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Car Specification
Chassis

• Steel space frame with structural side pods and fully stressed engine

Steering & Suspension


• Steel unequal length wishbones

Transmission

• Quiafe limited slip torque biasing differential housed in a light weight


segmented aluminium case with light weight bearing holders.
• Aluminium drive shafts with steel U.V. joints

Brakes

• AP Racing front and Wilwood Dynalite Single Callipers


• Cast Iron Drilled Discs for the front and integrated rear disc with the
sprocket

Engine

• Yamaha R6 with lowered sump and fuel injection

Safety

• Optimised honeycomb front impact structure


• Velocity sensitive foam for driver protection
: www.soe.uoguelph.ca/.../ uogracing/photdesign.htm
Automobile: road vehicle that is motor-driven and is used for
transporting people.
Trunk: place for stowing baggage.
Tail light: rear light.
Back fender: side rear part of the body that covers the wheel.
Quarter window: window pane situated approximately above the
rear wheel.
Roof post: vertical structure that supports the top of the car.
Window: mounted pane of glass.
Door handle: part of the door used to open it.
Door: opening used to enter the passenger compartment.
Outside mirror: external mirror used for looking backwards.
Door post: vertical structures that encase the windows.
Hub cap: piece of metal covering the hubs.
Wheel: round object that turns around a central axel and allows
the car to advance.
Front fender: side fore part of the body that covers the wheel.
Shield: movable apparatus that protects against bumps.
Indicator light: amber light that is used to signal changes in the
car's direction.
License plate: piece of metal that carries a number used to
identify the automobile.
Bumper: apparatus at the front and rear of a vehicle that protects
the body from minor bumps.
Head light: front light of a car.
Grill: plastic or metal decoration over the radiator.
Hood: cover of the engine compartment at the front of a car.
Windshield wiper: movable device, made partly of rubber, that
wipes the windshield and rear window of a car.
Outside mirror: external mirror used for looking backwards.
Windshield: the front window of a car.
Sun roof: movable part that allows the roof of a car to be partially
opened.
Roof: upper part of a car, covering the passenger compartment.

Anatomy of an automobile: road vehicle that is motor-driven and


is used for transporting people.
Trunk: place for stowing baggage.
Tail light: rear light.
Spare wheel: wheel of a car used to replace a damaged wheel.
Wheel: round object that turns around a central axel and allows
the car to advance.
Transmission: automobile apparatus that transmits mechanical
power to the wheels.
Muffler: device used to reduce engine noise.
Line shaft: axle on which mechanical power is transmitted to the
wheels.
Body side moulding: decorative moulding on the side of a car.
Disk brake: mechanism that slows and stops a car by friction, by
pressing a disk against the axel of a wheel.
Oil filter: device that removes impurities from oil passing through
it.
Alternator: generator that produces an alternating current.
Radiator: apparatus that cools the motor.
Distributor: case that is used to fire the cylinders.
Battery: device that generates electric current.
Air filter: device that remove impurities from air passing trough it.
Windshield washer: liquid used to clean the windows.
Steering wheel: device used to handle a car in conjuction with
steering and gear systems.
Windshield wiper: movable device, made partly of rubber, that
wipes the windshield and rear window of a car.
Seat: type of armchair in the passenger compartment of a car.
Window frame: border around a window.
Rearview mirror: inside mirror used for looking backward.

Automobile (view from below): road vehicle that is motor-driven


and is used for transporting people.
Radiator: apparatus that cools the motor.
Power steering: mechanism that automatically amplifies the
movements of the steering wheel.
Line shaft: axle on which mechanical power is transmitted to the
wheels.
Exhaust system: network of pipes through which spent gas is
expelled.
Differential: gear system connecting the two axles of a car.
Gas tank: container used for storing extra gas.
Rear axle: bar that crosses the bottom rear part of a vehicle. The
rear wheels are attached to its ends.
Shock absorber: device for reducing shocks.
Tire: band of rubber composed of a casing of textile and iron,
covered with rubber and containing a air tube.
Hydraulic converter: device using static energy to modify the
electric current.
Transmission: device carrying engine power to axles.
Crankcase: metal envelope protecting the clutch.
Oil pan: liquid tight metal envelope containing oil.
Master cylinder: type of container in which the piston is moving.
Automobile dashboard: the control panel of a car. Contains
gauges used to measure speed, distance traveled, etc. It is
generally located in front of the driver.
Rearview mirror: mirror used for looking backward.
Mirror: polished glass object that reflects an image.
Cigarette lighter: device used for lighting cigarette.
Vent: opening that allows air to circulate in the passenger
compartment.
Glove compartment: storage compartment at the front of the
passenger compartment.
Radio controls: button used to control the radio.
Heating controls: button used to control the different heating
systems of a car.
Accelerator pedal: foot-operated control that accelerates a
vehicle.
Brake pedal: foot-operated control that slows and stops a vehicle.
Steering column: set of mechanisms used for steering a car.
Turn signal level: control that operates the turn signals.
Windshield wiper controls: hand lever controlling the windshield
wiper.
Instrument panel: set of dials and pictograms that give
information on the state of a vehicle.
Sun visor: movable device that shields against the sun.

Front frame of an automobile: set of metal parts forming the


framework supporting the font wheels.
Front frame: the front part of the frame of a car.
Brake: mechanism used to slow or stop a car.
Lower control arm: part of the framework that gives flexibility to a
car.
Rubber pad: elastic plate that absorbs shocks.
Types of bodies: shell forming the exterior of a car.
Hatchback: two-door passenger compartment with a door at the
back.
Sports car: small, two-seated automobile.
Four-door sedan: passenger compartment with four doors and
four side windows.
Limousine: large, six-seated passenger compartment.
Convertible: car with a removable roof.
Hardtop: two-door passenger compartment.
Van: small vehicle used to carry baggage; a small van.
Pick-up truck: a small truck.
Automobile engine: apparatus that converts fuel to mechanical
energy to power a car.
Air filter: device that removes impurities from air passing trough it.
PVC hose: vinyl tube.
Filter hole: cylindrical part forming the opening of the oil container.
Cylinder head cover: removable cover on the upper part of the
motor.
Spark plug cable: cable connecting the spark plug to the
distributor cap.
Spark plug cover: spark plug cover.
Spark plug: ignition device of an internal combustion engine.
Exhaust manifold: system that collects spent gases.
Dip stick: instrument that measures the level of oil in a motor.
Flywheel: wheel that, while turning, regulates the speed of the
engine.
Engine block: set consisting the motor, the clutch and the
gearbox.
Exhaust pipe: pipe through which spent gas is expelled.
Oil filter: device that removes impurities from oil passing through
it.
Gas line: network of hoses that transports the gas.
Gas pump: device that moves gas from the gas tank to the
engine.
Oil drain plug: cylindrical part that is removed to drain oil from the
engine.
Radiator hose: treated rubber tube that connects the lines of a
combustion engine.
Pulley: small wheel with a grooved rim, bitted with a belt, that
turns the cooling fan.
Fan belt: piece of rubber that wraps around the pulleys and turns
the cooling fan.
Water pump: device that circulates water through the radiator.
Fan: apparatus that feed in oxygen the engine's combustion.
Alternator: generator that enables current in both directions.
Distributor: case that enables engine's ignition.
Valve spring: mechanism that keeps the valve closed.
Types of motors: devices that transform different types of energy
into mechanical energy, creating motion of an automobile.
Counterweight: weight that counterbalances the weight of the
cylinder.
Piston rod: rod that transmits the movement of the pistons to the
engine.
Crankshaft: collection of rods that transforms the rectilinear
displacement of the pistons into rotary motion.
Piston: cylindrical part moving up and down un a tube that
receives pressure from the fuel.
Flywheel: wheel that, while turning, regulates the speed of the
engine.

Air filter: device that removes suspended particles from a liquid or


gas.
Nut: metal part used to close the cover of the air filter.
Cover: metal part protecting the air filter.
PVC filter: vinyl filter.
Vacuum hose: tubes used to expel air.
Vacuum control: device that regulates pressure.
Shutter: jointed flap that regulates air intake.
Air intake: place where air enters to be filtered.
Heater pipe: hose that uses the heat of the motor to warm air that
enters the filter.
Collar: adjustable metal circle that can be tightened to hold a hose
in place.
Thermostatic valve: valve used to maintain a constant
temperature.
Air filter: apparatus through which air is passed to remove
impurities.
Clamp: collar that holds the cover in place.

Filters for small motors: apparatus used to remove suspended


particles from a gas or liquid.
Cover: piece of metal closing the filter.
Housing: metal casing protecting the filter.
Foam pad: a mass of spongy material used for filtering a liquid or
gas.
Filter: surface pierced with little holes.
Washer: round, thin metal part, hollow un the center.
Gasket: lining that seals a joint.
Filtering element: part through which liquid passed to be clean of
its impurities.
Pan: small container.
Cover: piece of metal closing the filter.
Wing nut: winged piece of metal, to be turned by thumb and
finger.

Automobile battery: group of similar elements that generates an


electric charge.
Negative terminal: place where a current conducting wire, the
cathode, is attached.
Separator: partition that separates the compartments of a battery.
Plates and separator: thin, flat, rigid separator sheet.
Battery case: casing that protects the parts of a battery.
Positive terminal: place where a current-conducting wire, the
anode, is attached.
Vent caps: row of screwed-on cylindrical pieces that close the
openings of a battery.

Automobile spark plug: electric part generating sparks to ignite


an internal combustion engine.
Ceramic insulator: pottery support for the parts that conduct
electricity.
Terminal: place where a current-conducting wire is attached.
Spline: hollow channel.
Resistance: device that controls the strength of the current.
Ground electrode: current device that unites the electrodes.
Spark plug gap: space separating the current conductors.
Center electrode: central current conductor.
Gasket: spot where two part join together.
Spark plug body: metal part of the spark plug.
Hex nut: hexagonal piece of metal used to screw in a spark plug.
Types of brakes: apparatuses used to slow or stop a moving
vehicle.
Drum brake: mechanism that slows and stops a car by fiction, by
pression brake shoes against a drum.
Drum: cylindrical part attached to the wheel, against which the
brake shoes are pressed to stop the car.
Brake lining: frictional part on the outside edges of the brake
shoes.
Return spring: part of the brake mechanism that returns the brake
shoes to their initial position.
Piston: cylindrical part that transmits the pressure to and receives
pressure from the brake shoes.
Wheel cylinder: type of roller that applies a uniform pressure to
the wheel then the brake is activated.
Brake shoe: part on which the brake lining is mounted.
Brake pads: part activated by the piston.
Wheel hub: central part crossed by the axel.
Stud: metal pin.
Disk: round, flat, piece of metal, pressed against the wheel to slow
or stop the car.
Brake line: system liquid-transporting tubes.
Splash shield: protector that prevents dirt from fouling the braking
system.
Disk brake: mechanism that slows and stops a car by friction, by
pressing a disk against the wheel axel.

Tire: hollow, elastic casing enclosing an air-filled cavity.


Tread pattern: raised designs on the surfaces of a tire.
Side wall: side of the tire.
Radical body cords: arched frame of the tire.
Special high stiffness apex: filling material.
Bead wire: wire moulding a tire.
Belt: layers of different thicknesses that cover the frame of the tire.
Tread design: part of the tire that comes into contact with the
road.
Windshield wiper: mechanical sweeper that wipes water off a
windshield.
Arm: movable part.
Articulation: part that attaches the wipes blade to the arm.
Blade: part that supports the wiper and is attached to the wiper
arm.
Wiper rubber: piece of rubber used to wipe the window.
Fluted shaft: grooved axle that rotates the wiper arm.

Automobile Jack: a device equipped with a crank that is used to


raise an automobile.
Pivot: axis of rotation.
Lever: solid movable part attached to a fixed point, used to
increase an applied force.
Crank: arm perpendicular to an axel, used to create circular
motion.
Base: foot on which the jack rest.

Types of shock absorbers: apparatus that reduce the force of


shocks and vibrations.
Standard: standard model.
Heavy duty: model used for heavy vehicles.
Automatic level control: model that can be adjusted according to
the size of a load.
Adjustable air shocks: model that can be inflated.
Overload: model that can be overload.
CHAPTER 3 CHASSIS SYSTEMS Chassis systems provides operators with a
means of controlling the direction the equipment travels and allows travel over
uneven terrain by controlling the amount of shock reaching the passengers or
cargo. This chapter covers the basic principles of steering systems, suspension
systems, tires, and brake systems. STEERING SYSTEMS Automotive
steering mechanisms are classified as either manual or power. In both types,
the arrangement and function of the linkage are similar. The main difference
is that manual steering requires more effort for you to steer the vehicle.
Some construction equipment has articulated steering which is powered by the
equipment hydraulic system. STEERING MECHANISMS All steering
mechanisms have the same basic parts (fig. 3-1). The steering linkage ties
the front wheels together and connects them to the steering gear case at Figure
3-1.—Steering linkage assembly. the lower end of the steering column which,
in turn, connects the gear case to the steering wheel. The arms and rods of the
steering linkage have ball ends or ball-and-socket ends to provide a swivel
connection between them. These joined ends have grease fittings, dust seals
or boots, and many of them have end-play adjustment devices. These joints and
devices must be adjusted and lubricated regularly. The arms, rods, and joints
of steering linkage in your equipment may be arranged differently from those
shown in figure 3-1, but you will find them in the same general location in the
front and underneath the vehicle. The tie rod is usually behind the axle and
keeps the front wheels in proper alignment. The tie rod is divided into two lengths
and is connected to the steering gear near the center of the vehicle to provide for
easier steering and maximum leverage. The drag link between the steering arm
and the pitman arm may be long or short, depending on the installation. The
pitman arm is splined to the shaft extending from the steering gear case. It
moves in an arc with its position, depending on which direction the steering
wheel is turned. The arm is vertical when the front wheels are straight ahead.
Therefore, the length of the drag link is determined by the distance between the
steering arm and the vertical position of the pitman arm. Unlike the tie rods, the
length of the drag link is fixed. Part of your prestart and operator maintenance
responsibilities is to check and service the steering linkage lubrication. One
example is the connecting joints between the links that contain bushings.
Additionally, when a vehicle is equipped with manually operated steering, check
the steering gear housing for lubrication, and, if needed, add the
recommended manufacturer’s gear lubricant. If the vehicle is equipped with
power steering, check the belt tension because improper tension can cause
low oil pressure and hard steering. Check the fluid level. If the fluid level is
low, add fluid to bring it up to the recommended level and only use the
recommended power steering fluid. Also, if the level is low, there may be a
leak; therefore, check hose and power steering connections for signs of leaks. 3-
1
The connections may only need tightening to eliminate POWER STEERING
leaks; however, leakage may occur at various points in the power steering unit
if the seals are defective. Power steering (fig. 3-2) adds the following
Document conditions and report them to the mainte- components to the steering
assembly: a hydraulic pump, nance shop for replacement of any defective seal. a
fluid reservoir, hoses, lines, and a steering assist unit whether mounted on the
linkage or incorporated in the The types of steering troubles that develop in
steering gear assembly. vehicle operations that should be documented and
turned in for repair are as follows: ARTICULATED STEERING l l l l l l l Excessive
play in the steering system Hard steering Vehicle wanders Vehicle pulls to one
side when braking Front-wheel shimmy Front-wheel tramps (high-speed
shimmy) Steering kickback Tires squeal on turns Improper tire wear Unusual
noises Hydraulic power is used to turn a whole section of a machine on a
vertical hinge. This design is called articulated steering and it is controlled by
a steering wheel, a hydraulic control valve, and hydraulic cylinders. (See
fig. 3-3.) The pivot is midway in the vehicle, so both parts share equally in the
pivoting. This action produces the effect of four-wheel coordinated steering, such
as the front-and-rear wheels run in each others tracks, backward and
forward. FRONT-AND-REAR STEERING Wheeled equipment may be
designed to steer by angling the front wheels, the rear wheels, and or both These
problems must be documented and turned in the front-and-rear wheels
(fig. 3-4). Front-wheel for repairs. steering is the standard method. The vehicle
follows the Figure 3-2.-Power steering linkage assembly. 3-2
Figure 3-3.-Articulated steering assembly. Figure 3-4.-Front-and-rear
steering. angling of the wheels and the rear wheels do not go behind the
bucket on turns and keeps the front tires outside the path of the front ones, but
trail inside. tracking in the rear while backing away from banks and Rear-wheel
steering swings the rear wheels outside dump trucks. In new equipment, this
design has been of the front-wheel tracks. The principal advantage is replaced
by articulation. greater effectiveness in handling off-center loads at In four-
wheel steering, the front wheels are turned either the front or rear and
preventing path down a one way and the rear wheels are turned to the same
angle sideslope. This type of steering is used with front-end in the opposite
direction. The trailing wheel always loaders, as it keeps the weight of the
machine squarely moves in the same track as the leading wheel whether 3-3
the equipment is moving forward or backward. This design lessens rolling
resistance in soft ground, because one set of tires prepares a path for the
other set. Additionally, this design provides maximum control of the direction
of the load. Also, it enables the equipment to be held on a straight course and
permits short turns in proportion to the maximum angle of the wheels. In crab
steering, both sets of wheels are turned in the same direction. If both sets of
wheels are turned at the same angle, the machine moves in a straight line at an
angle to its centerline. Results can be obtained from either four-wheel steering or
crab steering by using different turning angles on independently controlled front-
and-rear wheels. SUSPENSION SYSTEMS A suspension system anchors and
suspends the wheels or tracks from the frame with springs, as shown in figure 3-
5. It supports the weight and allows the vehicle to be driven under varying loads
and speed conditions over bumpy roads and rough terrain without great risk
of damage. miles. The spring assemblies of the suspension system should be
checked regularly to ensure that shackles are tight and that bushings within the
shackles are not overworn or frozen tight. Occasionally, spraying
lubricating oil on the spring leaves helps to prevent squeaking at the ends of the
spring leaves. Following the lubrication chart for a particular vehicle, check and
lubricate the front suspension system, including linkages, kingpins, and
ball joints. During your checks you may find shock absorber bushings worn. If so,
document it and turn it in so the problem can be looked at. The Construction
Mechanic (CM) inspector may decide the shock absorbers should be replaced.
Some symptoms of suspension troubles in vehicle operation that should be
documented and turned in for repair are as follows: . Hard steering l Vehicle
wanders l Vehicle pulls to one side during normal driving l Front-wheel shimmy
Although suspension systems are a part of your l Front-wheel tramps (high-
speed shimmy) prestart and operator maintenance responsibilities, they usually
do not need to be adjusted or replaced for many l Steering kickback Figure 3-5.
—Front axle suspension system. 3-4
l l l l l Hard or rough ride Sway on turns Spring breakage Sagging springs Noises
The components of a suspension system are the springs and shock absorbers.
Some suspension systems also have torsion bars. SPRINGS The springs
support the frame and the body of the vehicle as well as the load the vehicle
carries. They allow the wheels to withstand the shocks of uneven road surfaces
and provide a flexible connection between the wheels and the body. The best
spring absorbs road shock rapidly and returns to its normal position slowly.
Extremely flexible or soft springs allow too much movement of the vehicle
superstructure, while stiff, hard springs do not allow enough movement. The
springs do not support the weight of the wheels, rims, tires, and axles. These
parts make up the “unsprung weight” of the vehicle. The unsprung weight
decreases the action of the springs and is, therefore, kept to a minimum to permit
the springs to support the vehicle frame and load. Multiple Leaf Springs The
multiple leaf spring is part of the front axle suspension system, as shown in figure
3-5. It consists of a number of steel strips or leaves of different lengths
fastened together by a bolt through the center. Each end of the largest or master
leaf is rolled into an eye which serves as a means of attaching the spring to the
spring hanger and spring shackle. Leaf rebound clips surround the leaves at two
or more intervals along the spring to keep them from separating on the rebound
after the spring has been depressed. The clips allow the spring leaves to
slide but prevent them from separating and throwing the entire rebound
stress on the master leaf. The spring thus acts as a flexible beam. Leaf springs
may be suspended lengthwise (parallel to the frame) or crosswise. When a
leaf spring is compressed, it must straighten out or break; therefore, spring
shackles are required at one or both ends of the spring. Spring shackles provide
a swinging support and allow the spring to straighten out when compressed. One
shackle is used in either the front or rear support of springs installed lengthwise.
Two shackles support springs installed crosswise. Figure 3-6 shows how a
leaf spring is attached to a frame by a spring shackle. The most common types
of spring shackles are the link shackle and the U-shackle. Heavy vehicles have
link shackles. The U-type is more common on passenger cars and light trucks.
On some wheeled tractors, link shackles support a transverse spring on the
dead front axle. Most wheeled tractors do not even have springs, and all
load cushioning is through large, low-pressure tires. Track tractors have one
large leaf spring (fig. 3-7) supported without spring shackles. Fastened to the
engine support, it rests on the frame supporting the tracks and rollers. Brackets
on the track frames keep the spring from shifting. Figure 3-6.-Cross section of
a shackle link. Figure 3-7.-Partially removed tracklayer spring. 3-5
Figure 3-8.-Coil spring suspension. Some vehicles are equipped with leaf
springs at the rear wheels only; others are so equipped both front and rear. Coil
Springs Coil springs (fig. 3-8) are generally used on independent
suspension systems. They provide a smooth ride. Their use has normally
been limited to passenger vehicles. Recently, however, they have been used on
trucks. In figure 3-9, you can see how a coil spring is mounted. The
spring seat and hanger, shaped to fit the coil ends, hold the spring in place.
Spacers of rubberized material are placed at each end of the coil to
prevent squeaking. The rubber bumper, mounted in the spring supporting
member, prevents metal-to-metal contact when the spring is compressed.
Most vehicles are equipped with coil springs at the two front wheels, while
some others have them at both front and rear. SHOCK ABSORBERS Springs
alone cannot meet the requirements for a light vehicle suspension system. A
stiff spring gives a hard ride, because it does not flex and rebound when the
vehicle passes over a bump. On the other hand, too flexible a spring rebounds
too much, and the vehicle rides rough. For these reasons, shock absorbers are
needed to smooth the ride of the vehicle. They do so by keeping the vehicle from
jolting too much, by balancing spring stiffness and flexibility, and by allowing the
springs to return to rest after they are compressed. Although single-acting
shock absorbers check only spring rebound, double-acting shock absorbers
check spring compression and spring rebound to permit the use of the more
flexible springs. Figure 3-9.-Coil spring mounting. 3-6
FRONT AXLE SUSPENSION Most passenger car front wheels are
individually supported with independent suspension systems. The ones you
are likely to see are the coil spring and the torsion bar suspension systems used
with independent front axles and shock absorbers. REAR AXLE
SUSPENSION Driving wheels are mounted on a live-driving axle suspended by
springs attached to the axle housing. Leaf springs generally suspend live axles
using the Hotchkiss drive, as shown in figure 3-10. Coil springs are used on a
number of passenger cars with independent suspension. TIRES Because tires
are expensive, they require proper care and maintenance. While natural wear
and tear affects tire life, premature tire failure can be caused by abuse and
neglect. Proper maintenance of tires results in better performance and longer
service and prevents a hazardous tire failure that can cause loss of life and
equipment. TIRE INSPECTION Tires are cut by sharp objects, bruised by bad
roads and stones, and injured by road shocks in general. To drive with a
seriously damaged tire is dangerous, because it may blow out and cause the
driver to lose control of the vehicle. Carefully inspect your vehicle tires during
prestart and post operations. Remove glass, nails, stones, and other foreign
materials embedded in tires. Tires give longer mileage and safer driving when
damages are repaired immediately. Inflation Correct air pressure is the basis for
reliable tire performance. Tires are designed to operate at specified air
pressures for given loads and inflated to the prescribed air pressure for your
driving condition. When Figure 3-10.—Hotchkiss drive. checking air pressure,
use an accurate gauge and check the valve cores for leaks. NOTE: Reduce the
tire pressure when driving in soft sand and over dunes. This increases the
amount of tire surface in contact with the sand to provide better flotation
(support). However, never reduce the tire pressure so much that the tire slips
on the rim. On some equipment, the air pressure for normal conditions and off-
road conditions is listed on a data plate on the dashboard or in the
operator’s manual. When operating with reduced tire pressure, drive at low
speed. Inflate the tires to normal pressure as soon as the situation permits.
PROPERLY INFLATED.— A properly inflated tire, as shown in figure 3-11,
view A, shows proper contact with the road. Figure 3-11.—Proper and
improper tire inflation. 3-7
Figure 3-12.—Valve cores. UNDERINFLATED.— An underinflated tire is
shown in figure 3-11, view B. This tire does not contain enough air for its size and
the load it must carry. It flexes excessively in all directions and gets hot. In time,
the heat weakens the cords in the tire, and it blows out. Underinflation also
causes tread edges to scuff the road that puts uneven wear on the tread and
shortens tire life. Never run a tire flat, or nearly flat, unless the tactical situation in
combat requires it. When run flat for even a short distance or almost flat for a
long distance, the tire may be ruined beyond repair. OVERINFLATED.— An
overinflated tire is shown in figure 3-11, view C. Too much air pressure also
causes tire failure. Excessive pressure prevents the tire from flexing enough and
causes it to be constantly subjected to hard jolts. When an overinflated tire hits a
stone or rut, the cords may snap and cause a break in the cord body. The center
of the tread wears more rapidly and does not permit equal wear across the entire
tread. Hard riding from too much air pressure also increases wear and tear on
the vehicle. Valves For speed and convenience during inflation, valve stems
should be readily accessible. They should be properly centered in the valve holes
and slots to prevent scraping against the brake drums. They should be placed so
the valves extend through the wheels. Valves on the inside duals should point
away from the vehicle, and the valves on the outside duals should point toward
the vehicle. On dual wheels, the valve of the outside dual is placed 180 degrees
from the inside valve for speed and convenience in checking pressures and
inflation. With this arrangement, the locations of the valves are always known
even when you are checking them in the dark. Spare tires should be mounted so
that the valve is accessible for checking and inflating. VALVE CORES.— The
valve core (fig. 3-12) is that part of the valve that is screwed into the valve stem
and permits air, under pressure, to enter, but prevents it from escaping. Two
types of valve cores and two sizes of each type are in use today. The two types
are the visible spring type and the concealed spring type. The two types are
interchangeable. Two sizes are provided for the standard bore and the large bore
valve stems. The core shell has a rubber washer that provides an airtight seal
against the tapered seat inside the stem. Directly below the shell is a cup that
contains a rubber seat, which, in the closed position, is forced against the
bottom of the shell, forming an airtight seal. The pin on top of the valve core,
when pushed down, forces the cup away from the shell, permitting air to flow.
VALVE CAPS.— The valve cap (fig. 3-13) is also a component part of the
valve and is screwed onto the end of the stem, providing a second airtight seal.
The cap also protects the threads on the end of the stem and Figure 3-13.—
Valve caps. 3 –8
Figure 3-14.—Mismatched tires keeps dirt and moisture out of the valve body.
The screwdriver cap has a forked tip that may be used to install or remove the
valve core. The plain cap generally is used on rubber-covered valves and has
a skirt that contacts the rubber covering on the valve stem. Both caps are
interchangeable with each other. Part of your prestart operation is making sure
that all valve stems have valve caps. Mismatching For longer tire life and more
efficient performance, dual tires and tires on all-wheel drive vehicles must be of
the same size, tread design, and tread wear. Improperly matched tires
cause rapid uneven wear and can also cause transfer case and differential
failures. Accurate matching of tires is necessary, because tires on axle-drive
vehicles rotate at the same speed when all axles are engaged. Dual wheels turn
at the same speed, because they are locked together which means that tires
on all driving wheels must be of the same circumference and diameter. When
one tire of a pair of duals is worn considerably more than the other, the tire
cannot carry its proper share of the load and will scrub the road (fig. 3-14). The
result is uneven and rapid wear on both tires and/or tire failure. Tires should be
used in sets. Mixing different types (bias ply, fiber glass belted, radial ply)
must be avoided. Snow tires should be of the same size and type of
construction as the front tires. Radial-ply tires should always be used in sets.
NOTE: Under no circumstances should radial-ply tires be mixed with bias-
ply tires, together or on the same axle. The problems encountered when mixing
tires on a vehicle are loss of steering control, inadequate vehicle handling, and
potential mechanical damage. These problems vary depending on the stability of
the tires used, differences in dimensions, differences in air pressure, and
other operating conditions. RADIAL-PLY TIRES.— Radial-ply tires (fig. 3-
15) are constructed with casing plies perpendicular to the tread direction, with
several layers of tread-reinforcing plies (steel or fabric) just under the tread
area. This construction permits flexing of the tire with a minimum of tread
distortion, better traction, and a softer ride. Figure 3-15.—Radial-ply tire
construction. 3-9
CHAPTER 11 MACHINE ELEMENTS AND BASIC MECHANISMS CHAPTER
LEARNING OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this chapter, you should be
able to do the following: l Describe the machine elements used in naval
machinery and equipment. l Identify the basic machines used in naval
machiney and equipment. l Explain the use of clutches. Any machine,
however simple, consists of one or more basic machine elements or
mechanisms. In this chapter we will take a look at some of the more familiar
elements and mechanisms used in naval machinery and equipment. BEARINGS
Friction is the resistance of force between two surfaces. In chapter 7 we saw
that two objects rubbing against each other produce friction. If the surfaces are
smooth, they produce little friction; if either or both are rough, they produce more
friction. To start rolling a loaded hand truck across the deck, you would have
to give it a hard tug to overcome the resistance of static friction. To start sliding
the same load across the deck, you would have to give it an even harder push.
That is because rolling friction is always less than sliding friction. We take
advantage of this fact by using rollers or bearings in machines to reduce
friction. We use lubricants on bearing surfaces to reduce the friction even
further. A bearing is a support and guide that carries a moving part (or parts) of a
machine. It maintains the proper relationship between the moving part or parts
and the stationary part. It usually permits only one form of motion, such as
rotation. There are two basic types of bearings: sliding (plain bearings), also
called friction or guide bearings, and antifrictional (roller and ball bearings).
SLIDING BEARINGS In sliding (plain) bearings, a film of lubricant separates
the moving part from the stationary part. Three types of sliding bearings are
commonly used: reciprocal motion bearings, journal bearings, and thrust
bearings. Reciprocal Motion Bearings Reciprocal motion bearings provide a
bearing surface on which an object slides back and forth. They are found on
steam reciprocating pumps, in which connecting rods slide on bearing
surfaces near their connections to the pistons. We use similar bearings on the
connecting rods of large internal-combustion engines and in many
mechanisms operated by cams. Journal Bearings Journal bearings guide and
support revolving shafts. The shaft revolves in a housing fitted with a liner. The
inside of the liner, on which the shaft bears, is made of babbitt metal or a similar
soft alloy (antifriction metal) to reduce friction. The soft metal is backed by a
bronze or copper layer and has a steel back for strength. Sometimes the
bearing is made in two halves and is 11-1
Figure 11-1.-Babbitt-lined bearing in which steel shaft revolves. clamped or
screwed around the shaft (fig. 11-1). We also call it a laminated sleeve bearing.
Under favorable conditions the friction in journal bearings is remarkably
small. However, when the rubbing speed of a journal bearing is very low
or extremely high, the friction loss may become excessive. A good example is
the railroad car. Railroad cars are now being fitted with roller bearings to
eliminate the “hot box” troubles associated with journal bearings. Heavy-duty
bearings have oil circulated around and through them. Some have an additional
cooling system that circulates water around the bearing. Although revolving the
steel shaft against babbitt metal produces less friction (and less heat and
wear) than steel against Figure 11-3.-Diagrammatic arrangement of a
Kingsbury thrust bearing, showing oil film. steel, keeping the parts cool is still
a problem. The same care and lubrication needed to prevent a burned out
bearing on your car is needed on all Navy equipment, only more so. Many
lives depend on the continued operation of Navy equipment. Thrust
Bearings Thrust bearings are used on rotating shafts, such as those supporting
bevel gears, worm gears, propellers, and fans. They resist axial thrust or force
and limit axial Figure 11-2.-Kingsbury pivoted-shoe thrust bearing. 11-2
Figure 11-4.-The seven basic types of antifrictional hearings. movement.
They are used chiefly on heavy machinery, your roller skates or bicycle wheels
spin freely. If any such as Kingsbury thrust bearings used in heavy marine-
propelling machinery (figs. 11-2 and 11-3). The base of the housing holds an oil
bath, and the rotation of the shaft continually distributes the oil. The bearing
consists of a thrust collar on the propeller shaft and two or more stationary thrust
shoes on either side of the collar. Thrust is transmitted from the collar through the
shoes to the gear housing and the ship’s structure to which the gear housing is
bolted. ANTIFRICTIONAL OR ROLLER AND BALL BEARINGS You have had
bearings since you first-hand acquaintance with ball were a child. They are
what made of the little steel balls came out and were lost, your roller skates
screeched and groaned. Antifrictional balls or rollers are made of hard, highly
polished steel. Typical bearings consist of two hardened steel rings (called
races), the hardened steel balls or rollers, and a separator. The motion occurs
between the race surfaces and the rolling elements. There are seven basic
types of antifrictional bearings (fig. 11-4): 1. 2. 3. Radial ball bearings
Cylindrical roller bearings Tapered roller bearings 11-3
Figure 11-5.-Ball bearings. A. Radial type; B. Thrust type. 4. 5. 6. 7. Self-
aligning roller bearings with a spherical outer raceway Self-aligning roller
bearings with a spherical inner raceway Ball thrust bearings Needle roller
bearings Roller bearing assemblies are usually easy to disassemble for
inspection, cleaning, and replacement of parts. Ball bearings are assembled
by the manu- facturer and are installed, or replaced, as a unit. Sometimes
maintenance publications refer to roller and ball bearings as either trust or
radial bearings. The difference between the two depends on the angle of
intersection between the direction of the load and the plane of rotation of the
bearing. Figure 11-5, A, shows a radial ball bearing assembly. The load
shown is pressing outward along the radius of the shaft. Now suppose a strong
thrust were to be exerted on the right end of the shaft in an effort to Figure 11-6.-
Radial-thrust roller bearing. move it to the left. You would find that the radial
bearing is not designed to support this axial thrust. Even putting a shoulder
between the load and the inner race wouldn’t support it; instead, the bearings
would pop out of their races. Supporting a thrust on the right end of the shaft
would require the thrust bearing arrangement of the braces shown in figure
11-5, B. A shoulder under the lower race and another between the load and
the upper race would handle any axial load up to the design limit of the bearing.
Sometimes bearings are designed to support both thrust and radial loads.
This explains the use of the term “radial thrust” bearings. The tapered roller
bearing in figure 11-6 is an example of a radial-thrust roller bearing.
Antifriction bearings require smaller housings than other bearings of the same
load capacity and can operate at higher speeds. SPRINGS Springs are elastic
bodies (generally metal) that can be twisted, pulled, or stretched by some force.
They can return to their original shape when the force is released. All springs
used in naval machinery are made of metal—usually steel—though some
are made of phosphor bronze, brass, or other alloys. A part that is subject to
constant spring thrust or pressure is said to be 11-4
Figure 11-7.-Types of springs. spring-loaded. (Some components that appear
to be spring-loaded are actually under hydraulic or pneumatic pressure or are
moved by weights.) FUNCTIONS OF SPRINGS Springs are used for many
purposes, and one spring may serve more than one purpose. Listed below are
some of the more common of these functional purposes. As you read them,
try to think of at least one familiar application of each. 1. 2. 3. 4. To store energy
for part of a functioning cycle. To force a component to bear against, to
maintain contact with, to engage, to disengage, or to remain clear of some other
component. TO counterbalance a weight or thrust (gravita- tional, hydraulic,
etc.). Such springs are usually called equilibrator springs. To maintain
electrical continuity. 5. 6. 7. To return a component to its original position after
displacement. To reduce shock or impact by gradually checking the motion
of a moving weight. To permit some freedom of movement between aligned
components without disengaging them. These are sometimes called take-up
springs. TYPES OF SPRINGS As you read different books, you will find
that authors do not agree on the classification of types of springs. The names
are not as important as the types of work they do and the loads they can bear.
The three basic types are (1) flat, (2) spiral, and (3) helical. Flat Springs Flat
springs include various forms of elliptic or leaf springs (fig. 11-7, A [1] and [2]),
made up of flat or 11-5

Figure 11-8.-Bevel gear differential. slightly curved bars, plates, or leaves.


