esanchez7587, Escape Orbit, Eternal Pink, Evil saltine, Evolauxia, Ewlyahoocom, Excirial, Eye of the Mind, FF2010, Fabricationary, Falcanary, Faradayplank, Fatzo1,
Finalius, Finn Bjørklid, Firetrap9254, Firien, FisherQueen, Fl, Flammingo, FordPrefect42, Fordan, Freakofnurture, Fred Bauder, Fredbauder, Fredwerner, FreplySpang, Fsotrain09,
GPohlhammer, Gabriel Kielland, Gail, Gamaliel, GcSwRhIc, Gene Nygaard, Ghosts&empties, Giftlite, Gilderien, Gilliam, Giorgiogp2, Gkfhfdbv, Gladlast1, Glenn, Gloy, Gman124, Gogo Dodo,
Gomm, Gonzo fan2007, Got a little rhythm, Gpgarrettboast, Gracenotes, Graham87, GreatWhiteNortherner, Greatestrowerever, Grim23, Grsz11, Grundle2600, Guycalledryan, Gwernol, Gzkn,
Gökhan, H Bruthzoo, HalfShadow, Happyidiot01, Hasslejp, Haza-w, Hdt83, Headbomb, Heavilybroken16, Hello32020, Henryisamazingyeh, Hephaestos le Bancal, HisSpaceResearch, Hmrox,
Hnoble32, Hotcrocodile, Hro, Hu, Hu Gadarn, Hu12, Husond, I eat pee pee, I.M.S., II MusLiM HyBRiD II, IRP, Iain99, Ibagli, Icairns, IchWeigereMich, Idontthinkso, Iknowyourider,
ImaginaryFriend, Immunize, Imroy, Instinct, Inter, Inwind, Ipso2, Ishtaath, Islander, Isotope23, IwantCleanAir, Ixfd64, J.delanoy, J04n, JForget, JHMM13, JTSchreiber, JaGa, Jacek Kendysz,
Jack Sprat69, Jackecko, Jamesontai, Jansch, Jay-wilson, Jayke93, Jdcooper, Jebba, Jeff G., JetLover, Jiddisch, Jlau521, Jmlk17, Jobbybobby, John buddy, John254, JonHarder, Joncnunn, Joseph
Solis in Australia, Joyous!, Jpgordon, Jtir, Juliancolton, Junglecat, Justinlam1009, Jvr725, Jwissick, K95, KNHaw, KPH2293, Kaare, Karl2620, KatrinaBindi, Kbdank71, Kelisi, Kell, Ken
Gallager, Ketsuekigata, Khukri, KieferFL, King Lopez, King of Hearts, Kingpin13, Kiran Gopi, KirinX, Kms3f, KnowledgeOfSelf, Knowledgeum, Koyaanis Qatsi, KrakatoaKatie, Kubigula,
Kukini, Kummi, Kungfuadam, KuroiShiroi, KurtRaschke, Kuru, Kyora473, LOL, La Parka Your Car, Lacrimosus, Lamefreakin, Lan Yingjie, Lazylaces, Lcarscad, Lcarsdata, Ldurfee,
LeaveSleaves, LedgendGamer, LeilaniLad, Les boys, Leslie Mateus, LibLord, Liface, Lightmouse, Likelycandidate, Ling.Nut, Linnell, LizardJr8, Lockley, Lonestar662p3, Lopezdiaz, Lou1986,
Lradrama, Lrdwhyt, Luk, Lupo, Lupoblanco, M00seo00o, MZMcBride, Mac, Macintosh User, Madhero88, Malcolm Farmer, Mandarax, Mangostar, Marek69, Mark7-2, Markp1968, Martarius,
Martin451, MastCell, Master dingley, Mastermind Troll, Mastrchf91, Materialscientist, Matt Fitzpatrick, Matt.T, Mauro100, Maurreen, Max rspct, Maximus Rex, Maxis ftw, Mbeychok, Mbz1,
Meaghan, Megaman en m, Melaen, Mentifisto, MetsFan76, Mhby87, Mhking, Michael Hardy, Microtony, Midgrid, Miggienator18, MightyWarrior, Miguel294, Mike Rosoft, Mike.lifeguard,
Milkyface, Mimmee, Mindmatrix, Mister1nothing, Mitsuhirato, Mlpearc, Monterey Bay, Morenooso, Moroboshi, Morte, Moskvax, Mr Adequate, Mr. XYZ, Mr.Z-man, MrBobla, MrPallarino,
Mtaylor848, Mulad, Munckin, My name, Mygerardromance, Myncknm, MysteryDog, NHJG, NHSavage, Nascar1996, Naserke, Natalie Erin, Natedog734, NawlinWiki, Nbennardo, Ncmvocalist,
Nescio, Netalarm, New4325, NewEnglandYankee, Nick, Nivix, Noah Salzman, Nono64, Nopetro, Nsaa, NuclearWarfare, Nudecline, Nukeless, Nut-meg, Nuttycoconut, Ohnoitsjamie, Ojigiri,
OllieFury, Omicronpersei8, Omulazimoglu, Onceler, Optigan13, Orange Suede Sofa, Oroso, Ottawa4ever, Oxymoron83, PDH, PV=nRT, Pampas Cat, Paul August, Paxsimius, Pbroks13, Pburka,
Peachey88, Pedicabo ego vos et irrumabo, Peri, Peter, Peter Karlsen, Peterlewis, Peterrhyslewis, Pflatau, Phaedriel, Phantomsteve, PhilKnight, Philip Trueman, PiaH, Piano non troppo,
PierreAbbat, Pinethicket, Pinkadelica, Plasticup, Pmhunt, Poeloq, Pokemon222222, Politepunk, Pollutionfighter, Polyamorph, Poo13, Porqin, Pretzelpaws, Professor marginalia, Proofreader77,
Pschwa, Pyroflames0, Quadell, Quintote, Qwfp, Qwghlm, Qxz, R'n'B, Rak-Tai, Random account 47, RandomP, Rd232, Reach Out to the Truth, Recurring dreams, RedBLACKandBURN,
Repliedthemockturtle, Rettetast, RexNL, Riana, Rich Farmbrough, Richardelainechambers, Rickington, Rifleman 82, Rishb, Rje, Rjwilmsi, Rl, Roastytoast, Robert Skyhawk, Roberta F.,
Rocksanddirt, Romanskolduns, Rory096, RoyBoy, Royalguard11, Rtdrury, RxS, Ryan Postlethwaite, RyanCross, SCEhardt, SHIMONSHA, SJP, SMC, SWAdair, Sam Hocevar, Sam Korn,
Saperaud, Sarahmschutz, Sarregouset, Savant13, SchfiftyThree, SchuminWeb, Scientizzle, Scm83x, Sd31415, Securiger, Senor sopa, Shadowjams, Shangrilaista, Shanoman, Shark0716, Shawn
in Montreal, Shobhit102, Shoeofdeath, Shotwell, Siim, Silencedmajority, SimonD, SimonP, SiobhanHansa, Sir Nicholas de Mimsy-Porpington, Siroxo, Site manager, Sjakkalle, Sjö, Slakr,
Sljaxon, Slyguy, Smalljim, Smartse, Sniggity, Snoyes, Somenerd, Sopranosmob781, Soumik ghosh, South Bay, Spiffy sperry, SpigotMap, Spitfire, Splat, SpuriousQ, SpyMagician, Starshadow,
Staycool rushabh, Stemonitis, StephanieM, Stephenb, Stian, Sturm58, Susan Mason, SweetNeo85, Sylent, T24G, TBadger, TDS, Taha amjad, Tangotango, Tanthalas39, Tcncv, TeaDrinker,
Teamjenn, Techman224, TedE, Teh roflmaoer, Templationist, Tempodivalse, The Fifth Horseman, The Thing That Should Not Be, The Vindictive, The wub, TheDJ, TheFeds, TheGerm,
TheKMan, ThePointblank, TheRanger, Thedjatclubrock, Thegreatdr, Thejerm, Thenyarx, ThinkBlue, Tide rolls, Tiggerjay, Tim1357, Tiptoety, Titoxd, TomTheHand, Tombomp, Tomchiukc,
Tpbradbury, Travelbird, TreadingWater, Triona, Tslocum, Ttsuchiya0491, Twiggy 4 eva, Tyw7, Uber nemo, Ulric1313, Uncle Dick, User2004, Ute in DC, VSquared, Vary, Veesicle, Veinor,
Versus22, Vicki Rosenzweig, VictorianMutant, Victory721, Virtual Cowboy, Vortexrealm, Vranak, Vrenator, Vsmith, W guice, WODUP, Walor, WatermelonPotion, Wavelength, Wayne Slam,
Wee11, West.andrew.g, Western Pines, Wifiless, Wiki alf, WikiLaurent, Wikityke, Will Beback, Wimt, Wknight94, Wnauta, Wolverine1121, Woohookitty, WriterHound, Wsiegmund,
Wtmitchell, XF641D9K, Xavexgoem, Xaxx, Xen 1986, Xeno, Xxxxxxxxxxxxl, Y23, Yamamoto Ichiro, YixilTesiphon, Yorkshire29, Zikiodotte, Zoicon5, Zsinj, Zzuuzz, ΙωάννηςΚαραμήτρος,
‫لیقع فشاک‬, 2206 anonymous edits

