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NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND'SPACE, ADMINISTRATION WO 24155

WASHINGTON,D .C . 20546 WO 3-925

FOR, RELEASE: SUNJD'AY


March 1,. 1970
RELEASE NO: 70-28

PROJECT: 1970 SOLAR ECLIPSE

contents
GENERAL RELEASE-----------------------------------------------1-7-
IWALLOPS ISLAND SOUNDING ROCKETS--.---------------------------8-13
LAUNCH VEHICLES-- --------------------------14-17
.---------------

) SCIENTIFIC EXPER.IMENTS -------------------


Meteorology----------------------------------------------18-21
Ionospheric Physics-------------------------------------22-25
--------- 8

Solar Phy~sics ..,------ 2-------------5-2


WALLOP, RANGE OPERATIONS ------------------------------ ?---8-29
WHITE SANDS MIS-SILE-RANGE SOUNDING ROCKETS-------------------30-31
SATELLITE AND.SPACE PROBE OBSERVATIONS-----------------------32-314
GROUND OBSERVATIONS------------------------------------------35-39

K.
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2/20 /70
E-NATIONAL AEONAUTICSAND SPCE AMINISTTRATION (20) 9-g4155
uTO14D.J
NEWSSH 205* TEOS: 2(202 9392
FOR RELEASE: SUNDAY
March 1, 1970.

RELEASE 'NO:' 70-28

1970 SOLAR ECLIPSE,

Using-spacecraf-t in-deep- space, Earth orbital sate1-1ites,.

sounding rocke'vs and instruments on-'the ground', scientists will

make, ani intense 'study of the 1970 e.clipse of-the Sun on-March 7,.

concentra'ting on the effect the fairly abrupt and brie-f cessati-on

of sunlight will have-on Earth's atmosphere.

'The bulk -of the experiments sponsoreduby ,the National

Aeronautics and Space Administration will observe eclipse effects

on theEarth's atmosphere and ionosphere but some.will s'tudy 'the


6
'Sun itself with observations only possible- when .the,disko the

Sun is occulted by the 'Moon-.

Highlight of the NASA-sponsored studies will, be .the,launch-

irig of 32 sounding rockets from its Wallops Station, Va.,.,f'acility

including,26.on the day of the eclipse.

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2/20/7'
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Two other sounding rocket experiments will be launched

from the White Sands Missile Range, N.M.., outside the path of

the ecl-ipse to gather comparative data for 'the Wdilops flights.

A study of effects of the eclipse will be made with radio

signals from Mariner 6, over a distance of 235.,millihon miles from

Earth on the opposite6 sIde of the- Sun. Six Earth-orbiting

satellites al-so wiJ3.1 observe the eclipse' and its effects --

Orbiting Solar Observatorles 5 and 6, Applications Technology.

'S'atellite -3, and three U...S./CaQnnadian satellites, Alouettes. 1 and,

*2 and- International Satelllte for- Ionospheric Studies l1

The two OS. spacecraft will .use their ability to, point

instruments at the Sun 'to gather a large amount of data on-the

Sun and its atmospheire. ATS'.wili photograph t,he Earth and its

cloud cover duri-ngtotality to bbserve the path of eclipse across

the-eastern United'States. The Canadianzsatellites w'ill investigate

eclipse-caused changesi'n the ionosphere Sfrom above.,

On the ground, NASA-sponsored obseravationrs wili be made of'

the eclipse f~rom threc locations, two-in Virginia and one in

Mexico.

The maximum eclipse at Wallops, -when the Sun will be

,almost totally obscured, will occur at 1:38 p.m.'ESTj March 7

.and will last for approximately three minutes.

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The nearttotality of the eclipse at Wallops plus the

'large number of rocket launches are expected to attract a

A great number of people to the area. In cooperation. with

Wallops Station, the. National Park Service has established

a viewing site for the public near the, south end of

As'sateague Island. The site can be reached,-by turning east

* off U.S. 13- onto Virginia Route. 175, traveling 13. miles

through the- town -of Chincoteague, to. the site.

Warnings about eye damage from wat.ching the eclipse have

been issued by the American Association of Opthalmology and

,the NationalSo'cietyf6r the Preventi-oh of'Blindness.

The organizatiOns say damage to the eyes from eclipsee-

watching involves burning the retina, and it is difficult to

*tell when.such damage. is occurihg because the retina is in-


. C

seisitive to- pain.

The damage produces a blank spot in the field of vision

at the vital area ofLthe retina used for reading and fine

seeing. The damage is permanent -- incurable.,

No sunglasses, smoked glass, or photographic film is

absolutely safe. Though they may eliminate the glare of the

visible light, they do not block infrared rays which cause

damaging burns.

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The American-Association of' Opthalmology advises

watching.the image of the;eclipse by using za pinhole


device. This involves usingt~wo pieces of white card-

board with a pinhole in the top cardboard which projects

and focuses the image onthe second cardboard. The size

of the image may be changed by-altering the distance

between--the cardboards. Thus the observer can- view the

eclipse with his back to the Sun..

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This is not the first tinme that sounding rockets have

been used to study an eclipse. in May, 19-66, five sounding

-ockets were launched from the Wallops telemetry ship, Range

Recoverer, in the Mediterranean Sea near Greece. Fifteen

sounding rockets were launched in a joint U.S./Brazil program

from the southeast corner of Brazil in November 1966.

The effect of a solar eclipse is not uniform at all

altitudes above Earth so a variety of studies at various

altitudes are required.

Scientific investigations will be made in three disciplines

-- meteorology, ionospheric physics and solar physics. Eleven

research organizations including four universities will conduct


the experiments.

Six types of sounding rockets will be-used -- Arcas, Nike-

Apache and Nike-Cajun, Nike-Tomahawk and Nike-Iroquois, Aerobee

150, Aerobee 170, and Javelin. The Javelin is a four-stage

solid-fuel rocket and Wiil be the largest in the series. The

Aerobee 170 is a new configuration consisting of the reliable

Aerobee 150 sustainer and Nike booster which was test launched

on February 5 and 13.

For the 1970 eclipse, Wallops is augmenting its launching,

tracking and data acquisition capabilities to allow the large

number of scientific payloads to be launched in such a short

period.

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The firing schedule calls for some rockets to be fired

within a few seconds of each other, so Wallops has established

six launch areas with additional launchers set up at several

of those areas. Six mobile radars have been set up to augment

seven large radars at permanent sites. Five mobile telemetry

vans and the Wallops telemetry ship, Range Recoverer, will

assist the permanent multiple telemetry station.

Two payloads, solar physics experiments aboard the two

Aerobee rockets, will be recovered at.sea by Navy and Coast

Guard ships. Recovery is also nned for the two experiments

to be launched at White Sands.

The overall Unite'- States 1970 eclipse study is being

coordinated by the Nation-l Science Foundation. Dr. Albert E-.-

Belon is U.S. eclipse coordinator.

For NASA, the eclipse study is under direction of the

Office of Space Science and Applications with support from the

Office of Tracking and Data Acquisition. NASA eclipse coordinator ,o .

is Dr. Goetz K. Oertel.

For the Wallops sounding rocket project, NASA program

manager is Peter Eaton. For Wallops, the project manager is

Cary Milliner. For the Goddard Space Flight Center, vehicle

coordinators are Karl R. Medrow and George E. MacVeigh.

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Fcril the Lfank.ey Research Center, the eclipse coordinator is
I'avid Adniraonn, Space -Physics Brancrh, Aerophysics Division.

HNI.) OF RfELEASE1; BACKGROUND :NFORMATION FOLLOWS

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WALLOPS ISLAND 'SOUNDING ROCKETS

An unprecedented number of sounding rockets to study


the 1970 solar eclipse will be fired from the Wallops Island
launching area of NASA's Wallops Station.