They also include special flat springs (fig. 11-7, A [3]), made from a flat strip or
bar formed into whatever shape or design best suited for a specific position and
purpose. Spiral Springs Spiral springs are sometimes called clock, power (1 1-
7, B), or coil springs. A well-known example is a watch or clock spring; after you
wind (tighten) it, it gradually unwinds and releases power. Although other names
for these springs arc based on good authority, we call them “spiral” in this text to
avoid confusion. Helical Springs Helical springs, also often called spiral (fig.
11-7, D), are probably the most common type of spring. They may be used in
compression (fig. 11-7, D [1]), extension or tension (fig. 11-7, D [2]), or torsion
(fig. 11-7, D [3]). A spring used in compression tends to shorten in action, while a
tension spring lengthens in action. Torsion springs, which transmit a twist
instead of a direct pull, operate by a coiling or an uncoiling action. In addition to
straight helical springs, cone, double-cone, keg, and volute springs are
classified as helical. These types of springs are usually used in
compression. A cone spring (11-7, D [4]), often called a valve spring because it is
frequently used in valves, is formed by wire being wound on a tapered mandrel
instead of a straight one. A double cone spring (not illustrated) consists of two
cones joined at the small ends, and a keg spring (not illustrated) consists of two
cone springs joined at their large ends. Volute springs (fig. 11-7, D [5]) are
conical springs made from a flat bar that is wound so that each coil partially
overlaps the adjacent one. The width (and thickness) of the material gives it great
strength or resistance. You can press a conical spring flat so that it requires little
space, and it is not likely to buckle sidewise. 11-6
Figure 11-9.-Exploded view of differential gear system. Other Types of
Springs Torsion bars (fig. 11-7, C) are straight bars that are acted on by torsion
(twisting force). The bars may be circular or rectangular in cross section. They
also may be tube shaped; other shapes are uncommon. A special type of spring
is a ring spring or disc spring (not illustrated). It is made of several metal rings or
discs that overlap each other. THE GEAR DIFFERENTIAL A gear differential is
a mechanism that is capable of adding and subtracting mechanically. To be
more precise, we should say that it adds the total revolutions of two
shafts. It also subtracts the total revolutions of one shaft from the total
revolutions of another shaft—and delivers the answer by a third shaft. The
gear differential will continuously and accurately add or subtract any number of
revolutions. It will produce a continuous series of answers as the inputs change.
Figure 11-8 is a cutaway drawing of a bevel gear differential showing all of its
parts and how they relate to each other. Grouped around the center of the
mechanism are four bevel gears meshed together. The two bevel gears on either
side are “end gears.” The two bevel gears above and below are “spider gears.”
The long shaft running through the end gears and the three spur gears is the
“spider shaft.” The short shaft running through the spider gears together with
the spider gears themselves make up the “spider.” Each spider gear and end
gear is bearing-mounted on its shaft and is free to rotate. The spider shaft
connects Figure 11-10.-The differential. End gears and spider arrangement.
with the spider cross shaft at the center block where they intersect. The ends of
the spider shaft are secured in flanges or hangers. The spider cross shaft and
the spider shaft are also bearing-mounted and are free to rotate on their axis.
Therefore, since the two shafts are rigidly connected, the spider (consisting of the
spider cross shaft and the spider gears) must tumble, or spin, on the axis of the
spider shaft. The three spur gears, shown in figure 11-8, are used to connect the
two end gears and the spider shaft to other mechanisms. They may be of any
convenient size. Each of the two input spur gears is attached to an end gear. An
input gear and an end gear together are called a “side” of a differential. The third
spur gear is the output gear, as designated in figure 11-8. This is the only gear
pinned to the spider shaft. All the other differential gears, both bevel and spur,
are bearing-mounted. Figure 11-9 is an exploded view of a gear differential
showing each of its individual parts. Figure 11-10 is a schematic sketch
showing the relationship of the principle parts. For the present we will assume
that the two sides of the gear system are the inputs and the gear on the spider
shaft is the output. Later we will show that any of these three gears can be either
an input or an output. 11-7
Figure 11-11.—How a differential works. Now let’s look at figure 11-11. In this
hookup the two end gears are positioned by the input shafts, which
represent the quantities to be added or subtracted. The spider gears do
the actual adding and subtracting. They follow the rotation of the two end Figure
11-12.—The spider makes only half as many revolutions. gears, turning the
spider shaft several revolutions proportional to the sum, or difference,
of the revolutions of the end gears. Suppose the left side of the differential
rotates while the other remains stationary, as in block 2 of figure 11-11.
The moving end gear will drive the spider in the same direction as
the input and, through the spider shaft and output gear, the output shaft. The
output shaft will turn several revolutions proportional to the input. If the right
side is not rotated and the left side is held stationary, as in block 3 of figure
11-11, the same thing will happen. If both input sides of the differential
turn in the same direction at the same time, the spider will be turned by both
at once, as in block 4 of figure 11-11. The output will be
proportional to the two inputs. Actually, the spider makes only half as
many revolutions as the revolutions of the end gears, because the spider
gears are free to roll between the end gears. To understand this better, let’s look
at figure 11-12. Here a ruler is rolled across the upper side of a cylindrical
drinking glass, pushing the glass along a table top. The glass will roll only half
as far as the ruler travels. The spider gears in the differential roll against
the end gears in exactly the same way. Of course, you can correct the
way the gears work by using a 2:1 gear ratio between the gear on the
spider shaft and the gear for the output shaft. Very often, for design
purposes, this gear ratio will be found to be different. When two sides of the
differential move in opposite directions, the output of the spider shaft is
proportional to the difference of the revolutions of the two inputs. That is because
the spider gears are free to turn and the two inputs drive them in opposite
directions. If the two inputs are equal and opposite, the spider gears will
turn, but the spider shaft will not move. If the two inputs turn in opposite
directions for an unequal number of revolutions, the spider gears roll on
the end gear that makes the lesser number of revolutions. That rotates the
spider in the direction of the input making the greater number of revolution. The
motion of the spider shaft 11-8
Figure 11-13.—Differential gear hookups. will be equal to half the
difference between the revolutions of the two inputs. A change in the gear ratio
to the output shaft can then give us any proportional answer we wish. We
have been describing a hookup wherein the two sides are inputs and the
spider shaft is the output. As long as you recognize that the spider follows
the end gears for half the sum, or difference, of their revolutions, you
don’t need to use this type of hookup. You may use the spider shaft as
one input and either of the sides as the other. The other side will then
become the output. Therefore, you may use three different hookups for any
given differential, depending on which is the most convenient mechanically,
as shown in figure 11-13. In chapter 13 of this book, we will describe the use
of the differential gear in the automobile. Although this differential is
similar in principle, you will see that it is somewhat different in its
mechanical makeup. LINKAGES A linkage may consist of either one
or a combination of the following basic parts: 1. Rod, shaft, or plunger 2.
Lever 3. Rocker arm 4. Bell crank These parts combined will transmit
limited rotary or linear motion. To change the direction of a motion, we use
cams with the linkage. Lever-type linkages (fig. 11-14) are used in
equipment that you open and close; for instance, valves in electric-
hydraulic systems, gates clutches, and clutch-solenoid interlocks.
Rocker arms are merely a variation, or special use, of levers. Bell cranks
primarily transmit motion from a link traveling in one
direction to another link moving in a different direction. The bell
crank mounts on a fixed Figure 11-14.—Linkages. 11-9
Figure 11-13.—Differential gear hookups. will be equal to half the
difference between the revolutions of the two inputs. A change in the gear ratio
to the output shaft can then give us any proportional answer we wish. We
have been describing a hookup wherein the two sides are inputs and the
spider shaft is the output. As long as you recognize that the spider follows
the end gears for half the sum, or difference, of their revolutions, you
don’t need to use this type of hookup. You may use the spider shaft as
one input and either of the sides as the other. The other side will then
become the output. Therefore, you may use three different hookups for any
given differential, depending on which is the most convenient mechanically,
as shown in figure 11-13. In chapter 13 of this book, we will describe the use
of the differential gear in the automobile. Although this differential is
similar in principle, you will see that it is somewhat different in its
mechanical makeup. LINKAGES A linkage may consist of either one
or a combination of the following basic parts: 1. Rod, shaft, or plunger 2.
Lever 3. Rocker arm 4. Bell crank These parts combined will transmit
limited rotary or linear motion. To change the direction of a motion, we use
cams with the linkage. Lever-type linkages (fig. 11-14) are used in
equipment that you open and close; for instance, valves in electric-
hydraulic systems, gates clutches, and clutch-solenoid interlocks.
Rocker arms are merely a variation, or special use, of levers. Bell cranks
primarily transmit motion from a link traveling in one
direction to another link moving in a different direction. The bell
crank mounts on a fixed Figure 11-14.—Linkages. 11-9
Figure 11-19.-Adjustable (vernier) coupling. Figure 11-17.-Fixed coupling.
Figure 11-20.-Adjustable flexible (vernier) coupling. 3. The adjustable
(vernier) coupling, which provides a means of finely adjusting the relationship
of two interconnected rotating shafts (fig. 11-19). Loosening a clamping bolt
and turning an adjusting worm allows one shaft to rotate while the other remains
stationary. After attaining the proper relationship, you retighten the clamping bolt
to lock the shafts together again. Figure 11-18.-Flexible coupling. each
splined to its respective shaft, are bolted to the metal disk. The flexible
coupling provides a small amount of flexibility to allow for a slight
axial misalignment of the shafts. 4. The adjustable flexible (vernier) coupling
(fig. 11-20), which is a combination of the flexible disk coupling and the
adjustable (vernier) coupling. UNIVERSAL JOINT To couple two shafts in
different planes, you need to use a universal joint. Universal joints have various

11-11

Figure 11-21.-Universal joint (Hooke type). Figure 11-22.-Ring-and-trunnion


universal joint. forms. They are used in nearly all types and classes of
machinery. An elementary universal joint, sometimes called a Hooke joint
(fig. 11-21), consists of two U-shaped yokes fastened to the ends of the
shafts to be connected. Within these yokes is a cross-shaped part that holds
the yokes together and allows each yoke to bend, or pivot, in relation to the
other. With this arrangement, one shaft can drive the other even though the
angle between the two is as great as 25° from alignment. Figure 11-22 shows a
ring-and-trunnion universal joint. It is merely a slight modification of the old
Hooke joint. Automobile drive shaft systems use two, and sometimes three,
of these joints. You will read more about these in chapter 13 of this book. The
Bendix-Weiss universal joint (fig. 11-23) provides smoother torque
transmission but less structural strength. In this type of joint, four large balls
transmit the rotary force, with a smaller ball as a spacer. With the Hooke type
universal joint, a whipping motion occurs as the shafts rotate. The amount of
whip depends on the degree of shaft misalignment. The Bendix-Weiss joint
does not have this disadvantage; it transmits rotary motion with a constant
angular velocity. However, this type of joint is both more expensive to
manufacture and of less strength than the Hooke type. CAMS A cam is a rotating
or sliding piece of machinery (as a wheel or a projection on a wheel). A cam
transfers motion to a roller moving against its edge or to a pin free to move in a
groove on its face. A cam may also receive motion from such a roller or pin.
Some cams do not move at all, but cause a change of motion in the
contacting part. Cams are not ordinarily used to transmit power in the sense that
gear trains are used. They are used to modify mechanical movement, the power
for which is furnished through other means. They may control other mechanical
units, or they may synchronize or lock together two or more engaging units.
Cams are of many shapes and sizes and are widely used in machines and
machine tools (fig. 11-24). We classify cams as 1. radial or plate cams, 2.
cylindrical or barrel cams, and 3. pivoted beams. A similar type of cam includes
drum or barrel cams, edge cams, and face cams. The drum or barrel cam has a
path cut around its outside edge in which the roller or follower fits. It imparts
a to-and-from motion to a slide or lever in a plane parallel to the axis of the cam.
Sometimes we build these cams upon a plain drum with cam plates attached.
Plate cams are used in 5"/38 and 3"/50 guns to open the breechblock during
counter-recoil. Edge or peripheral cams, also called disc cams, operate a
mechanism in one direction only. They rely on gravity or a spring to hold the
roller in contact with the edge of the cam. The shape of the cam suits the action
required. 11-12
Figure 11-23.-Bendix-Weiss universal joint. Figure 11-24.-Classes of
cams. Face cams have a groove or slot cut in the face to groove determines the
name of the cam, for example, provide a path for the roller. They operate a lever
or other the square cam. mechanism positively in both directions. The roller
is guided by the sides of the slot. Such a groove can be CLUTCHES seen on
top of the bolt of the Browning .30-caliber A clutch is a form of a coupling. It
is designed to machine gun or in fire control cams. The shape of the connect or
disconnect a driving and a driven part as
Figure 11-25.-Types of clutches. means of stopping or starting the driven part.
There are that seen in bicycles. It engages the rear sprocket with two general
classes of clutches: positive clutches and the rear wheel when the pedals are
pushed forward and friction clutches. lets the rear wheel revolve freely when the
pedals are Positive clutches have teeth that interlock. The stopped. simplest is
the jaw or claw type (fig. 11-25, A), usable The object of a friction clutch is to
connect a rotating only at low speeds. The teeth of the spiral claw or ratchet
member to one that is stationary, to bring it up to speed, type (fig. 11-25, B)
interlock only one way—they and to transmit power with a minimum of
slippage. cannot be reversed. An example of this type of clutch is Figure 11-25,
C, shows a cone clutch commonly used 11-14in motor trucks. Friction clutches
may be single-cone or double-cone. Figure 11-25, D, shows a disc clutch, also
used in autos. A disc clutch also may have several plates (multiple-disc clutch).
In a series of discs, each driven disc is located between two driving discs.
You may have had experience with a multiple-disc clutch on your car. The Hele-
Shaw clutch is a combined conical-disc clutch (fig. 11-25, E). Its groove permits
cooling and circulation of oil. Single-disc clutches are frequently dry clutches (no
lubrication); multiple-disc clutches may be dry or wet (either lubricated or
operated with oil). Magnetic clutches are a recent development in which the
friction surfaces are brought together by magnetic force when the electricity is
turned on (fig. 11-25, F). The induction clutch transmits power without contact
between the driving and driven parts. The way pressure is applied to the rim
block, split ring, band, or roller determines the names of expanding clutches or
rim clutches. In one type of expanding clutch, right- and left-hand screws
expand as a sliding sleeve moves along a shaft and expands the band against
the rim. The centrifugal clutch is a special application of a block clutch. Machines
containing heavy parts to be moved, such as a rolling mill, use oil clutches.
The grip of the coil causes great friction when it is thrust onto a cone on the
driving shaft. Yet the clutch is very sensitive to control. Diesel engines and
transportation equipment use pneumatic and hydraulic clutches. Hydraulic
couplings (fig, 11-25, G), which also serve as clutches, are used in the hydraulic
A-end of electric-hydraulic gun drives. SUMMARY In this chapter we discussed
the following elements and mechanisms used in naval machinery: Two types
of bearings are used in naval machinery: sliding and antifrictional. Springs are
another element used in machinery. Springs can be twisted, pulled, or stretched
by force and can return to their original shape when the force is released. One
basic mechanism of machines is the gear differential. A gear differential is
a mechanism that is capable of adding and subtracting mechanically. Other
basic mechanisms include linkages, couplings, cams and cam followers, and
clutches. 11-15

l l l l l CHAPTER 12 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE CHAPTER


LEARNING OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this chapter, you should be
able to do the following: Explain the principles of a combustion engine.
Explain the process of an engine cycle. State the classifications of
engines. Discuss the construction of an engine. List the auxiliary
assemblies of an engine. The automobile is a familiar object to all of us. The
engine that moves it is one of the most fascinating and talked about of all the
complex machines we use today. In this chapter we will explain briefly some
of the operational principles and basic mechanisms of this machine. As you
study its operation and construction, notice that it consists of many of the devices
and basic mechanisms covered earlier in this book. COMBUSTION ENGINE We
define an engine simply as a machine that converts heat energy to
mechanical energy. The engine does this through either internal or external
combustion. Combustion is the act of burning. Internal means inside or
enclosed. Thus, in internal combustion engines, the burning of fuel takes
place inside the engine; that is, burning takes place within the same cylinder
that produces energy to turn the crankshaft. In external combustion engines,
such as steam engines, the burning of fuel takes place outside the engine.
Figure 12-1 shows, in the simplified form, an external and an internal
combustion engine. The external combustion engine contains a boiler that
holds water. Heat applied to the boiler causes the water to boil, which, in turn,
produces steam. The steam passes into the engine cylinder under pressure and
forces the piston to move downward. With the internal Figure 12-1.-Simple
external and internal combustion engine. 12-1

Figure 12-2.-Cylinder, piston, connecting rod, and crankshaft for a


one-cylinder engine. combustion engine, the combustion takes place
inside the cylinder and is directly responsible for forcing the piston to move
downward. The change of heat energy to mechanical energy by the engine is
based on a fundamental law of physics. It states that gas will expand upon the
application of heat. The law also states that the compression of gas will increase
its temperature. If the gas is confined with no outlet for expansion, the application
of heat will increase the pressure of the gas (as it does in an automotive
cylinder). In an engine, this pressure acts against the head of a piston, causing it
to move downward. As you know, the piston moves up and down in the cylinder.
The up-and-down motion is known as reciprocating motion. This
reciprocating motion (straight line motion) must change to rotary motion (turning
motion) to turn the wheels of a vehicle. A crank and a connecting rod change this
reciprocating motion to rotary motion. All internal combustion engines, whether
gasoline or diesel, are basically the same. They all rely on three elements: air,
fuel, and ignition. Fuel contains potential energy for operating the engine; air
contains the oxygen necessary for combustion; and ignition starts
combustion. All are fundamental, and the engine will not operate without any one
of them. Any discussion of engines must be based on these three elements
and the steps and mechanisms involved in delivering them to the
combustion chamber at the proper time. DEVELOPMENT OF POWER The
power of an internal combustion engine comes from the burning of a mixture
of fuel and air in a small, enclosed space. When this mixture burns, it expands;
the push or pressure created then moves the piston, thereby cranking the
engine. This movement is sent back to the wheels to drive the vehicle. 12-2
Figure 12-3.-Relationship of piston, connecting rod, and crank on
crankshaft as crankshaft turns one revolution. Since similar action occurs
in all cylinders of an engine, we will describe the use one cylinder in the
development of power. The one-cylinder engine consists of four basic parts:
cylinder, piston, connecting rod, and crankshaft (shown in fig. 12-2). The cylinder,
which is similar to a tall metal can, is closed at one end. Inside the cylinder is the
piston, a movable metal plug that fits snugly into the cylinder, but can still slide up
and down easily. This up-and-down movement, produced by the burning of
fuel in the cylinder, results in the production of power from the engine. You
have already learned that the up-and-down movement is called reciprocating
motion. This motion must be changed to rotary motion to rotate the wheels or
tracks of vehicles. This change is accomplished by a crank on the crankshaft and
a connecting rod between the piston and the crank. The crankshaft is a shaft
with an offset portion-the crank— that describes a circle as the shaft rotates.
The top end of the connecting rod connects to the piston and must therefore go
up and down. Since the lower end of the connecting rod attaches to the
crankshaft, it moves in a circle; however it also moves up and down. When the
piston of the engine slides downward because of the pressure of the
expanding gases in the cylinder, the upper end of the connecting rod moves
downward with the piston in a straight line. The lower end of the connecting rod
moves down and in a circular motion at the same time. This moves the crank; in
turn, the crank rotates the shaft. This rotation is the desired result. So remember,
the crankshaft and connecting rod combination is a mechanism for changing
straight-line, up-and-down motion to circular, or rotary, motion. BASIC ENGINE
STROKES Each movement of the piston from top to bottom or from bottom to
top is called a stroke. The piston takes two strokes (an upstroke and a
downstroke) as the crankshaft makes one complete revolution. When the
piston is at the top of a stroke, it is said to be at top dead center. When the piston
is at the bottom of a stroke, it is said to be at bottom dead center. These
positions are rock positions, which we will discuss further in this chapter under
“Timing.” See figure 12-3 and figure 12-7. The basic engine you have studied so
far has had no provisions for getting the cylinder or burned gases fuel-air
mixture into the out of the cylinder. The 12-3
Figure 12-4.-Four-stroke cycle in a gasoline engine. 12-4enclosed end of a
cylinder has two openings. One of the openings, or ports, permits the mixture of
air and fuel to enter, and the other port permits the burned gases to escape
from the cylinder. The two ports have valves assembled in them. These
valves, actuated by the camshaft, close off either one or the other of the ports,
or both of them, during various stages of engine operation. One of the
valves, called the intake valve, opens to admit a mixture of fuel and air into the
cylinder. The other valve, called the exhaust valve, opens to allow the escape of
burned gases after the fuel-and-air mixture has burned. Later you will learn more
about how these valves and their mechanisms operate. The following
paragraphs explain the sequence of actions that takes place within the engine
cylinder: the intake stroke, the compression stroke, the power stroke, and the
exhaust stroke. Since these strokes are easy to identify in the operation of a four-
cycle engine, that engine is used in the description. This type of engine is called
a four-stroke-Otto-cycle engine, named after Dr. N. A. Otto who, in 1876, first
applied the principle of this engine. INTAKE STROKE The first stroke in the
sequence is the intake stroke (fig. 12-4). During this stroke, the piston is moving
downward and the intake valve is open. This downward movement of the
piston produces a partial vacuum in the cylinder, and air and fuel rush into
the cylinder past the open intake valve. This action produces a result similar to
that which occurs when you drink through a straw. You produce a partial vacuum
in your mouth, and the liquid moves up through the straw to fill the vacuum.
COMPRESSION STROKE When the piston reaches bottom dead center at the
end of the intake stroke (and is therefore at the bottom of the cylinder) the intake
valve closes and seals the upper end of the cylinder. As the crankshaft continues
to rotate, it pushes the connecting rod up against the piston. The piston
then moves upward and compresses the combustible mixture in the cylinder.
This action is known as the compression stroke (fig. 12-4). In gasoline
engines, the mixture is compressed to about one-eighth of its original volume.
(In a diesel engine the mixture may be compressed to as little as one-
sixteenth of its original volume.) This compression of the air-fuel mixture
increases the pressure within the cylinder. Compressing the mixture in this way
makes it more combustible; not only does the pressure in the cylinder go up, but
the temperature of the mixture also increases. POWER STROKE As the piston
reaches top dead center at the end of the compression stroke (and is therefore at
the top of the cylinder), the ignition system produces an electric spark. The spark
sets fire to the fuel-air mixture. In burning, the mixture gets very hot and expands
in all directions. The pressure rises to about 600 to 700 pounds per square inch.
Since the piston is the only part that can move, the force produced by the
expanding gases forces the piston down. This force, or thrust, is carried
through the connecting rod to the crankpin on the crankshaft. The crankshaft is
given a powerful twist. This is known as the power stroke (fig. 12-4). This
turning effort, rapidly repeated in the engine and carried through gears
and shafts, will turn the wheels of a vehicle and cause it to move along the
highway. EXHAUST STROKE After the fuel-air mixture has burned, it must be
cleared from the cylinder. Therefore, the exhaust valve opens as the power
stroke is finished and the piston starts back up on the exhaust stroke (fig. 12-4).
The piston forces the burned gases of the cylinder past the open exhaust valve.
The four strokes (intake, compression, power, and exhaust) are
continuously repeated as the engine runs. ENGINE CYCLES Now, with the
basic knowledge you have of the parts and the four strokes of the engine, let us
see what happens during the actual running of the engine. To produce sustained
power, an engine must repeatedly complete one series of the four
strokes: intake, compression, power, and exhaust. One completion of this
series of strokes is known as a cycle. Most engines of today operate on four-
stroke cycles, although we use the term four-cycle engines to refer to them.
The term actually refers to the four strokes of the piston, two up and two down,
not the number of cycles completed. For the engine to operate, the piston
continually repeats the four-stroke cycle. TWO-CYCLE ENGINE In the two-cycle
engine, the entire series of strokes (intake, compression, in two piston strokes.
power, and exhaust) takes place 12-5

Figure 12-5.-Events in a two-cycle, internal combustion engine. A two-cycle


engine is shown in figure 12-5. Every other stroke in this engine is a power
stroke. Each time the piston moves down, it is on the power stroke. Intake,
compression, power, and exhaust still take place; but they are completed in
just two strokes. Figure 12-5 shows that the intake and exhaust ports are cut into
the cylinder wall instead of at the top of the combustion chamber as in the four-
cycle engine. As the piston moves down on its power stroke, it first uncovers the
exhaust port to let burned gases escape and then uncovers the intake port to
allow a new fuel-air mixture to enter the combustion chamber. Then on the
upward stroke, the piston covers both ports and, at the same time,
compresses the new mixture in preparation for ignition and another power
stroke. In the engine shown in figure 12-5, the piston is shaped so that the
incoming fuel-air mixture is directed upward, thereby sweeping out ahead of it
the burned exhaust gases. Also, there is an inlet into the crankcase through
which the fuel-air mixture passes before it enters the cylinder. This inlet is
opened as the piston moves upward, but it is sealed as the piston moves
downward on the power stroke. The downward moving piston slightly
compresses the mixture in the crankcase. That gives the mixture enough
pressure to pass rapidly through the intake port as the piston clears this port.
This action improves the sweeping-out, or scavenging, effect of the mixture as it
enters and clears the burned gases from the cylinder through the exhaust port.
FOUR-CYCLE VERSUS TWO-CYCLE ENGINES You have probably noted
that the two-cycle engine produces a power stroke every crankshaft
revolution; the four-cycle engine requires two crankshaft revolutions for
each power stroke. It might appear that the two-cycle engine could
produce twice as much power as the four-cycle engine of the same size,
operating at the same speed. However, that is not true. With the two-cycle
engine, some of the power is used to drive the blower that forces the air-fuel
charge into the cylinder under pressure. Also, the burned gases are not cleared
from the cylinder. Additionally, because of the much shorter period the intake port
is open (compared to the period the intake valve in a four-stroke-cycle is open), a
smaller amount of fuel-air mixture is admitted. Hence, with less fuel-air
mixture, less power per power stroke is produced compared to the power
produced in a four-stroke cycle engine of like size operating at the same speed
and under the same conditions. To increase the amount of fuel-air mixture, we
use auxiliary devices with the two-stroke engine to ensure delivery of greater
amounts of fuel-air mixture into the cylinder. 12-6

Figure 12-6.-Crankshaft for a six-cylinder engine. MULTIPLE-CYLINDER


ENGINES The discussion so far in this chapter has concerned a single-cylinder
engine. A single cylinder provides only one power impulse every two crankshaft
revolutions in a four-cycle engine. It delivers power only one-fourth of the time.
To provide for a more continuous flow of power, modem engines use four, six,
eight, or more cylinders. The same series of cycles take place in each cylinder. In
a four-stroke cycle, six-cylinder engine, for example, the cranks on the
crankshaft are set 120 degrees apart. The cranks for cylinders 1 and 6, 2 and
5, and 3 and 4 are in line with each other (fig. 12-6). The cylinders fire or
deliver the power strokes in the following order: 1-5-3-6-2-4. Thus, the power
strokes follow each other so closely that a continuous and even delivery of power
goes to the crankshaft. TIMING In a gasoline engine, the valves must open and
close at the proper times with regard to piston position and stroke. In addition,
the ignition system must produce the sparks at the proper time so that the power
strokes can start. Both valve and ignition system action must be properly timed if
good engine performance is to be obtained. Valve timing refers to the exact times
in the engine cycle that the valves trap the mixture and then allow the burned
gases to escape. The valves must open and close so that they are constantly
in step with the piston movement of the cylinder they control. The position of
the valves is determined by the camshaft; the position of the piston is determined
by the crankshaft. Correct valve timing is obtained by providing the proper
relationship between the camshaft and the crankshaft. When the piston is at top
dead center, the crankshaft can move 15° to 20° without causing the piston to
move up and down any noticeable distance. This is one of the two rock positions
(fig. 12-7) of the piston. When the piston moves up on the exhaust stroke,
considerable momentum is given to the exhaust gases as they pass out through
the exhaust valve port. If the exhaust valve closes at top dead center, a small
amount of the gases Figure 12-7.-Rock position. 12-7will be trapped and will
dilute the incoming fuel-air mixture when the intake valves open. Since the piston
has little downward movement while in the rock position, the exhaust valve
can remain open during this period and thereby permit a more complete
scavenging of the exhaust gases. Ignition timing refers to the timing of the sparks
at the spark plug gap with relation to the piston position during the compression
and power strokes. The ignition system is timed so that the sparks occurs before
the piston reaches top dead center on the compression stroke. That gives
the mixture enough time to ignite and start burning. If this time were not provided,
that is, if the spark occurred at or after the piston reached top dead center, then
the pressure increase would not keep pace with the piston movement. At
higher speeds, there is still less time for the fuel- air mixture to ignite and bum.
To make up for this lack of time and thereby avoid power loss, the ignition
system includes an advance mechanism that functions on speed.
CLASSIFICATION OF ENGINES Engines for automotive and construction
equipment may be classified in several ways: type of fuel used, type of cooling
employed, or valve and cylinder arrange- ment. They all operate on the
internal combustion principle. The application of basic principles of
construction to particular needs or systems of manu- facture has caused certain
designs to be recognized as conventional. The most common method of
classification is based on the type of fuel used; that is, whether the engine burns
gasoline or diesel fuel. GASOLINE ENGINES DIESEL ENGINES Mechanically
and in VERSUS overall appearance, gasoline and diesel engines resemble
one another. However, many parts of the diesel engine are designed to be
somewhat heavier and stronger to withstand the higher temperatures and
pressures the engine generates. The engines differ also in the fuel used, in the
method of introducing it into the cylinders, and in how the air-fuel mixture is
ignited. In the gasoline engine, we first mix air and fuel in the carburetor. After
this mixture is compressed in the cylinders, it is ignited by an electrical spark
from the spark plugs. The source of the energy producing the electrical
spark may be a storage battery or a high-tension magneto. The diesel
engine has no carburetor. Air alone enters its cylinders, where it is compressed
and reaches a high temperature because of compression. The heat of
compression ignites the fuel injected into the cylinder and causes the fuel-air
mixture to burn. The diesel engine needs no spark plugs; the very contact of the
diesel fuel with the hot air in the cylinder causes ignition. In the gasoline engine
the heat compression is not enough to ignite the air-fuel mixture; therefore,
spark plugs are necessary. ARRANGEMENT OF CYLINDERS Engines are
also classified according to the arrange- ment of the cylinders. One classification
is the in-line, in which all cylinders are cast in a straight line above the crankshaft,
as in most trucks. Another is the V-type, in which two banks of cylinders are
mounted in a “V” shape above the crankshaft, as in many passenger
vehicles. Another not-so-common arrangement is the horizontally opposed
engine whose cylinders mount in two side rows, each opposite a central
crankshaft. Buses often have this type of engine. The cylinders are numbered.
The cylinder nearest the front of an in-line engine is numbered 1. The others are
numbered 2, 3,4, and so forth, from the front to rear. In V-type engines the
numbering sequence varies with the manufacturer. The firing order (which is
different from the numbering order) of the cylinders is usually stamped on the
cylinder block or on the manufacturer’s nameplate. VALVE
ARRANGEMENT The majority of internal combustion engines also are
classified according to the position and arrangement of the intake and exhaust
valves. This classification depends on whether the valves are in the cylinder
block or in the cylinder head. Various arrangements have been used; the most
common are the L-head, I-head, and F-head (fig. 12-8). The letter designation is
used because the shape of the combustion chamber resembles the form of the
letter identifying it. L-Head In the L-head engines, both valves are placed in the
block on the same side of the cylinder. The valve- operating mechanism is
located directly below the valves, and one camshaft actuates both the intake

and exhaust valves. 12-8


Figure 12-8.-L-, I-, and F-valve arrangement. I-Head Engines using the I-
head construction are called valve-in-head or overhead valve engines,
because the valves mount in a cylinder head above the cylinder. This
arrangement requires a tappet, a push rod, and a rocker arm above the
cylinder to reverse the direction of the valve movement. Only one camshaft
is required for both valves. Some overhead valve engines make use of an
overhead camshaft. This arrangement eliminates the long linkage between
the camshaft and the valve. F-Head In the F-head engine, the intake valves
normally are located in the head, while the exhaust valves are located in the
engine block. This arrangement combines, in effect, the L-head and the I-head
valve arrangements. The valves in the head are actuated from the camshaft
through tappets, push rods, and rocker arms (I-head arrangement), while the
valves in the block are actuated directly from the camshaft by tappets (L-
head arrangement). ENGINE CONSTRUCTION Basic engine construction
varies little, regardless of the size and design of the engine. The intended use
of an engine must be considered before the design and size can be determined.
The temperature at which an engine will operate has a great deal to do with the
metals used in its construction. The problem of obtaining service parts in the
field categorization of engines servicing procedures and are simplified by
the into families based on construction and design. Because many kinds of
engines are needed for many different jobs, engines are designed to have
closely related cylinder sizes, valve arrangements, and so forth. As an
example, the General Motors series 71 engines may have two, three, four, or six
cylinders. However, they are designed so that the same pistons, connecting
rods, bearings, valves and valve operating mechanisms can be used in all four
engines. Engine construction, in this chapter, will be broken down into two
categories: stationary parts and moving parts. STATIONARY PARTS The
stationary parts of an engine include the cylinder block, cylinders, cylinder
head or heads, crankcase, and the exhaust and intake manifolds. These parts
furnish the framework of the engine. All movable parts are attached to or fitted
into this framework. Engine Cylinder Block The engine cylinder block is the
basic frame of a liquid-cooled engine, whether it is the in-line, horizontally
opposed, or V-type. The cylinder block and crankcase are often cast in one piece
that is the heaviest single piece of metal in the engine. (See fig. 12-9.) In small
engines, where weight is an important consideration, the crankcase may
be cast separately. In most large diesel engines, such as those used in power
plants, the crankcase is cast separately and is attached to a heavy stationary
engine base. In practically all automotive and construction equipment, the
cylinder block and crankcase are cast in one piece. In this course we are
concerned primarily with liquid-cooled engines of this type. The cylinders of a
liquid-cooled engine are surrounded by jackets through which the cooling liquid
circulates. These jackets are cast integrally with the cylinder block.
Communicating passages permit the coolant to circulate around the cylinders
and through the head. The air-cooled engine cylinder differs from that of a
liquid-cooled engine in that the cylinders are made individually, rather than
cast in block. The cylinders of air-cooled engines have closely spaced fins
surrounding the barrel; these fins provide an increased surface area from which
heat can be dissipated. This engine design is in contrast to that of the liquid-
cooled engine, which has a water jacket around its cylinders. 12-9
Cylinder Block Construction The cylinder block is cast from gray iron or iron
alloyed with other metals such as nickel, chromium, or molybdenum. Some
lightweight engine blocks are made from aluminum. Cylinders are machined
by grinding or boring to give them the desired true inner surface. During normal
engine operation, cylinder walls will wear out-of-round, or they may become
cracked and scored if not properly lubricated or cooled. Liners (sleeves) made of
metal alloys resistant to wear are used in many gasoline engines and practically
all diesel engines to lessen wear. After they have been worn beyond the
maximum oversize, the liners can be replaced individually, which permits the
use of standard pistons and rings. Thus, you can avoid replacing the entire
cylinder block The liners are inserted into a hole in the block with either a PRESS
FIT or a SLIP FIT. Liners are further designated as either a WET-TYPE or DRY-
TYPE. The wet-type liner comes in direct contact with the coolant and is sealed
at the top by a metallic sealing ring and at the bottom by a rubber sealing ring.
The dry-type liner does not contact the coolant. Engine blocks for L-head
engines contain the passageways for the valves and valve ports. The lower
part of the block (crankcase) supports the crankshaft (the main bearings and
bearing caps) and provides a place to which the oil pan can be fastened. The
camshaft is supported in the cylinder block by bushings that fit into machined
holes in the block. On L-head in-line engines, the intake and exhaust manifolds
are attached to the side of the cylinder block. On L-head V-8 engines, the intake
manifold is located between the two banks of cylinders; these engines have
two exhaust manifolds, one on the outside of each bank. Cylinder Head The
cylinder head provides the combustion chambers for the engine cylinders. It is
built to conform to the arrangement of the valves: L-head, I-head, or other. In
the water-cooled engine, the cylinder head (fig. 12-10) is bolted to the top of the
cylinder block to close the upper end of the cylinders. It contains passages,
Figure 12-10-Cylinder head for L-head engine. 12-11