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


Image:AlfedPalmersmokestacks.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:AlfedPalmersmokestacks.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Alfred Palmer
File:Santiago30std.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Santiago30std.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: AFBorchert, Fred J, Saperaud,
Schaengel89, 1 anonymous edits
Image:Air .pollution 1.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Air_.pollution_1.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: High Contrast, Quadell, SCEhardt
File:Air Pollution-Causes&Effects.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Air_Pollution-Causes&Effects.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors:
User:Chrkl, User:Matt Fitzpatrick
Image:Dust Storm Texas 1935.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Dust_Storm_Texas_1935.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: NOAA George E. Marsh
Album, theb1365, Historic C&GS Collection
Image:BurningOffFieldsInTheEveningInSouthGeorgia.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:BurningOffFieldsInTheEveningInSouthGeorgia.jpg  License: Public
Domain  Contributors: Original uploader was Richardelainechambers at en.wikipedia
Image:Cairo in smog.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cairo_in_smog.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Original uploader was Sturm58
at en.wikipedia
File:Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_People's_Republic_of_China.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors:
User:Denelson83, User:SKopp, User:Shizhao, User:Zscout370
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User:Indolences, User:Jacobolus, User:Technion, User:Zscout370
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File:Flag of India.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_India.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:SKopp
File:Flag of Japan.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Japan.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Various
File:Flag of Germany.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Germany.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Madden, User:Pumbaa80, User:SKopp
File:Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Zscout370
File:Flag of Canada.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Canada.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:E Pluribus Anthony, User:Mzajac
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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 15

File:Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_United_Arab_Emirates.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Anime
Addict AA, Avala, Dbenbenn, Duduziq, F l a n k e r, Fry1989, Fukaumi, Gryffindor, Guanaco, Homo lupus, Kacir, Klemen Kocjancic, Krun, Madden, Neq00, Nightstallion, Piccadilly Circus,
Pmsyyz, RamzyAbueita, 4 anonymous edits
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Duduziq, Fry1989, Homo lupus, Mattes, Nightstallion, Pumbaa80, TFCforever, Zscout370, 1 anonymous edits
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