Preliminary planning for the project started in March


1969. The first meeting of major-experimenters was held in
'September.. During the fall of 1969, installation of tempo-
rary power units, communications systems, radar units, ad-
ditional launchers and firing control circuits was completed.
Launch operation centers and payload preparation areas were
completed in February.
During the period of the eclipse launches, there Fi11 be
one launch unrelated to the eclipse, a Nike-Cajun rock tfrom
Launch Area 5 at 12:29 p.m. on March 8 carryinga-meteo
logical grenade experiment.

There follows a schedule of the sounding rockets to be


launched to make eclipse studies.

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RJL

TO
WALLOPS
STAT ION
PRESS SITE. and
PUBLIC BLEACHERtsI

\i*SAUSEWAY GATE

0
(X

\ LAUNCH AEA *4-


*T- O AREA LAUC
WALLOPS ISLAND. ECLIPSE'LAUNCH 'SCHEDULE

NOTES: This schedule is subject to last-minute changes.


BU: backup. to be launched only iff.previous launch of same experiment fails.
ARCAS launches Will be from Area 2A, 500 feet' north ao 2.
Launch jArea

NO. LAUNCH TIME LAUNCH AREA VEHICLE , EXPERIMENT, -,-EXPERIMENTERS,

Friday, March 6

1 4:30 a.m. 5 Nike-Cajun Meteorology-ozone, Godda4d Space Flight


water vapor Center

2 12:20 p.m. 2A ARCAS Meteorology Langley Research


Center/Environmental
Science Services
Administration

3 1:24 p.m. 5 Nike-Apache Metelorol6gy-pitot Goddard- Space Flight-


probe Center/University of
0 Michigcn

4 1:36 p.m. 3 Nike-Apache Ionospheric physics- GCA Corp./Lockheed


solar X-rays Miss'iles & Space Co.

Saturdasr, March 7

5 9:30 a.m. 2A ARECAS Meteorology Langley Research


Center/Ehvironmental'
Science Services
Administration'

6 10:45 a.m. 2 Nike-Apache Ionospheric physics- University fof Illinois


radio\propagat ion
electr t measurements

7 11:00 a.m. 2A ARCAS Mete6rboiy Langley Research


Center/Environmental
Science Serviqes
Administration

/,
H AREA
LAUNCL VEHICLE EXPERIMENT EXPERIMENTERS
NO.

11:00 arm. 5 Nike-Cajun Meteorology-ozone, Goddard Space Flight


8 Center
water vapor

2A ARCAS 6 MeteorologY Langley Research


9 12:45 p.m. Center/Environemntal
Science Services
Adm'inistratio6

5 Nike-Apache Meteorology-Pitot Goddard Space Flight


10 12:59 p.m. Center/University of'
tube
'Michigan

'4 Nike-Tomahawk Ionospheric physics- Goddard Space 'Flight


11 1:00 p.m.
thermosphere probe Center

1:26 p.m. 5 Nike-Apache Meteorology-pitot Godd'ard Space Flight


12
tube 'Center/Universityf of
g -Michigan
°
CD
ike-Tomahawk
N13 Ionospheric physics- Goddard Space Flight
1:27 p.m. Center
thermosphere probe

1:35 pam. 1 Aerobee 170 Solar. physics-solar Naval Research


14 Laboratory
flash spectrum

1:36 p.m. 1 Aerobee .150 Solar physics-solar Harvard College Ob-


15 servatoriy/Culhm Lab.,
flash spectrum
London/Imperial Col-
lege, London/York
TUniversity, Canada

1:36 p.m. 3 Nike-Apache Ionosphericphysics- -GCA Corp./.Lockheed


16
solar X-rays. Missiles & 'Space Co.

ft.

K7..
TIME :LAUNCil AREA VEHICLE EXPERIMENT EXPERIMENTERS
NC - LAUNCH

2 Nike-Apache Iono'spheric physics- University of Illinois


17 1:37:10 p.m. and
radio propagation
-
electron- measurements

p.m. 4 Nike-;Tom6ahawk Mete6rology-air glow Goddard Space Flight


18 ':37:25
'Centertj'lniversity of
Maryland

3 Nike-Iroquois Ionospheric physics- USAF Cambridge Research-


19 1:37:30 p.m., Laboiratory
'.potiVe spectrometer

20 1:38 p.m. 2 Nike-Apache Ionospher~ic-physics- University cf Illinois


radio propagation anid
electron mneasurements,

BU 1:39:30 p.m. 3- Nike-Iroquois Ionospheric physics- USAF Cambridge Research


negative spectrometer Laborator-ies
a failure of Launch No-. 19-. If
This laurich is S. back-up to be launbhed only if there,atis 3:10
(NOTE: p.m.., March 7.) F,
0 launch 19 is successful, th, s launch will take pl~dce
Nike-Cajun -MeteOroiogy-ozone Goddard Space Flight
21 1:40-:30. p.m. Center -
water vapor