Figure 12-11.—Intake and exhaust manifolds. matching those of the


cylinder block, that allow the cooling water to circulate in the head. The
head also helps keep compression in the cylinders. The gasoline engine
contains tapped holes in the cylinder head that lead into the
combustion chamber. The spark plugs are inserted into these tapped holes. In
the diesel engine the cylinder head may be cast in a single unit, or it may be
cast for a single cylinder or two or more cylinders. Separated head sections
(usually covering one, two, or three cylinders in large engines) are easy
to handle and can be removed. The L-head type of cylinder head shown in
figure 12-10 is a comparatively simple casting. It contains water jackets for
cooling, openings for spark plugs, and pockets into which the valves
operate. Each pocket serves as a part of the combustion chamber.
The fuel-air mixture is compressed in the pocket as the piston reaches the
end of the compression stroke. Note that the pockets have a rather
complex curved surface. This shape has been carefully designed so that the
fuel-air mixture, compressed, will be subjected to violent turbulence. This
turbulence ensures uniform mixing of the fuel and air, thus improving the
combustion process. The I-head (overhead-valve) type of cylinder head
contains not only valve and combustion chamber pockets and water
jackets for cooling spark-plug openings, but it also contains and
supports the valves and valve-operating mechanisms. In this type of cylinder
head, the water jackets must be large enough to cool not only the top of
the combustion chamber but also the valve seats, valves, and valve-
operating mechanisms. Crankcase The crankcase is that part of the engine
block below the cylinders. It supports and encloses the crankshaft and
provides a reservoir for the lubricating oil. Often times the crankcase
contains a place for mounting the oil pump, oil filter, starting motor,
and generator. The lower part of the crankcase is the OIL PAN, which is
bolted at the bottom. The oil pan is made of pressed or cast steel and holds from
4 to 9 quarts of oil, depending on the engine design. The crankcase also has
mounting brackets that support the entire engine on the vehicle frame.
These brackets are either an integral part of the crankcase or 12-12

are bolted to it so that they support the engine at three or four points. These
points of contact usually are cushioned with rubber that insulates the frame
and the body of the vehicle from engine vibration and therefore prevents
damage to the engine supports and the transmission. Exhaust Manifold
The exhaust manifold is a tube that carries waste products of combustion from
the cylinders. On L-head engines the exhaust manifold is bolted to the side of
the engine block on; overhead-valve engines it is bolted to the side of the engine
cylinder head. Exhaust manifolds may be single iron castings or may be cast in
sections. They have a smooth interior surface with no abrupt change in size (see
fig. 12-1 1). Intake Manifold The intake manifold on a gasoline engine carries
the fuel-air mixture from the carburetor and distributes it as evenly as possible to
the cylinders. On a diesel engine, the manifold carries only air to the cylinders.
The intake manifold is attached to the block on L-head engines and to the side
of the cylinder head on overhead-valve engines. (See fig. 12-11.) In
gasoline engines, smooth and efficient engine performance depends largely on
whether the fuel-air mixtures that enter each cylinder are uniform in strength,
quality, and degree of vaporization. The inside walls of the manifold must be
smooth to offer little obstruction to the flow of the fuel-air mixture. The manifold is
designed to prevent the collecting of fuel at the bends in the manifold. The intake
manifold should be as short and straight as possible to reduce the chances of
condensation between the carburetor and cylinders. Some intake manifolds are
designed so that hot exhaust gases heat their surfaces to help vaporize the fuel.
Gaskets The principal stationary parts of an engine have just been explained.
The gaskets (fig. 12- 12) that serve as seals between these parts require as
much attention during engine assembly as any other part. It is impractical to
machine all surfaces so that they fit together to form a perfect seal. The gaskets
make a joint that is air, water, or oil tight. Therefore, when properly Figure 12-
12.-Engine overhaul gasket kit. installed, they prevent loss of compression,
coolant, or lubricant. MOVING PARTS OF AN ENGINE The moving parts of an
engine serve an important function in turning heat energy into mechanical
energy. They further convert reciprocal motion into rotary motion. The
principal moving parts are the piston assembly, connecting rods,
crankshaft assembly (includes flywheel and vibration dampener), camshaft,
valves, and gear train. The burning of the fuel-air mixture within the cylinder
exerts a pressure on the piston, thus pushing it down in the cylinder. The action
of the connecting rod and crankshaft converts this downward motion to a rotary
motion. Piston Assembly Engine pistons serve several purposes. They
transmit the force of combustion to the crankshaft through the connecting
rod. They act as a guide for the upper end of the connecting rod. And they also

serve as 12-13
Figure 12-13.—Piston and connecting rod (exploded view). a carrier for
the piston rings used to seal the compression in the cylinder. (See. fig.
12-13.) The piston must come to a complete stop at the end of each stroke
before reversing its course in the cylinder. To withstand this rugged
treatment and wear, it must be made of tough material, yet be light in weight.
To overcome inertia and momentum at high speed, it must be carefully
balanced and weighed. All the pistons used in any one engine must be of
similar weight to avoid excessive vibration. Ribs are used on the underside of
the piston to reinforce the hand. The ribs also help to conduct heat from the
head of the piston to the piston rings and out through the cylinder walls. The
structural components of the piston are the head, skirt, ring grooves,
and land (fig. 12-14). However, all pistons do not look like the typical one
illustrated here. Some have differently shaped heads. Diesel engine pistons
usually have more ring grooves and rings than gasoline engine pistons. Some of
these rings may be installed below as well as above the wrist or piston pin
(fig. 12-15). Fitting pistons properly is important. Because metal expands
when heated and space must be provided for lubricants between the
pistons and the cylinder walls, the pistons are fitted to the engine with a
specified clearance. This clearance depends upon the size or diameter of
the piston and the material form which it is made. Cast iron does not
expand as fast or as much as aluminum. Aluminum pistons require more
clearance to prevent binding or seizing when the engine gets hot. The skirt of
bottom part of the piston runs much cooler than the top; therefore, it does
not require as much clearance as the head. Figure 12-14.—The parts of a
piston. 12-14
Figure 12-15.—Piston assembly. Figure 12-16.—Cam-ground piston. The
piston is kept in alignment by the skirt, which is usually cam ground (elliptical in
cross section) (fig.12-16). This elliptical shape permits the piston to fit the
cylinder, regardless of whether the piston is cold or at operating
temperature. The narrowest diameter of the piston is at the piston pin bosses,
where the piston skirt is thickest. At the widest diameter of the piston, the piston
skirt is thinnest. The piston is fitted to close limits at its widest diameter so that
the piston noise (slap) is prevented during the engine warm-up. As the piston
is 12-15

Figure 12-17.-Piston pin types. expanded by the heat generated during


operation, it becomes round because the expansion is proportional to the
temperature of the metal. The walls of the skirt are cut away as much as possible
to reduce weight and to prevent excessive expansion during engine operation.
Many aluminum pistons are made with split skirts so that when the pistons
expand, the skirt diameter will not increase. The two types of piston skirts found
in most engines are the full trunk and the slipper. The full-trunk-type skirt, more
widely used, has a full cylindrical shape with bearing surfaces parallel to those of
the cylinder, giving more strength and better control of the oil film. The slipper-
type (cutaway) skirt has considerable relief on the sides of the skirt, leaving
less area for possible contact with the cylinder walls and thereby reducing
friction. PISTON PINS.— The piston is attached to the connecting rod by the
piston pin (wrist pin). The pin passes through the piston pin bosses and through
the upper end of the connecting rod, which rides within the piston on the middle
of the pin. Piston pins are made of alloy steel with a precision finish and are case
hardened and sometimes chromium plated to increase their wearing
qualities. Their tubular construction gives them maximum strength with minimum
weight. They are lubricated by splash from the crankcase or by pressure through
passages bored in the connecting rods. Three methods are commonly used
for fastening a piston pin to the piston and the connecting rod: fixed pin,
semifloating pin, and full-floating pin (fig. 12-17). The anchored, or fixed, pin
attaches to the piston by a screw running through one of the bosses; the
connecting rod oscillates on the pin. The semifloating pin is anchored to the
connecting rod and turns in the piston pin bosses. The full-floating pin is free to
rotate in the connecting rod and in the bosses, while plugs or snap-ring
locks prevent it from working out against the sides of the cylinder. PISTON
RINGS.— Piston rings are used on pistons to maintain gastight seals
between the pistons and cylinders, to aid in cooling the piston, and to control
cylinder-wall lubrication. About one-third of the heat absorbed by the piston
passes through the rings to the cylinder wall. Piston rings are often complicated
in design, are heat treated in various ways, and are plated with other metals.
Piston rings are of two distinct classifications: compression rings and oil
control rings. (See fig. 12-18.) The principal function of a compression ring is
to prevent gases from leaking by the piston during the compression and power
strokes. All piston rings are split to permit assembly to the piston and to
allow for expansion. When the ring is in place, the ends of the split joint do not
form a perfect seal; therefore, more than one ring must be used, and the joints
must be staggered around the piston. If cylinders are worn, expanders (figs. 12-
15 and 12-18) are sometimes used to ensure a perfect seal. The bottom ring,
usually located just above the piston pin, is an oil-regulating ring. This ring
scrapes the excess oil from the cylinder walls and returns some of it, through
slots, to the piston ring grooves. The ring groove under an oil ring has openings
through which the oil flows back into the crankcase. In some engines, additional
oil rings are used in the piston skirt below the piston pin. 12-16
Figure 12-18.-Piston rings. Connecting Rods Connecting rods must be
light and yet strong enough to transmit the thrust of the pistons to the
crankshaft. Connecting rods are drop forged from a steel alloy capable of
withstanding heavy loads without bending or twisting. Holes at the upper and
lower ends are machined to permit accurate fitting of bearings. These holes
must be parallel. The upper end of the connecting rod is connected to the
piston by the piston pin. If the piston pin is locked in the piston pin bosses or if it
floats in both the piston and the connecting rod, the upper hold of the connecting
rod will have a solid bearing (bushing) of bronze or similar material. As the lower
end of the connecting rod revolves with the crankshaft, the upper end is forced to
turn back and forth on the piston pin. Although this movement is slight, the
bushing is necessary because of the high pressure and temperatures. If the
piston pin is semifloating, a bushing is not needed. Figure 12-19.-Crankshaft of
a four-cylinder engine. The lower hole in the connecting rod is split to permit it
to be clamped around the crankshaft. The bottom part, or cap, is made of the
same material as the rod and is attached by two or more bolts. The surface that
bears on the crankshaft is generally a bearing material in the form of a separate
split shell; in a few cases, it may be spun or die-cast in the inside of the rod and
cap during manufacture. The two parts of the separate bearing are
positioned in the rod and cap by dowel pins, projections, or short brass screws.
Split bearings may be of the precision or semiprecision type. The precision type
bearing is accurately finished to fit the crankpin and does not require further
fitting during installation. It is positioned by projections on the shell that match
reliefs in the rod and cap. The projections prevent the bearings from
moving sideways and prevent rotary motion in the rod and cap. The
semiprecision-type bearing is usually fastened to or die-cast with the rod and
cap. Before installation, it is machined and fitted to the proper inside diameter
with the cap and rod bolted together. Crankshaft As the pistons collectively
might be regarded as the heart of the engine, so the crankshaft might be
considered the backbone (fig. 12-19). It ties together the reactions of the
pistons and the connecting rods, transforming their reciprocating motion into
rotary motion. It transmits engine power through the flywheel, clutch,
transmission, and differential to drive your vehicle. The crankshaft is forged
or cast from an alloy of steel and nickel. It is machined smooth to provide
12-17
CHAPTER 1 ENGINE SYSTEMS To become a professional Equipment
Operator, you must understand the principles of operation of automotive
and construction equipment. This chapter covers the basic principles of
engines, fuel systems, air induction systems, lubrication systems, and cooling
systems on the equipment used by the Navy and the Naval Construction Force
(NCF). INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES An engine is a device that
converts heat energy into mechanical energy to perform work. An internal
combustion engine is any engine in which fuel is burned within its body (fig. 1-1).
The combustion that occurs within the cylinders produces energy. This
energy moves the parts of the engine that drives the equipment. Air and fuel are
two elements needed to produce heat energy in an engine. Oxygen in the air is
evenly mixed with the fuel and is vaporized. This mixture allows for quick and
even burning. The chemical process that occurs when the air and fuel mixture
in the cylinder is ignited is known as combustion. An engine uses both
reciprocating motion and rotary motion to transmit energy. Four parts of the
engine work together to convert reciprocating motion into rotary motion.
These four parts are as follows: a cylinder, a piston, a connecting rod, and a
crankshaft (fig. 1-2). The piston and cylinder are matched parts, fitted
closely to allow the piston to glide easily with little clearance at the sides within
the cylinder. The top of the cylinder is closed and has a space for the
combustion chamber. The connecting rod transmits the up-and-down motion of
the piston to the crankshaft. The crankshaft Figure 1-1.-Basic elements of an
engine. Figure 1-2.-Piston and crankshaft. 1-1
Figure 1-3.—Piston to crankshaft relationship. Figure 1-4.—Piston
positions. 1-2
has a section offset from the center line of the shaft so that it “cranks” when the
shaft is turned (fig. 1-3). ENGINE CYCLE When the piston is at the highest
point in the cylinder, it is in a position called top dead center (TDC). When
the piston is at its lowest point in the cylinder, it is in a position called bottom
dead center (BDC) (fig. 1-4). As the piston moves from top to bottom or from
bottom to top, the crankshaft rotates exactly one half of a revolution. Each
movement of the piston from top to bottom or from bottom to top is called a
stroke; therefore, the piston completes two strokes for every full crankshaft
revolution. For an engine to operate, the following sequence of events must
occur: 1. INTAKE: A combustible mixture is pulled into the cylinder. 2.
COMPRESSION: The combustible mixture is compressed into a smaller
space. 3. POWER: The compressed combustible mixture is ignited causing it
to expand, producing power. 4. EXHAUST: The burnt gases are removed from
the cylinder. The engine repeats this sequence of events over and over again
to produce sustained power. One complete series of these events in an
engine is called a cycle. Engines have either a four-stroke cycle or a two-stroke
cycle; most engines operate on the four-stroke cycle. Four-Stroke Cycle
Gasoline Engine In the four-stroke cycle gasoline engine, there are four
strokes of the piston in each cycle: two up and two down (fig. 1-5). The four
strokes of a cycle are as Figure 1-5.—Four-stroke cycle operation. 1-3

follows: intake, compression, power, and exhaust. A cycle occurs during two
revolutions of the crankshaft. INTAKE STROKE. — The intake stroke begins
at top dead center, and as the piston moves down, the intake valve opens. The
downward movement of the piston creates a vacuum in the cylinder, causing a
fuel and air mixture to be drawn through the intake port into the combustion
chamber. As the piston reaches bottom dead center, the intake valve closes.
COMPRESSION STROKE.— The compression stroke begins with the piston at
bottom dead center and rising up to compress the fuel and air mixture. Since
both the intake and exhaust valves are closed, there is no escape for the fuel and
air mixture, and it is compressed to a fraction of its original volume. At this point,
the fuel and air mixture is ignited. POWER STROKE.— The power stroke
begins when the fuel and air mixture is ignited, burns and expands and forces
the piston down. The valves remain power stroke ends as the piston
reaches bottom dead center. EXHAUST STROKE.— The exhaust stroke
begins when the piston nears the end of the power stroke and the exhaust valve
is opened. As the piston moves upward towards top dead center, it pushes
the burnt gases, resulting from the ignition of the fuel and air mixture, out of the
combustion chamber and through the exhaust port. As the piston reaches top
dead center, ending the exhaust stroke, the exhaust valve closes, and the intake
valve opens to begin the intake stroke for the next cycle. Four-Stroke Cycle
Diesel Engine The four-stroke diesel engine is similar to the four- stroke
gasoline engine. They both follow an operating cycle that consist of intake,
compression, power, and exhaust strokes. They also share similar systems for
intake and exhaust valves. The components of a diesel closed so that all the
force is exerted on the piston. The engine are shown in figure 1-6. Figure 1-6.—
Four-stroke cycle diesel engine. 1 – 4
The primary differences between a diesel engine and a gasoline engine are as
follows: 1. The fuel and air mixture is ignited by the heat generated by the
compression stroke in a diesel engine versus the use of a spark ignition system
on a gasoline engine. 2. The fuel and air mixture in a diesel engine is
compressed to about one twentieth of its original volume, while in a gasoline
engine the fuel and air mixture is only compressed to about one eighth of
its original volume. The diesel engine must compress the mixture more tightly to
generate enough heat to ignite the fuel and air mixture. The contrast between the
two engines is shown in figure 1-7. 3. The gasoline engine mixes the fuel
and air before it reaches the combustion chamber. A diesel engine takes in only
air through the intake port. Fuel is put into the combustion chamber directly
through an Figure 1-7.—Diesel and gasoline engines compression strokes.
1-5
Figure 1-8.-Diesel and gasoline engines intake strokes. Figure 1-9.—Diesel
and gasoline engines regulation of power. 1-6
injection system. The air and fuel then mix in the combustion chamber (fig.
1-8). 4. The engine speed and the power output of a diesel engine are controlled
by the quantity of fuel admitted to the combustion chamber. The amount of air is
constant. On the gasoline engine, the speed and power output is regulated by
limiting the air and fuel mixture entering the engine (fig. 1-9). A diesel engine is
much more efficient than a gasoline engine, such as the diesel engine does
not require an ignition system due to the heat generated by the higher
compression, the diesel engine has a better fuel economy due to the complete
burning of the fuel, and the diesel engine develops greater torque due to the
power developed from the high-compression ratio. The strokes that make up
the four-stroke cycle of a diesel engine follow. DIESEL ENGINE INTAKE
STROKE.— The piston is at top dead center at the beginning of the intake
stroke, and, as the piston moves downward, the intake valve opens. The
downward movement of the piston draws air into the cylinder, and, as the piston
reaches bottom dead center, the intake valve closes (fig. 1-10, view A).
Figure 1-10.—Four-stroke cycle diesel engine. 1-7

DIESEL ENGINE COMPRESSION STROKE.— The piston is at bottom dead


center at the beginning of the compression stroke, and, as the piston moves
upward, the air compresses. As the piston reaches top dead center, the
compression stroke ends (fig. 1-10, view B). DIESEL ENGINE POWER
STROKE.— The piston begins the power stroke at top dead center. The air is
compressed to as much as 500 psi and at a compressed temperature of
approximately 1000°F. At this point, fuel is injected into the combustion
chamber and is ignited by the heat of the compression. This begins the power
stroke. The expanding force of the burning gases pushes the piston
downward, providing power to the crankshaft. The diesel fuel will continue to
bum through the entire power stroke (a more complete burning of the fuel) (fig. 1-
10, view C). The gasoline engine has a power stroke with rapid combustion in the
beginning, but little to no combustion at the end. DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST
STROKE.— As the piston reaches bottom dead center on the power stroke, the
power stroke ends and the exhaust stroke begins (fig. 1-10, view D). The
exhaust valve opens, and, as the piston rises towards top dead center, the burnt
gases are pushed out through the exhaust port. As the piston reaches top dead
center, the exhaust valve closes and the intake valve opens. The engine is now
ready to begin another operating cycle. Multifuel Engine The multifuel
engine (fig. 1-11) is basically a four-stroke cycle diesel engine with the
capability of operating on a wide variety of fuel oils without adjustment or
modification. The fuel injection system is equipped with a device called a fuel
density compensator that varies the amount of fuel to keep the power
output constant regardless of the type fuel being used. The multifuel engine
uses a spherical combustion chamber (fig. 1-12) that aids in thorough fuel and air
mixing, complete combustion, and minimizes knocks. NOTE: Because of
environmental pollution controls and the development of more efficient
diesel engines, the multifuel engine is being phased out. Figure 1-11.—
Multifuel engine. 1-8
Figure 1-12.-Spherical chamber. 1-9

Figure 1-13.—Two-stroke cycle diesel engine. Two-Stroke Cycle Diesel


Engine A two-troke diesel engine (fig. 1-13) shares the same operating
principles as other internal combustion engines. It has all of the advantages
that other diesel engines have over gasoline engines. A two-stroke diesel engine
does not produce as much power as a four-stroke diesel engine; however, it runs
smoother than the four-stroke diesel. This is because it generates a power
stroke each time the piston moves downward; that is, once for each crankshaft
revolution. The two-stroke diesel engine has a less complicated valve train
because it does not use intake valves. Instead, it requires a supercharger to
force air into the cylinder and force exhaust gases out, because the piston cannot
do this naturally as in four-stroke engines. The two-stroke diesel takes in air
and discharges exhaust through a system called scavenging. Scavenging
begins with the piston at bottom dead center. At this point, the intake ports
are uncovered in the cylinder wall and the exhaust valve is open. The
supercharger forces air into the cylinder, and, as the air is forced in, the
burned gases from the previous operating cycle are forced out (fig. 1-14).
COMPRESSION STROKE.— As the piston moves towards top dead
center, it covers the intake ports. The exhaust valves close at this point and seals
the upper cylinder. As the piston continues upward, the air in the cylinder is
tightly compressed (fig. 1-14). As in the four-stroke cycle diesel, a
tremendous amount of heat is generated by the compression. POWER
STROKE.— As the piston reaches top dead center, the compression stroke
ends. Fuel is injected at this point and the intense heat of the
compression causes the fuel to ignite. The burning fuel pushes the piston down,
giving power to the crankshaft. The power stroke ends when the piston gets
down to the point where the intake ports are uncovered. At about this point, the
exhaust valve opens and scavenging begins again, as shown in figure 1-14.
Valve Train The operation of the valves in a timed sequence is critical. If the
exhaust valve opened in the middle of the intake stroke, the piston would draw
burnt gases into the combustion chamber with a fresh mixture of fuel and air. As
the piston continued to the power stroke, there would be nothing in the
combustion chamber that would 1-10
Figure 1-14.—Two-stroke diesel cycle. 1-11 UK
Figure 1-15.—Valve train operation. 1-12

Figure 1-16.-Common fuel tank locations. bum. The engine is fitted with a
valve train to operate the valves, as shown in figure 1-15. The camshaft is made
to rotate with the crankshaft through the timing gears. The cam lobe is the raised
portion on the camshaft that contacts the bottom of the lifter. As the cam
rotates, the lobe pushes up on the lifter. The cam lobe pushes the valve open
against the pressure of a spring. As the cam lobe rotates away from the lifter, the
valve spring pulls the valve closed. The proper positioning of the cam lobes on
the camshaft establishes a sequence for the intake and exhaust valves. FUEL
SYSTEMS The function of the fuel system is to ensure a quantity of clean
fuel is delivered to the fuel intake of an engine. The system must provide both
safe fuel storage and transfer. FUEL TANKS Fuel tanks store fuel in liquid form.
The tank may be located in any part of a vehicle that is protected from flying
debris, shielded from collisions, and not likely to bottom out (fig. 1-16). Most
wheeled vehicles use removable fuel tanks. Most fuel tanks are made of thin
sheet metal coated with a lead-tin alloy to prevent corrosion. Fiber glass and
a variety of molded plastics are also popular as corrosion-resistant materials.
The walls of fuel tanks are manufactured with ridges to give them strength and
internal baffles that increase internal strength and prevent the fuel from sloshing
(fig. 1-17). The filler pipe offers a convenient opening to fill the tank and prevent
fuel from being spilled onto the Figure 1-17.-Fuel tank construction. 1-13

