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Contents

CHAPTER 1: The basic of electronic ......................................................................................................... 4


Section 1: CIRCUIT ............................................................................................................................... 4
Section 2 :VOLTAGE AND CURRENT: The difference? ......................................................................... 6
Section 3: CURRENT............................................................................................................................. 6
Section 4 : DIFFERENT TYPES OF CIRCUIT............................................................................................ 7
Section 5 : PULSE WITH MODULATION ............................................................................................... 9
Application : CHECKING VOLTAGE WITH DMM................................................................................. 10
Chapter 2: Basic components ................................................................................................................ 12
Section 5: RESISTOR AND RESISTANCE .............................................................................................. 12
Section 6 :INDUCTOR................................................................................... Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Section 7 : CAPACITORS............................................................................... Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Section8 : TRANSISTOR AND MOSFET ......................................................... Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Section 9:BUCK CONVERTER ....................................................................... Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Section 10 :Duty cycle now comes handy ................................................... Erreur ! Signet non défini.
CHAPTER 3: DIGITAL CIRCUIT .......................................................................... Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Section 11: It all starts with the transistor as switch .................................. Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Section 12 :Higher level of abstraction ....................................................... Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Section 13 :IO controller in real................................................................... Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Section 14: NAND GATE.............................................................................. Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Section 15:Flip flop ...................................................................................... Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Application: How does your keyboard work? ............................................. Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Chapter 4: BIOS and PCH ................................................................................. Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Section 16 :What is the BIOS ....................................................................... Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Application: BIOS markings ‘meaning ......................................................... Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Section 17: PCH ........................................................................................... Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Chapter 5 :Understanding the schematic ....................................................... Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Section 18 :The single important part of the block diagram ....................... Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Section 19: Downloading schematic ........................................................... Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Section 20 : Symbol on the 19v circuit ....................................................... Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Section 21: AND GATE symbol .................................................................... Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Section 22: Transformer symbol ................................................................ Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Section 23: OpAmp symbol ......................................................................... Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Section 24: Fuse and zener diode symbols ................................................. Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Section 25: Voltage divider on schematic ................................................... Erreur ! Signet non défini.
CHAPTER 6 :UNDERSTANDING THE 19V CIRCUIT ............................................ Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Section: 26: The basics ................................................................................ Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Section 27: Selector and p-channel MOSFET .............................................. Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Application: Using resistor as a sensor........................................................ Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Section 28 : Step by step repair guide ......................................................... Erreur ! Signet non défini.
CHAPTER 7 : Advanced circuit ......................................................................... Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Section 29: The main regulator ................................................................... Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Section 30 : TROUBLESHOOTING THE MAIN REGULATOR WITH DMM ...... Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Section 31 : Injecting voltages to troubleshoot quickly .............................. Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Section 32: THE POWER BUTTON AND THE SWITCH SIGNAL...................... Erreur ! Signet non défini.
SECTION 33 : RAM POWER .......................................................................... Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Section 34 :THE PCH circuit ......................................................................... Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Chapter 8 :The CPU power ............................................................................. Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Section 35: Multiple Phases ........................................................................ Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Section 36 :How to count the number of phase in PWM?......................... Erreur ! Signet non défini.
CHAPTER 9: TROUBLESHOOTING PRINCIPLES ................................................. Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Section 37: The impedance model .............................................................. Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Section 38: The golden rule ......................................................................... Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Section 39: Check – Replace – Check .......................................................... Erreur ! Signet non défini.
CHAPTER 10 : THE MAIN FAULTS OF LATOP BOARD WITH A STEP BY STEP REPAIR GUIDE......... Erreur !
Signet non défini.
Section 40 : NO DISPLAY .............................................................................. Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Section 41 :NO BACKLIGHT.......................................................................... Erreur ! Signet non défini.
SECTION 42: NOT RECOGNIZNIG USB ......................................................... Erreur ! Signet non défini.
CHAPTER 1: The basic of electronic
Section 1: CIRCUIT

Let’s start with the basic. What is circuit? If you are new to

electronic, this question may be puzzling. Put simply, it is the path of

current to ground. Below we have a figure:

Figure 1

So the first question that arises is: how did we get this object

positively charged? The answer is it really doesn’t matter. We may

heat it so that some electrons are moved away in certain parts or we

can also squeeze it. That should not be our primary concern. We

should focus more on what it means. As we can see in the figure, we

took away electrons from a region which becomes then positively


charged. Logically, this region where we put the electrons is the

ground. A circuit is a possible path to this region.