22 1:40:40 p.m. 2 Nike-Apache, Ionospheric physics- University of Illinois


-radio propagation and
electron measurements

5 Nike-Apache Meteorology-pitot Goddard Space Flight


23 1:41:.p.m. Center/University of -
pr~obe
Michigan

BU '1:45.10 p-.m 2 Nike-Apache Ionospheric physics- University of Illinois


radio propagation and-
elec'tron measuremenrts

, I
~~~XPERIMENTERSib -
-
LAUNCH{ AREA VEHICLE EXPERIMENT EPRMNES-
NO.; LAUNCk TIME
Nike-Iroqudis, Ionospheric physics- USAF Cambridge R&-search
24. 1:46 p.m. 3
neutral spectrometer Laboratories

1:47:16 p.m. 0 Javelin- Ionospheric' physics- TRW Systems C6rp.


25 neutral hydrogen' flux

2A ARCAS 'Meteorology Langley Research


26 1:57 p.m. denter/Envicronmental
'Science Services
Administration

ARCAS Meteorology Langley ReseaIc1 ,


27 2:25 p.m. 2A Center/Environmental
Science Services
Administratiorn

ARCAS Meteorology Langley Research


28 3:00 p.m. 2A 'Center/Environmental M
Science Services;
'Administration

3 Nike-Iroquois Ionospheric physics- USAF Cambr-idge Research


3:10 pn Laboratories
negative spectromie'er

Sunday., Mardch 8
5 Nik6-CaJun Meteorology-,ozone,. Goddard Space Flight
30 11:00 a.m. Center
water' vapor
5 Nike-Apache Mete'oro1ogy-Pitot ~GoddardSpnae FlightO
BU 12:25 p;m. Oeiter/Univeriity of'
tub' 'Michigan
VEHICLE EXPERIMENT EXPERIMENTERS
NO. LAUNCH- TIME LAUNCH AREA
IINi ke.C a-'j~uMe'teorolo0gy-Grefl".de, Goddard Space Flight
* 12:29 p.m. 2 Center
expoeriment

ARCA S Me'teorolbgy Langley Reseaarch


31 12:115 n,-m. *2A denter/Enviroflmental
Science Serviceps
Adininist-.iationl

Meteoi~ology-airgiovi Goddard Space Flight


323:00 P.m. 14 Ni-ke-T~omahawk Center/Ufliversity-of
32
Mary land

Monday, March 9
1U4:30 a.m. 5 Nike-Cajun Meteorolq -~oe odadSae Flight
Waters vap'or Center

*Launch is not connected with eclipse experiments.


LAUiVCH VEHICLES

ARCAS (Atlantic Research Corporation. Atmospheric Sounding)


Single stage moteorbloical rocket
Topal length: 8 feet
Gross weight (less payload): -68 pounds
Jiopellant: Solid fuel

Nominal Payload Weight: 9 1/2 pounds

Diameter: 4.5 inches.


Thrust: 335 pounds
Burning TJ.me: 29 see.
Peak Altitude (with nominal payload): 205,0'00 fee'
Nominal :1.mpact offshore:- 30 NM

'Manufac.turer: Atlantic Research Corporation


Alexandria, Virginia

Nike-Apache
Nike-Cajun
Nike-Iroquois
Nike-Tomahawk
Two-stage soli.d-propellant vehicles using the Nike
booster as the first stage.

First Stage: Nike (M88)' Booster


Length: 12.4 feet
Principal Diameter: 16.5\inches
Thrust: 42.,500 pounds /
Burning Time: 3.5 secon4S
Weight: 1,300 pounds J
Manufacturer: Hercules Inc.
Radford Virginia

Second Stage: Apache (TE-M-307) r


Length*: 8.9 feet H/
Principal Diamete 6.5 inches
Thrust: 5,000 unds
Burning Time: 6.4 seconds
Weight: 270q/ouncds
Peak altitude (Nike-Apache) with nominal
-payload: 585,000 feet
Total length (Nike-Apache): 28 feet
Manufacturer: Thiokol Chemical Corporation
Elkton, Maryland

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1970 ECLIPSE SOUNDING ROCKETS

l>
T

ARCAS NIKE NIKE AEROBEE 150 AEROBEE'170 JAVELIN


APACHE TOMAHAWK
NIKE NIKE
CAJUN IROQUOIS
-15-

Second Stage: Cajun (TE-82-4)


Length:' .8.9 feet
Principal Diameter: 6.5 inches
Thrust: 8,500 pounds
Burning Time: 3.3 seconds
Weight: 340 pounds
Peak Altitude (Ni1ke-Cajun) with nominal
payload: 250,000 feet
Total Length: 26 feet (Niike-Cajun)
Manufacturer: Thiokol Chemical Corporation-
Elktonj Maryland

Second Stage: Iroquois (TE-M-388)


Length:~ 104.4 inches
Principal Diameter: 7.75 inches
Thrust: 5,360 pounds
Burning Time: 7.8 seconds
Weight: 433 pounds
Peak Altitude (Nike-Iroquois) with nominal
payload: 39,0,000 feet
Total Length (Nike-Iroquois): 31 feet
Manufacturer: Thiokol Chemical Corporation
Elkton, Maryland

Second Stage: Tomahawk (TE-M-416)


Length: 142 inches
Principal Diameter: 9.0 inches
Thrust: 10,080 pounds
Burning Time: 8.7 seconds
Weight: 672 pounds
Peak Altitude (Nike-Tomahawk) with nominal
payload: 875,000 feet
Total Length (Nike-Tomahawk): 32.5 feet
Manufacturer: Thiokol Chemical Corporation
Elkton, Maryland

Javelin

Four-stage solid-propellant vehicle


Total length with nominal payload: Approx. 49 feet
Gross weight (less payload): Approx. 7,500 pounds
Net payload weJght:
Minimum - 40 pounds
Nominal - 125 pounds
Maximum - 175 pounds
Peak Altitude: 494 statute miles with nominal payload

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First Stage: Honest John (M-6) Booster


Diameter: 22.9 inches
Length: 16 feet
Weight: 4,300 pounds
Thrust: 82,000 pounds
Burning Time: 5 seconds
Manufacturer: Hercules,. Inc.
Radford, Virginia

Second and Third Stage: Nike (M-88) Booster


Length: 12.4 feet
PrIlncipal Diameter: 16.5 inches
Thriust.: 42,500 pounds
Burning Time: 3.5 seconds
Weight: 1,340 pounds
Mantifacturer: Hercules, Inc.
iiadford, Virginia.

Fourth Stage: Altair (X-248-A6)


Diameter: 19 inches
Length: 6 feet (plus payload, 2.4 feet)
Thrust: 3,000 pounds
Burning Time: 42 seconds
Manufacturer: Nava" Ordnance Station
Tndian Head, Maryland

Aerobee 150 and 170


Two stage vehicles
Solid propellant booster first stage
Liquid propellant sustainer second stage

Aerobee 150
First Stage: Aerobee BoosterIX 103C
Length: 6.5 feet
Diameter: 12.75 inches
Thrust: 18,000 pounds
Burning Time: 2.6 seconds
Weight: 600 pounds
Manufacturer: Aerojet General Corp.
El Monte, California

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4
Second Stage: Leng th: 16 feet
Diameter: 15 inches
Thrust: 4,100 pounds
Burning Time: 52 seconds
Weight (with liquid fuel): 1,550 pounds
Payload weight:
Nominal - 200 pounds
Eclipse payload - 295 pounds
Maximum - 350 -pounds
Total length: Approx. 30 feet
Peak Altitude (nominal payload): 120 miles
Manufacturer: Aerojet General Corp.
El Monte, California

Aerobee 170

First- Stage: Nike (M-88)


Length: 12.5 feet
Principal Diame'ter: 16.5 inches
Thrust: 42,500 pounds
Burning Time: 3-.'5 seconds
Weight: 1,1400 pounds
Manufacturer: Hercules, Inc.
Radford', Virginia

Second-Stage: Length: 16 'feet


Diameter: 15 inches
thrust,: 4,100 pounds
Burning Time: 52 seconds
Weight (with liquid fuel): 1,550 pounds
Peak altitude (nominal payload): 155 moles
Manufacturer: Aerojet General Corp.
El Monte, California

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SCIENTIFIC EXPERIMENTS

Sounding rocket experiments -!ill be flown from Wallops


to make i.nvestigations in three scientific disciplines --
meteorology, solar physics and ionospheric physics.

The following description of the experiments,is keyed to


,the launch numbers in the chart , pages 9 thru 13.

Meteorology

Eighteen sounding rockets will be launched from Wallops-


carrying meteorology payloads. Primary purpose of these ex-
,periments is to study the response of the Earth's atmosphere
to the interruption of sunlight occasioned by the eclipse.

Solar energy has an effect on the meteorological para-


meters (wind., temperature, density, and pressure) of the upper
atmosphere which is not uniform at all altitudes.
Since no single rocket experiment can obtain data over
the entire region from 18 1/2 miles up to 62 miles, various
experiments on five different kinds of rockets with varying
capabilitites will be launched throughout the day.of the
eclipse with several rockets also scheduled for firing on the
day before and the day after the eclipse to obtain data on
atmospheric condi.tions at the same time of day in the absence
o3 an eclipse.
Temperature and Wind Measurements
Launches No. 2,,5, 7, 9, 26, 27, 28, 31
Eight Arcas rockets will be launched before, during and
after the eclipse to measure the temperature and wind patterns
in the middle atmosphere, from 18 1/2 miles to 37 miles. A
second purpose is to provide data in support-of other eclipse
experiments such as ionization, electron density and ozone
measurements.
A 1966 eclipse experiment at-a temporary launch site in
the Andes Mountains of Argt..fina showed unexpectedly large
temperature variations in the middle atmosphere region but
some of that data is open to qtestion because of the difficult
nature of the operation at the remote launch site and because
all possible errors were not corrected.

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ECL I PSE OF THE: SUN
THE CORONAL

Ass t -\

Mob'6ns Orbit

-S'
0o

MO S

.........
The 1970 launches will repeat th-e experiment using a
fully equippezd launch site incorporating the latest measure-
ment techniques and corrections for errors due to radiation,
conduction and aerodynamic heating on the.basis of theoreti-
cal studies.

The Arcas rockets will be launched, at precisely spaced.


intervals from a launch area about 500 feet north of Launch