passenger, engine, or cargo compartments. The fuel outlet pipe is located inside
the tank and its opening is about one-half inch above the bottom. This location
allows sediment to fall to the bottom of the fuel tank without being drawn into the
fuel system. Most fuel tanks have a position on top to install a fuel gauge sending
unit. This is usually a flanged hole. A threaded drain plug is normally located at
the bottom of the tank and is used for draining and cleaning of the tank.
Gasoline Fuel Gasoline, a by-product of petroleum, contains carbon and
hydrogen. This factor allows the fuel to burn freely and to create extensive heat
energy. Two types of gasoline are used: leaded and unleaded. Leaded gasoline
has a higher octane rating than unleaded gasoline and is more effective as a
valve and valve seat lubricant; however, leaded gasoline has almost been
discontinued, because engines that use it emit a great amount of harmful
hydrocarbons that pollute the atmosphere. Engines that use unleaded
gasoline emit fewer hydrocarbons, have fewer combustion chamber
deposits, and provide a longer life for spark plugs, exhaust systems, and
carburetors; however, unleaded gasoline emits about the same amount of
carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide as leaded gasoline. NOTE: The octane
number in gasoline is a measure of its ability to burn evenly and resist
spontaneous combustion. A knock in a gasoline engine is caused by gases
burning too rapidly. Catalytic Converter A catalytic converter is positioned
in the exhaust system, usually between the engine and the muffler, to control
the emission of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons produced from
burning gasoline. As the engine exhaust passes through the converter,
carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons are oxidized (combined with oxygen),
changing them to carbon dioxide and water. This oxidation causes the outer shell
of the converter to operate consistently at temperatures that are several
hundred degrees higher than the rest of the exhaust system. The outer shell
of the catalytic converter is normally made of stainless steel to cope with the
high operating temperatures. A chemical catalyst is an element or chemical
compound that increases the reaction between two other chemicals without
reacting with them. In this case, the catalyst in the catalytic converter increases
the reaction between oxygen and the harmful carbon monoxide and
hydrocarbons to produce harmless carbon dioxide and water emissions.
Platinum and palladium are precious metals often used as catalysts in catalytic
converters. Small amounts of the catalysts are used to coat the surfaces of the
material in the converter. Two common types of converters are shown in
figure 1-18. NOTE: The use of leaded gasoline is destructive to a catalytic
converter. The lead in the exhaust can coat the catalyst as it passes through the
converter, and this coating can completely halt catalytic converter operations.
Diesel Fuel Diesel fuel comes from the residue of the crude oil after the more
volatile fuels, such as gasoline and kerosene, are removed during the
petroleum refining process. As with gasoline, the efficiency of a diesel fuel
varies with the type of engine. The refining and blending process can produce a
suitable diesel fuel for almost any engine operating conditions. Using a
contaminated fuel or an improper grade of fuel can cause hard starting,
incomplete combustion, a smokey exhaust, or cause an engine to knock.
Cleanliness of diesel fuel is important because fuel containing more than a
trace of foreign substances can cause fuel pump and injector problems to
develop. Diesel fuels can hold dirt particles in suspension longer than gasoline
because it is heavier and more viscous. In refining, not all foreign materials can
be removed, and harmful matter, such as dirt and water, can get into the fuel
during the handling process, Water can rust an injection system and cause it to
fail. Dirt clogs injectors and spray nozzles and can cause an engine to misfire or
stop altogether. To be safe, remember to take precautions when refueling
and try to prevent foreign matter from entering the fuel tank. High-cetane diesel
fuels allow diesel engines to be started at low temperatures, provide fast
warmups without misfiring or producing white smoke, reduce the formation of
carbon deposits, and eliminate diesel knock. However, a too high cetane
number can lead to incomplete combustion and exhaust smoke if the delay is too
short to allow for proper mixing of fuel and air. Most diesel fuels range from 33 to
64 in cetane number, with 40 the minimum for military grades DF-1 and DF-2. 1-
14
Figure 1-18.-Catalytic converter. NOTE: The cetane number is a measure
of the ability of a diesel fuel to provide fast spontaneous combustion with
short ignition delay. A knock in a diesel engine is caused by the fuel igniting too
slowly. Jet Fuel You may be deployed to some sites at which diesel fuel is not
available and JET FUEL has to be used. The three major types of jet fuel used
by the military are JP-4, JET-A1, and JP-5. DO NOT USE JP-4 IN ANY
DIESEL ENGINE. The maintenance supervisor approves the use of
JET-A1 and JP-5 and directs the amount of engine oil that must be added to
the jet fuel. This must be done to improve the lubricating qualities that prevent
the injector pump and injectors from seizing. FUEL FILTERS Fuel filters
trap foreign material that may be present in the fuel and prevent it from
entering the carburetor or sensitive fuel injection components. Gasoline Fuel
Filter On a gasoline engine system there is at least one fuel filter used in the fuel
system and it can be located in any accessible place along the fuel delivery line.
Filters also can be located inside fuel tanks, carburetors, and fuel pumps. 1-15
rrm 1 nw
Figure 1-19.—Fuel filter operation. The fuel filter operates by passing fuel
through a porous material that blocks particles large enough to cause a
problem in the system. Some filters also act as sediment bowls; water and
larger particles of foreign matter settle to the bottom where they can be
drained off (fig. 1-19). Figure 1-20 shows the three types of fuel filters in
common use. They are the replaceable in-line filter (view A), the in-line filter
element (view B), and the glass bowl (view C). Filter elements are made from
ceramic, treated paper, sintered bronze, or metal screen, as shown in figure 1-
21. A filter element that differs from the others is a series of closely spaced
laminated disks. As the gasoline proses between the disks, foreign matter is
blocked out. Diesel Fuel Filters Diesel fuel filters are called full-flow filters,
because all the fuel must pass through them before reaching the injection
pumps. They are very important because diesel fuels are more viscous than
gasoline and Figure 1-20.—Fuel filter configurations. 1-16
Figure 1-21 .—Fuel filter elements. contain more gum and abrasive particles
that can cause premature wear of injection equipment. Some diesel fuel filters
have an air valve to release any air that accumulates in the filter during
operation. Most diesel engine designs include two filters in the fuel supply
system: a primary filter and a secondary filter. PRIMARY FILTER.— In most
designs, the primary filter is located between the fuel tank and the fuel supply
pump. A primary falter contains a coarse filter material that removes the larger
foreign matter. They are metal filters and only allow fine particles to pass
through them (fig. 1-22). Solid materials larger than 0.005 inch remain outside
the metal disks, while the larger foreign matter and most of the water settle to the
bottom of the bowl. This matter can be removed through a drain plug. A ball relief
valve in the filter cover enables the fuel to bypass the filter element if the disks
become clogged. Most types of heavy equipment have a fuel pressure
gauge that indicates when the filters are dirty. NOTE: A good practice is to
drain about one fourth of a pint of fuel out of the filter into a container or onto a
rag during the prestart operations. This practice allows you to drain out any
foreign matter that has settled to the bottom of the filter. SECONDARY
FILTER.— The secondary falter is usually located between the fuel supply
pump and the fuel injection pump. It contains a fine filter that removes even the
most minute traces of foreign matter from the 1-17 Figure 1-22.-Primary fuel
filter.
fuel. Secondary filters (fig. 1-23) are fabric filters that have greater filtering
qualities than primary filters. They arc used principally as the primary filter to
protect the fuel injection pump. GASOLINE FUEL SYSTEM The three basic
parts of a gasoline fuel system are the fuel tank, fuel pump, and carburetor.
Fuel is supplied from the fuel tank to the carburetor by either a gravity- feed
system or a force-feed system. The gravity-feed system has the fuel tank
placed above the carburetor (fig. 1-24). Afloat attached to a valve allows fuel to
enter the carburetor at the same rate at which the engine is consuming it. This
system maintains a uniform level in the carburetor regardless of the amount of
fuel in the tank. The force-feed system (fig. 1-24) is where the fuel tank is
located below the carburetor and a fuel pump is required. Fuel Pump The fuel
pump draws the gasoline through a fuel line from the tank and forces it to the
float chamber of the carburetor where it is stopped. Several types of fuel pumps
are used; however, the most common type is the mechanical nonpositive fuel
pump (fig. 1-25). Carburetor Figure 1-23.-Secondary fuel filter. The carburetor
is basically an air tube that operates by a differential in air pressure. It has an
hourglass- shaped tube called a throat and the most constricted part Figure 1-
24.-Fuel systems. 1-18
Figure 1-25.-Mechanical nonpositive pump. 1-19
Figure 1-26.—Venturi effect. Figure 1-27.—Throttle valve. of the throat is
called the venturi (fig. 1-26). A tube called a discharge nozzle is positioned in the
venturi and is connected to a reservoir of gasoline called the float bowl. The
downward intake stroke of the piston creates a partial vacuum in the carburetor
throat that allows low-pressure air to rush by the fuel nozzle. This forces small
drops of fuel to be mixed with the air. Then the fuel and air mixture must pass the
throttle valve which is controlled by the operator (fig. 1-27). The throttle valve
opens or closes to allow the correct volume of the fuel and air mixture into the
engine. The choke valve (fig. 1-28) also controls the supply of fuel to the engine.
When you start the engine in cold weather, the choke valve can be partly closed,
forming a restriction that causes more fuel and less air to be drawn into the
combustion chamber. This results in a richer air to fuel Figure 1-28.-Choke
valve operation. 1-20
Figure 1-29.—Diesel fuel system. mixture in the cylinders for the harder job of
starting at low temperature. DIESEL FUEL SYSTEM The primary job of the
diesel fuel system is to inject a precise amount of atomized and pressurized fuel
into each engine cylinder at the precise time. The major parts of the diesel
system are the fuel tank, fuel transfer pump, fuel filters, injection pump, and
injection nozzles (fig. 1-29). Fuel Transfer Pump The fuel transfer pump is
normally used on modern high-speed diesel engines. It can be driven by either
engine or battery voltage. The fuel transfer pump can be located on the outside
of the fuel tank in the supply line, submerged within the fuel tank, or mounted on
the backside of the injection pump. The fuel pump pushes or draws the fuel
through the filters where the fuel is cleaned. Injection Pump Several types of
injection pumps are used on diesel engines. Each has its own unique operating
principles. The primary function of the injection pump is to supply high-pressure
fuel for injection. Injection Nozzles A wide variety of injector nozzles are in use
today. All are designed to perform the same basic function which is to spray the
fuel in atomized form into the combustion chamber of each cylinder. Cold
Weather Starting Aids Diesel fuel evaporates much slower than gasoline
and requires more heat to cause combustion in the cylinders of the engine. For
this reason, preheater and starting aids, called glow plugs, are installed on
equipment equipped with diesel engines. PREHEATERS.— Preheaters are
normally installed in the intake manifold; however, in a two-stroke
cycle engine, they are placed in the air passages surrounding the cylinders.
The preheater burns a small quantity of diesel fuel in the air before the air is
drawn into the cylinders. This burning process is accomplished by the use of
either a glow plug or an ignition coil that produces a spark to ignite a fine spray of
diesel fuel. The resulting heat warms the remaining air before it is drawn into the
cylinders. 1-21
Figure 1-31.—Blower air intake system. Figure 1-30.-Glow plug. GLOW
PLUGS.— Glow plugs (fig. 1-30) and the injection nozzle are installed in
the precombustion chamber of the cylinder head. The glow plug is turned on
when you turn on the ignition switch. On some equip- ment a light on the
dashboard signals that the glow plug is cycling which signals you to wait between
15 to 30 seconds before cranking the engine. The heat, created by electrical
resistance in the glow plug, heats the fuel and air mixture. The heat generated by
the glow plug and the heat generated by compression allow the fuel to ignite. AIR
INDUCTION SYSTEMS The function of an air intake system is to supply the
correct amount of air needed to increase the combustion and the efficiency of an
engine. On a diesel engine, the air intake system cleans the intake air, silences
the intake noise, furnishes air for supercharging, and supplies scavenged air in
two-stroke engines. The three major components of the air induction system are
blowers, turbochargers, and superchargers. They may be of the centrifugal or
rotary type, or they may be gear-driven directly from the engine, belt or chain-
driven, or driven by the flow of exhaust gases from the engine. BLOWERS The
scavenging process, used in the two-stroke cycle diesel engine, is simply a
charge of air forced into the cylinder by the blower. As this charge of air is forced
into the cylinder, all the burnt gases are swept out through the exhaust valve
ports. This air also helps cool the internal engine parts, particularly the
exhaust valves. 1-22 The blower shown in figure 1-31 provides the forced-
air induction for the scavenging process. Two rotors are closely fitted in a
housing that is bolted to the engine. The rotor lobes provide continuous and
uniform displacement of air as the rotors revolve. Blower rotors either have
two lobes or three lobes, depending on the type. TURBOCHARGERS The four-
stroke cycle engine uses two methods of air induction: naturally aspirated
and turbo charged. The naturally aspirated system depends on atmospheric
pressure to keep a constant supply of air in the intake manifold. The turbocharger
is designed to force air into the cylinder and aid in scavenging the exhaust gases.
The turbocharger differs from the blower in that the turbocharger uses the energy
of exhaust gases to drive a turbine wheel (fig. 1-32). The hot exhaust gases from
the engine go through the exhaust inlet, across the turbine wheel, and out the
exhaust outlet. The force of the exhaust turns the turbine wheel and shaft. This
action rotates the compressor wheel (impeller) that is attached to the opposite
end of the turbine shaft. As the impeller rotates, it draws air into the housing. The
air is then compressed and forced into the intake manifold. SUPERCHARGERS
Superchargers are engine-driven air pumps that force the air and fuel mixture
into the engine. They are made in three basic configurations: centrifugal, Roots,
and vane.
Figure 1-33.-Superchargers. 1-24
Centrifugal Supercharger The centrifugal supercharger (fig. 1-33, view A) has
an impeller equipped with curved vanes. As the impeller is driven by the engine,
it draws air into its center and throws it off at its rim. The air then is pushed along
the inside of the circular housing. The diameter of the housing gradually
increases to the outlet where the air is pushed out to the engine intake system.
Roots Supercharger The Roots supercharger (fig. 1-33, view B) is a
positive displacement type of supercharger that consists of two rotors inside
a housing. As the rotors are driven by the engine, air is trapped between them
and the housing. The air is then carried to the outlet where it is discharged.
Because of the extremely narrow clearance between the rotors and the housing,
this supercharger is very sensitive to dirt. Vane Supercharger The vane
supercharger (fig. 1-33, view C) is a positive displacement supercharger that
has a rotor that revolves in a body, the bore of which is eccentric to the rotor.
Two sliding vanes are placed 180 degrees apart in slots in the rotor and are
pressed against the body bore by springs in the slots. When the shaft is rotated,
the vanes pick up air at the inlet port and carry it around the body to the outlet
side where the air is discharged to the intake system of the engine. AIR
CLEANERS Clean air is essential to the performance and life of an engine. The
air cleaner must remove fine materials, such as sand, dust, or lint, from the air
before it enters the intake system. The air cleaner normally has a reservoir
large enough to hold material taken out of the air; therefore, operation over a
reasonable time is possible before cleaning and servicing are necessary.
NOTE: A buildup of dust and dirt in the air cleaner passages will eventually
choke off the air supply, causing poor combustion. Multiple air cleaners are
sometimes used in locations where engines are operated under extremely
dusty air conditions or when two small air cleaners must be used in place of a
single large cleaner. The most common type of air cleaners are the
following: pre-cleaners, dry air cleaners, dry element air cleaners, and oil bath air
cleaners. Pre-Cleaners Pre-cleaners are devices that remove large particles of
dirt or other foreign matter from the air before it enters the main air cleaner. This
relieves most of the load on the air cleaner. Pre-cleaners are normally installed at
the end of an air cleaner inlet pipe that extends upward into the air (fig. 1-34).
This locates them in an area relatively free of dust. NOTE: Cleaning out the
collector bowl of the pre-cleaner is part of operator’s maintenance and
should be performed during both prestart and post-operation maintenance.
Dry Air Cleaners Dry air cleaners (fig. 1-35) are attached directly to the intake
system and are used on engines in which the Figure 1-34 .—Pre-cleaner.
Figure 1-35.—Dry air cleaner. 1-25
Figure 1-36.-Dry-element air cleaner. demand for air is small. The dry air
cleaner cleans the air by passing it through layers of cloth or felt that removes
large dirt particles from the air very effectively. Dry-Element Air Cleaners The
two most common dry-element air cleaners used are the cleaner with an
unloading valve and a cleaner with a dust cup (fig. 1-36). Dry air cleaners are
built for two-stage cleaning: pre-cleaning and filtering. The cleaner with the dust
unloading valve, as shown in figure 1-36, view A, directs the air into the pre-
cleaner so that it strikes one side of the metal shield. This starts the centrifugal
suction that continues until it reaches the far end of the cleaner housing. At this
point, the dirt is collected into the dust unloader valve located at the bottom of the
housing. The dust unloader valve is a rubber duck-bill device that is held closed
by engine suction while the engine is running. When the engine is shut down, the
weight of the accumulated dirt helps open the flaps so the dirt can drop out. The
cleaner with the dust air cup, as shown in figure 1-36, view B, pulls in the air past
tilted fins that starts the centrifugal suction. When the air reaches the end of the
cleaner housing, the dirt passes through a slot in the top of the cleaner and
enters the dust cup. Both types of pre-cleaners remove over 80 percent of the
dirt particles, greatly reducing the load on the filters. After the air goes through
the pre-cleaning stage, it then passes through the holes in the metal jacket
surrounding the pleated-paper filter. Filtering is performed as the air passes
through the paper filter that filters out almost all of the remaining small particles.
Checking and cleaning air cleaners equipped with either a dust unloading valve
or dust cup is part of the daily prestart and post-operational checks and
maintenance performed by the operator. The dust unloading valve should
be inspected for cracks, clogging, and deterioration. The dust cup should be
removed and wiped clean with a rag. Dusty filter elements should be
removed and cleaned by tapping and rotating the filter on the heel of your hand
to remove the dust. NOTE: Do not tap the filter on a hard surface; this can
damage the element. When the tapping does not remove the dust, use a
compressed air cleaning gun to clean the filter (fig. 1-37). Direct the
clean dry air up and down the pleats, blowing from inside to outside. NOTE: To
prevent rupturing the filter, you must not allow the compressed air pressure
to exceed 30 psi. To clean with water, you first blow out the dirt with compressed
air, then flush the remainder of the dirt from inside to outside with water. After
flushing is completed, allow the filter to dry. 1-26
Figure 1-37.—Dry filter cleaning. For extremely oily filters, clean the filters
with the After the filter is clean, inspect it for damage and compressed air or flush
them with clean water. Soak and check the filter gasket for damage. Before
installing the gently agitate the filter in a filter cleaning solution and filter, you
must clean the inside of the air cleaner body lukewarm water. Rinse the filter
thoroughly with clean thoroughly with a clean, damp rag. water and then shake
the excess water from the filter and NOTE: Consult the maintenance
supervisor for allow it to airdry. Protect the filter from freezing, and keep
approval before washing any filter elements with water. a spare element to use
while the washed one is drying. Additionally, never wash a dry element in fuel oil,
1-27
Figure 1-38.-Oil bath air cleaner. Figure 1-39.—Typical engine lubrication
system. 1-28

gasoline, or solvent and never use compressed air to dry the element. during a
crew turnover. The effort to check the lube oils is easier than explaining to the
chain of command why an engine or part of the power train locked up or seized.
Oil Bath Air Cleaners ENGINE OIL Oil bath air cleaners (fig. 1-38) draw air
down a center tube where it strikes the surface of oil in the oil reservoir. As the
air strikes the oil reservoir, most of the particles in the air do not make the
180-degree-upward turn. The dirt particles remain trapped in the oil. As the air
continues upward and passes to the filter element, the smaller particles that
bypassed the oil are trapped. The air keeps the filter element soaked with oil by
creating a fine spray as it passes the reservoir. The air then makes another 180-
degree turn and enters the intake system of the engine. NOTE: It is the
operator’s responsibility to keep the oil cup filled to the proper level with the
correct weight of oil and to document when the oil is dirty or has thickened,
reducing its ability to clean particles from the air. LUBRICATION SYSTEM The
engine lubrication system (fig. 1-39) reduces friction between moving parts,
absorbs and dissipates heat, seals the piston rings and cylinder walls, cleans
and flushes moving parts, and helps deaden the noise of the engine. Checking
the lubrication oils on a piece of equip- ment is part of the prestart check and the
operator’s responsibility. Also, it is a good professional practice to recheck the
lube oil levels after a lunch break or Besides reducing friction and wear, engine
oil acts as a cooling agent by absorbing heat from the surfaces over which it is
spread. Engine oil carries heat to the engine sump where it is dissipated.
The water circulating through an oil cooler also helps to reduce this heat (not
all engines have oil coolers). Engine oil is also used as a sealing agent. It fills the
tiny openings between moving parts and cushions them against damage and
distortion from extreme heat. Engine oil is very important as a cleaning agent.
Grit and dirt in engine parts are often removed by the oil before damage can
result. The foreign matter and the greases in the bottom of the crankcase are
evidence that engine oil cleans. Some oils have chemicals, known as additives,
added to make them even better cleaners. Oil Level Indicator The oil level
indicator consists of a rod, known as a dipstick. The dipstick extends through a
tube into the crankcase (fig. 1-40). Marks on the dipstick indicate when the
crankcase is full or, if low, how much oil is needed. To take readings, you
should perform the following procedure: pull the dipstick out, wipe the dipstick
with a rag, stick it back in, pull it out once again, and note how high the oil level is
on it. On some engines, the correct oil level is achieved after the engine has
Figure 1-40.-Oil level indicator. 1-29

cycled a few minutes. However, it is a good practice to check to make sure there
is oil in the crankcase, then follow the manufacturer’s recommendations. Oil
Filters The oil filter removes most of the impurities that were picked up by
the oil as it circulated through the engine. Two types of filter element
configurations are in use: the cartridge type and the sealed (spin-on) type (fig. 1-
41). CARTRIDGE FILTER.— The cartridge filter element fits into a
permanent metal container. Oil is /-’’’... pumped under pressure into the container
where it passes from the outside of the filter element to the center. From here the
oil exits the container. The filter element is changed easily by removing the
cover from the container. SEALED (SPIN-ON) FILTER.— The sealed (spin-
on) filter element is completely self-contained, consisting of an integral metal
container and filter element. Oil is pumped into the container on the outside of
the filter element. The oil then passes through the filter to the center of the
element where it exits the container. This type of filter is screwed onto its base
and is removed by spinning it off. Figure 1-41.-Oil filters. 1-30
HYDRAULIC FLUID On equipment, hydraulic fluids are used for hydraulic
systems that steer, lift, push, close, and so forth. Hydraulic fluids that are
currently in use include mineral oil, vegetable oil, water, phosphate ester,
ethylene glycol compounds, and oil in water. The three most common types of
hydraulic fluids are water base, petroleum base, and synthetic base. NOTE:
Before adding hydraulic fluid in a piece of equipment, consult the operator’s
manual for the type of hydraulic fluid required. Using the incorrect type can
contaminate the hydraulic system which requires that the system be drained,
flushed, and refilled with the correct fluid. NOTE: Before adding gear oil,
consult the operator’s manual for the type of oil required for the specific type of
equipment. Mixing different types of gear oil may cause the oil to break down and
not have the quality required to protect the gears. Figure 1-42.-Filter system
configurations. Filtering Systems GEAR OIL Gear oils are used in both
manual transmissions and differentials. Gear oils reduce friction and do not
break down or foam at high temperatures. Two filter system configurations are in
use today: the full-flow system and the bypass system. FULL-FLOW SYSTEM.—
All the oil in the full- flow system (fig. 1-42, view A) is circulated through the
filter before it reaches the engine. When this system is used, it is necessary to
incorporate a bypass valve in the oil filter. This valve allows the oil to circulate
through the system without passing through the element in the event that it
becomes clogged. This factor prevents the oil supply from being cut off from the
engine. BYPASS SYSTEM.— The bypass system (fig. 1-42, view B) diverts
only a small quantity of the oil each time it is circulated and returns it directly to
the oil pan after it is filtered. This type of system does not filter the oil before it is
sent to the engine. GREASE Grease is used to lubricate bearings, bushings,
and pivot points. For inaccessible bearings, grease is applied under pressure by
the use of a grease gun (fig. 1-43). Figure 1-43.-Hand-operated grease gun. 1-
31

When you are operating in dirty atmospheric conditions, grease seals out dust,
dirt, and water from entering bearings and bushings. Grease lube charts are
either mounted on the equipment or are in the operator’s manual. Grease lube
charts state locations of grease fittings and how often the fittings should
be lubricated. Over greasing of equipment blows seals and the excess grease
collects sand and dirt that acts as a grinding compound on the lubricated
surfaces. Under greasing allows excessive wear caused by metal-to-metal
contact. NOTE: Greasing equipment is the responsibility of the operator.
A water-resistant grease can prevent water from entering bearings and
bushing joints. The grease com- monly used on equipment is lithium-based.
Lithium- based grease is water-resistant and has a wide range of operating
temperatures. Care should be taken to keep grease clean. Always keep the
grease container covered to prevent dirt and water from contaminating it.
ENGINE COOLING SYSTEMS All internal combustion engines are equipped
with some type of cooling system because of the high temperatures they
generate during operation. The temperature in the combustion chamber during
the burning of fuel is much higher than the melting point of iron. Therefore, if
nothing is available to cool the engine during operation, valves burn and warp,
lubricating oil breaks down, and bearings and pistons overheat resulting in
engine seizure. At the same time, the engine must not be allowed to run too cold.
An engine running cold does not burn all the fuel taken into the combustion
chamber, causing carbon deposits to form that reduce fuel mileage,
increase wear, and reduce engine power. Three functions of the cooling
system provide a satisfactory temperature operating range for the engine. First,
the system removes the unwanted heat. Second, it regulates the engine
temperature to keep it just right during all operating conditions. Third, when
the engine is first started, the cooling system assists the engine in warming up
to its normal operating temperature as soon as possible. The two types of
cooling methods are liquid cooling and air cooling. The liquid-cooling system
is the most popular for automotive use, because it provides the most positive
cooling and it maintains an even engine temperature. Air cooling is used for
small vehicles and equipment; however, air cooling is not used if water cooling is
practical. This is because air-cooled engines do not run at even temperatures
and require extensive use of aluminum to dissipate heat. Other means of heat
dissipation for the engine, in addition to the cooling system, are as follows: . The
exhaust system dissipates as much, if not more, heat than the cooling system,
although that is not its purpose. l The engine oil removes heat from the engine
and dissipates it to the air from the sump. . The fuel provides some engine
cooling through vaporization. . A measurable amount of heat is dissipated as the
air passes over the engine. LIQUID-COOLING SYSTEM A simple liquid-cooled
cooling system consists of a radiator, water pump, hoses, fan and shroud,
thermostat, and a system of jackets and passages in the cylinder head and
cylinder block through which the coolant circulates (fig. 1-44). Cooling of the
engine parts is accomplished by keeping the coolant circulating and in contact
with the metal surfaces to be cooled. The pump draws the coolant from the
bottom of the radiator, forces it through the jackets and passages, and ejects it
into the upper tank on top of the radiator. The coolant then passes through a set
of tubes to the bottom of the radiator from which the cooling cycle begins again.
The radiator is situated in front of a fan that is driven either by the water pump or
an electric motor. The fan ensures an air flow through the radiator at times when
there is no vehicle motion. Radiator Most radiators have two tanks with a
heat exchanging core between them. The upper tank contains an outside pipe,
called an inlet, and on top is the filler neck. Attached to the filler neck is an
outlet to the overflow pipe. The overflow pipe provides an opening from
the radiator for escape of coolant or steam if pressure in the system
exceeds the regulated maximum. This prevents rupture of cooling system
components. The lower tank contains an outside pipe that serves as the outlet
for the radiator. The radiator is usually mounted in the front of the engine
compartment so cool air can pass freely through the core. The outlet on the
bottom radiator tank is connected to the water pump inlet. The top tank inlet of
the radiator is connected to the outlet at the top of the engine. Rubber hoses and
hose clamps are used to make 1-32
these connections to prevent engine vibrations from being transferred to the
radiator. When performing prestart checks on the radiator system, check for
leaks, particularly where the tanks are soldered to the core, because vibration
and pulsation from pressure can cause fatigue of soldered joints or seams. Bent
fins should be straightened and the radiator core checked for any obstructions,
tending to restrict the air flow. Radiator air passages can be cleaned by
blowing them out with an air hose in the direction opposite to the ordinary flow of
air. Water can also be used to soften obstructions before applying the air blast. In
any event, the cleaning gets rid of dirt, bugs, leaves, straw, and other debris
that would otherwise clog the radiator and reduce its cooling efficiency.
CAUTION Spraying high-pressure water to soften an obstruction on the radiator
can cause damage to the fins and core. All hoses and tubing should be
checked for leakage and general condition. The leakage may often be
corrected by tightening or replacing the hose clamps. Figure 1-44.—Liquid-
cooling system. Deteriorated hoses should be replaced to preclude future
troubles; for example, hoses sometimes rot on the inside, allowing tiny
fragments to flow through the system and become lodged in the radiator,
tending to clog it and cause overheating. For this reason, all old, cracked, or
spongy hose should be replaced as soon as the condition is discovered during
the prestart checks. RADIATOR PRESSURE CAP.— The radiator pressure
cap (fig. 1-45) is used on nearly all modern Figure 1-45.—Radiator pressure
cap. - - - - - 1-33
engines. The pressure cap closes off the overflow pipe and prevents loss of
coolant during normal operation. It also allows a certain amount of pressure to
develop within the cooling system. The pressure raises the boiling point of
the coolant approximately 3 degrees for each pound and permits the engine to
operate at higher temperatures without loss of coolant from boiling. The
pressure cap contains two spring-loaded valves. The larger valve is called the
pressure valve and the smaller one is called the vacuum valve. A shoulder in the
radiator filler neck provides a seat for the bottom of the cap assembly and a
gasket on this seat prevents leakage between the cap and the filler neck. The
pressure valve acts as a safety valve to relieve extra pressure within the
system. The cooling system may be designed to operate at various pressures
between 4 and 17 psi, depending on the manufacturer’s specifications.
The pressure valve in the cap is preset by the manufacturer. When replacing a
pressure cap, make sure you use a cap with the proper pressure setting that is
usually marked on the top surface of the cap. The vacuum valve opens only
when the pressure within the cooling system drops below the outside air
pressure as the engine cools down. This automatic action of the vacuum
valve prevents collapse of the hoses and the radiator. WARNING Because it has
a sweet taste, animals and children sometimes ingest spilled coolant. The lead
content that antifreeze absorbs while in use makes it a hazardous waste and it
cannot be disposed of by being dumped on the ground. It must be containerized
and turned in for disposal. Water Pump The water pump is the heart of the
cooling system. Most engines use a centrifugal water pump (fig. 1-46) that
provides a large volume capacity and is nonpositive in displacement. This type of
pump has an impeller with blades that force the coolant outward as the
impeller rotates. The shaft on which the impeller is mounted is usually driven by
a fan belt and revolves in a bushing or in ball bearings inside the housing. For
different cooling systems, pumps vary considerably in construction of seals,
bearings, mounting, and drive. CAUTION ALWAYS REMOVE THE
RADIATOR CAP SLOWLY AND CAREFULLY. Remov- ing the cap from a hot,
pressurized radiator can cause serious burns from escaping steam and
coolant. COOLANT AND ANTIFREEZE.— Since water is easily obtained, is
cheap, and has the ability to transfer heat readily, it has served as a basic
coolant for many years. Some properties of water, such as the boiling point,
freezing point, and natural corrosive action on metals, limit its usefulness as a
coolant. This is counter- acted by the use of an antifreeze. Manufactured under
many different trade names, the most commonly used type of antifreeze is
ethylene glycol. Ethylene glycol is a chemical compound composed of a
mixture of ethylene and glycerine derivatives. Maximum freezing protection is
achieved by mixing 60% ethylene glycol with 40% water. This mixture
protects the cooling system to a temperature as low as minus 62°F. Ethylene
glycol has a very high boiling point, does not evaporate easily, is noncorrosive,
and is practically nonflammable. Figure 1-46.-Water pump. 1-34
Fan and Shroud The engine fan is usually mounted on the end of the water
pump shaft and is driven by the same belt that drives the pump. The fan pulls a
large volume of air through the radiator core that cools the hot water
circulating through the radiator. In addition to removing the heat from the water in
the radiator, the flow of air created by the fan causes some direct cooling of the
engine itself. On some construction equipment, such as dozers and track
loaders, the fan blows air through the radiator vice pulling the air. Besides cooling
the water, the blowing of air keeps sand, dirt, and debris out of the radiator.
Some engines are equipped with a shroud that improves fan efficiency by
assuring that all the air handled by the fan passes through the radiator. Fan
blades are spaced at intervals around the fan hub to aid in controlling vibration
and noise. They are often curled at the tip to increase their ability to move air.
Except for differences in location around the hub, most blades have the same
pitch and angularity. Bent fan blades are a common problem. They cause noise,
vibration, and excess wear on the water pump shaft. Visual inspection of the fan
blades, pulleys, pump shaft end play, and drive belts are part of your pre- and
post-operational checks. A bent or distorted fan or one with a loose blade should
be replaced. When the fan is merely loose on its mounting, tightening is in order.
Loose fan belts can be adjusted for proper tension, usually by adjusting the
generator or alternator on its mounting (fig. 1-47). A common method for
measuring belt tension is to press down on the belt at a point midway between
the generator or alternator and the fan pulley, and measure the amount of
deflection. The amount of deflection varies and should be set to the
manufacturer’s specification. A rule of thumb used in the NCF for belt
tension is no more than a one-half inch deflection. Water Jacket The water
passages in the cylinder block and cylinder head form the engine water
jacket. The passages of the water jacket are designed to control circulation of
coolant and provide proper cooling throughout the engine. In the cylinder
block, the water jacket completely surrounds all cylinders along their full length.
Water passages are also provided around the valve seats and hot parts of
the cylinder block. In the cylinder head, the water jacket covers the
combustion chambers at the top of the cylinders and contains Figure 1-47.-
Drive belt adjustment. passages around the valve seats when the valves
are located in the head. Thermostat Automatic control of the temperature of an
engine is necessary for efficient engine performance and economical
operation. Since all engine parts are in a contracted state when cold, the engine
temperature should be brought to normal as quickly as possible. The water pump
starts coolant circulating the moment the engine is started, which is undesirable
during cold weather operations. Coolant circulation is restricted by the
installation of a thermostatically controlled valve, or thermostat, in the cylinder
head water outlet. This valve allows coolant to circulate freely only within the
block until the desired temperature is reached. This shortens the warm-up
period. A bypass is used to direct the water 1-35
Figure 1-48.-Thermostat operation. from the block to the pump when the
passage to the radiator is blocked by the closed thermostat (fig. 1-48). Some
stationary engines and large trucks are equipped with shutters that
supplement the action of the thermostat in providing a faster warmup and in
maintaining proper operating temperatures. When the engine coolant is below
a predetermined temperature, between 185°F to 195°F, the shutters, located in
front of the radiator, remain closed and restrict the flow of air through the radiator.
Then, as the coolant reaches proper temperature, the shutters start to open.
AIR-COOLING SYSTEM The simplest type of cooling is the air-cooled, or direct
method, in which the heat is drawn off by moving air in direct contact with the
engine. The rate of the cooling is dependent upon the area exposed to the
cooling air, the heat conductivity of the metal used, the volume of the metal or its
size in cross section, the amount of air flowing over the heated surfaces, and the
difference in temperature between the exposed metal Overflow Tank The
overflow tank serves as a receptacle for coolant forced out of the radiator
overflow pipe and provides for its return to the system. As the engine cools,
the balancing of pressures causes the coolant to siphon back into the radiator.
Cooling systems using an overflow tank are known as closed cooling systems
(fig. 1-49). Coolant is usually added to this system through the overflow tank that
is marked for proper coolant level. NEVER remove the radiator cap located
on the radiator unless you are positive the system is cold. If there is any pressure
in the radiator, it will spray you with hot steam and coolant. Use extreme caution
when performing operator’s maintenance on a closed cooling system.
Expansion Tank Some engines use an expansion tank in their cooling system
(fig. 1-50). The tank is mounted in series with the upper radiator hose and is used
to supply extra room for coolant expansion and generally takes the place of the
upper radiator tank. The pressure cap and the overflow line are also mounted
on the expansion tank. Figure 1-49.-Closed cooling system. 1-36
Figure 1-50.-Expansion tank. Figure 1-51.—Air-cooled engine. surfaces
and the cooling air. Some heat must be retained In air-cooled engines, the
cylinders are mounted for efficient operation. This is accomplished by the use of
thermostatic controls and mechanical linkage that open and close shutters to
control the volume of cooling air. You will find that air-cooled engines
generally operate at a higher temperature than liquid-cooled engines, whose
operating temperature is largely limited by the boiling point of the coolant
used. Consequently, greater clearances must be provided between the
moving parts of air-cooled engines to allow for the increased expansion.
independently to the crankcase so that an adequate volume of air can circulate
directly around each cylinder. The circulating air absorbs excessive
amounts of heat from the cylinders and maintains enough cylinder head
temperatures for satisfactory operation. The cooling action is based on the
simple principle that the surrounding air is cooler than the engine heat. The
primary components of an air-cooled system are the fan and shroud and the
baffles and fins. A typical air-cooled engine is shown in figure 1-51. 1-37