So it’s a path? Yes. Forget all the textbook definitions. You can think

of it a as path from a point A ( a given voltage,i.e 19v) to a point B

(ground). As we all know, roads or path can be ‘cut’ for example

when a bridge fell down. In electronic, we say we have open circuit.

That is the current cannot move further along the line. In the figure

below , we can see that the current from Adapter could not reach the

ground since there is an open circuit. It has to pass through the board

to reach the ground but as the board is ‘open’ inside. That is just not

possible

Figure 2
Section 2 :VOLTAGE AND CURRENT: The difference?

I’m pretty sure you have already heard about those two concepts

before. But if you were like me in my beginning, you could not

differentiate them. So what’s the deal?

We say voltage when you are taking about two points with different

charges. The key word here is two points. Whenever you talk about

voltage there has to be reference. When we repair board, this point

of reference is generally the ground. In laptop, the ground can be

found on the yellow region surrounding the screwholes. You can use

your DMM on continuity mode to check any other parts that are

connected to it.

Section 3: CURRENT

That is fine but can you please explain what is current? Remember

our definition of circuit as a path. Current is how fast electrons are

moving along this line. In other words, how quickly the positively

charged regions are getting back their electrons. We say we have


short circuit when there is direct link from 19v for example to

ground.

Section 4 : DIFFERENT TYPES OF CIRCUIT

There are generally two type of current: Direct Current and

alternating Current.

AC is more used when the end goal is just to get some raw results.

Lights inside my house for example are powered with AC circuit

because as the goal is just to light the room. We don’t care about

controlling the brightness. Don’t get me wrong. Some users prefer

that. But if you were like me, you just want it to be working so that
you know the bills are paid in time, in this case we would use AC

current.

When we need precision, DC is the right choice. Let’s say for

example we need some kind of abstraction to transmit an

information. (Is Dad at home?) . The answer would be transmitted as

voltage signal. As we have more control over continuous voltage, we

manipulate it as we want. The sender and the receiver can agree in

advance for example that when the voltage is above 2.5 v Dad is at

home but when it is lower than it is the opposite.

As we can see in this figure, Dad is at home during t1 to t2. We don’t

know why but he is missing from t2 to t3 (there is no voltage here). In

the end, he comes back! Whew!


Section 5 : PULSE WITH MODULATION

This is one of the most difficult concept to grasp. We have to be

focused entirely here on every words I will use. PWM is mostly used

to switch on and off mosfet so that we can get lower voltage.

Figure: PWM (Images from Wikipedia)

As we can see in this figure, it is a binary ( it means the voltage is

present (5v) or not at a given time). Every PWM signal has what is

called duty cycle. Duty cycle refers to how long it stays to the high

state ( 5v). The longer it stays there the higher the duty cycle. In our

case here, we have 50% DC. This means that on average the time it

spends on the low state (0V ) to the high state is nearly the same.
This is quite an abstract idea, right?

Somehow. But we will need it later especially when we are going to

talk about buck converter. You should just know that an IC generated

this signal. In other words, we can modulate (change its shape) it as

we want. The lower the duty cycle the lower the voltage you get.

This is an important point to make.

Application : CHECKING VOLTAGE WITH DMM

DMM is a basic tool that can be very powerful if you know how to use

it.
As you can see from this image, DMM is multipurpose. They can be

use to test voltage (DC or AC), check continuity and so on. But if we

want for example to see if the 19v is present in the laptop

motherboard, we would make sure the pointer is within the DC

range.

Then you check with our schematic of the board ( you can look up the

board reference and search it over the internet) where is testing

point of the 19V. You would put there the red probe. As usual, you

connect the black probe to the ground.


As a rule of thumb, ground is all the yellow region as in this figure

where we connect the black probe. If we use the diode on continuity

mode, all points connected to this point are ground.

Here for example, we connect it to the coil. In laptop motherboard,

all coils should have voltage except the battery coil. Voltage on this

latter should only be present when the battery is in.

Chapter 2: Basic components

Section 5: RESISTOR AND RESISTANCE


We all study a bit of electronic in school. And I am probably sure you

have already heard about resistor. But without all the nonsense,

what is this? Let’s see first what is resistance. Remember our first

definition of circuit which says that circuit is a path.