Area 2. At coast apogee of about 205,000 feet, a small pay-
load called an Arcasonrde is-eJected on a metalized disk-gap-
band parachute which is highly reflective for radar tracking.
The parachute slowly drifts through the atmosphere while radar
tracking obtains an'accuiate Wind profile and the payload
transmits other meteorological telemetry to ground stations.

Principal investigator is Robert M. Henry of NASA-'s


Langley Research Center with-Roderick Quiroz of the Environ-
mental Science Services Administration (ESSA) National.
Meteorological-Center.as co-investigat6r.

Ozone Measurements in Upper Atmosphere


Launches No. 1, 8, 21, 30
One of the important scientific objectives of the eclipse
sounding rocket effort from Wallops will be to obtain the
first high resolution ozone measurements in the upper atmos-
phere during an eclipse.
Ozone is found in a region from about 12 miles to about
40 m:Lles above the Earth in what is called the mesosphere and
the stratosphere. Although it exists in comparatively small
amounts, ozone -quite literally sustains life on Earth as it
presently exists by absorbing potentially hairmful solar ultra-
violet radiation.

Ozone also plays a key role in warming the atmosphere


because heat is generated when-it is decomposed into oxygen.

Understanding the complex chemical process of how ozone


is fornied, how it heats up and how this energy is transferred
in tho atmosphere is a major question facing Meteorologists
in their study of the Sun's interaction with the atmosphere.

Four Nike-Cajun sounding rockets, to be fired from


T~aunch Area 4, will be used to make measurements of ozone be-
'forc and during the eclipse in the hope of finding some of
the answers to these questions. If there is a failure of
any of these flights, one additional rocket and payload is
ready to launch as backup.

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The rockets will each carry unique 47-pound ozone-sonde


After
payloads to altitudes of about 40 miles above the Earth. be
burnout, the sondes will be jettisoned. A parachute will
deployed to slowly lower the.sensing instrument through the
ozone regions of the mesospher.e and the stratosphere.
Ozone detectors consisting of -a chemiluminescent material
will
will make continuous readings during descent.. The d&ta
be telemetered to.ground stations Where it will be recorded
for later analysis.' The payloads will not be-recovered.
The four launchings Xin* the series 'are scheduled at a time
during
just before.suiirise, about two hours before' the eclipse,
the period of totality and after. Thus, comparatiVe measure-
obtained..
ments of nighttime, daytime and -eclipse ozone will be

Project scientist for the ozone-sonde flight is Ernes't


Hilsenrath of the Godderd Space Flight Center, who also was
responsible for development of the device. The -first -ozone,-
sonde- flight was.made in September 1968 from Wallops Island.

Uoper Atmosphere Weather Measurements,


Launches No., 3, 10,' 12-,, 23 .

The solar eclipse offers atmospheric scientists. a-rare


of
opportunity to study the effect on the upper atmosphere during
the abrupt and brief cessation of sunlight which 6ccurs
in
an eclipse. Of special interest are changes that occur
temperature,, pressure and.density in the -c6mplex atmospheric
envelope surrounding the Earth...,

To -find answers t~o these-questions a series of four


Nike-Apache rockets., from Launch-Area 5, will be launched to-
altitudes up to 75 miles under a -program J~ointly sponsor-ed by
the University, of Michigan. and the Goddard Space Flight Center.-

The device to be flown is a relatively simple pitot tube


device-,
not unlike those carried-by modern-day aircraft. This
proven in several years of space flight, provides a reliable
profile of the structure of the' upper atmosphere.

The flight plan calls for four launches, one 24 hours


40
before -the eclipse-, one when the Sun is obscured about
percent, one at 80 percent occultation, and one at totality.
There is one backup rocket and payload. These-flights.will the
help -scientists determine normal weather conditions for
time of year above the launch site and eclipse effects.

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Scientists conducting the effort are Jack florvath of


the Univeirsity -of Michigan, and Wendell Smith and John Theon
of the GoddardSpace Flight. Center.

Dayglow Obser-vations.
Lauriches No. 18 .32

As energy ;from the Sun enters the upper atmosphere a


number of'-chainges occur, one of which results in the not yet
fully understood phenomenon called airglow.
Airglow is easily observed during nighttime conditions
when it appears as a.very faint lightness in the sky. Detailed
studies of' its charaic:teristi.cs show-that the glow exhibits
cyclic, seasonal, and often hourly -variations'.

Observing ailrglow during the daytime-(iwhen-it is Lalled


dayglow:). in, the far-u ltraviolet regiopn of the spectrum is
-difficult because of 'the intensity6of Sun light'. Moreobver,
'all of the ultraviolet radiation is absorbed -in the upper at-
-mosphere which means measurements must be~carried out- in space
'itsel'f.-
The solar eclipse offers a unique opportunity tvo study
4ayglow by flying a sounding rocket payload into- t-he dayglow
regioni and observing both in the area of eclipse darkness and-
the are'a of sunlight. Of particular scientific interest are
measurements of the abrupt change from sunlight to darkness
during totality at which time rapid changes occur In the com-
poosition of the, dayglow.
To accomplish this objective. the Goddard S-ace Flight
Center has developed a 835-pound payload carryipg-ultraviolet
photometers, electron detectors, and spectrometers to be flown
to an altitude of 170 miles by a Nike-Tomahawk rocket from
Launch Area 4 during the period of totality. The payload sen-
sors are mounted in'such a manner that will permit forward and
side viewing during the flight. A second flight will be con-
ducted 24Lr hours after- the eclipse in order to obtain data on
the "normal" dayglow conditions above the launch site. The
data obtained are expected to provide some of the answers to
how dayglow is formed.
Protect scientist for the dayglow flights is Dr. Donald
F. Heath of the Goddard Space Flight Center. lie will be as-
sisted by Dr. Eugene Maier also of Goddard and Dr. Davi'd
Mathews -of the University of Maryland.
-22-

Ionospheric Physics-

The- ionosphere is an-electrically conducting region


extendi.ng from 50 to 1,000 miles above-the Earth, best known
for reflecting radio signals back to Earth, making possible
long range radio communication by successively "bouncing"
signals around the curvature of the Earth,

The ionosphere is formed by the-.aceionvofvthe Sun on the


atmosphere. It is made up of many Iree electrons and ions
and is divided into several layers (D, E. F1 and F2 ) afcording
to v'ariations -in electron'density-. *

The ionization is maihly the result of'the absorption by


tbe atmosphere of ultravio-et radiati6n..from the Sun..
Twelve sounding rockets, will be- launched ,from--.allops t'o.
observe the effect of the eclipse on vavious ionospheric'
phenomena-. ^

With the Mooni acting as a shutter inl front'of the Sun,


an eclipse provides, a time when events happen-very rapidly in
the ionosphere much-more rapidly- than at sunrise or sunset.
The-change.in the input from the Sun into.the ionosphere
affects diffeient regions of the ionosphere differenti'be- .
cause they have-differn't abilities to react to such.rap1d
Changes. The most rapid changes are in-the`lower altitude D
miles, with less change at
and E regions-, from 50 to 1Qff
higher altitudes.

As with the -meteorological experiments;, ionospheric ob-


servations will be made with sounding rockets before as well
as during the eclipse to obtain data at the same time of day
in-the abseftce of--an ecl!ps~e.

Solar-X-Ray Stud-ies '


Launches -No. 4. 16 *

This experiment, involving Geiger counters-to be launched


on two Nike-Ar'aches from Launch Area 3, is designed to study
the solar-spectrum in the soft X-ray region and its influence e
on the E-region 6f-the ionosphere above 55 miles. A-flight
will be made oh the day before the bclipse at the same solar
zenith angle to obtain background information for the second
launch at the tiime of the eclipse.

The exp'eriment will attempt to determine the amount of


soft X-rays that come from the corona. The payload is instru-
mented to-study solar X-rays in the 4,4 to-60 Argstrom, eight
to 20 Angstrom, and twovto eight Angstrom region.

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Measurements will also be made of the electric field