Fan and Shroud Baffles and Fins All stationary air-cooled engines must have
fans or blowers of some type to circulate a large volume of cooling air over and
around the cylinder. The fan for the air-cooled engine shown in figure 1-51 is built
into the flywheel. When the engine is assembled, the shrouding, or cowling,
forms a compartment around the engine so that the cooling air is properly
directed for effective cooling. Air-cooled engines, such as those used on
motorcycles and outboard engines, do not require the use of fans or
shrouds, because their movement through the air creates a sufficient air flow
over the engine for adequate cooling. In addition to the fan and shroud, some
engines use baffles or deflectors to direct the cooling air from the fan to
those parts of the engine not in the direct path of air flow. Most baffles are made
of light metal and are semicircular with one edge in the stream of air. Most
air-cooled engines use fins. These are thin, raised projections on the cylinder
barrel and head. The fins provide more cooling area or surface and aid in
directing air flow. Heat, resulting from combustion, passes by conduction from
the cylinder walls and cylinder head to the fins and is carried away by the
passing air. llldllllalrl vlKllzl I Canorotin” +-- :. 1-38 . .
CHAPTER 2 POWER TRAIN The heart of the power train is the internal
combustion engine that provides the power required to move a vehicle. However,
this task is made much more efficient with the aid of the transmission and the
other drive-line components that make up the power train (fig. 2-1). This chapter
covers the basic principles of manual and automatic transmissions, propeller
shaft assemblies, and final drives. TRANSMISSIONS Power from the engine
provides the torque required for the transmission to overcome inertia.
Inertia is a property of matter by which it remains at rest or in uniform motion in a
straight line unless acted upon by some external force. In this case, the inertia of
the vehicle at rest is overcome by an external force—the engine power in
the form of torque. Once the vehicle is moving, acceleration begins and
increases and very little torque is then required. The bigger the load on the
engine, the bigger and more efficient the transmission must be. Once a
vehicle gains the desired speed, it moves along with very little effort until
something is encountered, such as a grade in the road, that increases the
resistance to its movement. Now torque is required again and the operator has to
select a lower gear. The transmission (fig. 2-2) provides the mechanical
advantage that enables the engine to move the vehicle. It allows the
operator to control the power and speed of the vehicle and allows disengaging
and reversing the flow of power from the engine to the wheels by means of a
clutch. CLUTCH The clutch engages and disengages the engine crankshaft
to or from the transmission and the rest of the power train. Engine power to the
load must be applied slowly to allow a smooth engagement and to lessen shock
on the driving and driven parts. After engagement, the clutch must
transmit the engine power to the transmission without slipping. Additionally, the
engine must be disconnected from the power train in order to shift gears.
Figure 2-1.-Typical power train. 2-1
Figure 2-2.—Typical manual shift transmission. the clutch driving Clutches
transmit power from member to the driven member by friction. In the DISC
CLUTCH (fig. 2-3), the driving plate secured to the engine flywheel gradually
contacts the driven member (disc) attached to the transmission input shaft. The
contact is made and held by strong spring pressure controlled by the operator
with the clutch pedal (fig. 2-4). With only light spring pressure, there is little
friction between the two members, and the clutch can slip; therefore, do not use
the clutch pedal as a footrest. As the spring pressure increases, friction also
increases, and less slippage occurs. When the operator’s foot is removed from
the clutch pedal and the full spring pressure is applied the speed of the
driving plate and driven disc is the same and all slipping stops. The 2-2
flywheel and the transmission input shaft are then connected. Improper
adjustment can damage or ruin a clutch. Figure 2-5 shows the proper free travel
and linkage. Several clutch troubles may occur during vehicle operation that
should be documented and turned in before too much damage occurs. These
troubles include incorrect free travel, slipping, chattering, or grabbing when
engaging; spinning or dragging when engaged; and clutch noises. MANUAL
TRANSMISSION The transmission is located at the rear of the engine between
the clutch housing and the propeller shaft. The
Figure 2-3.-Cross section of a disc clutch. Figure 2-4.-Disc clutch operation.
Figure 2-5.-Clutch linkage. 2-3 transmission transfers engine power from the
clutch shaft to the propeller shaft and allows the operator to change the gear ratio
between the engine and the rear wheels. Dual-ratio, or two-speed rear axles
are often used on trucks. They have two gear ratios that can be chosen by the
operator, usually by a manual control lever. A dual-ratio rear axle works the same
as the auxiliary transmission; it doubles the number of gear ratios for driving
the vehicle under the various loads and on different roads. The most common
transmission type is the synchromesh transmission. The synchromesh
transmission is basically a constant mesh, collar-shift transmission with an
extra device, called a synchronizer, to equalize the speed of the mating parts
before they engage. The synchronizer is used in all manual automotive
transmissions and is common in other equipment where shifting while moving
is required. Part of the prestart operation is to check the fluid level in the manual
transmission. The normal level of lubricant is usually at the bottom of the filler
plug opening. When lubricant is needed, you should always check the operator’s
manual for the location and type of lubricant required for the transmission. When
you keep the lubricant level correct, the gear teeth are protected, foam is
reduced, and the transmission runs smoothly. Some transmission troubles that
you may encounter and must document are as follows: l l l l l l Hard shifting
Slipping out of gear No power through the transmission Transmission noisy
when in gear Gear clash in shifting Oil leaks Manual Shift Operation Skill in
manual shifting is a requirement of professional driving. Poor manual shifting
results in poor vehicle performance and can cause vehicle damage.
Know the gearshift lever positions so well that you can shift to any gear without
looking at the shift lever. The gearshift pattern is usually diagramed in the vehicle
or in the operator’s manual. Never move the gearshift lever from one position
to another while the engine is running until you have fully depressed the

clutch pedal with your left foot. To shift gears smoothly and quietly, you
must keep the pedal fully depressed until the shift has been completed. You
should understand that the clutch provides the means of applying engine power
to the wheels smoothly and gradually. To be a professional operator, you must
learn just where the clutch starts to engage, how far the pedal must move to
become fully engaged how much free play there is in the pedal, and how fast you
should engage the clutch. Keep your foot off the clutch pedal except when
actually starting, stopping, or shifting gears. Even the slight constant pressure on
the clutch pedal causes excessive wear. For the same reason, when stopped on
a hill, never slip your clutch to keep from rolling backward; instead, use the
brakes. Depress the clutch pedal and shift the transmission shift lever into neutral
while waiting for a long traffic light or when halted for other reasons. Release the
clutch after shifting into neutral. When slowing your vehicle to stop or make a
turn, be sure to reduce the vehicle speed to 15 miles per hour or less before
depressing the clutch pedal. Coasting a vehicle at a high rate of speed with
the clutch pedal depressed is dangerous, because control becomes more difficult
and damage to the clutch may occur. This kind of practice is abusive to the
vehicle. CLUTCH SHIFTING.— After the prestart operation has been
performed and you have acquainted yourself with the instruments and
controls of the vehicle, warm the engine with the transmission in neutral.
Start the vehicle moving with the transmission in low or first gear by following
these steps: 1. Depress the clutch pedal and shift into low gear. 2. Check the
mirrors, check blind spots, and give signals as required. 3. Let the clutch pedal
up slowly, pausing at the friction point or when you feel it taking hold. Again,
recheck the mirrors for traffic. 4. Release the parking brake and slowly release
the clutch pedal, and at the same time, slightly depress the accelerator. 5. When
the driving operation is under way, remove your left foot completely from the
clutch pedal. DOUBLE-CLUTCH SHIFTING.— Professional driving practice in
trucks (1 1/2 ton or larger) often requires double clutching to permit proper
engagement of the gears and to prevent loss of momentum. To shift to a lower
gear by double clutching, follow these steps: 1. Release the pressure from the
accelerator as you begin depressing the clutch pedal. 2. When the clutch
pedal is fully depressed, move the gearshift lever to neutral position 3.
Release the clutch pedal, and at the same time, depress the accelerator to speed
up the engine. 4. Letup on the accelerator and depress the clutch pedal. 5. While
the pedal is depressed move the gearshift lever to the next lower gear. 6.
Release the clutch pedal, and at the same time, depress the accelerator to
maintain engine speed as the load is again connected to the engine by the
engagement of the clutch. The procedure is the same for shifting to a higher gear
speed, except that the engine is NOT accelerated while the transmission is in
neutral. CAUTION When you are shifting gears in rough terrain and on hills,
never let your vehicle slow down to a point where the engine begins to labor or
jerk before shifting into a lower gear ratio. Always anticipate the need for extra
power and shift gears accordingly. When descending a hill, with or without a
heavy cargo load, always drive with your vehicle in gear and the clutch pedal out.
NOTE: You may encounter vehicles that may have more complicated
transmissions, such as multigear ranges, dual-speed axles, or other special
features. As an operator, read and understand the operator’s manual pertaining
to a particular vehicle before attempting to operate it.
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION The automatic transmission, like the manual
transmission, is designed to match the load requirements of the vehicle to the
power and speed range of the engine. However, the automatic transmission (fig.
2-6) performs this automatically, depending on the throttle position, vehicle
Speed, and position of the shift control lever. Automatic transmissions are
manufactured in models that have two, three, four, or more forward 2-4
2-8speeds and some are equipped with overdrive. Operator control is limited to
the selection of the gear range by moving a control lever. Part of the prestart
operation is to check the transmission fluid level when the engine is idling and
at normal operating temperature, when the vehicle is level, and when the
transmission control lever is in park. The transmission fluid is used as a
combination power transmission medium, hydraulic control fluid, heat transfer
medium, bearing surface lubricant, and gear lubricant. The manufacturer’s
recomendations must be followed when servicing and filling the transmission
with fluid. CAUTION Do not overfill the transmission because overfilling causes
foaming and shifting troubles. Some transmission troubles you may
encounter and must document are as follows: . No drive in any selected
positions. On standstill starts the engine speed accelerates but the vehicle
movement lags. Engine speed accelerates during upshifts. Transmission will
not upshift. Upshift and downshift are harsh. Vehicle creeps too much in drive.
Vehicle creeps in neutral. Improper shift points. Unusual transmission noise.
Oil leaks. Fluid Couplings In the past, fluid couplings were widely used with
automatic transmissions. Fluid couplings act like an automatic clutch by slipping
at idling speeds and by holding to increase power as the engine speed
increases. There is no mechanical connection between the engine and
transmission; power is transmitted by oil. Figure 2-6.—Automatic
transmission cross-sectional view. 2-5
The principle of fluid drive is shown in figure 2-7. As two fans face each other, the
speed of rotation of one fan makes the other fan rotate. When the speed of one
fan is changed from medium to low, power is lost at low speeds; but, if the fan
speed increases from medium to high, the speed of the driven fan picks up.
Torque Converter The torque converter is a form of and has replaced the fluid
coupling. Most automatic transmissions used in automotive and construction
equipment have torque converters. The torque converter consists of three parts:
the pump (driving member), the turbine (driven member), and the stator (reaction
member), all with curved vanes. The stator is located between the load and the
power source to act as a fulcrum and is secured to the torque converter housing.
Figure 2-8 shows a cutaway view of a torque converter and the directional
flow of oil. The pump throws out oil in the same direction in which the pump is
turning. As the oil strikes the turbine blade, it forces the turbine to rotate, and the
oil is directed toward the center of the turbine. Then the oil leaves the turbine and
moves in a direction opposite to that of the pump. As the oil strikes the stator, it is
redirected to flow in the same direction as the pump to add its force to that of the
pump. Torque is multiplied by the velocity and direction given to the oil by the
pump, plus the velocity and direction of the oil entering the pump from the stator.
Planetary Gears Automatic transmissions use a system of planetary gears to
enable the torque from the torque converter to be used efficiently. Figure 2-7.—
Principle of fluid drive. Figure 2-8.—Torque converter. Planetary units are
the heart of the automatic transmission. The four parts that make up the
planetary gear system are as follows: the sun gear, the ring (or internal) gear, the
planet pinions, and the planet carrier. The sun gear is the center of the system.
The term planet fits these pinions and gears, because they rotate around the
sun gear, as shown in figure 2-9. The ring gear, or internal gear, is so-called
because of its shape and internal teeth. An advantage of the planetary gear
system is that it is compact. Additionally, in the planetary system more teeth
make contact to carry the load. The reason for this is that each gear of the
planetary system usually meshes with at least two other gears. Because the
gears are always in mesh, none of the teeth are damaged as a result of teeth
clashing or a partial mesh. However, the major advantage of the planetary
system is the ease of shifting gears. Planetary gears, set in automatic
transmissions, are shifted without any special skill required by the operator. 2-6
Figure 2-9.—Planetary gear system. Power can be transmitted through the
planetary gearset in various ways. A shaft from the engine may be connected to
drive the sun gear. It may be connected to drive the planet carrier or the shaft
may be connected to drive the ring gear. The propeller shaft may also be
connected to anyone of these members; however, power can be
transmitted in the planetary gear system only when (1) the engine is
delivering power to one of the three members, (2) the propeller shaft is
connected to one of the other members, and (3) the remaining member is
held against rotation. All three conditions must be satisfied for power to be
transmitted in the system. Automatic transmissions provide for holding a member
through hydraulic servos and spring pressure. Automatic Transmission
Operation Most automatic transmissions are basically the same. They combine
a fluid torque converter with a planetary gearset and control the shifting of
the planetary gear with an automatic hydraulic control system. The fluid torque
converter is attached to the engine crankshaft and serves as the engine
flywheel. This design means that when the engine runs, engine power flows
into the converter and drives the converter output (turbine) shaft. There is no
neutral in the torque converter. Neutral is provided in the planetary gearset by the
release of bands and clutches. The transmission automatically multiplies and
transmits engine torque to the drive shaft as driving conditions demand. The
speeds at which the coupling point and the gearshifts occur are controlled
partially by the operator. The operator has only a partial control in the D-drive
position, because the transmission in the D-drive position shifts the
planetary gearset into the higher gears to prevent engine overspeeding
regardless of throttle position. The operation of automatic shift vehicles is
quite simple; however, it is imperative that the professional operator learn to
operate them smoothly and properly. In vehicles equipped with automatic
transmissions, initial gear selection is controlled with a selector lever. When in
drive (D or DR), shifting from drive to low (L) and returning to drive is controlled
automatically by the engine speed. Most vehicles have four or five of the
following selector positions. P-PARK POSITION.— On light vehicles, such as
sedans and pickups, this position is used for locking the transmission so the
vehicle cannot roll while parked. In some heavier vehicles, the park position
does not lock the transmission. In vehicles with a park position, the engine
should be started from the park position. N-NEUTRAL POSITION. — Engines of
vehicles not equipped with a P-park position are started from the N-neutral
position. In this position, the engine is disengaged from the drive shaft of the
vehicle. D-DRIVE POSITION.— With the shift lever at D or DR, the vehicle
moves forward as you depress the accelerator. After starting the engine in
neutral or park position, step on the brake and change the selector to D or DR
for forward movement. To avoid premature forward movement, keep
pressure on the brake while in the drive position until you are ready to place the
vehicle in motion. Without further operator action, the transmission
automatically shifts to higher gears as speed increases. L-LOW or POWER
POSITION.— T he transmission will not shift automatically to higher gear
ratios when the lever is in the low position. The low position is used when
negotiating steep grades and rough terrain or when the braking power of the
engine is required. When low range is no longer needed, release the
accelerator temporarily and move the shift lever to the drive position for normal
gear progression. In the drive position, the low range is engaged
automatically when engine speed is reduced. If the accelerator is suddenly fully
depressed, the low range becomes engaged. (This procedure may be
used to provide a sudden burst of speed for passing.) When a
predetermined engine speed has been attained, the transmission automatically
returns to driving range. 2-7
R-REVERSE POSITION.— Some shift levers must be raised slightly to be
moved to the R or reverse position. Others may require the depressing of a
button on the end of the lever before moving to R. Become thoroughly familiar
with the operator’s manual, vehicle instruments, controls, and selector
positions before operating a vehicle or piece of equipment. You may
operate equipment that has the R-reverse position on the extreme right on
some shift selectors, on the extreme left on others, and the intermediate
position on others. From a force of habit, when you are in a different vehicle from
the one you have been operating, you could move the selector lever to R,
thinking you were moving it to D or L, and cause the vehicle to move in an
entirely opposite direction than anticipated. AUXILIARY TRANSMISSION
Auxiliary transmissions are mounted on the rear of the regular transmission
to provide more gear ratios. Most auxiliary transmissions have only a L-low
and a H-high (direct) range in a transfer assembly. The low range provides
an extremely low gear ratio for hard pulls. At all other times, the high range
should be used. Gears are shifted by a separate gearshift lever in the
driver’s cab (fig. 2-10). Transfer Cases Transfer cases are placed in the power
trains of vehicles driven by all wheels (fig. 2-11). Their purpose is to
provide the necessary additional propeller-shaft connections wheels. offsets
for to drive the Transfer cases in heavier vehicles have two-speed positions
and a declutching device for disconnecting the front driving wheels. Two-speed
transfer cases also serve as auxiliary transmissions. Transfer cases are quite
complicated. When they have speed-changing gears, declutching devices, and
attachments for three or more propeller shafts, they are even larger than the
main transmission. Some transfer cases have an overrunning sprag unit (or
units) on the front output shaft. A sprag unit is a form of a overrunning clutch;
power can be transmitted through it in one direction but not in the other. During
normal operation, when both front and rear wheels turn at the same speed, only
the rear wheels drive the vehicle. Figure 2-10.—Auxiliary transmission.
Figure 2-11.—Transfer case installed in a four-wheel drive truck. 2-8
However, if the rear wheels should lose traction and begin to slip, they tend
to turn faster than the front wheels. When this occurs, the sprag unit
automatically engages. This action allows the front wheels to also drive the
vehicle. The sprag unit simply provides an automatic means of engaging the front
wheels in drive for more traction. Power Takeoffs Power takeoffs, commonly
known as the PTO, are attachments in the power train for power to drive auxiliary
accessories. They are attached to the transmission, auxiliary transmission, or
transfer case. A common type of PTO is the single-gear, single-speed type that is
bolted to an opening provided in the side of the transmission case, as shown in
figure 2-10. The sliding gear of the PTO meshes with the transmission
countershaft gear. The operator can move a shifter shaft control lever to slide
the gear in and out of mesh with the countershaft gear. The spring-loaded ball
holds the shifter shaft in position. On some vehicles, PTO units have gear
arrangements that give two speeds forward and one in reverse. Several forward
speeds and reverse gear arrangements are usually provided in PTO units
used to operate winches and hoists. PROPELLER SHAFT ASSEMBLIES The
propeller shaft assembly (fig. 2-12) consists of a propeller shaft, commonly know
as the drive shaft, a slip joint, and two or more universal joints. This
assembly provides a path through which power is transmitted from the
transmission to the drive axle assemblies or auxiliary equipment. Vehicles,
having a long wheel base, are equipped with a propeller shaft that extends from
the transmission or transfer case to a center support bearing and a propeller
shaft that extends from the center support bearing to the rear axle (fig. 2-13).
Figure 2-12.—Propeller shaft assembly. Figure 2-13.—Propeller shaft
assembly with center support bearing. 2-9

Propeller shafts may be solid or tubular type and require little or no


maintenance. Solid shafts are normally used where high shaft speeds are
unnecessary. They are used extensively to power auxiliary equipment,
such as winches and hydraulic pumps. The hollow shaft is used almost
exclusively to transmit power to the axles on automotive vehicles. The
hollow shaft, because it rotates at high speed, must be balanced to prevent
vibration and premature bearing failure in the transmission and differential
assemblies. A slip joint at one end of the propeller shaft takes care of end play.
The driving axle, attached to the springs, is free to move up and down, while
the transmission is attached to the frame and cannot move. Any upward or
downward movements of the axle causes the suspension springs to flex. This
action shortens or lengthens the distance between the axle assembly and the
transmission. The slip joint makes up for this changing vertical distance.
The type of slip joint normally used consists of a splined stub shaft, welded to the
propeller shaft, that fits into a splined sleeve in the universal joint, as shown in
figure 2-12. UNIVERSAL JOINTS A universal joint acts as a flexible coupling
between two shafts and permits one shaft to drive another shaft that is at an
angle to it. The universal joint is flexible in the sense that it permits power to be
transmitted, while the angle of the shaft is being continually changed. A
conventional universal joint assembly is composed of three fundamental
units: a journal (cross) and two yokes, as shown in figure 2-12. The two yokes
are set at right angles to each other and are joined by the journal. This design
permits each yoke to pivot on the journal, allowing the transmission of rotary
motion from one yoke to the other. As a result, the universal joint can transmit
power from the engine through the shaft to the drive axle, even when the engine
is mounted in the frame at a higher level than the drive axle, as shown in figure
2-13. Universal joints need little, if any, maintenance other than lubrication.
Some universal joints have grease fittings and should be lubricated according to
the manufacturer’s specifications. CENTER SUPPORT BEARINGS When two
or more propeller shafts are connected together in tandem, their alignment
is maintained by a rubber-bushed center support bearing, secured to a cross
member of the frame. A typical center support bearing assembly is shown in
figure 2-14. The standard bearing is prelubricated and sealed and requires no
further lubrication; however, some support bearings on heavy-duty
vehicles have lubrication fittings. The first indication of support bearing failure is
excessive chassis vibration at low speed caused by the bearing turning with
the shaft in the rubber support. FINAL DRIVES A final drive transmits the power
delivered from the propeller shaft to the drive wheels or to sprockets equipped
on tracklaying equipment. Because it is located in the rear axle housing,
the final drive is usually identified as a part of the rear axle assembly. The final
drive consists of two gears, called the ring gear and pinion. These are beveled
gears, and they may be worm, spiral, spur, or hypoid, as shown in figure 2-15.
The function of the final drive is to change by 90 degrees the direction of the
power transmitted through the propeller shaft to the driving axles. It also
provides a fixed reduction between the speed of the propeller shaft and the axles
driving the wheels. In passenger Figure 2-14.—Center support bearing. 2-10
Figure 2-15.-Gears used in final drives. cars, this reduction varies between 3
to 1 and 5 to 1. In trucks, it can vary from 5 to 1 to as much as 11 to 1. The gear
ratio of a final drive with bevel gears is frond by dividing the number of teeth on
the driven or ring gear by the number of teeth on the pinion. In a worm gear final
drive, the gear ratio is found by counting the number of revolutions of the worm
gear for one revolution of the driven gear. Most final drives are gear type.
Hypoid differential gears permit a lower body design. They permit the bevel-
driven pinion to be placed below the center of the ring gear, thereby
lowering the propeller shaft, as shown in figure 2-15. Worm gears allow a
larger speed reduction and are sometimes used on large trucks. Spiral bevel
gears are similar to hypoid gears and are used in both passenger cars and trucks
to replace spur gears that are too noisy. DIFFERENTIALS Another important unit
in the power train is the differential, which is a type of final drive. As shown in
figure 2-16, the differential is located between the axles and permits one axle
shaft to turn at a different speed from that of the other. At the same time, the
differential transmits power from the transmission/transfer case to both axle
shafts. The variation in axle shaft speed is Figure 2-16.—Differential
operation. necessary when the vehicle turns a corner or travels over uneven
ground. As a vehicle travels around a curve, the outer wheel must travel faster
and further than the inner wheel. Without the differential, one rear wheel
would be forced to skid when turns are made, resulting in excessive tire wear as
well as making the vehicle more difficult to control. Some trucks have a
differential lock to keep one wheel from spinning. This is a simple dog
clutch, 2-11
controlled manually or automatically. The differential lock locks one axle shaft
to the differential case and bevel drive gear, forming a rigid connection between
the two axle shafts that makes both wheels rotate at the same speed. DRIVING
AXLES Axles are classified as either live or dead. The live axle is used to
transmit power. The dead axle supports part of the vehicle weight but does not
drive the wheels. The wheels rotate on the ends of the dead axle. On rear wheel
drive passenger cars, the front axle is a dead axle, and the rear axle is a live
axle. In four-wheel drive vehicles, both front and rear axles are live axles, and in
six-wheel drive vehicles, all three axles are live. Thee third axle, part of a bogie
drive, is joined to the rearmost axle by a trunnion axle, as shown in figure 2-17.
The trunnion axle is attached rigidly to the frame. Figure 2-17.—Bogie drive.
Figure 2-18.—Four-wheel drive transmission. 2-12

Its purpose is to help in distributing the load on the rear of the vehicle to the two
live axles that it connects. The three types of live axles that are used in
automotive and construction equipment are as follows: semifloating, three-
quarter floating, and full floating. DRIVING WHEELS Wheels attached to live
axles are the driving wheels. Wheels attached to the outside of the driving
wheels make up dual wheels. Dual wheels give more traction to the driving
wheels and distribute the weight of the vehicle over more surface. Consider dual
wheels as single wheels in describing vehicles. The number of wheels is
sometimes used to identify equipment; for example, a 4 by 2 could be a
passenger car or a truck with four wheels, two of them driving. On a 4 by 4 (fig.
2-18), power is delivered to the transfer case where it is divided between the
front and rear axle, allowing all four wheels to drive. A 6 by 4 truck with dual
wheels in the rear is identified by six wheels, four of which drive. When a live axle
is in front, the truck becomes a 6 by 6 (fig. 2-19), in which all six wheels drive.
Figure 2-19.—Six-wheeled drive transmission. 2-13
CHAPTER 3 CHASSIS SYSTEMS Chassis systems provides operators with a
means of controlling the direction the equipment travels and allows travel over
uneven terrain by controlling the amount of shock reaching the passengers or
cargo. This chapter covers the basic principles of steering systems, suspension
systems, tires, and brake systems. STEERING SYSTEMS Automotive
steering mechanisms are classified as either manual or power. In both types,
the arrangement and function of the linkage are similar. The main difference
is that manual steering requires more effort for you to steer the vehicle.
Some construction equipment has articulated steering which is powered by the
equipment hydraulic system. STEERING MECHANISMS All steering
mechanisms have the same basic parts (fig. 3-1). The steering linkage ties
the front wheels together and connects them to the steering gear case at Figure
3-1.—Steering linkage assembly. the lower end of the steering column which,
in turn, connects the gear case to the steering wheel. The arms and rods of the
steering linkage have ball ends or ball-and-socket ends to provide a swivel
connection between them. These joined ends have grease fittings, dust seals
or boots, and many of them have end-play adjustment devices. These joints and
devices must be adjusted and lubricated regularly. The arms, rods, and joints
of steering linkage in your equipment may be arranged differently from those
shown in figure 3-1, but you will find them in the same general location in the
front and underneath the vehicle. The tie rod is usually behind the axle and
keeps the front wheels in proper alignment. The tie rod is divided into two lengths
and is connected to the steering gear near the center of the vehicle to provide for
easier steering and maximum leverage. The drag link between the steering arm
and the pitman arm may be long or short, depending on the installation. The
pitman arm is splined to the shaft extending from the steering gear case. It
moves in an arc with its position, depending on which direction the steering
wheel is turned. The arm is vertical when the front wheels are straight ahead.
Therefore, the length of the drag link is determined by the distance between the
steering arm and the vertical position of the pitman arm. Unlike the tie rods, the
length of the drag link is fixed. Part of your prestart and operator maintenance
responsibilities is to check and service the steering linkage lubrication. One
example is the connecting joints between the links that contain bushings.
Additionally, when a vehicle is equipped with manually operated steering, check
the steering gear housing for lubrication, and, if needed, add the
recommended manufacturer’s gear lubricant. If the vehicle is equipped with
power steering, check the belt tension because improper tension can cause
low oil pressure and hard steering. Check the fluid level. If the fluid level is
low, add fluid to bring it up to the recommended level and only use the
recommended power steering fluid. Also, if the level is low, there may be a
leak; therefore, check hose and power steering connections for signs of leaks. 3-
1
The connections may only need tightening to eliminate POWER STEERING
leaks; however, leakage may occur at various points in the power steering unit
if the seals are defective. Power steering (fig. 3-2) adds the following
Document conditions and report them to the mainte- components to the steering
assembly: a hydraulic pump, nance shop for replacement of any defective seal. a
fluid reservoir, hoses, lines, and a steering assist unit whether mounted on the
linkage or incorporated in the The types of steering troubles that develop in
steering gear assembly. vehicle operations that should be documented and
turned in for repair are as follows: ARTICULATED STEERING l l l l l l l Excessive
play in the steering system Hard steering Vehicle wanders Vehicle pulls to one
side when braking Front-wheel shimmy Front-wheel tramps (high-speed
shimmy) Steering kickback Tires squeal on turns Improper tire wear Unusual
noises Hydraulic power is used to turn a whole section of a machine on a
vertical hinge. This design is called articulated steering and it is controlled by
a steering wheel, a hydraulic control valve, and hydraulic cylinders. (See
fig. 3-3.) The pivot is midway in the vehicle, so both parts share equally in the
pivoting. This action produces the effect of four-wheel coordinated steering, such
as the front-and-rear wheels run in each others tracks, backward and
forward. FRONT-AND-REAR STEERING Wheeled equipment may be
designed to steer by angling the front wheels, the rear wheels, and or both These
problems must be documented and turned in the front-and-rear wheels
(fig. 3-4). Front-wheel for repairs. steering is the standard method. The vehicle
follows the Figure 3-2.-Power steering linkage assembly. 3-2
Figure 3-3.-Articulated steering assembly. Figure 3-4.-Front-and-rear
steering. angling of the wheels and the rear wheels do not go behind the
bucket on turns and keeps the front tires outside the path of the front ones, but
trail inside. tracking in the rear while backing away from banks and Rear-wheel
steering swings the rear wheels outside dump trucks. In new equipment, this
design has been of the front-wheel tracks. The principal advantage is replaced
by articulation. greater effectiveness in handling off-center loads at In four-
wheel steering, the front wheels are turned either the front or rear and
preventing path down a one way and the rear wheels are turned to the same
angle sideslope. This type of steering is used with front-end in the opposite
direction. The trailing wheel always loaders, as it keeps the weight of the
machine squarely moves in the same track as the leading wheel whether 3-3
the equipment is moving forward or backward. This design lessens rolling
resistance in soft ground, because one set of tires prepares a path for the
other set. Additionally, this design provides maximum control of the direction
of the load. Also, it enables the equipment to be held on a straight course and
permits short turns in proportion to the maximum angle of the wheels. In crab
steering, both sets of wheels are turned in the same direction. If both sets of
wheels are turned at the same angle, the machine moves in a straight line at an
angle to its centerline. Results can be obtained from either four-wheel steering or
crab steering by using different turning angles on independently controlled front-
and-rear wheels. SUSPENSION SYSTEMS A suspension system anchors and
suspends the wheels or tracks from the frame with springs, as shown in figure 3-
5. It supports the weight and allows the vehicle to be driven under varying loads
and speed conditions over bumpy roads and rough terrain without great risk
of damage. miles. The spring assemblies of the suspension system should be
checked regularly to ensure that shackles are tight and that bushings within the
shackles are not overworn or frozen tight. Occasionally, spraying
lubricating oil on the spring leaves helps to prevent squeaking at the ends of the
spring leaves. Following the lubrication chart for a particular vehicle, check and
lubricate the front suspension system, including linkages, kingpins, and
ball joints. During your checks you may find shock absorber bushings worn. If so,
document it and turn it in so the problem can be looked at. The Construction
Mechanic (CM) inspector may decide the shock absorbers should be replaced.
Some symptoms of suspension troubles in vehicle operation that should be
documented and turned in for repair are as follows: . Hard steering l Vehicle
wanders l Vehicle pulls to one side during normal driving l Front-wheel shimmy
Although suspension systems are a part of your l Front-wheel tramps (high-
speed shimmy) prestart and operator maintenance responsibilities, they usually
do not need to be adjusted or replaced for many l Steering kickback Figure 3-5.
—Front axle suspension system. 3-4
l l l l l Hard or rough ride Sway on turns Spring breakage Sagging springs Noises
The components of a suspension system are the springs and shock absorbers.
Some suspension systems also have torsion bars. SPRINGS The springs
support the frame and the body of the vehicle as well as the load the vehicle
carries. They allow the wheels to withstand the shocks of uneven road surfaces
and provide a flexible connection between the wheels and the body. The best
spring absorbs road shock rapidly and returns to its normal position slowly.
Extremely flexible or soft springs allow too much movement of the vehicle
superstructure, while stiff, hard springs do not allow enough movement. The
springs do not support the weight of the wheels, rims, tires, and axles. These
parts make up the “unsprung weight” of the vehicle. The unsprung weight
decreases the action of the springs and is, therefore, kept to a minimum to permit
the springs to support the vehicle frame and load. Multiple Leaf Springs The
multiple leaf spring is part of the front axle suspension system, as shown in figure
3-5. It consists of a number of steel strips or leaves of different lengths
fastened together by a bolt through the center. Each end of the largest or master
leaf is rolled into an eye which serves as a means of attaching the spring to the
spring hanger and spring shackle. Leaf rebound clips surround the leaves at two
or more intervals along the spring to keep them from separating on the rebound
after the spring has been depressed. The clips allow the spring leaves to
slide but prevent them from separating and throwing the entire rebound
stress on the master leaf. The spring thus acts as a flexible beam. Leaf springs
may be suspended lengthwise (parallel to the frame) or crosswise. When a
leaf spring is compressed, it must straighten out or break; therefore, spring
shackles are required at one or both ends of the spring. Spring shackles provide
a swinging support and allow the spring to straighten out when compressed. One
shackle is used in either the front or rear support of springs installed lengthwise.
Two shackles support springs installed crosswise. Figure 3-6 shows how a
leaf spring is attached to a frame by a spring shackle. The most common types
of spring shackles are the link shackle and the U-shackle. Heavy vehicles have
link shackles. The U-type is more common on passenger cars and light trucks.
On some wheeled tractors, link shackles support a transverse spring on the
dead front axle. Most wheeled tractors do not even have springs, and all
load cushioning is through large, low-pressure tires. Track tractors have one
large leaf spring (fig. 3-7) supported without spring shackles. Fastened to the
engine support, it rests on the frame supporting the tracks and rollers. Brackets
on the track frames keep the spring from shifting. Figure 3-6.-Cross section of
a shackle link. Figure 3-7.-Partially removed tracklayer spring. 3-5
Figure 3-8.-Coil spring suspension. Some vehicles are equipped with leaf
springs at the rear wheels only; others are so equipped both front and rear. Coil
Springs Coil springs (fig. 3-8) are generally used on independent
suspension systems. They provide a smooth ride. Their use has normally
been limited to passenger vehicles. Recently, however, they have been used on
trucks. In figure 3-9, you can see how a coil spring is mounted. The
spring seat and hanger, shaped to fit the coil ends, hold the spring in place.
Spacers of rubberized material are placed at each end of the coil to
prevent squeaking. The rubber bumper, mounted in the spring supporting
member, prevents metal-to-metal contact when the spring is compressed.
Most vehicles are equipped with coil springs at the two front wheels, while
some others have them at both front and rear. SHOCK ABSORBERS Springs
alone cannot meet the requirements for a light vehicle suspension system. A
stiff spring gives a hard ride, because it does not flex and rebound when the
vehicle passes over a bump. On the other hand, too flexible a spring rebounds
too much, and the vehicle rides rough. For these reasons, shock absorbers are
needed to smooth the ride of the vehicle. They do so by keeping the vehicle from
jolting too much, by balancing spring stiffness and flexibility, and by allowing the
springs to return to rest after they are compressed. Although single-acting
shock absorbers check only spring rebound, double-acting shock absorbers
check spring compression and spring rebound to permit the use of the more
flexible springs. Figure 3-9.-Coil spring mounting. 3-6
FRONT AXLE SUSPENSION Most passenger car front wheels are
individually supported with independent suspension systems. The ones you
are likely to see are the coil spring and the torsion bar suspension systems used
with independent front axles and shock absorbers. REAR AXLE
SUSPENSION Driving wheels are mounted on a live-driving axle suspended by
springs attached to the axle housing. Leaf springs generally suspend live axles
using the Hotchkiss drive, as shown in figure 3-10. Coil springs are used on a
number of passenger cars with independent suspension. TIRES Because tires
are expensive, they require proper care and maintenance. While natural wear
and tear affects tire life, premature tire failure can be caused by abuse and
neglect. Proper maintenance of tires results in better performance and longer
service and prevents a hazardous tire failure that can cause loss of life and
equipment. TIRE INSPECTION Tires are cut by sharp objects, bruised by bad
roads and stones, and injured by road shocks in general. To drive with a
seriously damaged tire is dangerous, because it may blow out and cause the
driver to lose control of the vehicle. Carefully inspect your vehicle tires during
prestart and post operations. Remove glass, nails, stones, and other foreign
materials embedded in tires. Tires give longer mileage and safer driving when
damages are repaired immediately. Inflation Correct air pressure is the basis for
reliable tire performance. Tires are designed to operate at specified air
pressures for given loads and inflated to the prescribed air pressure for your
driving condition. When Figure 3-10.—Hotchkiss drive. checking air pressure,
use an accurate gauge and check the valve cores for leaks. NOTE: Reduce the
tire pressure when driving in soft sand and over dunes. This increases the
amount of tire surface in contact with the sand to provide better flotation
(support). However, never reduce the tire pressure so much that the tire slips
on the rim. On some equipment, the air pressure for normal conditions and off-
road conditions is listed on a data plate on the dashboard or in the
operator’s manual. When operating with reduced tire pressure, drive at low
speed. Inflate the tires to normal pressure as soon as the situation permits.
PROPERLY INFLATED.— A properly inflated tire, as shown in figure 3-11,
view A, shows proper contact with the road. Figure 3-11.—Proper and
improper tire inflation. 3-7
Figure 3-12.—Valve cores. UNDERINFLATED.— An underinflated tire is
shown in figure 3-11, view B. This tire does not contain enough air for its size and
the load it must carry. It flexes excessively in all directions and gets hot. In time,
the heat weakens the cords in the tire, and it blows out. Underinflation also
causes tread edges to scuff the road that puts uneven wear on the tread and
shortens tire life. Never run a tire flat, or nearly flat, unless the tactical situation in
combat requires it. When run flat for even a short distance or almost flat for a
long distance, the tire may be ruined beyond repair. OVERINFLATED.— An
overinflated tire is shown in figure 3-11, view C. Too much air pressure also
causes tire failure. Excessive pressure prevents the tire from flexing enough and
causes it to be constantly subjected to hard jolts. When an overinflated tire hits a
stone or rut, the cords may snap and cause a break in the cord body. The center
of the tread wears more rapidly and does not permit equal wear across the entire
tread. Hard riding from too much air pressure also increases wear and tear on
the vehicle. Valves For speed and convenience during inflation, valve stems
should be readily accessible. They should be properly centered in the valve holes
and slots to prevent scraping against the brake drums. They should be placed so
the valves extend through the wheels. Valves on the inside duals should point
away from the vehicle, and the valves on the outside duals should point toward
the vehicle. On dual wheels, the valve of the outside dual is placed 180 degrees
from the inside valve for speed and convenience in checking pressures and
inflation. With this arrangement, the locations of the valves are always known
even when you are checking them in the dark. Spare tires should be mounted so
that the valve is accessible for checking and inflating. VALVE CORES.— The
valve core (fig. 3-12) is that part of the valve that is screwed into the valve stem
and permits air, under pressure, to enter, but prevents it from escaping. Two
types of valve cores and two sizes of each type are in use today. The two types
are the visible spring type and the concealed spring type. The two types are
interchangeable. Two sizes are provided for the standard bore and the large bore
valve stems. The core shell has a rubber washer that provides an airtight seal
against the tapered seat inside the stem. Directly below the shell is a cup that
contains a rubber seat, which, in the closed position, is forced against the
bottom of the shell, forming an airtight seal. The pin on top of the valve core,
when pushed down, forces the cup away from the shell, permitting air to flow.
VALVE CAPS.— The valve cap (fig. 3-13) is also a component part of the
valve and is screwed onto the end of the stem, providing a second airtight seal.
The cap also protects the threads on the end of the stem and Figure 3-13.—
Valve caps. 3 –8
Figure 3-14.—Mismatched tires keeps dirt and moisture out of the valve body.
The screwdriver cap has a forked tip that may be used to install or remove the
valve core. The plain cap generally is used on rubber-covered valves and has
a skirt that contacts the rubber covering on the valve stem. Both caps are
interchangeable with each other. Part of your prestart operation is making sure
that all valve stems have valve caps. Mismatching For longer tire life and more
efficient performance, dual tires and tires on all-wheel drive vehicles must be of
the same size, tread design, and tread wear. Improperly matched tires
cause rapid uneven wear and can also cause transfer case and differential
failures. Accurate matching of tires is necessary, because tires on axle-drive
vehicles rotate at the same speed when all axles are engaged. Dual wheels turn
at the same speed, because they are locked together which means that tires
on all driving wheels must be of the same circumference and diameter. When
one tire of a pair of duals is worn considerably more than the other, the tire
cannot carry its proper share of the load and will scrub the road (fig. 3-14). The
result is uneven and rapid wear on both tires and/or tire failure. Tires should be
used in sets. Mixing different types (bias ply, fiber glass belted, radial ply)
must be avoided. Snow tires should be of the same size and type of
construction as the front tires. Radial-ply tires should always be used in sets.
NOTE: Under no circumstances should radial-ply tires be mixed with bias-
ply tires, together or on the same axle. The problems encountered when mixing
tires on a vehicle are loss of steering control, inadequate vehicle handling, and
potential mechanical damage. These problems vary depending on the stability of
the tires used, differences in dimensions, differences in air pressure, and
other operating conditions. RADIAL-PLY TIRES.— Radial-ply tires (fig. 3-
15) are constructed with casing plies perpendicular to the tread direction, with
several layers of tread-reinforcing plies (steel or fabric) just under the tread
area. This construction permits flexing of the tire with a minimum of tread
distortion, better traction, and a softer ride. Figure 3-15.—Radial-ply tire
construction. 3-9
CHAPTER 3 ENGINE MAINTENANCE Keeping an internal combustion engine
(diesel or gasoline) in good operating condition demands a well-planned
procedure of periodic inspection, adjustments, maintenance, and repair. If
inspec- tions are made regularly, many malfunctions can be detected and
corrected before a serious casualty results. A planned maintenance program
will help to prevent major casualties and the occurrence of many operating
troubles. The Maintenance and Material Management (3-M) System provides
a logical and efficient approach to many maintenance problems. It pro- duces
a large reservoir of information about equipment disorder and indicates what
corrective steps must be taken to prevent them. Another aspect that must be
considered in connection with maintenance problems is the safety
requirement aboard ship. On some ships, the 3-M System includes safety
requirement cards. A safety requirement card provides guidelines and periodicity
for the inspection of selected areas not covered in the regular maintenance
schedule. Complete information about the 3-M System is contained in the
Maintenance and Material Management (3-M) Manual, OPNAVINST
4790.4. There may be times when service requirements will interfere with a
planned maintenance pro- gram. In such event, routine maintenance must be
performed as soon as possible after the specified interval of time has
elapsed. All necessary corrective measures should be accomplished as
soon as possible. Repair jobs should not be allowed to accumulate, otherwise
hurried and inadequate work will result. Since the Navy uses many models of
internal combustion engines, it is impossible to specify a detailed overhaul
procedure that would be adaptable to all models. However, there are
several general rules which apply to all engines. They are: 1. Detailed
repair procedures are listed in manufacturers’ instruction manuals and in
maintenance pamphlets. Study the appropriate manuals and pamphlets
before attempting any repair work. Pay particular attention to tolerance limits,
and adjustments. 2. Observe the highest degree of cleanliness in handling
engine parts during overhaul. 3. Before starting repair work, be sure that all
required tools and replacements for known defective parts are available. 4. Keep
detailed records of repairs. Such records should include the measurements of
parts, hours in use, and the names of the new parts in- stalled. Analyses of such
records will indicate the hours of operation that may be expected from the
various engine parts. This knowledge is helpful as an aid in determining when a
part should be renewed in order to avoid a failure. Since maintenance cards,
the manufacturers’ maintenance manuals, and the various types of instructions
discuss repair procedures in detail, this chapter will be limited to general informa-
tion on engine inspections, adjustments, and maintenance, as well as some
of the troubles encountered during overhaul, the causes of such troubles,
and the methods of repair to be used. INSPECTIONS Inspections and
maintenance are vital in order to maintain engines (diesel and gasoline) in 3-
1