and electron density between 55 and 62 miles and of the photo-
electron flux and energy distribution in the E-region. It is
believed that ohotoelectrons may stream in from sunlight por-
tions of the ionosphere, and this instrumentation is designed
to *search for such effects..

Investigators are Dr. 'C. A. Accardo, GCA Corp., Bedford,


Mass.; Dr. Nelson C. Maynard, Goddard Space Flight Center; and
Dr..t 3. W. Sharpe, Lockheed 'Missi'les and Space Co., Palo Alto,
Ca ' .-

Rad-o Propagation and Electron Measurements


Launches No. 6, 17, 20, 22

This investigation to be flown on four Ni.ke-Apaches from


Launch Area 2, is designed to measure electron -concedntra.tons,
elec-ron temperatures and electron collision frequencies in
the lower ionosphere during the-eclipse. One rocket will be
launched about three hours before the eclipse, and the other
three during and shortly follow'ing totality. Also to-be ob-
served are the density profiles of molecular oxygen and ozone.

Inbtrumentation includes a DC/Langrnuir probe for electron


density and temperaturej a two-f.:equency ('2225 and 3385 kilo--
Hertz) radio propagation-experiment for electron density and
collision frequency,, and solar radiation detectors for X-rays
(44 -oo 60 Angstroms<) and ultraviolet (Lyman alpha and' 2600
Ang~ot Dirs) to observe.molecular oxygen and ozone.
These mecsurements will be correlated with the mass
-pectrometero to he flown by Air Force Cambridge Laborato'r?.es.

Investigators are Drs. Sidney Bbwhill and Eugene Mechtly


of the University or 'Illinois at Urbana and L. G.. Smith of QCA
Cc) p , Bedford, Mass. There is one backup rocket and payload.

'MassSpec-tr'ometer
Launches No. 9. 9
924,

Three Nike-Iroquois rockets, nicknamed Niros, will be


fived fror Launch Area 3 to measure the change in neutral
and chiarged particle'concentrations in the D and E regions
01 al: ionosphere between 37 and 87 miles altitude.

Soecifically, the instruments are designed to measure


sirflrlta.zously, and at totality, positive ions, negative ions,
neLt-al constituents, electron concentration, electron tem-
'e.'Vuve, and total positive ion concentration.

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as
'hese measurements will be compared with others such will
those of solex ionizing radiation. Of special interest
be a determ~iation of the relative roles of electron attach-
ment and recombination in the absence of sunlight.

One rocket will carry a positive ion, one a-negative ion,


and one a neutral mass spectrometer. Cylindrical Langmuir
probes will be included in the two ion composition payloads
.to study the energy distributions of charged particles.

Tnvestigators are Dr. Rocco S. Narcisi, Dr. G. R. Philbrick


and-J. C. Ulwick of the Air Force Cambridge Research Labora-
tor~ies, Hanscom Field, Bedford, Mass.

(High-Altitude Atmospheric Measurements


Launches No. Il, 13
Tw.o Nike-Tomahawk launchings carrying thermosphere probes
will-be flown in.conjunction with the lower altitude pitot
tube meteorological investigations and to-make ionospheric
studies. These flights are jointly conducted by the Univer-
sity of Michigan and the Goddard Space Flight Center.
are
The 80-pound probes, ejected after rocket burn-out,
density and, in
designed to measure temperature, pressure and
frz)m 75
addition, electron-and ion data at altitudes ranging
to 200 miles above-the'Earth. In these upper reaches the the
of
changing chemistry of the atmosphere is the object
research.

The two launchings from Launch.Area 4, are scheduled


Thus,
during the time of 40 percent and 80 percent darkness.
the two pitot tube flights
comparative analysis of data from
scheduled about the same time will be possible.

Investigators include N. W. Spencer and Larry H. Brace


the
of the Goddard Space Fl-i.ght Center, G. H. Carignan or
University of Michigan and Dr. J. C. G. '.!alker of Yale
University.

Energetic Hydrogen Atoms Associated With btye Solar Wind


Launch No. 25
will
A Javelin, the Largest rocket in the Wallops seri-s, repre-
an instrument which
be fired From Launch Area 0 carrying
comn-
sents the first attempt to detect directly a theorized Moon's
ponent of the solar wind. The payload will. be in the
shadow for some 67 seconds at an apogee of 500 miles.

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-25--

Some indirect measurements have suggested the existence


wind.
of energeti'2 hydrogen atoms associated with the solar
of the solar
These are believed to arise from charge-exchange medium
wind particles with neutral atoms in the interplanetary
investigators,
and possibly, but very urn'ikely, according to the by
particle.-
as a result of the direct emission of energetic greatly
increase
the Sun itself. It is theorized that these may
during periods of solar activity.
Earth
The neutral atoms will not be deflected around the as
as low
in the bow shock, but will penetrate to altitudes will be the
370 miles without significant attenuation. This
neutral atoiis
first;atteiiwpt to detect directly these theorized
in the solar wind.
The Javelin will carry two hydrogen energy spectrometers,
Sun sensor
one energy independent total hydrogen detector, one
and an aspect magnetometer.
will
The instrument apertures are arranged so that,.. They
of each Sito cycle.
view the eclip'sed Sun for about Jn percebt
Investigators are William Bernstein,, Dr. Robert L. Wax,
TRW
and Dr. George T. Inouye of Space Sciences Laboratory,
Systems Group, Redondo Beach, Calif.

Solar Physicz

Two sounding rockets will be launched from Wallops of


carrying solar physics experiments. These take advantage to study
the remporary blocking' of the solar disk biy the Mcon
and to
the radiant energy emitted from the Sun's atmosphere
Sun's surface and
study the disturbances that occlur near the
-

their effect on the Earth.


of' the
-Particular emphasis will be given to observations just
flash spectrum. This radiation originates in a region
above the visible disk of the Sun, the lower chromosphere.
relativeiy
Ordinarily it is too dim to be seen because of thetime tIh't tiff
very bright light of the disk. During the short
Moon blocks the light from the disk, the lower chromosphere
becormes visible.
is less
This region As little understood: its temperature
F. -- while above
than that of the disk --- about 10,000 degrees
about
this region in the corona, the temperature goes up to corona
2,000,000 degrees F. The energy that heats the Sun's
of this
passes.through the chromosphere and an understanding escapes
is very significant to an understanding of how energy
from tle Sun.

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Regions of the Sun's atmosphere not visible because of


the dimness of its light compared to that of the disk are the
K- and F- coronas. The K-corona can be seen: it is white
light emitted by the disk and scattered by-electrons in the
corona as dim white light (and near ultraviolet and near infra-
red). Observation of this scattered light gives information
on electron densities and temperatures in the corona.

Farther out is the F-corona which can also be seen: White


and infrared light from the disk is scattered by dust particles
farther cut from the Sun where the temperature *is low enough
that these particles are not vaporized. Observation of this
light, called zodiacal light, gives information on dust in
interplanetary space.

International Solar Flash Spectrum Experiment

Launch No. 15

The experiment, the only international one in the Wallops


series, will photograph the flash spectra or light from the
chromosphere between the corona and photosphere or solar disk
which is too weak to be studied when the Sun is not obscured.
Its purpose is tc further ur.derstand the mechanisms of energy
t;ransfer and heat balance in the region of the chromosphere
and corona some 180 to 12,000 miles above the limb of the Sun.

The flash spectrum will be photographed with two Wadsworth


spectrographs covering the range from 977 to 3,000 Angstroms,
imaging the crescent of the San on the film with wavelength
resolution of one Angstrom. The spectrographs will use no
entrance slit with the Moon occulting the Sun acting as the
entrance slit. Each camera cassette will hold about 25 film
strips sensitive to exposure times ranging from two-tenths of'
a second to 10 seconds.
The experiment will be launched by ail Aerol-e 150 rocket
and the photographic film must be recovered.
Investigators are Professor Leo Goldberg of Harvard
College Observatory; Professor W. R. S. Garton of Imperial
College, England; Professor R. W. Nichols of tite Center for
Research in Experimental Space Sciences, York University,
Canada; and Dr. R. Wilson of the Astrophysics Research Unit,
Culhari Laboratory, England.

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Naval Research Laboratory Solar Flash Spectrum Experiment


Launch No. 141

This experiment will study the solar flash spectrum


originating in the chromosphere by observing in ultraviolet
can be
light between 1400 and 2000 Angstroms. Thi's region of
investigated by measuring the intensities of a variety
stages of ionization and
emission lines which have different eclipse
therefore can be seen best in the ultraviolet. The
imaging
which uses the Moon occulting the Sun as part of the
system offers a unique chance for high angular resolution
measurements.

The temperature and iron abundance of the inner corona


iohized
can be studied only by measuring lines of very highly dur-
solar disk
elements. The absence of stray light from the spectro-
ing the eclipse makes it possible to obtaifn much purer
heliograms of-the corona..

in addition, the transition region far out in she corona


known
produces the zodiacal light and is one of tie least
polar-
spheres around tie Sun. By measuring the irntensity and
will try
ization in different color bands, the experimenters
to ±,more
to determine electron and dust particle density out
-than 2,000,000 miles from the Sun.

Five instruments will be flown on an Aerobee 170 rocket


at
to be fired from Launch Area 1. All will be fine-pointed
developed
the Sun by means of' a special eclipse pointing system
by the Naval Research Laboratory. The instruments are:
-Wadsworth soectroheliograph covering 150 to 437
Angs'roms to study the flash spectrum;
Wadsworth spectroheliograph covering 727 to 1060
Angstroms to study the flash spectrum and Lyman radiation;
-Modified Wadsworth spectroheliograph to study Tyman

alpha radiation in thle flash spectrum;


- Wadsworth spectroheliograph covering '.350 tr 1900
Angstroms to study the flash spectrum and far limb spectra;
spectro-
- Multichannel Wadsworth configuration ,canringcomplete
mester covering '300 to 2000 Angstroms to obtair one
s'ectrum in hall a second.
Investigators are J. D. Purcell, Dr. G. E. Brueckner
Re-
and Dr. R. Tousey of the E. 0. Hulbert Center fcr 'Space
.;earch, Naval Research Laboratory.
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WALLOPS RANGE OPERATIONS

An elaborate complex of tracking and communications


equipment, for sounding rocket research at Wallops Station,
will provide the precise tracking and data acquisition
required for the 1970 solar eclipse project. Never have so
many types- of data-seeking rockets been launched within-such
a short time as for this eclipse. This considerably increases
the normal problems involved in launching, tracking and data
acquisition.

The.size of the project requires- the full time use of


most of the staff and facilities at Wallops Station. In
several areas addit.ional personnel-and equipment have been
provided.

Fourteen of the 32 rockets involved in this project-will


be sent aloft within some 20 minutes, seven within less than
two -mnutes.,. a.t the height of the eclipse. Fourteen additional
rocket launchers have been-ins'tal-ed on Wallops Island, making
a total o'f twenty-four launchers to accomplish the March 7
"barrage."

These rockets all require accurate position and velocity


data which is provided by ground:-based radar systems. -To
assist the radar systems in distinguishing betWeen- the many
targets, most rockets will carry a small transponder which.
has an identifying code.

Wallops Staticn., supported by NASA's Office of Tracking


and Data Acq'ulsition, has installed six mobile S-band radars
6o supplement the seven permanently installed radars. These
mobile units were surplus equipment obtained from the Manned
Space Network and the Air Force. A special synchronization
system is being developed to minimize the interference between'
radar systems.

Most of the scientific data is telemetered back to


Wallops. Again because of the large number of rockets,
additional equipment has been installed. Some deactivated
systems have been activated and the new S-Band telemetry
antennas have been modified to cover the VHF telemetry band.

Most of the telemetry will be received by the Wallops


mul]tiple. telemetry station, but this will be augmented by
two telemetry vans on the Station and two mobile units from
the Goddard Space Flight Certer. In addition, the Wallops
telemetry shin, USNS Range Recoverer, will be on station off
the Virginia Coast. The ship also will serve as a backup in
payload recovery operations.

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Two rocket flight experiments (the Aerobee 150 and 170)


will be dependent upon payload recovery from the ocean to
obtain the scientific data recorded on photographic film
during flight. Extensive primary and contingency recovery
plans and techniques have been devised to insure the full
realization of scientific data potential from the two re-
coverable payloads which will splashdown in the Atlantic
Ocean.

The recovery plans and techniques developed at Wallops


Station will employ specialized equipment and the combined
teamwork of various- groups of operating personnel. Recovery
-forces include four fixed-wing search aircraft, three surface
recovery vessels, three recovery helicopters, UDT diving
teams, and radar,, communication, telemetry, photographic,
-and ground support equipment teams. Assistance and recovery
units have been obtained from the United States Coast Guard,
Navy, NASA and private contracting sources. Planning and
direction of the recovery operations is the responsibility of
Wallops Station.

In addition to the main Range Control Center (RCC),


several subordinate control centers have been established for
pad clearance, payload checkout, telemetry checkout and radar
control for all rocket launchings in their individual areas.
These three "satellite" control centers are located near
rLaunch Areas 1, 2, 3, and 5. The main RCC will serve
as a coordinating and monitoring point for the "satellite"
centers and as the Control Center for recovery operations.

During totality when a few launchings will take place


at 10-second intervals, these centers will essentially be
on tneir own. The Project Manager will be in the main RCC
located on the Wallops Main Base, approximately five miles
northwest of the Island launch complex. The Island Test
Director3 will be located in the subordinate Control Center
blockhouses. Communication between the many engineers,
technicians, and-scientists is accomplished by a 15-channel
operational intercom system. Communication with the recovery
ships and aircraft is by HF and VHF radio.

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WHITE SANDS MISSILE RANGE SOUNDING ROCKETS

Two sounding rockets sponsored by NASA will be launched


from White Sands in support of the Wallops sounding rocket
launches.

Naval. Research Laboratory Solar Experiment

An Aerobee 150 rocket will be launched from White Sands


just before oir just after the eclipse, the most desirable
launch time being 7:00 a.m. EST. During the total eclipse
on the East Coast, the Sun will be partially eclipsed at
White Sands but the payload pointing control cannot operate
properly without full sunlight.

The Aerobee,, with an experiment package containing five


experimentsa, will be launched to an altitude of 113 miles and.
is scheduled tobe recovered., All instruments- in the package
will be pointed at the Sun by a University of Colorado biaxi~al
solar pointing control.

The payload carries:-

- Two photographic coronagraphs extended on a 30-inch


spar which will be stowed inside the instrument package during
launch phase. The coronagraphs will artificially eclipse the
Sun with a circular occulting disk. Some 50 exposures will
be made, each of which will photograph the visible corona from
1.3 to 3.9 million miles from the Sun with exposure taimes from
two to six seconds, The Moon w.ill be in the field of view
providing a unique calibration point.

Three other experiments are closely related:

- A photographic extreme ultraviolet spectroheliograph


which consists of a concave grating and photographic film. A
spectrum of solar disk images in the range from 170 to 650
Angstroms will be photographed.

- A photographic extreme ultraviolet heliograph which


consists of a concave mirror, photographic film and a thin
aluminum filter which allows the solar disk to be photographed
in the 170 to 650 Angstrom bald.
- An ion chamber which measures solar flux in the strong
Lyman alpha emission by a suitable combination of window
material and gas fill.

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U.