ENGINEMAN 1 & C proper operating condition and to minimize the occurrence


of casualties caused by material failure. A comparatively minor engine
malfunction, if not recognized and remedied in its early stages, might well
develop into a major casualty. You and your work center personnel must be
able to recognize the symptoms of any developing malfunction by
using your senses of sight, hearing, smell, or even touch or feel
(heat/vibration). Your personnel must be trained to pay particular and
continuous attention to the follow- ing indicators of oncoming malfunctions: 1.
Unusual noises 2. Vibrations 3. Abnormal temperatures 4. Abnormal pressures
5. Abnormal operating speeds All operating personnel should thoroughly
familiarize themselves with the specific temperatures, pressures, and
operating speeds of equipment that are required for normal operation, so that
any departure from the normal will become more readily apparent. If a gage,
or other instrument for recording operating conditions of machinery, gives an
abnormal reading, the cause of the malfunction must be fully investigated.
Normally the installa- tion of a spare instrument, or a calibration test, will quickly
indicate whether the abnormal reading is due to instrument error. Any other
cause must be traced to its source. Because of the safety factor commonly incor-
porated in pumps and similar equipment, con- siderable loss of capacity can
occur before any external evidence is apparent. Changes in the operating
speeds (from those normal for the existing load) of pressure-governor-
controlled equipment should be viewed with suspicion. Most variations from
normal pressures, lubricating oil temperatures, and system pressures
indicate either inefficient operation or poor condition of machinery. When
a material failure occurs in any unit, a prompt inspection should be made of all
similar units to determine whether there is any danger that a similar failure might
occur in other units. The cause of the failure must also be determined and
corrected in order to avoid repeated failure of the same or similar components.
Prompt inspection may eliminate a wave of repeated casualties. Strict attention
must be paid to the proper lubrication of all equipment, including frequent
inspection and sampling to ensure that the cor- rect quantity of the proper
lubricant is in the unit. It is good practice to make a daily check of samples
of lubricating oil in all auxiliaries. Such samples should be allowed to stand long
enough for any water to settle. When auxiliaries have been idle for several hours,
particularly overnight, a sufficient sample to remove all settled water should
be drained from the lowest part of the oil sump. Replenishment with fresh oil to
the nor- mal level should be included in this routine. The presence of saltwater in
the oil can be detected by drawing off the settled water by means of a pipette and
by running a standard chloride test. A sample of sufficient size for the test can be
obtained by adding distilled water to the oil sample, shaking it vigorously, and
then allowing the water to settle before draining off the test sam- ple. Because
of its corrosive effects, saltwater in the lubricating oil is far more dangerous to a
unit than is an equal amount of freshwater. Saltwater is particularly harmful to
units containing oil- lubricated ball bearings. The information given so far relates
to the inspections that Enginemen make on operating engines (either diesel or
gasoline). Since the Navy uses more diesel than gasoline engines the
remainder of this chapter will deal with diesel engines and with the inspection
and maintenance procedures that are required by the planned maintenance
system (PMS) and the manufac- turers’ technical manuals. COMPRESSION
AND FIRING PRESSURES Readings of the compression and firing
pressures must be taken every 200 hours for the trend analysis graphs.
They may also be taken at other times when engine operating conditions
require additional monitoring such as when an engine misfires, fires erratically, or
when any one cylinder misfires regularly. There can be many reasons for an
engine to misfire, some of these are a clogged air cleaner/filter, an engaged fuel
3-2

Chapter 3—ENGINE MAINTENANCE cutout mechanism, or a loss of


compression. If, after checking the air cleaner, the filter, and the fuel cutout
mechanism, you determine that the problem is due to loss of compression,
then you must perform a compression check with a cylinder pressure indicator.
There are several different types of indicators that may be used. Most
indicators used with diesel-cylinder engines are either of the spring balanced
type or the trapped pressure type. They are manufactured by various
companies such as Kiene, Bacharach, and Kent-Moore. Some of these
indicators measure only compression pressure, others measure both
compression and firing pressures. Spring Balanced Indicator A spring
balanced indicator, such as the one manufactured by Bacharach (figure 3-1),
employs a spherical ball piston, which is held on its seat by the force of a helical
spring actuated by the cylinder pressure which acts against the bottom of the ball
piston to oppose the spring tension. Before the indicator is attached to the
engine, the vulcanized handle must be rotated clockwise until the reading on
the counter is greater than the maximum cylinder pressure expected. The
amount of this pressure is listed in the engine manufacturer’s technical
manual. When the indicator is installed, the operator must make sure that it is
placed as near the cylinder as possible and position it so that it can be read
easily. After the indicator is installed the engine is operated at the specified rpm,
then the fuel to the cylinder Courtesy of Bacharach, Inc., USA 75.238X Figure
3-1.-Spring balanced Pressure Indicator. being tested is cut out, the cylinder
test cock is opened, and the spring tension on the indicator is adjusted. The
tension of the spring is reduced b y rotating the vulcanized
h a n d l e counterclockwise until the maximum cylinder pressure barely
offsets the spring pressure. At this point, the latch mechanism of the indicator
trips and locks the handle firmly in position, giving a direct and exact reading of
the pressure in pounds per square inch (psi). To reset the lock mechanism for a
new reading, the handle must be rotated counterclockwise one-fourth turn.
When this in- dicator is stowed for future use, the indicator spring must be
unloaded by rotating the handle counterclockwise until a zero pressure reading is
obtained. Trapped Pressure Indicators In this type of indicator, the cylinder
gases enter past a valve into a chamber which leads to a gage. When the
pressure above the valve equals that of the cylinder, the valve seats and traps
the gas above the valve at its highest pressure, then this pressure is read on the
gage. There are several other types of indicators. The one pictured in figure
3-2 is used to take compression readings Courtesy of Bacharach, Inc., USA
75.238X Figure 3-2.—Trapped Pressure Indicator (small boat). 3-3

only on engines installed on small boats. Engines like the GM-6-71 do not have
indicator cocks installed. When taking compression readings on a 6-71 engine,
you will perform the following steps: 1. Check the manufacturer’s technical
manual for the minimum compression pressure required for the engine. 2.
Start the engine and run it at approximately one-half the rated load until normal
operating temperatures are reached. 3. Stop the engine and remove the fuel
pipes from the injector and the fuel connectors on the cylinder to be tested. 4.
Remove the injector and install the indicator adapter, with pressure gage
attached, and use the crab nut to hold the adapter in place. 5. Use a space fuel
pipe to fabricate a jumper connection between the fuel inlet and the return
manifold connectors to by-pass fuel to and from the injector. 6. Start the engine
again and run it at approx- imately 600 rpm. 7. Observe and record the
compression pressure as indicated on the gage. Another type of trapped
pressure indicator is the Kiene indicator (figure 3-3). This indicator is basically a
Bourdon gage connected to a cylin- drical pressure chamber. The pressure
chamber contains a check valve which allows the gas to ENGINEMAN 1 & C
flow from the engine into the chamber until the pressures are equalized. This
gage is attached to the chamber and the pressure is read directly. The check
valve is an inverted piston seating on a seat piece. The valve moves up and
down in a guide. A stop nut is used to adjust the travel of the check valve. Most
of you should become familiar with this indicator since it is widely used to check
both the compression and firing pressures on main diesel engines and
emergency generator diesel engines. Review figure 3-4A and B. It is a PMS
situation requirement to be performed when the engine operating conditions
indicate problems. EXHAUST AND CYLINDER TEMPERATURES One of the
most useful tools that the engine operator has for monitoring an engine’s
perform- ance is the thermocouple pyrometer. The prin- cipal use of this device is
in the exhaust system (but it can also be used for other purposes) where it is
used to measure the exhaust gas temperatures at each cylinder or the common
temperature in the exhaust manifold. By comparing the exhaust gas
temperatures of each cylinder, the operator can determine if the load is balanced
throughout the engine. The two types of pyrometers in use are the fixed
installation and the portable hand-held instrument (figure 3-5). Both types use
a ther- mocouple unit, such as the one shown in figure 3-5, installed in the
exhaust manifold. In its simplest form, a thermocouple consists of two dissimilar
metal wires, usually iron and constantan (55% copper and 45% nickel) that are
joined at both ends to form a continuous circuit. When the temperatures at the
junctions are dif- ferent an electrical current is produced and flows in the circuit.
The greater the temperature dif- ference, the greater the voltage produced.
Courtesy of Bacharach, Inc., USA 75.238X Figure 3-3.—Trapped Pressure
Indicator. One junction, known as the hot junction, is contained in a closed-end
tube, installed in the ex- haust manifold of each cylinder. The other junc- tion
called the cold junction, is exposed to room temperature, and is located at the
pyrometer wire 3-4
75.170 Figure 3-5.—Pyrometers used in diesel exhaust systems.
terminals (see figure 3-6). A pyrometer (millivolt meter) measures the voltage
produced and shows the results on a scale which has been calibrated to read in
degrees of temperature. In fixed installa- tion pyrometers, if the connecting wires
are of the same type as those of the thermocouples, the ther- mocouple element
becomes, in effect, extended to the pyrometer terminals and the temperature at
the meter (now the cold junction) becomes the reference temperature. Then the
selector switch can be rotated to any cylinder and contact can be made between
the pyrometer and the hot junc- tion. A reading can then be obtained for that par-
ticular point. The hand-held pyrometer consists of an indicator and a pair of
pointed prods attached to a sub-base and supported by a handle. To obtain a
reading, the prod points are pressed against the exposed thermocouple
terminals. The reading is taken from the scale. A point to remember is that the
zero adjuster must be set to indicate room temperature rather than 0°
temperature. GRAPHIC RECORDS As you read in chapter 2, graphic records
play an important part in keeping an engine in proper operating condition. When
used properly they can 75.171 Figure 3-6.—Sectional view of a
thermocouple. tell you how your engine is performing and what is happening
inside the engine. Graphic records indicate the overall condition of an engine and
warn you when certain parts are beginning to wear out so that you may take
prompt corrective ac- tions and prevent major casualties. ADJUSTMENT AND
MAINTENANCE An internal combustion engine is a com- plicated machine,
built with a high degree of preci- sion throughout and capable of long
dependable service if it is kept in good operating condition. To keep an engine in
good operating condi- tion you must perform all the adjustments and
maintenance prescribed in your installed PMS and the manufacturers’ technical
manuals. In this sec- tion you will read about the adjustment and
maintenance of various components of an inter- nal combustion engine.
AUTOMATIC REGULATING VALVE In many engines, freshwater temperature
is regulated by an automatic regulating valve which maintains the freshwater
temperature at any desired value by bypassing a portion of the water around
the freshwater cooler. An automatic temperature regulator of the type
commonly used in the cooling systems of marine engines is shown in figure 3-7.
Even though these regulators are automatic (self-operated), provisions are in-
cluded in most installations for manual operation in the event that the automatic
feature fails. ENGINEMAN 1 & C 3-6
Chapter 3—ENGINE MAINTENANCE Figure 3-7.—Automatic temperature
regulator. 3-7
ENGINEMAN 1 & C The temperature regulator consists of a valve and a
thermostatic control unit mounted on the valve. The thermostatic control unit
consists of a temperature-control element and a control assembly. The
temperature-control element is essentially two sealed chambers consisting of
a bellows con- nected by a flexible armored capillary tube to a bulb mounted in
the engine cooling-water discharge line. One chamber is formed by the
bellows and cap, which are sealed together at the bottom; the other chamber is
in the bulb. The entire system (except for a small space at the top of the bulb) is
filled with a mixture of ether and alcohol which vaporizes at a low temperature.
When the bulb is heated, the liquid vaporizes and the pressure within the bulb
increases. This forces the liquid out of the bulb and through the
capillary tube to the bellows. As the bellows is moved down, it operates the
valve. The control assembly consists of a spring- loaded mechanical linkage
which connects the temperature-control element to the valve stem. The coil
spring in the control assembly provides the force necessary to balance the
force of the vapor pressure in the temperature-control element. Thus, the
downward force of the temperature- control element is balanced, at any point,
by the upward force of the spring. This permits the valve to be set to hold the
temperature of the engine cooling water within the allowed limits. The regulator
operates only within the temperature range marked on the nameplate; it
may be adjusted for any temperature within this range. The setting is
controlled by the range- adjusting wheel, located under the spring seat. A
pointer attached to the spring seat indicates the temperature setting on a scale
which is attached to the regulator frame. The scale is graduated from 0 to 9,
representing the total operating range of the regulator. The location of a
temperature regulator may be located in either the seawater or
freshwater circuit. In most engines, the regulator is located in
the freshwater circuit. When located in the seawater circuit, the regulator
controls the amount of seawater flow- ing through the coolers. As the
temperature of the freshwater becomes greater than the temperature for
which the regulator is set, the regulator actuates a valve to increase the flow of
seawater through the coolers. On the other hand, when the freshwater
temperature is below the temperature for which the regulator is set, the
regulator actuates the valve and decreases the flow of seawater through the
coolers. In installations where the regulator is in the freshwater circuit, water is
directed to the cooler when the temperature of the water is above the maximum
setting of the regulator. After passing through the cooler where the
temperature of the water is lowered, the water returns to the suction side of the
freshwater pump to be recirculated. When the temperature of the water is below
the maximum setting of the regulator, the water bypasses the cooler and
flows directly to the suc- tion side of the pump. Bypassing the cooler per- mits
the water to be recirculated through the engine; in this way, the temperature
of the water is raised to the proper operating level. Regardless of whether the
regulator is in the fresh or seawater circuit, the bulb which causes the
regulator to operate is located in the freshwater discharge line of the
engine. Temperature regulators not only control the temperature of the
freshwater but also control indirectly the temperature of the oil discharged from
the lubricating oil cooler. Control of the lubricating oil temperature is possible
because the water (freshwater or saltwater) that is passed through the
regulator and the freshwater cooler is also the cooling agent for the lubricating oil
cooler. When the lubricating oil is cooled by seawater, two temperature
regulators are installed in the seawater circuit. The temperature regulator bulb of
the regulator that controls the temperature of the freshwater is installed in the
freshwater cir- cuit; the bulb of the regulator that controls the temperature of the
lubricating oil is installed in the lubricating oil system. Maintenance To allow
proper operation of a temperature regulator, the valve stem must not bind in the
stuffing box, but must move freely. The valve stem must be lubricated frequently
where it enters the stuffing box and also around the threaded sleeve used
for the manual control. A small amount of grease should also be used on the
bevel 3-8
Chapter 3—ENGINE MAINTENANCE Figure 3-8.—Figure Removed.
gears. The valve packing nut should be kept only finger tight and should be
lubricated occasionally with a drop of oil. Should it become necessary to renew
the packing, you will need to remove the nut, take out the packing gland, clean
the stuff- ing box, and repack it with asbestos wicking saturated with oil.
Should the temperature of the freshwater leaving the engine be too high when
the regulator is set on the lowest adjustment setting you should do the following:
1. Ensure that the manual pointer is set at the THERMOSTATIC position. 2.
Ensure that the packing gland is not binding the valve stem and that the
valve stem is not stuck in the COOLER CLOSED (minimum cooling) position. 3.
Check the water lines for other causes of the difficulty. If this check does not
reveal the cause of the trouble, it is probable that the temperature control
element is inoperative, and that it should be checked. If undercooling occurs
when the temperature regulator is set on the highest adjustment setting, check
for a sticking valve in the BY-PASS CLOSED (maximum cooling) position.
Sticking may be caused by a tight stuffing box or by dirt under the lower valve
seat. If the temperature at the bulb is lower than the set temperature and the
valve position indicator shows COOLER 3-9
CLOSED, excessive leakage is indicated. In such case you will have to regrind
the valve using the following procedure: 1. Disconnect the valve from the piping.
2. Remove the packing nut and the packing. 3. Disconnect the valve stem and
remove the locknut from the thermostatic stem. 4. Remove the thermostatic
control unit from the valve. 5. Clean the valve stem until it is smooth. If
necessary, polish it with fine emery cloth. 6. Grind the valve seats until a perfect
seal is obtained; then remove all grinding compound from the valve and the
seats. 7. Reassemble the valve and the control unit. 8. Repack the stuffing box
and lubricate it with engine oil. Figure 3-9.—Bulb installation. ENGINEMAN
1 & C 9. Secure the packing gland nut finger tight. 10. Insert the bulb into the
ship’s piping in either a horizontal or vertical position, as shown in views A and B
of figure 3-9. When the bulb is installed in the vertical position, the nut must be at
the top; when it is installed in the horizon- tal position, the arrow on the indicator
disk must point upward. NEVER INSTALL THE BULB WITH THE NUT AT THE
BOTTOM (as shown in view C of figure 3-9) because in this position the liquid
would be below the end of the internal capillary tube and would have little or no
effect on the bellows of the temperature regulator valve. 11. Adjust the regulator.
Adjustment A closeup of the adjusting and indicating features of the
temperature regulator is shown in figure 3-10. The procedure for adjusting
a temperature regulator is as follows: Rotate the manual crank pin until the
indicator pointer is in Figure 3-10.—Scale and Indicator plates of
temperature regulator. 3-10

the THERMOSTATIC POSITION. Turn the adjusting wheel until the pointer is
opposite 2 on the scale plate. Loosen the locknut and unscrew the valve
stem until it is free of the thermostatic stem. Then turn the adjusting wheel
until the pointer is opposite 8 on the scale plate. (Note: The preceding steps
should be performed with the ther- mostatic bulb removed from the ship’s piping
and when the bulb temperature is below 100°F.) Again rotate the manual
crankpin until the lower end of the seating sleeve is flush with the lower end of
the thermostatic stem. With the seating sleeve and the indicator pointer in this
position, loosen the screws in the indicator plate and slide the plate up or
down as needed to align the THERMOSTATIC mark in the center of the plate
with the indicator pointer. Then retighten the screws. (The marks COOLER
CLOSED and COOLER BY-PASS on the indicator plate are only approximate.)
Screw the valve stem into the thermostatic stem and turn it until the cooler pop-
pet valve seats firmly. Turn the adjusting wheel until the pointer is opposite 2 on
the scale plate. Turn the valve stem one full turn into the ther- mostatic stem and
retighten the locknut. With the manual control on the THER- MOSTATIC
position, turn the adjusting wheel in a direction to bring the pointer to number 9
on the scale plate. Run the engine at warmup speed until the temperature
of the fluid, as indicated by the thermometer in the line with the thermostatic
bulb, rises to the desired temperature. (The desired temperature must be
determined in advance from applicable instructions.) With the engine
running at warmup speed and the temperature at the thermostatic bulb at the
desired value, turn the adjusting wheel until the cooler poppet just begins to
leave its seat. This action is shown by the movement of the mark on the valve
stem downward from the COOLER CLOSED mark on the valve position
indicator. Valves adjusted in accordance with this procedure will normally
maintain the temperature of the fluid at the thermostatic bulb between the
desired value and a temperature approximately 20° higher, under any
conditions of engine load or injection temperature. This 20° difference is the
temperature rise required to cause the poppet valve to move through the
necessary travel. HEATING EXCHANGER DEFINITIONS Problems with the
cooling system of an engine may prevent the cooling system from keeping the
engine parts and working fluids at safe operating temperatures. Failure of the
system may lead to several of the troubles and casualties that have been
discussed earlier. In marine installations, lubricating oil and most of the
engine parts are cooled by the circula- tion of seawater, freshwater, or both.
When the cooling of an engine part is mostly by oil spray or oil circulation, the oil
is cooled by circulation through an oil cooler. Figure 3-11 illustrates a cooling
system in which both freshwater and seawater serve as coolants. When
maintaining engine cooling water temperatures within specified limits, the
principal difficulties you may encounter are in maintain- ing circulating pumps in
operating condition; preventing corrosion; reducing the cause of scale formation
in water jackets and heat exchangers; cleaning jackets and heat exchangers
according to proper procedures; and in preventing leaks in the various parts
of the system. The coolers (or heat exchangers) which remove the heat from the
cooling water of an engine may vary considerably in design. Those used in cool-
ing systems may be classified basically as the radiator type and the tubular type.
The radiator is sometimes referred to as the strut or the Har- rison type, while the
tubular is identified as the Ross or shell-and-tube type. A heat exchanger of both
types is shown in figure 3-12. The heat ex- changer on the top of the picture is a
radiator type heat exchanger; the one on the bottom is a tubular-type heat
exchanger. In heat exchangers of the radiator type, the freshwater passes
through the tubes and the seawater passes around them. In the tubular type,
the freshwater surrounds the tubes and the seawater passes through them.
CASUALTIES Although heat exchangers vary in design, they are all subject to
similar casualties. The principal difficulties which may prevent heat exchangers
from functioning properly are excessive scale deposits on the cooler element,
clogged cooler elements, or cooler leakage. Chapter 3—ENGINE
MAINTENANCE 3-11
ENGINEMAN 1 & C Figure 3-11.—A cooling water system. A gradual
increase in the freshwater temperature is usually an indication of EX-
CESSIVE SCALE on a cooler element. As scale formation increases, there is a
gradual increase in the pressure difference between the inlet and outlet of the
heat exchanger. Scale deposits generally form faster on the saltwater side
than on the freshwater side, because of the greater amount of dissolved salt
present in the water. Complete prevention of scale formation is not possible, but
steps can be taken to reduce its for- mation by using proper cleaning methods
and pro- cedures. Seawater discharge temperature should be maintained
below a specified limit (130°F), because the rate of scale formation is increased
as the temperature increases. The water used in closed cooling systems
must be as pure as possible. Distilled water is recommended for a
freshwater cooling system, but since distilled water is not absolutely pure,
additional steps must be taken to control acidity and alkalinity. The treat- ment
used to control these factors will not remove scales already formed, but it will
prevent further precipitation of scale-forming slats. You will find details for water
treatment in closed water systems in chapter 233, NAVSHIPS Technical
Manual, and in most engine instruction manuals. Not only the hard deposits
chemically precipitated from the circulating water, but also such items as marine
life, grease, and debris of various types may CLOG OR RESTRICT
COOLER ELEMENTS. The principal causes of 3-12 121.11
Chapter 3—ENGINE MAINTENANCE 47.74(121) Figure 3-12.—Types of
heat exchanges. cooler clogging by loose foreign matter are faulty soon as
possible. Obviously, the use of dirty seawater strainers, dirty freshwater,
excessive freshwater will hasten the clogging of a cooler ele- lubrication of the
pumps, and leaking oil coolers. ment. Grease and oil may enter the cooling
system To prevent the entry of sea debris, a punctured and the film deposited on
the cooler element will screen in a seawater strainer must be replaced as reduce
the capacity of the cooler. Grease may 3-13

come from grease cups which are used on some water pumps to lubricate
bearings. If the cups are turned down too much or too often, grease is
forced into the circulating water. A hole in the element of an oil cooler permits oil
to flow into the cooling system. Any source of oil or grease should be located and
repairs made as soon as possible. Corrosion or erosion of the element in a heat
exchanger, as well as operation at excessive pressure, may cause LEAKS.
These leaks can develop either in the element or in the casing. Leakage from
the cooler casing can usually be detected by inspection. Element leaks,
however, are more difficult to detect. Any noticeable decline or rise in the
freshwater tank level, with the temperature remaining normal, usually
indicates leakage. A hole made by corrosion in a cooler element indicates that
corrosion probably exists throughout the element, and a thorough inspec- tion
should be made. Corrosion can be prevented to a large extent by using the
prescribed freshwater treatment, inspecting as necessary and venting the cooler
to remove entrapped air. Holes due to erosion are usually caused by particles of
grit (sand, dirt, etc., resulting usually from operation in shallow water)
striking an element at high velocity. Grit is for the most part so fine that it
passes easily through the strainer. If the strainer is defective, even the larger
particles of grit may enter the cooler. Erosion by water at high velocity may also
result in holes in a cooler element. This occurs when water flow has to be
increased above the rated capacity in order to maintain a desired freshwater
temperature. Whenever it is found necessary to greatly increase the water
flow, the cooler should be cleaned. If the designed maximum operating
pressure (indicated on the exchanger name plate) is ex- ceeded, leaks are apt to
result. Excessive pressure is likely to occur in conjunction with clogging, because
additional pressure is necessary to force a given quantity of water through
a clogged element. MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR Because of the difference
in their construction, methods of cleaning both types of heat exchangers (radiator
and tubular) differ in some respects. Radiator-type heat exchangers are
cleaned by chemical means because mechanical cleaning is not satisfactory
for this type heat exchanger. Chemical cleaning of radiator-type units is
discussed in Engineman 3 & 2, NAVEDTRA 10541 (current edition).
Tubular heat exchangers, on the other hand, are cleaned by mechanical
means. In both types of heat exchangers, loose foreign matter such as seaweed,
sand, and dirt may be removed by blowing steam through the element in a
direction opposite to the normal flow of water. When an element is badly
clogged, care must be exercised not to admit steam at a pressure exceeding the
maximum specified for the element. If a film of oil or grease is evident, the
element should be cleaned like an oil cooler element. Leakage from the CASING
of a radiator-type heat exchanger may be caused by a damaged gasket. If
so, the heat exchanger should be re- moved from the piping in order that flange
faces may be tightened evenly after a new gasket is installed. If there is any
reason to suspect that there are leaks in a heat exchanger element, the best
method for locating them is by an air test. This test may be accomplished as
follows: 1. Remove the element from the casing. 2. Block off the discharge side
of the element. 3. Attach a pressure gage to the inlet line of the element. 4.
Supply low-pressure air to the inlet side of the element. Remember: Air pressure
must NEVER exceed design pressure for the element. 5. Immerse the
element in a tank of water. 6. Check for bubbles. An element of a heat exchanger
may also be tested hydrostatically by filling the element with water under
pressure and checking for leaks. Emergency repair of leaks in the element of a
radiator-type heat exchanger can be made as shown in figure 3-13. When
emergency repairs to the radiator-type heat exchanger are necessary, they may
be made with the use of soft solder and a small torch or soldering iron. Extreme
care must be taken to prevent the surrounding area from being overheated, thus
causing the existing solder to melt. Small radiator-type heat exchangers
ENGINEMAN 1 & C 3-14

121.33 Figure 3-13.—Emergency repair of a tube leak in a radiator type heat


exchanger. should be replaced as soon as a leak develops, if a replacement is
available. The presence of one leak, unless caused by dropping or accidental
puncture, indicates that other areas in the heat exchanger may be eroded. In
shell-and-tube heat exchangers, a leaking tube must be replaced as soon as
possible. In an emergency, a faulty tube may be blocked off by inserting a
special plug at each end, until the tube can be replaced. An air lance or
water lance should be used to clean the tubes of a shell-and- tube heat
exchanger. If the scale has hardened in the tubes, a round bristle brush or
soft rubber plugs may be used to clean the tubes. When clean- ing the tubes
by mechanical means, avoid damaging the protective coating inside the tubes.
These tubes should never be polished, as the tar- nish on the tubes acts as
insulation to prevent Chapter 3—ENGINE MAINTENANCE further corrosion.
Removing the tarnish will also reduce the tube wall thickness and over a period
of time and a number of cleanings, could suffi- ciently reduce tube strength,
resulting in tube failure. For the proper procedures for cleaning shell and tube
type heat exchangers and the safety precautions, use the PMS
maintenance requirements cards, the manufacturer’s technical manual and
Naval Ships’s Technical Manual, chapter 254. LUBRICATING SYSTEM To
ensure that all the parts of an engine receive adequate lubrication, it is essential
that all parts of the lubricating oil system be properly main- tained at all times.
Some parts which may be a source of trouble are considered in this section. For
other information on lubricating systems, see Engineman 3 & 2, NAVEDTRA
10541 (current edition). LUBE OIL PUMPS Pumps used in engine lubricating
systems are of the positive displacement type. In some pumps pressure control
is maintained by pressure regulating or pressure relief valves built directly
into the pump; in other pumps, valves exterior to the pump are used for this
purpose. Most regulating devices recirculate excess lube oil back to the suction
side of the pump, but some pumps discharge excess oil directly into the engine
sump. Pump casualties, as well as many other lube systems failures, are
indicated by the loss of lube oil pressure. The loss of oil pressure can be
recognized by checking the pressure gages at prescribed intervals, or by
means of an electrical alarm system. Most lube oil pump failures are generally
due to wear, and develop gradually. Failures may also occur abruptly if a drive
shaft breaks, or some parts suffer physical deforma- tion. Such failures are
usually indicated by ab- normal noise in the pump and by sounding of the low-
pressure lube oil alarm. The warning system should be tested at specified
intervals, usually when an engine is being started or secured. Warning
systems do not excuse personnel from their responsibility for keeping a
vigilant and accurate watch on engine 3-15
ENGINEMAN 1 & C instruments. The instruments give the most reliable
indication as to what an engine is doing and what adjustments should be
made. OIL LINES AND PASSAGES Troubles occurring in the oil passages and
oil lines are usually in the form of plugged or cracked lines. The former is
generally the result of carelessness, while the latter is usually a result of improper
support of the line. Even though clogged passages may be indicated by
increased pressure gage readings, it is dangerous to rely wholly on such
indications, since stoppage occurring beyond the pressure regulating valve
and pressure gage may cause very little, if any, pressure increase on the gage.
You can best determine if a bearing is receiving oil by inspecting it
occasionally, just after engine shut-down. There should be plenty of oil in
the vicinity of the parts being lubricated. Another method for checking bearing
lubrication is to note the temperature of the bearings by feeling them with the
hand after engine shut-down. You should be able to keep your hand on them for
at least a few seconds. 3-16 You can help prevent most oil line stoppage by
observing the following rules: 1. Never use cotton waste or paper towels for
cleaning an engine. They may leave lint or small bits of material which later may
collect in the lines. 2. Service the oil filters at specified intervals. Clean the case
properly and when the lines are removed, blow them out with compressed air.
FUEL INJECTION EQUIPMENT AND CONTROLS The fuel system is one of the
most complicated of all engine systems; therefore, special care must be
exercised when making adjustments and repairs. Even though
manufacturers have designed many different fuel systems, the basic principle
involved is the same in all of them. If you understand the basic principle for one
system, you will have no difficulty in becoming familiar with other systems. The
procedures for the maintenance and repair of the various systems are also
similar. Let’s review briefly not only the function of a fuel system but also the
various types of fuel systems. As you know the function of a fuel injection
system is to deliver fuel to the engine cylinders under specific conditions: at a
high pressure, at the proper time, in the proper quan- tities, and properly
atomized. This function may be carried out by either one of two types of
systems: the air injection type or the solid injec- tion type. Since there are few air
injections systems now in use, we will consider only the solid (mechanical)
injection type systems. Solid injection systems may be classified as jerk pump
systems and common rail systems. Variations are to be found in each of
these systems. The following examples show some of the basic differences
between the various solid injection systems. Systems of the JERK PUMP
type may be identified as either individual pump systems or unit injection
systems. Some jerk pump systems use a separate pump and fuel injector for
each cylinder, while the unit injection systems combine the pump and injector
into a single unit. The Bosch system is an example of an in- dividual pump
system. The pump is a cam- actuated, constant stroke, lapped plunger
and barrel pump. The pump times, meters, distributes, and provides the
necessary pressure to inject the fuel into the cylinder through a separate
nozzle. The General Motors unit injector is an exam- ple of a unit injection
system. It embodies a cam- actuated, constant stroke, lapped plunger and
bushing, a high pressure pump, and an injection nozzle, all in one unit. In
the Cummins injection system, a cam- actuated injector and nozzle
assembly is mounted in each cylinder. This system employs a common
metering device that distributes a measured quan- tity of fuel to each of
the injectors. The Cummings injection system embodies characteristics of
the unit injector and is sometimes classified as such, although it is also
called a distributor system. The Fairbanks-Morse injection system is another
example of a jerk pump system. The injection system known as the COMMON
RAIL system includes two types: the basic
Chapter 3—ENGINE MAINTENANCE common rail system and the modified
common rail system. The fuel injection systems used on Atlas engines and
some older models of Cooper- Bessemer engines are of the basic type. In
this system one untimed, high-pressure pump supplies fuel at injection
pressure to a main header (com- mon rail). The fuel flows from the header to the
injector valves and nozzles at each cylinder. The injector valves are cam-
operated and timed. Metering of the fuel is controlled by the length of time the
nozzle remains open and by the pressure maintained by the high-pressure
pump in the common rail. The modified common rail system (constant pressure),
found on newer models of Cooper- Bessemer engines, uses a high-
pressure pump to maintain fuel at the injection pressure in an accumulator
bottle. The fuel is metered by individual valves mounted on the side of
the engine; it then flows to the pressure-operated nozzles in the cylinder
head, to be atomized and distributed in the cylinder. Since complete details for
the maintenance and repair of each of the various fuel systems in serv- ice are
beyond the scope of this book, specific information on a particular fuel
injection system must come from the appropriate manufacturer’s technical
manual. FUEL INJECTION PUMPS AND INJECTORS In any discussion of a
fuel system, the impor- tance of each of its parts cannot be overlooked. The first
requirement for trouble-free operation of a fuel system is clean fuel. Accordingly,
the filters, the strainers, the tanks, the transfer pumps, and the lines must be
maintained according to prescribed instructions. Even when these parts function
properly, the principal elements of the injection system—pressure pump,
injection valves, and injection nozzles—are subject to troubles. The following
discussion covers some of these troubles, their symptoms and causes, and
provides general information concerning maintenance and repair of this
equipment. As you study this information, keep in mind the dif- ferences
which may exist between the various systems. (A system, for example, may be of
the jerk pump or common rail type, or the pressure pump and the injector may
be separate or combined.) Damaged Plunger In the plunger and barrel
assembly of a high- pressure pump and in the plunger and bushing assembly of
a unit injector, the symptoms and causes of damage are similar. Damage may
become apparent through erratic engine operation. Symptoms vary widely and
may include failure of the engine to develop full power, low exhaust
temperature, low firing pressure for the affected cylinder, difficulty in
balancing (calibrating) the pumps or injectors, and failure of one or more
cylinders of the engine to fire. Damage to a plunger and the part in which it slides
may also be recognized by testing the unit on a test stand. However, the best
way to determine the extent of damage is to disassemble the unit, clean it
thoroughly, and then carefully inspect each part. Cleaning of the units can be
best accomplished by use of an approved solvent. Clean diesel fuel may be
used when more effective cleaners are not available. A brush must be used with
diesel fuel and even then, removal of gummy deposits is dif- ficult. Keep each
plunger and barrel (bushing) together during the inspection to avoid improper
assembly, as they are manufactured in matched sets. The use of a magnifying
glass during the examination of a plunger will facilitate the detec- tion of
damage. Inspect for fine scratches, dull surface appearance, cracks, pit marks
(usually accompanied by dark discoloration), and erosion and roughness at
the edge of the helix or at the end of the plunger. An example of a badly scored
plunger is illustrated in A of figure 3-14. A plunger with the lapped surface
and helix edge in good condition is shown in B of figure 3-14. Surface
irregularities in the region illustrated are serious because they affect metering
and, conse- quently, engine operation. When examining a barrel or bushing,
search for erosion of the ports or scoring of the lapped surfaces. Pay particular
attention to the lapped plane surface at the end of a pump barrel. Rust or pit
marks on this surface must be removed by lapping before reassembly. 3-17

ENGINEMAN 1 & C During the overhaul of fuel injection equip- ment, a


spotlessly clean working space is essen- tial for the protection of all parts.
Ideally, the area should also be air conditioned. All air should be thoroughly
filtered before it enters the space. Benches should have smooth tops.
Metal-topped benches should be covered with linoleum or lint- free rags.
Ample quantities of approved cleaning solvent, of clean fuel oil, and of
compressed air to blow parts dry, should be used to help ensure cleanliness
during overhaul. Never use rags or waste to clean injectors, as lint particles
from them may damage the injector parts. From the time a unit is removed
from the engine until it is replaced on the engine, extreme care must be
exerted to keep dust and dirt away from all its parts. Before any connections
are Figure 3-14.—A damaged and serviceable plunger. loosened, all dirt
should be removed from the unit, tubing, and fittings by washing. After
removal of the unit from the engine, all opening (pump, nozzle, tubing, or
injectors) should be covered with approved caps or coverings. Damage to the
plunger of a fuel injection pump or injector may be caused by such
different factors as entry of dirt into the equipment, careless handling while the
equipment is disassembled, corrosion, and improper assembly and
disassembly procedures. Dirt and water are responsible for practically all
trouble encountered with fuel injection equip- ment. If the units are not
properly protected, they can be damaged beyond repair within a very
short period of operation. Remember that the clearances between the
lapped surfaces are so small that occasionally extremely fine particles, such
as dust from the atmosphere, are capable of scoring these surfaces. Then
small amounts of water that may collect from condensation will cor- rode
these surfaces. An engine should never be operated unless the fuel has
been properly filtered before reaching the injection equipment. Although
regular filters and strainers are present in all fuel systems, in some systems
special safety filters or screens are incor- porated to further reduce the
possibility of foreign matter mixing with the fuel as it reaches the pump and the
injector. The location of these additional safety devices depends upon the
system. In one system a screen is placed between the fuel transfer pump and the
fuel distributor, while in another a filter is mounted directly on the pump. Because
many surfaces of the parts of pumps and injectors are lapped to
extremely accurate finishes, it is essential that they be HANDLED WITH
GREAT CARE. Parts that are dropped may be bent, nicked, dented, or
otherwise ruined. All work should be done well over the center of the bench.
The use of a linoleum cover- ing will reduce casualties caused by
dropping parts on the bench. Never leave parts uncovered on the bench,
but keep them immersed in diesel fuel until handled. Never handle lapped
surfaces when they are dry, as the perspiration on your hands may cause
corrosion. Before a lapped surface is handled, it should be immersed in
clean diesel fuel, and the hands rinsed in clean fuel. Since the mating parts
of pumps and injectors are fitted to one another, such parts as plunger and
barrel should be kept together to avoid interchanging. Since water in the fuel, or
improper storage of parts, can also cause CORROSION of the parts of a pump
or an injector, all fuel should be cen- trifuged, and filter and strainer cases
drained periodically to prevent excessive collection of water. Information on
proper stowage procedures should be obtained from the appropriate
technical manual. 3-18
Special care must be exercised in DISASSEMBLING and ASSEMBLING
the parts of a fuel injection system, since any damage to these finely finished
surfaces will necessitate replacement of the parts. When work is being
done on any part of a fuel injection system, the procedure outlined in the engine
technical manual, or the manufacturer’s fuel system technical manual,
must be followed. Remember that the damage to a plunger and barrel assembly
of a fuel pressure pump or to the plunger and bushing assembly of a unit injector
generally requires replacement of the parts. A damaged part may not be
replaced individually. A plunger and its mating part (barrel, bushing, or bore)
must be installed as a complete assembly. External Leakage Trouble caused by
external leakage from an injection pump or an injector may become suffi- ciently
serious to cause an engine to misfire. It is of extreme importance that signs of
external leakage be detected as soon as possible. Leakage outside of the
combustion space may be suffi- ciently large not only to affect engine operation
but also to create a fire hazard. External leakage of a unit injector can cause fuel
dilution of the engine lube oil, reduce lubrication, and increase the possibility
of a crankcase explosion. In general, external leakage from pumps and
injectors is caused by improper assembly, loose connections, faulty gaskets,
damaged threads and sealing surfaces, broken springs, or cracked hous- ings or
bodies. While leakage from pumps is generally visible during engine
operation, leakage from an injector may not become apparent until appropriate
tests are performed. You can stop the external leakage from a pump or
injector either by tightening loose con- nections or by replacing the
damaged parts. Before the equipment is inspected for leakage, thoroughly
clean all parts. On some equipment, you may eliminate mild roughness or
discolora- tion of the sealing surfaces by lapping. Stuck Plunger When the
cylinder of an engine fails to fire, it is an indication that the injection pump plunger
is stuck. Misfiring may occur intermittently if the plunger sticks and releases at
intervals. Upon disassembly, it may be difficult to remove the plunger.
Sometimes the plunger may stick when the pump or the injector is
assembled, but will work smoothly when the unit is disassembled. At times, the
plunger will not stick until some time after the unit has been removed from the
engine. This is particularly true when the plunger and mating part have been
stored under conditions that cause corrosion, or when the parts have been
mishandled after removal. A unit injector may be checked, after removal from
the engine, by performing the binding plunger test. This test is performed by
depress- ing the plunger, either by hand or by using the “popping” fixture of a
test stand, and noting the return action of the plunger. The plunger should
return with a definite snap. This test should be performed at three successive
rack settings. A sluggish return action indicates a sticky plunger. A sticking
plunger may be caused by dirt, gummy deposits in the unit, or distortion of
the plunger and its adjacent part. The movement of a plunger may be restricted
or entirely prevented by small particles of dirt which may lodge between the
plunger and its mating surface. Lacquer-like deposits, from fuel, will also
interfere with the movement of the plunger. The greatest care must be
taken when handling the parts of a pump or injector. Because of the extremely
close clearances between plunger and mating surfaces, a slight distortion of
either will cause binding. Distortion may result from dropping, from striking the
plunger and a mating part, or from improper assembly. Stuck plungers in fuel
pumps or injectors should be freed or replaced. Sometimes a little cleaning
may eliminate the need for a replace- ment. The plunger and barrel or bushing
assembly should be soaked in an approved cleaning fluid. The assembly
should be soaked overnight, or longer if necessary. Cleaning fluids approved
for this purpose will immediately soften and remove any paint or enamel with
which they come in con- tact. These fluids should be used with care, since they
will damage rubber gaskets. The specific procedures for cleaning fuel
injection equipment, although similar, vary to some degree, depending upon
the unit involved Chapter 3—ENGINE MAINTENANCE 3-19
ENGINEMAN 1 & C and the manufacturer. The following brief
description of the procedures for equipment made by two different
manufacturers emphasizes some of these similarities, and further emphasizes
the need for following only the procedures indicated in the appropriate
manufacturer’s technical manual. A plunger of a Bosch fuel injection pump can
be loosened by cleaning. However, if the plunger does not slide freely in the
barrel, both the plunger and barrel should be cleaned with an approved cleaning
fluid, rinsed in clean fuel oil, and blown dry with compressed air. A small quantity
of mut- ton tallow should then be placed on the plunger. Working the plunger
back and forth and rotating it in the barrel should remove all gummy deposits.
Instructions for Bosch fuel injection equipment state that such items as hard or
sharp tools or abrasives of any kind should never be used in cleaning the pumps.
Freeing the sticking plunger in a GM unit in- jector may be done in much the
same manner as in a Bosch pump. Stains on plungers may be removed by the
use of a limited quantity of jewelers’ rouge on a piece of soft tissue paper. It is
important to remember that the plunger should not be lapped to the bushing
with an abrasive such as jewelers’ rouge. After a plunger has been cleaned with
jewelers’ rouge, it must be cleaned thoroughly with diesel fuel before being
placed in the bushing. If after repeated cleanings, the plunger still does not slide
freely, you may assume that either the plunger or the bushing is distorted. The
principal difference in the cleaning pro- cedures for these two units of
equipment is in the use of abrasives. If the recommended cleaning procedure for
these units fails to loosen the plunger so it will slide freely, the plunger and its
mating part will have to be replaced. Broken Plunger Spring A pump of an
injector will fail when the plunger spring breaks and fails to return the
plunger after injection has occurred. Factors which contribute to broken plunger
springs are failure to inspect the springs thoroughly and careless handling.
Broken plunger springs must be replaced. Also they should be replaced when
there is evidence of cracking, chipping, nicking, weakening of the spring,
excessive wear, or when the condition of the spring is doubtful. Jammed Fuel
Control Rack If an engine is to operate satisfactorily, the fuel control rack must
be completely free to move. Since the rack controls the quantity of fuel
injected per stroke, any resistance to motion will result in governing difficulties.
When this occurs, the engine speed may fluctuate (decreasing as the engine is
loaded; racing as the load is removed), or the engine may hunt continuously or
only when the load is changed. If the fuel control rack becomes jammed, it
may become impossible to control the engine speed with the throttle. The engine
may even resist securing efforts under such conditions. Since a sticking fuel
control rack can cause serious difficulty, especially in an emer- gency, every
effort should be made to prevent its occurrence. The best way to check for a
sticking fuel control rack is to disconnect the linkage to the governor and attempt
to move the rack by hand. There should be no resistance to movement of the
rack when all springs and linkages are disconnected. A fuel control rack may
stick or jam as a result of a stuck plunger, dirt or paint in the rack
mechanism, a damaged rack or gear, or improper assembly. When this jamming
or sticking occurs, it is necessary to determine the cause of binding. If it is due to
damage, the damaged parts must be replaced; if the stickiness is due to the
presence of dirt, a thorough cleaning of all parts will prob- ably correct the
trouble. Avoid errors in reassembly and adjustment by carefully studying the
instructions. Backlash in the Control Rack Backlash, looseness, or play in
the fuel con- trol rack, like sticking or binding of the rack, will influence
governing of the engine. Proper governing is based on the theory that for
every change in speed of the engine, there will be a cor- responding change in
the quantity of fuel injected. 3-20
Chapter 3—ENGINE MAINTENANCE This is impossible if backlash,
looseness, or play exists in the control system. Continuous or inter- mittent
movement of the rack may indicate ex- cessive looseness. Engine speed
variations are also indicative of this problem. Note that even though these
symptoms are characteristic of a loose rack, a governor which is dirty or out of
adjustment will present similar symptoms. Backlash in a fuel control system is
generally due to a wornout gear, rack, or control sleeve. When you disassemble
a pump or injector for overhaul be sure to inspect all parts of the con- trol system
for signs of excessive wear. If the rack may be moved more than a prescribed
amount without moving the plunger, find the parts that are worn, and replace
them. Improper Calibration When improper calibration (balance) of fuel
injector pumps or injectors occurs, there is a dif- ference in the amount of fuel
injected into each of the cylinders. If some pumps or injectors deliver more
fuel per stroke than others, the engine will be UNBALANCED; that is,
some cylinders will carry a greater load than others. This condition may be
detected by differences in cylinder exhaust temperatures and firing
pressures, and by smoky exhaust from the overloaded cylinders.
Roughness in operation and engine vibration are also indicators of an
unbalanced condition. It is important to remember that many other types of
engine difficulties may cause engine symptoms identical with those due to
unbalance. So when unbalance is suspected, consider first a few of the other
faults that may be present such as poor condition of piston rings, inaccurate
exhaust pyrometers and thermocouples, mistimed or faulty engine exhaust or
inlet valves. Improper Timing Improper timing of a fuel system will result in
uneven operation or vibration of the engine. Early timing may cause the engine to
detonate and lose power. Cylinders which are timed early may show low
exhaust temperatures. Late timing usually causes overheating, high exhaust
temperatures, loss of power, and smoky exhaust. Although, usually, improper
fuel injection timing is caused by failure to follow the manufac- turer’s
instructions for timing, there may be other causes for the difficulty, depending
upon design of the particular systems. For example, fuel injection time in the
injection pump of a Bosch system may get out of time because of a worn pump
camshaft. The same problem may occur when the adjusting screw on the
injector control rack of a GM system becomes loose. Either of these conditions
will change fuel injection timing. Faulty calibration and improper timing are
generally due to failure to follow instructions given in the engine technical
manual and the fuel injection equipment maintenance manual. These manuals
should always be consulted and fol- lowed whenever timing or calibration
difficulties arise. GOVERNORS To control an engine means to keep it run- ning
at a desired speed, either in accordance with, or regardless of, the changes in
the load carried by the engine. The degree of control required depends on
two factors: The engine’s performance characteristics and the type of load which
it drives. In diesel engines the speed and power output of the engine is
determined by varying the amount of fuel that is injected into the cylinders to
con- trol combustion. There are two principal types of governors: hydraulic and
mechanical. Hydraulic Governors It is beyond the scope of this training manual
to list all of the possible troubles which may be encountered with a hydraulic
governor. This sec- tion deals only with the most common ones. Poor regulation
of speed may be due to the faulty ad- justment of the governor or to faulty action
of an engine, a generator, a synchronizing motor, a voltage regulator, or any
piece of equipment which has a direct bearing on the operation of the engine.
Manufacturers state that 50% of all governor troubles are caused by dirty oil.
For this reason, 3-21
ENGINEMAN 1 & C Table 3-1.—Troubleshooting Chart-Governor Trouble
Probable Cause Corrective Action Engine hunts or surges Compensating
needle valve ad- justment incorrect Dirty oil in governor Make needle valve
adjust- ment; ensure that the op- posite needle valve is closed Drain oil;
flush governor; refill Low oil level Fill to correct level with clean oil Foamy oil in
governor Lost motion in engine governor linkage or fuel pumps Drain oil; refill
Repair linkage and realign pumps Governor worn or incorrectly adjusted Engine
misfiring External fuel linkage sticking or binding Remove governor and make
internal checks for clearances according to ap- plicable instructions Test and
replace injectors Disconnect fuel rack from governor and manually move
linkage and pro- gressively disconnect fuel pump links until binding area
is found (dirt, paint, and misalignment are the usual causes of binding)
Governor rod end jiggles Rough engine drive Check alignment of gears;
inspect for rough gear teeth; check backlash of gear Governor base not bolted
down evenly Loosen bolts; realign and secure every precaution should be
taken to prevent the oil from becoming contaminated. Most hydraulic governors
use the same type of oil that is used in the engine crankcase, provided it is
absolutely clean and does not foam. You should change the oil in the governor at
regular intervals, depending upon the type of operation, and at least every six
months regardless of the operation. You must ensure that the containers
used to fill the governors with oil are clean, and that only clean, new, or filtered
oil is being used. You should also check the oil level frequently to ensure the
proper level is maintained and that the oil does not foam. Foaming of the oil
is usually an indication that water is present in the oil. Water in the oil will cause
serious damage to the governor. After installing a new governor or one that
has been overhauled, adjust the governor compensating 3-22
needle valve even though it has previously been done at the factory or repair
facility. This adjust- ment must be made with the governor installed and
controlling an engine with a load. If this is not done, high overspeeds and low
underspeeds after load changes will result and the return to normal speeds will
be slowed. Maintenance and repair of each unit must be in accordance with
the manufacturer’s maintenance manual and the PMS. NOTE: When
governor troubles are suspected, before performing any maintenance or
adjustments, always disconnect the governor fuel rod end from the fuel control
rack and ensure that there is no sticking or binding of the rack. This procedure is
necessary to determine if the trou- ble is actually in the governor. The chart in
table 3-1 lists some of the probable causes of trouble which are common to
most hydraulic governors. This chart should be used for training purposes
only; it must NOT be used to troubleshoot a governor. Always use the
applicable manufacturer’s instruction manual for troubleshooting. Following
are the definitions of the terms used in the chart. HUNT: A rhythmic variation
of speed which can be eliminated by blocking the fuel linkage manually, but
which will reappear when returned to governor control. SURGE: A rhythmic
variation of speed always of large magnitude which can be eliminated by
blocking the fuel linkage and which will not reap- pear when returned to governor
control unless the speed adjustment of the load changes. JIGGLE: A high
frequency vibration of the governor fuel rod end or engine linkage. Do not
confuse jiggle with normal regulating action of the governor. Mechanical
Governors Mechanical governors used in the Navy are generally of the spring-
loaded flyball type. All mechanical governors have a speed droop. This means
that as the load is increased at a constant throttle setting, the speed of the
engine will drop or droop slightly, rather than remain constant. Consequently,
mechanical governors are never used where absolute constant speeds are
necessary. There are several types of mechanical gover- nors. Two of the most
common types are used on GM 71 engines. One type, known as the
constant-speed governor, is used on generator sets and is designed to hold the
speed of the engine at a predetermined operating speed. The other type is
similar in construction and is used primar- ily for propulsion engines. It has a
throttle plate so designed that speeds intermediate between idl- ing and full
speeds may be obtained by manual adjustment. The following description
applies to both types of governors. Do note, however, that on the constant-
speed governor, there is no buf- fer spring adjustment. In the idling speed range,
control is effected by centrifugal force of two sets of flyweights (figure 3-15),
large and small, acting against a light Chapter 3—ENGINE MAINTENANCE
121.22 Figure 3-15.—GM mechanical governor. 3-23
ENGINEMAN 1 & C (low speed) spring. Maximum speed control is ef- fected
by the action of the high speed (small) flyweights acting against a heavy (high
speed) spring. (See figure 3-16.) Mechanical governor faults usually manifest
themselves in speed variations; however, not all speed variations indicate
governor faults. When improper speed variations appear do the
following: 1. Check the load to be sure that speed changes are not the result
of load fluctuations. 2. If the load is found to be steady, check the engine to be
sure all cylinders are firing properly. 3. Make sure there is no binding in the
gover- nor mechanism or operating linkage between governor and engine,
and that no binding exists in the injector control rack shaft or its mounting
brackets. If you find no binding anywhere and the governor still fails to control the
engine prop- erly, you may assume the governor is worn or unfit for further
service until the unit has been completely disassembled, inspected, and rebuilt
or replaced. 121.23 Figure 3-16.—Mechanical governor control mechanism.
Adjustment procedures for the replacement of any governor are listed in the
manufacturer’s instruction manual and should be followed with particular
attention given to the precautions listed. OVERSPEED SAFETY DEVICES
Mechanical overspeed trips depend on the cen- trifugal forces developed by the
engine and should be maintained in good working condition. A faulty
overspeed device can endanger not only the engine but also personnel if the
engine explodes or flies apart because of uncontrolled speed. The engine
instruction manual contains infor- mation as to the speed at which the overspeed
is supposed to function. Most overspeed trips are adjustable. Prior to making any
change in the ad- justment of the overspeed trip, determine if the engine did not
trip out for some reason other than the action of the element of the overspeed
trip. It is highly advisable that you first check the ac- curacy of the tachometer
and then test the overspeed trip. All spring tension adjustments and linkage
adjustments to an overspeed trip are critical. Instructions given for making
these ad- justments are found in the manufacturer’s instruc- tions manual and
must be followed. Hydraulic overspeed trips are extremely sen- sitive to dirt.
Dirt or lacquer-like deposits may cause a trip to bind internally. The speed
sensitive element must be kept clean and so should all parts of the linkage and
mechanisms incorporated in this speed sensitive element. When painting
around the engine, the painter should be cau- tioned against allowing paint
to fall on joints, springs, pins, and other critical points in the linkage. All
linkage binding should be eliminated. If parts are bent, badly worn, improperly
installed, dirty, or if their motion is restricted by some other part of the
engine, the trip will not function properly. On occasion the drive shaft of
the overspeed trip may be broken and prevent rota- tion of the flyweight and
the overspeed trip. Insufficient oil in the hydraulic trip may be another
source of this problem. Oil should be maintained at the level specified in the
instruc- tion manual. The cause of any malfunction should be deter- mined and
eliminated. This will involve cleaning the trip and its linkage, removing the source
of 3-24
binding, replacing faulty parts, adding oil to hydraulic type trips, or adjusting
the speed sen- sitive element, always in accordance with the in- struction
manual. If the trip has been damaged, it is advisable to install a spare overspeed
trip and completely rebuild or overhaul the damaged one. REPAIR OF
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES The Navy uses so many models of
diesel engines that it is not possible to describe in any detail all the overhaul
procedures used by the Navy. Detailed repair procedures are listed in the
manufacturers’ technical manuals and in your PMS. Always consult the
manuals and the maintenance requirement cards (MRCs) before starting any
type of repair work. Pay particular attention to installation tolerances, wear limits,
adjustments, and safety procedures. Also be sure to follow the general rules,
listed below, which apply to all engines. 1. Observe the highest degree of
cleanliness in handling engine parts. Engines have been com- pletely wrecked by
the presence of abrasives and various objects which have been carelessly left in
the engines after overhaul. Make sure that any engine assembled for post-
repair running is scrupulously free of foreign matter prior to run- ning. Too
much emphasis cannot be given to the necessity for maintaining engines clean
both in- ternally and externally. Since dirt entering the engine during overhaul
causes increased wear and poor operation, it is essential that all repair work
be done under clean conditions. When overhaul or repair of precision parts
and surfaces is re- quired, the parts and the surface should be thoroughly
cleaned and wrapped in a clean cloth or suitable paper. The parts should then be
stored in a dry place until reinstalled. During installa- tion, parts should be wiped
with a cloth free of lint and coated, where applicable, with clean lubricating
oil. When removing or installing parts such as pistons, connecting rods,
camshafts, and cylinder liners, make sure that these parts are not nicked or
distorted. Take precautions to keep dirt and other foreign material in the
surrounding atmosphere from entering the engine while it is being overhauled.
As an example, during shipyard overhaul periods the engine should be
protected when sandblasting is occurring in areas adjacent to the ship. 2.
Before starting repair work, make sure that all required tools and spare parts are
available. Plan ahead for repair periods so everything needed is available to
ensure successful and ex- peditious completion of the work. WARNING Never
attempt to jack the engine over by hand without first disabling the starter circuit.
3. Disable the starter circuit and tagout the starter before you start working,
particularly when the jacking gear is to be engaged. 4. Keep detailed records of
repairs, including measurements of worn parts (with hours in use), and the new
parts installed. Later, an analysis of these records will indicate the number of
hours of operation that may be expected from the various parts and will
facilitate prediction as to when they should be renewed before a failure occurs.
Measurement of new parts are needed to determine whether or not they come
within the tolerances listed in the manufacturers’ instruction books or the wear
limit charts. In addition, before installation, all replacement parts should be com-
pared with removed parts to ensure that they are suitable. 5. Do not test an
overhauled diesel engine at 125% of full load or any other overload before the
engine is returned to service. It has been reported that some overhauled
diesel engines used for driving generators are being tested at 125% of full load
before being returned to serv- ice. The original purpose for this test was to
demonstrate a 25% overload capability for a 2-hour period to absorb
occasional electrical peak loads. The nameplate rating of many of the older
generator sets indicates a 25% temporary overload capacity. (More recent
generator sets have a single rating with no stated overload requirement.) The
earlier practice was a reasonable approach since the engine was frequently
capable of substanti- ally greater power than could be absorbed by the generator
and the 125% test was not likely to be detrimental to the engine. Now that these
engines have aged, the margin of excess power available
Chapter 3—ENGINE MAINTENANCE 3-25
is less and the overload test is neither required nor desirable. Another important
point to remember is that if you cannot overhaul an engine due to lack of space,
manpower, or expertise, you may request outside help by using an OPNAV
Form 4790.2K. This form, when used as a work request, will be sent to a Ship
Intermediate Maintenance Activ- ity (SIMA). The SIMA will then accept or reject
the work request. If the work request is accepted, the SIMA will order all repair
parts, overhaul the engine, and perform an operational test in accord- ance with
manufacturers’ technical manuals and NAVSHIPS Technical Manual,
chapter 233. As stated earlier in this section, since maintenance cards,
manufacturers’ maintenance manuals, and various other instructions discuss
repair procedures in detail, this chapter will be limited to general information on
some of the troubles encountered during overhaul, the causes of such
troubles, and the methods of repair. PISTON ASSEMBLIES AND RODS Piston
assemblies may have the trunk-type or the crosshead-type pistons. The
majority of engines in use by the Navy have trunk-type pistons. Since the
troubles encountered with crosshead pistons are very similar to those en-
countered with the trunk type, only the latter is discussed here. PISTONS Trunk-
type pistons are subject to such forces as gas pressure, side thrust,
inertia, and friction. These forces, together with overheating and the presence
of foreign matter, may cause such troubles as piston wear, cracks, piston
seizure, and piston pin bushing wear (see figure 3-17). Piston wear is
characterized by an excessive clearance between the piston and the cylinder.
Symptoms of excessive clearance between a piston and cylinder are piston slap
and excessive oil con- sumption. Piston slap occurs just after top dead center
and bottom dead center, as the piston shifts its thrust from one side to the
other. As the cylinder taper increases with wear, oil consump- tion increases.
Since taper causes the rings to flex on each stroke of the piston, excessive ring
wear 3-26 Troubles Undue piston wear; crown and land dragging Cracks
Crown Possible Causes Insufficient lubrication Improper cooling water
temperatures Overload Unbalanced load Improper fit Dirty intake air
cleaner Dirty oil Improper starting procedures Faulty cooling Loose
piston Obstruction in cylinder Faulty nozzle spray Lands Insufficient
lubrication Cocked piston Insufficient ring groove clearance Excessive
wear of piston ring grooves Broken ring Improper installation or
removal Piston seizure Inadequate lubrication Excessive temperatures
Improper cleaning Piston pin bushing wear Insufficient lubrication
Excessive temperatures Overload Unbalanced load ENGINEMAN 1 & C
121.1 Figure 3-17.-Piston troubles and their causes. occurs, allowing
lubricating oil to pass and be burned in the cylinder. This results in the
accumulation of excessive carbon deposits on the piston, the combustion
chamber, and the engine exhaust valves or ports. This accumulation of car-
bon deposits will cause erratic operation and greatly reduce engine
efficiency. Occasionally pistons and liners become suffi- ciently worn to
permit the piston to cock over in
Chapter 3—ENGINE MAINTENANCE the cylinder. This allows the crown and
ring lands to drag on the cylinder wall. The results of drag- ging can be
determined by visually inspecting the parts of the piston in question. However,
most of the pistons now in use in the Navy are free from this trouble, since the
crown and ring lands are of smaller diameter than the skirt and do not con- tact
the cylinder wall. Some piston wear is normal in any engine; the amount and
rate depends on several controllable factors. The causes of excessive
piston wear are also the causes of other piston troubles. One of the factors
controlling wear is lubrica- tion. An adequate supply of oil is essential to pro- vide
the film necessary to cushion the piston and other parts within the cylinder and
prevent metal- to-metal contact. Inadequate lubrication will not only cause
piston wear but the extra friction may also cause piston seizure, land
breakage, and piston pin bushing wear. Lack of lubrication is caused either by a
lack of lube oil pressure or by restricted oil passages. The pressure-recording
instruments usually give warning of low oil pressure before any great harm
occurs. However, clogged passages offer no such warnings. Only by inspecting
and cleaning the piston and connecting rod assembly may you insure
adequate lubrication. Another controllable factor that may be directly or
indirectly responsible for many piston troubles is improper cooling water
temperatures. If an engine is operated at higher than the specified
temperature limits, lubrication troubles will develop. High cylinder surface
temperatures will reduce the viscosity of the oil. As the cylinder lubricant thins, it
will run off the surfaces. The resulting lack of lubrication leads to excessive piston
and liner wear. On the other hand, if the engine is operated at temperatures that
are below those specified, viscosity will be increased, and the oil will not readily
reach the parts requiring lubrication. Oil plays an important part in the cooling of
the piston crown. If the oil flow to the underside of the crown is restricted,
deposits caused by oxidation of the oil will accumulate and lower the rate of
heat transfer. For this reason, the under- side of each piston crown should be
thoroughly cleaned whenever pistons are removed. While insufficient lubrication
and uneven cooling may cause ring land failure, excessive oil temperatures
may cause piston seizure. An increase in the rate of oxidation of the oil
may result in clogged oil passages or damage to piston pin bushings. Seizure
and excessive wear of pistons may be caused by improper fit. New pistons or
liners must be installed with the piston-to-cylinder clearances specified in the
manufacturer’s technical manual. If clearance is insufficient, a piston will NOT
wear in and will probably bind. The resulting excess surface temperatures may
lead to seizure or breakage. Binding increases wear and shortens piston life
by scuffing the liner or galling the piston skirt. Scuffing roughens the liner so that
an abrasive action takes place on the piston skirt, thus generating additional
heat which may distort or crack the piston or liner. Galling, especially on
aluminum pistons, causes the metal to be wiped in such a manner that
the rings bind in the grooves. A loose fitting piston may be just as destruc- tive
as one which is too tight. A loose piston may cause dragging and cocking of the
piston, which in turn may cause broken or cracked ring groove lands. Excessive
wear on the piston and piston pin bushing may be caused by either an
overload or by an unbalanced load. Overloading an engine increases the forces
on the pistons and subjects them to higher temperatures, thus increasing their
rate of wear. There should be a load balance on all pistons at all times. Balance
of an engine is determined by checking the exhaust gas temperature at
each cylinder, the rack settings, and the firing and compression pressures.
Cracking of the lands of a piston is caused by insufficient ring groove
clearance. For correct piston ring operation, proper clearance must be
maintained between the ring and the land, and also between the ends of the ring.
This is necessary in order that the ring may be free to flex at all temperatures of
operation. The clearance depends upon the ring and the materials involved. After
installing a ring, check the clearance be- tween the ring and the land. This check
is made 3-27
ENGINEMAN 1 & C Excessive Wear A. Symptoms: 1. Low compression 2.
Hard starting 3. Loss of power 4. Smoky exhaust 5. Waste of fuel 6.
Excess oil consumption 7. Poor engine operation (Other factors which
may cause low compression pressure: a. Leaking cylinder valves b.
Faulty injector gasket c. Faulty head gasket d. Leaking after- chamber
valves e. Clogged intake ports f. Intake air header leakage g. Faulty
blower h. Clogged air filter) Other factors which may cause excessive B.
Causes: oil consumption: a. Loose bearings b. High lube oil temperatures
c. Oil line leakage d. Improper oil) 1. Inadequate lubrication 2. Excessive
piston heat 3. Rings damaged during installation 4. Ring- to-land clearance
insufficient 5. Dust or dirt in intake air 6. Dirt in lube oil or fuel 7.
Rings stuck in grooves 8. Worn cylinder liners Sticking Breakage C.
Symptoms: 1. Low compres- sion 2. Loss of power 3. Smoky exhaust 4.
Excessive oil consumption 5. Blow-by forcing fumes from crankcase D.
Causes 1. Improper ring- to-land clear- ance 2. Insufficient ring pressure 3.
Excessive oper- ating tempera- ture 4. Improper oil 5. Improper in-
stallation E. Symptoms: 1. Hard starting 2. Loss of power 3. Excess oil
consumption 4. Possible emis- sion of smoke from crank- case breather F.
Causes: 1. Cylinder liner ridge 2. Cylinder port damage 3. Insufficient gap
clearance 4. Insufficient clearance be- hind ring Figure 3-18.—Piston ring
troubles, their symptoms and causes. 121.2 with a thickness gage, and
must be made com- pletely around the piston. PISTON RINGS Replace
most damaged or excessively worn pistons. Since replacement of damaged
pistons is usually necessary, shipboard repair parts should always be
maintained at full allowance. The troubles to which piston rings are subject
and their symptoms and causes are listed in figure 3-18. All symptoms and
causes shown for ring wear are either directly and indirectly related
to 3-28Chapter 3—ENGINE MAINTENANCE other ring and piston troubles.
In addition to symptoms and causes of piston ring troubles, there are other
factors that may also be responsi- ble either for low compression or for excessive
oil consumption. When a cylinder with a low compression pressure is located,
the possibility of the cause be- ing some factor other than excessive wear should
be eliminated before the pistons rings are disassembled or replaced. Look at
figure 3-18. Of the causes listed under “Other factors which may cause low
compression pressure” are a, b, c, d, and there are causes that would affect the
pressure in only one cylinder assembly of a multicylinder engine. Causes f, g,
and h may affect a group of cylinders, or possibly all cylinders. Therefore,
when symptoms indicate compression ring wear consider first other
possibilities. Excessive oil con- sumption is generally associated with worn oil
rings, but there are other factors which may cause abnormal oil usage, and these
should be checked before replacement of oil rings is undertaken. Oxidation of
the lube oil leaves carbon deposits on the rings and in the grooves. It
is caused by excessive operating temperatures. The carbon buildup limits
movement and expansion of the rings, prevents the rings from following the
cylinder contour and sealing the cylinder, and may cause sticking, excessive
wear, or breakage. Proper clearance must exist between the ring and land as
well as behind the ring, since insuffi- cient ring groove clearance can cause the
rings to stick. It is not the function of the rings to sup- port or position the piston in
the cylinder bore, but if the proper clearance does not exist, the rings are likely to
become loaded by inertia forces and by side thrust on the piston—forces which
should be borne solely by the skirt of trunk-type pistons. Two factors that
cause improper ring clearance are: 1. Abnormal amount of carbon deposits
on rings and in grooves. 2. Improper dimensions. New rings must have the
proper thickness, width, diameter, and gap. One cause of undue loads on a
ring could be insufficient gap clearance. This condition would cause the ring to
be forced out and into a port of a ported cylinder, and possibly result in
breakage. A bright spot found on each end of a broken ring indicates insufficient
gap clearance. Sufficient gap clearance must exist at both the top and the bottom
of the cylinder bore when rings are installed. Sticking and binding of the ring
may result from insufficient ring pressure. The tendency of the ring to return to its
original shape pushes it against the cylinder wall, and makes the initial seal. The
pressure of the combustion gases behind the rings reinforces this seal.
Pressures (compres- sion and combination) within the cylinder force the
combustion rings down and cause a seal be- tween the bottom side of the rings
and the upper side of the lands; therefore, properly wearing rings will appear
shiny on the outer face and bottom side. Any discoloration (usually appearing
as black lines) indicates the leakage of gases past the rings. Extended use and
overheating may weaken rings to the point where they do not seat properly,
and the rings are then likely to bind in the grooves. A check of the free gap
for a piston ring will indicate the ring’s condition with respect to sealing qualities.
If the instruction manual does not give a prescribed dimension for free gap, com-
pare the gap with that of a new ring. Conditions which cause piston rings to stick
in the grooves, wear excessively, or break are often the result of using improper
lube oil. Some lube oils cause a resinous gumlike deposit to form on engine
parts. Trouble of this nature can be avoided by using Navy-approved oils,
or oil recommended by the manufacturer. Probably the greatest factor
affecting the wearing of piston rings is a worn cylinder liner. Therefore, when
new rings are installed, surface condition, amount of taper, and out-of-
roundness of the liner must all be considered. The ring is in the best position to
make allowance for cylinder wear if the ring gaps are in line with the piston
bosses. Gaps of adjacent rings should be staggered 180° to reduce gas leakage.
With the wearing away of material near the top of a cylinder liner, a ridge will
gradually be formed. When a piston is removed, this ridge must also be removed,
even though it has caused no damage to the old set of rings. The new rings will
travel higher in the bore by an amount equal to the wear of the old rings, and the
replacement of the connecting rod bearing inserts will also in- crease piston
travel. As the top piston ring will strike the ridge because of this increase in
travel, 3-29breakage of the ring and perhaps of the land is almost certain if the
ridge is not removed. PISTON PINS AND PIN BEARINGS Piston pins are
made of hardened steel alloy, and their surfaces are precision finished. Piston
sleeve bearings or bushings are made of bronze or a similar material. These pins
and pin bear- ings require very little service and total failure seldom occurs.
Wear, pitting, and scoring are the usual troubles encountered with
piston pins and piston pin bearings. Wear of a pin or bearing is normal, but
the rate of wear can be unnecessarily increased by such factors as inadequate
and improper lubrica- tion, overloading, misalignment of parts, or failure
of adjacent parts. Every time a piston assembly is removed from an engine, the
complete assembly should be checked for wear. Piston pins and bushings
should be measured with a micrometer to determine if wear is excessive. Do
NOT measure areas that do not make contact, such as those between the con-
necting rod and piston bosses, and the areas under the oil holes and grooves.
The correct and limiting values for measurements may be found in the
manufacturer’s technical manual for the par- ticular engine. Excessive wear
of pins, bushings, or bearings is often the result of insufficient or improper
lubrication. (These parts are usually pressure lubricated.) The failure of a
pressure lubricating system is usually detected before piston pins, bushings,
or bearings are seriously damaged. Insufficient lubrication of these parts is
usually caused by obstructions blocking the oil passages of the connecting
rods. If the bushings have been installed so that the oil holes do not line up,
lubrication may be restricted. Such misalignment of oil holes may also be caused
by a bushing com- ing loose and revolving slightly out of position. Also
interchanging the upper and lower connect- ing rod bearings ON SOME
ENGINES may obstruct the flow of oil to the upper end of the rod. Always check
the manufacturer’s technical manual for information on interchangeability of
parts. If there is misalignment of the connecting rods, uneven loading on
piston pins and bearings will result. The fact that a rod is misaligned is usually
indicated by uneven wear of the piston pin and bushing and by piston skirt
wear. Misalign- ment may be caused by improper reaming of the bushing for
proper clearance. CONNECTING RODS Connecting rod troubles usually involve
either the connecting rod bearing or the piston pin bear- ing. Some of these
troubles, such as misalignment, defective bolts, cracks, or plugged oil passages,
can be avoided by performing proper maintenance and by following instructions
in the manufac- turer’s technical manual. Misalignment causes binding of the
piston, piston pin, and the connecting rod journal bear- ing. This binding is likely
to result in breakage and in increased wear of the parts, leading to total failure
and possible damage to the entire engine structure. Connecting rods must
be checked for proper alignment before being installed in an engine, and
after any derangement involving the piston, cylinder, or crankshaft.
Defective bolts are often the result of over- tightening. Connecting rod bolts
should be tightened by using a torque wrench, or an elongated gage
to ensure that a predetermined turning force is applied to the nut. Defective
threads can cause considerable trouble by allow- ing the connecting rod to
be loosened and cause serious damage to the engine. Whenever rod bolts are
removed they should be carefully inspected for stripped or damaged threads
and elongation. Cracked rods are usually the result of overstressing
caused by overloading or overspeeding or because defective material was
used at the time of manufacture. It is of prime importance to discover the cracks
before they have developed to the point where the failure of the rod will take
place. No attempts should be made to repair cracked rods. They should be
replaced; serious damage may result if breakage occurs during operation.
Restricted oil passages are often the result of improper assembly of the bushing
and the con- necting rod bearing inserts. They may also be due to foreign matter
lodging in the oil passages. ENGINEMAN 1 & C 3-30Chapter 3—ENGINE
MAINTENANCE SHAFTS AND BEARINGS The principal shafts (crankshafts
and cam- shafts) and associated bearings (journal bearings and antifriction
bearings) of an internal combus- tion engine are all subject to several types of
trou- ble. Some of the troubles may be common to all of these parts; others may
be related to only one part. Causes of troubles common to all parts are metal
fatigue, inadequate lubrication, and opera- tion of the engine at critical
speeds. Metal fatigue in crankshafts, camshafts, and bearings may lead to shaft
breakage or bearing failure; however, you must keep in mind that metal
fatigue is only one of several possible causes which may lead to such troubles.
Fatigue failure of journal bearings in internal combustion engines is usually
caused by cyclic peak loads. Such failures are accelerated by improper or
loose fit of the bearing shell in its housing, and by the lack of adequate priming of
the lubricating oil system before the engine is started. Severe overloading or
overspeeding of an engine increases fatigue failure. Some indication of the
cause of the failure may be obtained by noting which half of a bearing failed.
Overloading of the engine will cause failure of the lower halves of main journal
bearings, while overspeeding may cause either the upper or the lower halves to
fail. Crankshaft or camshaft failure does not occur too often. When it does
occur, it may be due to metal fatigue. Shaft fatigue failure may be caused by
improper manufacturing procedures, such as improper quenching or balancing,
or by the presence of torsional vibration. Shaft fatigue failures generally
develop over a long period of time. The importance of lubrication cannot be
overstressed. Much that has been stated previously about proper lubricants
and adequate supply and pressure of lube oils is also applicable to
crankshafts, camshafts, and their associated bear- ings. Some of the troubles
which may be caused by improper lubrication are damaged cams and camshaft
bearing failure, scored or out-of-round crankshaft journals, and journal bearing
failure. Lubrication difficulties you should watch for are low lube oil pressure,
high temperatures, and lube oil contamination by water, fuel, and foreign
particles. Operation of an engine at critical torsional speeds and in excess of the
rated speed will lead to engine shaft and bearing difficulties. Each
multicylinder engine has one or several critical speeds which must be avoided in
order to prevent possible breakage of the crankshaft, camshaft, and gear train. A
critical speed of the first order exists when impulses due to combustion occur at
the same rate as the natural rate of torsional vibration of the shaft. If the
crankshaft receives an impulse from firing at every other natural vibration of the
shaft, a critical speed of the second order occurs. Opera- tion at these speeds for
any length of time may cause the shaft to break. If critical speeds are not
avoided, torsional vibrations may not only cause shaft breakage but may also
cause severe damage to the entire gear train assembly. In some engines, critical
speeds fall within the normal operating range; the instruction manual for the
specific engine will warn against engine operation for any length of time within
the critical speed range. If the critical speed range falls within the normal
operating range, it must be con- spicuously marked upon the engine
tachometer, and every effort should be made to keep the engine from
operating in the range. If this is not possible, the critical speed should be passed
over as fast as possible. Overspeeding of an engine must be avoided. If the
rated speed is exceeded for any extended period of time, the increase in inertia
forces may cause excessive wear of the journal bearings and other engine
parts, and in uneven wear of the journals. CRANKSHAFTS Scored
crankshaft journals are caused not only by lubrication difficulties but also by
journal bearing failure or improper and careless handling during overhaul.
Journal bearing failures may cause not only scoring but also broken or bent
crankshafts and out-of-round journals. Journal bearing failures may be caused
by several different factors and may lead to more than one trouble. The causes
and the prevention of such failures are discussed in more detail later in this