Rapid recovery of the-film from the coronagraph, spectro-


, heliograph and heliograph experiments is required.

Project scientist is Martin J. Koomenaof the U. S. Naval 0


Research Laboratory..

tAS&E Ec-lipse Photography


'Another Aeitobee 150 rocket will -be launched from 'White
Safids as close to the tim& of totality at Wallops as possible
to gather data for Comparison with the Wallops data.. The- peak
altitude should be about 105 miles.

This American Science-dnd Engineering Inc. experiment is


-designed to ob~tain high-resolution pictures of the-time develop-
ment of the -eclipse in the X-ray region of the spectrum. The
de-occultationf-of' thee-corona by the 'Moon will be' seen in X-rays.
In flight, a ffine-inch diameter X-ray telescope is used
to focus the solar ,image onto a 35-mm motion picture camel-a
.which runs at, one frame per second. Just in front of the
camera, a wheel_- ith.five filters steps one posi-tion between
each- frame..'

The- -various filters on the wheel transmit data in


different passbands, :giving spectral information and pirovid-
ing some latitude in exposu3re'time. One filter passes visible
light to the camera, providing a reference image for correlating
the X-ray images- with visible observations from the ground.

During the -picture taking period, a photbmultipi-ie-r/


scintillator assembly mounted at the front of the experiment
monitors X-ray emissions. Its purpose is to provide an accurate
measurement of changes in several spectral regions during
the period of the eclipse.

Because this is-a photographic experiment, the payldadd


will be parachuted to Earth, and rapid recovery is required.
The scientific experimenter is T. F. Zehnpfennig of
American Science and Engineering, Inc.

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,SATELLITE .AND SPACE PROBE. OBSERVATIONS

Spacecraft in Earth orbit and from deep space will,


observe the eclipse and its effects oh Earth.
:Mariner 6 Ionosphere Experiment-

The longest distance study of the effects,-of the: eclipse


will be made by Mariner 6 which1 flew past Mars last summer.
On March 7, the Mariner 6 Space-craft will be on the opposite
side of the Sun from Earth., some 170' off the Earth-SUn line.
Radio signals from Mariner 6, received by- the, 210-foot diameter
'antenna at GoldstoneCali.,j will be measured'to determine how
they are effectedsby the eclipse and .thus.deterniinfre the change
in charged particles in the Earth'.s Atmosphere_

The, radio signals Wi-wli travel '2-35 million miles from.


Mariner to Earth, a record- for spac6craft-tioEarth signal. The
'pereious record, is the 216 million milesbetwe'en Goldstone
and 'Mariner 41wlrch -flew. past 'Mars-in 1965.

On eclipse, day, trackers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory,


Pasadena,. Calif-., will be 'in communicetion"with Mariner.6 from
9: 47 a.m. to 10:00' p.m. EST,.. It w:l- take 21 minutes for a
command signal frqm,Goldstone to reach 'Mariner and ,the re-tturn-
signal from the spacecraft's 20-watt tramnitter wil8ltake
another 21 minutes,

Experimenters. expect. that a' study- of Mariner"sdsignal


will show a sort of- a "notch"' cut into the Earth.'s i'ondd'sh'er&.
The ionosphere-extendsvto several hundred miles above- the Earth
and the charged particles- or- electrons in it rresult from an
interaction between the Sun and the- Earth's atmosphere. It is
expected that the number,bf electrons will be substantially
reduced by the eclipse. T1!he experiheimiters believe that the.
radio signal distortion will be easy to cdrrelate with telescopic
observations of solar astronomers. .-.

A twin spacecraft MAriner,7, will be inz the- same area -of


the solar system about ten days' later and a follow-up
communications experimentlwill 'be.made with.it.. v

Investigators for the eclipse experiment with Mariner'are


Dr. Duane -0'. Muhleinan of the Caltfo2'miia 4Institute of Technology
and Peter F. MacDoran of J-PL.
m* - . .

,
*

..

.4 '

- - ~-mor~e- --
100

4X - ~
40-

Ki
4
. .4

2 4
-33-

ATS-3; Pctures During Eclipse

A spin scan camera on Applications Technology Satellite-3


will be6taking.pictures of the nort1hern hemisphere of the Earth
at~the time of the ec1ipsq. It is.expected that the shadow.
of the-*-e,clinse oi, the. Earth will -be seen in the photographs as
a shadow on the white cloud'cover. If the shadow is over a
dark land .masq it is. not. eipected.-to be seen.

Sinc& te umbra.(the region.,of -deep shadow-) -moves about


six milesper second and the ca eta scan period is six.-tenths
of a secoqndj, some. distortion of the. shape of the ecli-pse must
be expected.^

Although the camera can photfgraph the whole Earth, the-


.mode o-f camera opeirati-on--will be changed to scan only the
norther'n hemisphere to incr-ea'e the number of6-ecdise pi-ctures-.
Data wlllbe, received in real time from ATS-3. Since it takes
12. to 15 minutes' for each -picture of the northern hemisphere,.
4as many.- as '8 to-'i2 ,pictUre-s cou-ld be taken of' the-eclipse
shadow..
The data- willbe-received- at NAS'A's 'Rosman, N.C., station
and, transmitted to tie Goddard' Spade Flight, Certer where the
pIctures will be sc ann!etd and phot`ograghed..

OSO's 5 and 6 Observations


,

,Two spacecri',itt specifically designed,to study the Sun from


Ea~ihth orbit, Orbiting Solar Observatories 5 and 6, will each
make two- passes thr.ough-_egions' of'partial eclipse -on March 7.

The 0O0 spacecraft, which isc spin-stabilized, -also has


several instrurents mounted in a "sail" portion- of the space-
craft which is cohtinuously pointed at the Sun. Data- from these
instruments will be of specia:l infterest and all OSO eclipse data
will be s'ent to the investigators, as- quickly as possi1ble.

Both OSO_'s wi11 be in .position to see the eclipse in about


-o c
90.-per'80to enf~toa.ity.'- S3,- 'will1readout its data t'o the
N'ASA.racking stta-i-. at Santiago., Ch'ile.- OSO 6 will read out
t'to.the Fort e F-la.., tracking statifon which wil"l send it in
real time to the `'cddard Center,

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At Goddard, the data from one OSO. 6 experiment,,, the Harvard
College Observatory -ultraviolet spectrometer arnd 'spectro-
heliometer can be displayed.in real time on a color cathode ray
tube to be photographed. It i-s anticipated that-the eclipse
will be observed in these data.

Canadian Satellite Studies

Three satellites launched by NASA -in the joint U.S./


Canadian International Satellites for Ionosphericd"Studies (ISIS),
Program will be -used to-study the e~ffect of the eclipse on, the
topside ionosphere. All are in high inclination orbits and at
various altitudes: Alouette I in a circular 6 20.-mile -orbit
Alouette T, in. an elliptical 310-by-1860 -mile orbit -and I<SIS-I
in a 353-0by,.-2182-mile orbi't.
*For this eclipse, Alouehtte, II, and ISIS-I will be in-the best
position, crossing the eclipse regi2oh 52 and 27 minutes after-
totali ty.

All these satellites are capapble of taking topside. iono-


grams at i-itervals -of 20 to 30 seconds. These are "depth"
soundings of the ionosphere from ablovbe, similar to the soundings,
of the qaea bottom made by sh-iPs. It is planned to sample the
eclipse region -sevgeral days before and after thef event to -obtain
control i-nforriation, During the- eclipse- a continuous. run of
'records will be taken frtofn the equator through the eclipse
r'egion and far to the north. From these records, the height
distribution of electrons, at 90-mile intervals along tle- orbit
will -be calculated and compared -with similar data from the
control days.

Investigator will be Dr. G-. L. -Nelms ofrthe -Department of


Communications, Communications Research--Centtre, Canada. The
data will be shared by an ISIS wbrking group composed of
participants from several nations.

-mr4

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a .'-.
4bI

-35-'

'GROUND-OBSERVATIONS

-Observers from three univer~sities and. three NASA field,.centers


will study the eclipse from three locations under NASA sponsor-
'sh''ip..
White-Ligh-t Photography of- Corona

A 'University -of Mich-igan team-will take photographs of


the,, lar corona concentrating -on the K-corona or 61e~ctron
-

pro. 'Led,'c~orona in an 'attempt to' relate doronal.structures to


featur'es, of, the chromosphere.b The observations, will also
obtainhdata -on .the di-stributi-on,of electron densities within
the c&ordn&a at the itime of' &clipse>.

The obse'Vat'ions, wili 'be made. at a sma'-l -NASA site .on


a:bsack. bay of a national wildlife refuge near Sahdbridg, 1
Virginia, south of Virginia Beach.'

Using a portable coelih~stat',.wh'i'cn isa pointi-ngdevice


with a 1'4'-inch diameter .mirror, pictures will be takenr with a
25-foot focal -ength -camera. Corona-l radiation between,4,000
;and 5.000 Angstroms will 'be,,captu. ed on 8 by 10 inch plates.

Investigators from the, Departmenti of Astronomy and the


McMath-Hulbert Observatory of the University -of'Mich'Igan 'at
-Anri Arbor are Drs. R.G. Teske and O0.C. Moh-l6r,.,"Mrs. Ann'
Hutchinsonj John Iwanski and, Tevfi-k Soyumer.

,Flash Spectra of the Chromosphere

A Langley Research Center expeqrimei-ter, also at the


Sar db id e site will photograph 'the solar flash sp6ctrumrf,
.i'ght from the chromosphere, between the corona and the disk
too'. weak to be seen when the Sun is not obscured,. It can be
photographed just before the.Sun becomes totally-eclipsed.

The objective is to obtain the solar flash spectrum in


wavelengths f'rom 3,100 to 9,000 Angstroms to compare with
-previous flash spectra and other 1970 eclipse- observatiorn5.
It is hoped to obtain very faint lines over the full spectral
range.

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The experiment will tise two F/1.3 six-inch aperture


Maksutov slitless spectrographs. A very fast panchromatic
a fast
emulsion' (2485) will be used in one spectrograph and will
near Infrared emulsion in 'the other. The spectrographs The
be calibrated with an absolute spectral sensitometer.
for
spectrograms will be-reduced by established procedures
meteor spectrograms.
The investigator from the Space Environment Branch,
Langley Research Center, is Gale A. Harvey.
Fhotography of Comets
As- many as three unusual cam..eras owned by the Smitb-
the.
soni-an Astrophysical Observatory stay be used during to
eclipse in an effort to -photograph faint comets believed there
be near the Sun. PreVious observations suggest thatinconr-
are ;such comets but efforts to film th-em- have been
clusi ve.
These special cameras are Super Schmidt Meteor Cameras
last employed in a series of artificial meteor studies by the
Langley Research Center-. Four are in the path of the total
eclipse. Twb6 are at NASA's Wallops Station, one at Eastville,
-Va,., and a fourth at the Langley installation at Sandridge, Va.
A total of siX such cameras were built during the 1950's and
already in
it is extremely fortuitous that four of them arecameras and
place along the line of eclipse totality. *The
their mounts weigh about two and one half tons.
Fr2m for each camera must be specially molded intosystem a
hemispherical shape to accommodate the camera optical are
which covers a very large segment of the sky. The cameras
particularly sensitive to diffuse sources of light, ona capa- film
bility which increases the likelihood.of recording unit
the images of faint comets within one half astronomical
(46 million miles) of the Sun.
Operation of the cameras that will make one photo.-
graph each, will be done by trained crews from the Smithsonian
Astrophysical Observatory.
Scientists associated with the effort to photograph comets
during the eclipse are Dr. R. E. McCrosky of SAO; Dr. Bertram
R.
D. Donn of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center; and Mr. A.
Wineman of'Langley Research Center.
Two-Color Photography of K-Corona
A University of Colorado experiment will be one of two
Langley
experiments us4ng permanent telescopes installed at the
Research Center, Hampton, Va.
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''o enhance the observations, the Langley Center has


requested merchants in.nearby Hampton and Newport News,
Va. to turn out the lights associated with their
businesses, particularly large outdoor advertising displays
during the period of the eclipse.

The Colorado instrument will use an optical--assemb~ly


for two Wollaston prisms on Lan-ley's 9 1/2-inch Cassegrain
tele- ope. The purpose is to investigate the difference between
the Solon of tangentially and radially. polarized radiati6n
from the solar K-corona. The two polarized components will be
separated by the Wollaston prisms placednear the image in the
telescope to study the color by tworcol~or photographic photo-
metry. if the experiment is successful, it should aid-three-
dimensional Interpretation of coronal photographs to be taken
by observers elsewhere.

The investigator Ant the University of Colorado is Dr.


Donald E. Billings.

Photography of Coronal Structure

This experiment by NASA's Ames Research Center will use


a better resolution of the low contrast, intermediate scale-
structure of the K-corona or electron corona to study the
coronal structure,

To photograph the full intermediate scale coronal structure,


the extreme' brightness oJ. the inner corona mu st be reduced in
a uniform manner before the light reaches the film to avoid over
or under exoosure. To accomplish this, a specially shaped
rotating sector wedge called a radial transmission filter will
be fabricated at Ames and mounted an inch or two in front.of the
prime focus of the telescope.

Ten to twenty exposures at varying exposure times will be


made with a 70mm camera on Plush X pan film with a red gelatin
filter used to reduce the background sky brightness..

TIhe investigators for the Ames Research Center are Sheldon


M. Smith and Milton Henderson and for Lanigley, Leonard M.
Weinstein.

Photoelectric Photometry of the Solar Corona

A Langley Research Center experiment will be conducted


in the path of totality at Miahuatlan, Mexico. It will use
NASA's Satellite Photometric Observatory, a completely mobile
and self-supporting facility, originally built for precision
tracking of satellites.

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The Observatory, housed in a 16-ton truck, is a 24-inch


Cassagrainian telescope, a four-axis tracking mount, and a
four-channel, cryogenically cooled phototube detection system
for intensity and dual-beam polarization measurements.

The purpose of the experiment is to determine the intensity


of the coronal radiation to an accuracy of one per cent.
Simultaneous mideband multicolor measurements of the intensity
and polarization of the coronal radiation will be made out to
some 1 wo million miles from the Sun in an effort to determine
for the first time the. fine structure of the coronal electroi
density and temperature.
The instrument will make gradually increasing spiral scans
from the center of the lunar disk occulting the Sun out to some
two, million mIles from the Sun.

The scientific investigator is David S. McDougal of the


Space Environment Branch, Langley Research Center.

Multiple Eclipse Studies

A team of NASA Manned Spacecraft Center and University of


Houston scientists will make a variety of observations near
Miahuatlan, Mexico. The main objective deals with the
separation of the F and K coronae, the structure of the corona
and study of interplanetary dust and particles with experiments
that can be carried out only during an eclipse. This will
provide a large amount of ground-based data for use by the
solar experiment on the Ap6llo Telescope Mount.

One experiment will measure the intensity of the corona


in an observation line so that only the K corona will be
recorded. Comparing this with the light of' the combined F
and K coronae will obtain the contribution of the F'corona.
Thus it will be possible to determine the distribution of
interplanetary particles in the vicinity of the Sun.

Another experiment will measure coronal radiation out


to ten degrees from the Sun to gather information on the
scattering properties of interplanetary particles responsi-
ble for the outer I' corona and zodiacal light.
A flash spectrum experiment will record the spectrum of
the chromosphere just before and after totality to gather data
on the temperature distribution within the atmosphere,

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Photographs with exposures of varying lengths will be


taken during totality to detect faint comets predicted to be
found near the Sun.
Photographic and photoelectric techniques will be used to
determine the size, velocity and intensity of the shadow bands.
These are produced just prior to and just after total eclipse
when a small part of the photosphere or solar disk is visible
behind the limbs of the Moon. The light is spread in a
diffractions pattern and moves across the surface of the Earth
at a high velocity. Very little is known about the nature of
these bands and they have never been detected photographically
or photoelectrically.

Investigators are Dr. Robert- P. Kovar, Dr. Jack Reid, and


George P. Bonner of the Manned Spacecraft Center; N. K.. Shankar
of Lockheed Electronics Co.; and Dr. Natalie S. Kovar of the
University of Houston.

-end-