chapter. 3-31
ENGINEMAN 1 & C Broken or bent crankshafts may be caused by the
improper functioning of a torsional vibration damper. Vibration dampers are
mounted on the crankshafts of some engines to reduce the tor- sional vibrations
set up within the crankshaft and to ensure a smoother running engine. If a
damper functions improperly, torsional vibrations may rupture the internal
structure of the shaft. The principle of operation is similar in most dampers, yet
their construction and their component parts vary somewhat. If the engine is
equipped with a vibration damper, the engine in- struction manual must be
consulted for informa- tion on type, construction, and maintenance of the
damper. In most engines, one end of the crankshaft is flanged to receive the
damper, the damper being bolted or doweled onto the flange. A damper must be
fastened securely to the crankshaft at all times during engine operation;
otherwise, the damper will not control the crankshaft vibrations. Small dampers
are usually grease-packed, while larger ones frequently receive lubrication from
the main oil system. Dampers that are grease lubricated must have the
grease changed periodically, as specified in the manufacturer’s instructions. If
the assembly is of the elastic type, it must be protected from fuel, lube oil,
grease, and excessive heat, all of which are detrimental to the rubber. Excessive
rumbling at certain engine speeds may indicate that the damper is not functioning
properly. You must learn to distinguish between this and the normal noise
usually heard in some engines during the first and last few revolutions when the
engine is starting or stopping. This noise is normal, it is due to the large designed
clearances in the damper and is not a sign of impending trouble. Crankshaft
breakage or bending may be the result of excessive bearing clearances.
Excessive clearance in one main bearing may place practic- ally all of the load on
another main bearing. Flex- ing of the crankshaft under load may result in fatigue
and eventual fracture of the crank web. (See figure 3-19.) Excessive bearing
clearance may be caused by the same factors that cause journal bearing failure.
Furthermore, off-center and out- of-round journals tend to scrape off
bearing material. This leads to excessive wear and to the increase of the
clearance between the shaft and Figure 3-19.—Cracked crank web. 121.3
bearing. You can minimize the possibility of jour- nal out-of-roundness by
taking measures to pre- vent improper lubrication, journal bearing failure,
overspeeding or overloading of the engine, excessive crankshaft
deflection, and misalignment of parts. Crankshaft bending breakage (out-
of- roundness) may also result from excessive crankshaft deflection.
Excessive shaft deflection, caused by improper alignment between the driven
unit and the engine, may result in a broken or bent shaft along with considerable
other damage to bearings, connecting rods, and other parts. Ex- cessive
crankshaft deflection may also be caused by overspeeding an engine. The
amount of deflec- tion of a crankshaft may be determined by the use of a straight
gage. The straight gage is merely a dial-reading inside micrometer used to
measure the variation in the distance between adjacent crank webs where the
engine shaft is barred over. When installing the gage, or indicator, between
the webs of a crank throw, place the gage as far as possible from the axis of
the crankpin. The ends of the indicator should rest in the prick-punch marks in
the crank webs. If these marks are not present, you must make them so that the
indicator may be placed in its correct position. Consult the manufacturer’s
technical manual for the proper location of new marks. 3-32Chapter 3—ENGINE
MAINTENANCE Readings are generally taken at the four crank positions: top
dead center, inboard, near or at bottom dead center, and outboard. In
some engines, it is possible to take readings at bottom dead center. In
others, the connecting rod may interfere, making it necessary to take the reading
as near as possible to bottom dead center without having the gage come in
contact with the con- necting rod. The manufacturer’s technical manual for the
specific engine provides information con- cerning the proper position of the crank
when readings are to be taken. When the gage is in its lowest position, the dial
will be upside down, necessitating the use of a mirror and flashlight to obtain a
reading. Once the indicator has been placed in position for the first deflection
reading, do NOT touch the gage until all four readings have been taken and
recorded. Variations in the readings obtained at the four crank positions will
indicate distortion of the crank. Distortion may be caused by several fac- tors,
such as a bent crankshaft, worn bearings, or improper engine alignment. The
maximum allowable deflection can be obtained from the manufacturer’s
technical manual. If the deflec- tion exceeds the specified limit, take steps to
deter- mine the cause of the distortion and to correct the trouble. Deflection
readings are also employed to determine correct alignment between the
engine and the generator, or between the engine and the coupling. When
alignment is being determined, a set of deflection readings is usually taken at the
crank nearest to the generator or the coupling. In aligning an engine and
generator, it may be necessary to install new chocks between the generator
and its base to bring the deflection within the allowable value. It may
also be necessary to shift the generator horizontally to obtain proper
alignment. When an engine and a coupling are to be aligned, the coupling must
first be correctly aligned with the drive shaft; then, the engine must be properly
aligned to the coupling, rather than the coupling aligned to the engine.
CAMSHAFTS In addition to the camshaft and bearing troubles already
mentioned, the cams of a camshaft may be damaged as a result of improper
valve tappet adjustment, worn or stuck cam followers, or failure of the
camshaft gear. Cams are likely to be damaged when a loose valve tappet
adjustment or a broken tappet screw causes the valve to jam against the cylinder
head, and the push rods to jam against their cams. This will result in scoring or
breaking of the cams and followers, as well as severe damage to the piston and
the cylinder. Valves must be timed correctly at all times, not only for the proper
operation of the engine but also to prevent possible damage to the engine parts.
You should inspect frequently the valve actuating linkage during operation to
determine if it is operating properly. Such inspections should include taking
tappet clearances and adjusting, if necessary; checking for broken, chipped, or
improperly seated valve springs; inspecting push rod end fittings for proper
seating; and inspect- ing cam follower surfaces for grooves or scoring.
JOURNAL BEARINGS Engine journal bearing failure and their causes may vary
to some degree, depending upon the type of bearing. The following
discussion of the causes of bearing failure applies to most bearings—
main bearings as well as crank pin bear- ings. The most common journal
bearing failures may be due to one or to a combination of the following causes:
1. Corrosion of bearing materials caused by chemical action of oxidized
lubricating oils. Oxidation of oil may be minimized by changing oil at the
designated intervals, and by keeping engine temperatures within recommended
limits. Bearing failures due to corrosion may be identified by very small pits
covering the surfaces. In most instances, corrosion occurs over small bearings
areas in which high localized pressures and temperatures exist. Since the
small pits caused by corrosion are so closely spaced that they form channels, the
oil film is not continuous and the load-carrying area of the bearing is reduced
below the point of safe operation. 2. Surface pitting of bearings due to high
localized temperatures that cause the lead to melt. 3-33

ENGINEMAN 1 & C This is generally the result of very close oil


clearances and the use of an oil having a viscos- ity higher than recommended.
Early stages of the loss of lead, due to melting, will be evidenced by very small
streaks of lead on the bearing surface. loads on the main bearings because of
the force that is necessary to retain correct alignment be- tween the bearing and
the journal. 3. Inadequate bond between the bearing metal and the bearing
shell. A poor bond may be caused by fatigue resulting from cyclic loads,
or it may be the result of defective manufacturing. A failure due to inadequate
bond is shown in figure 3-20. In such failures, the bearing shell shows through
the bearing surface clearly. A bent or misaligned connecting rod can be the
cause of a ruined crank-pin bearing. Misalign- ment between the connecting rod
bore and the piston pin bushing bore is indicated by the crack- ing of the bearing
material at the opposite ends of the upper and lower-bearing shell. An indica- tion
of a bent connecting rod is heavy wear or scoring on the piston surface. 4. Out-
of-round journals due to excessive bearing wear. As the bearings wear,
excessive clearance is created; this leads to engine pounding, oil leakage from
the bearing, reduced flow of oil to other bearings, and overheating, with the con-
sequent melting of bearing material. To prevent bearing wear, the journals
should be checked for out-of-roundness. Manufacturers require crank pins to be
reground when the out-of-roundness exceeds a specified amount, but the
amount varies with manufacturers. Always check the engine manual for this
type of data. 5. Rough spots. Burrs or ridges may cause grooves in the bearings
and lead to bearing failure. Removal of rough spots is done with a fine oil stone
and a piece of crocus cloth. Be sure to place a clean cloth beneath the journal to
catch all par- ticles. Apply a coat of clean lubricating oil to the journal and to the
bearing before a bearing is installed. 7. Faulty installation, due to negligence
or lack of experience. The paramount factor is inattention to cleanliness. Hard
particles lodge between the bearing shell and the connecting rod bore, and
create an air space. This space retards the normal flow of heat and causes
localized high temperatures. Such condition may be further ag- gravated if the
bearing surface is forced out into the oil clearance spaces and creates a high
spot in the bearing surface. The result of a bearing failure is illustrated in figure 3-
21. Foreign par- ticles, excessive clearance, or rough surface may cause poor
contact between a bearing shell and a connecting rod. Poor contact is indicated
by the formation of a gumlike deposit (sometimes re- ferred to as lacquer or
varnish) on the back of the shell. 6. Misalignment of parts. Misalignment of the
main bearings can be caused by a warped or bent crankshaft. Such
misalignment imposes heavy Bearing failures may result from improper fit of
the shell to the connecting rod. If the locking lip of a bearing does not fit properly
into the recess of the bearing housing, distortion of the shell and failure of the
bearing results. 121.5 121.4 Figure 3-20.—Bearing failure due to inadequate
bond. Figure 3-21.—Bearing failure resulting from wiping and excessive

temperatures. 3-34
Chapter 3—ENGINE MAINTENANCE Another source of trouble during
installation is due to the interchanging of the upper and lower shells. The
installation of a plain upper shell in place of a lower shell, which contains an
oil groove, completely stops the oil flow and leads to early bearing failure. The
resulting damage not only may ruin the bearing but may also extend to other
parts, such as the crankshaft connecting rod, piston, and wrist pin. 8. Failure
to follow recommended procedures in the care of lubricating oil. Lack of
proper amount of lubricating oil will cause the overheating of a bearing,
causing its failure (see figure 3-22). In large engines, the volume of the
lubricating oil passages is so great that the time required to fill them when
starting an engine could be sufficient to permit damage to the bearings. To
prevent this, separately driven lubricating oil priming pumps are installed, and
by their action, the oil is circulated to the bearings before an engine is
started. Priming pumps should be secured prior to starting the engine
when the prescribed pressure has been obtained. circulation, and sufficiently
low to prevent excessive oxidation of the lubricating oil. Nor- mally, the
manufacturer’s technical manual should be followed as to the correct
lubricating oil temperature to maintain. However, if no manual is available,
the temperature of the oil leaving the engine should be maintained between 160°
and 200°F. When possible, oil must be analyzed at recommended intervals
to determine its suitability for further use. In addition, regular service of oil filters
and strainers must be main- tained, and oil samples must periodically be drawn
from the lowest point in the sump to determine the presence of abrasive
materials or water. The lube oil purifier should be used in accordance with
required procedures. Strict adherence to recom- mended practices will reduce
the failure of bear- ings and other parts because of the contaminated oil or
insufficient supply of clean oil. FRICTIONLESS BEARINGS Maintenance of
recommended oil pressures is essential to ensure an adequate supply of oil at all
bearing surfaces. Refer to the oil pressure gage as it is the best source of
operational information to indicate satisfactory performance. Figure 3-23 lists
the troubles that may be encountered with all types of (antifriction fric-
tionless) bearings. Use Navy-approved, low-corrosive lubricating oils at
recommended oil temperatures. Recom- mended temperatures have been
determined by extensive tests in laboratory and in service. They are
sufficiently high to assure satisfactory Since dirty bearings will have a very short
serv- ice life, every possible precaution must be taken to prevent the entry of
foreign matter into bear- ings. Dirt in a bearing which has been improperly or
insufficiently cleaned may be detected by noise when the bearing is rotated,
by difficulty in rotating, or by visual inspection. Do not discard an antifriction
bearing until you have definitely established that something in addition to dirt has
caused the trouble. You may determine this by properly cleaning the bearing.
Spalled or pitted rollers or races may be first recognized by the noisy operation of
the bearing. Upon removal and after a very thorough clean- ing, the bearing will
still be noisy when rotated by hand. (Never spin a frictionless bearing with
compressed air.) Roughness may indicate spall- ing at one point on the raceway.
Figure 3-22.—Overheated bearing. 121.6 Pay particular attention to the inner
surface of the inner race, since it is here that most sur- face disintegration first
occurs. Since pits may be covered with rust, any sign of rust on the rollers or
contact surfaces of the races is a probable indication that the bearing is
ruined. 3-35ENGINEMAN 1 & C Trouble Dirty bearing Spalled or pitted
rollers or races Dented (brinelled) r a c e s Failed separator Races
abraded on external surfaces Cracked race Excessive looseness
Causes Improper handling or storage Use of dirty or improper
lubricant Failure to clean housing Poor condition of seal Dirt in
bearing Water in bearing Improper adjustment of tapered roller
bearings Bearing misaligned or off square Improper installation or
removal Vibration while bearing is inoperative Initial damage during in-
stallation or removal Dirt in the bearing Locked bearing Improper fit
of races Improper installation or removal (cocking) Abrasives in
lubricant Figure 3-23.—Antifriction bearing troubles and their causes.
Brinelled or dented races are most easily recognized by inspection after
a thorough clean- ing. Brinelling receives its name from its similarity to the
Brinnell hardness test, in which a hardened ball is pressed into the material.
The diameter of the indentation is used to indicate the hardness of the
material. Bearing races may be brinelled by excessive and undue
pressures during installa- tion or removal, or by vibration from other
machinery while the bearing is inoperative. If heavy shafts supported by
frictionless bearings are allowed to stand motionless for a long time, and if
the equipment is subject to considerable vibra- tion, brinelling may occur.
This is due to the peen- ing action of the rollers or balls on the races. 3-36
Brinelled bearings must not be placed back in service. Steps can be taken to
prevent brinelling. Proper maintenance will help a great deal, and the best
insurance against brinelling caused by vibration is to rotate the shafts
supported by the frictionless bearings at regular intervals (at least once a
day) during periods of idleness. These actions will prevent the rollers from
resting too long upon the same portion of the races. Separator failure may
become apparent by noisy operation. Inspection of the bearings may reveal
loose rivets, failure of a spot weld, or crack- ing and distortion of the
separator. Failure of separators can usually be avoided if proper
installation and removal procedure are followed, and steps are taken to
exclude the entry of dirt. Abrasion (scoring, wiping, burnishing) on the
external surface of a race indicates that relative motion has occurred
between the race and the bearing housing or shaft surface. The race
adja- cent to the stationary member is usually made a push fit so that
some creep will occur. Creep is a very gradual rotation of the race. This
extremely slow rotation is desirable as it prevents repeated stressing of
the same portion of the stationary race. Wear resulting from the proper
creep is negligible and no damaging abrasion occurs. However, abrasion
caused by locked bearings or the improper fit of the races must be
prevented. Cracked races will usually be recognized by a definite thump or
clicking noise in the bearing during operation. Cleaning and inspection is
the best means of determining if cracks exist. Cracks usually form parallel
to the axis of the race. The cracking of bearing races seldom occurs if
proper installation and removal procedures are followed. Excessive
looseness may occur on rare occa- sions even though no surface
disintegration is apparent. Since many frictionless bearings appear to be
loose, even when new, looseness is not always a sign of wear. The best
check for excessive looseness is to compare the suspected bearing with a new
one. Wear of bearings, which cause looseness without apparent
surface disintegration, is generally caused by the presence of fine abrasives
in the lubricant. Taking steps to exclude abrasives and keeping lubricating oil
filters and strainers in good condition is the best way to prevent this type of

trouble.
Most of the troubles listed in figure 3-23 require the replacement of an
antifriction bear- ing. The cause of damage must be determined and eliminated
so that similar damage to the replace- ment bearing may be prevented. Dirty
bearings may be made serviceable with a proper cleaning, providing other
damage does not exist. In some cases, races abraded on the external
surfaces can be made serviceable, but it is generally advisable to replace
abraded bearings. Dirty frictionless bearings must be thoroughly cleaned
before being rotated or inspected. AUXILIARY DRIVE MECHANISMS
Auxiliary drive mechanisms are used in inter- nal combustion engines to maintain
a fixed and definite relationship between the rotation of the crankshaft and the
camshaft. This is necessary in order that the sequence of events necessary for
the correct operation of the engine may be car- ried out in perfect unison. Timing
and the rota- tion of various auxiliaries (blowers, governor, fuel and lubricating
oil pumps, circulating water pumps, overspeed trips, etc.) are accomplished
by a gear or chain drive mechanism from the crankshaft. (Some small
engine auxiliaries may be belt-driven.) GEAR MECHANISMS The principal type
of power transmission for timing and accessory drives in most diesel engines
is a system of gears similar to those shown in figure 3-24. In some of the larger
engines, there may be two separate gear trains, one for driving the camshaft
and the other for driving certain accessories. The type of gear employed for a
particular drive depends upon the function it is to perform. Most gear trains use
single helical spur gears, while governor drives are usually of the bevel type;
reverse and reduction gear units employ double helical gears to balance fore
and aft components of tooth pressure. Small gears are usually made from a
single forging, while larger ones are quite often built up in split sections. (See the
crankshaft gear in figure Chapter 3—ENGINE MAINTENANCE 121.8 Figure 3-
24.—Relative arrangement of the gears in an auxili- ary drive mechanism. 3-
24.) Most gears are made of steel, although cast iron, bronze, or fiber are
sometimes used. The timing gear train shown in figure 3-24 is used on some
two-stroke cycle diesel engines. The camshafts rotate at the same speed as
the crankshaft. Note that two idler gears are necessary to transfer crankshaft
rotation to the camshaft gears. The idler gears are used because the cam-
shafts and crankshaft are displaced a considerable distance. If idler gears
were not used, the crankshaft and camshaft gears would have to be
considerably larger. A similar timing gear train may be found in some four-
stroke cycle engines, except that the camshaft gear or gears will have twice as
many teeth as the crankshaft gear to permit the cam- shaft to rotate at one-half

the crankshaft speed. 3-37


Most of the troubles listed in figure 3-23 require the replacement of an
antifriction bear- ing. The cause of damage must be determined and eliminated
so that similar damage to the replace- ment bearing may be prevented. Dirty
bearings may be made serviceable with a proper cleaning, providing other
damage does not exist. In some cases, races abraded on the external
surfaces can be made serviceable, but it is generally advisable to replace
abraded bearings. Dirty frictionless bearings must be thoroughly cleaned
before being rotated or inspected. AUXILIARY DRIVE MECHANISMS
Auxiliary drive mechanisms are used in inter- nal combustion engines to maintain
a fixed and definite relationship between the rotation of the crankshaft and the
camshaft. This is necessary in order that the sequence of events necessary for
the correct operation of the engine may be car- ried out in perfect unison. Timing
and the rota- tion of various auxiliaries (blowers, governor, fuel and lubricating
oil pumps, circulating water pumps, overspeed trips, etc.) are accomplished
by a gear or chain drive mechanism from the crankshaft. (Some small
engine auxiliaries may be belt-driven.) GEAR MECHANISMS The principal type
of power transmission for timing and accessory drives in most diesel engines
is a system of gears similar to those shown in figure 3-24. In some of the larger
engines, there may be two separate gear trains, one for driving the camshaft
and the other for driving certain accessories. The type of gear employed for a
particular drive depends upon the function it is to perform. Most gear trains use
single helical spur gears, while governor drives are usually of the bevel type;
reverse and reduction gear units employ double helical gears to balance fore
and aft components of tooth pressure. Small gears are usually made from a
single forging, while larger ones are quite often built up in split sections. (See the
crankshaft gear in figure Chapter 3—ENGINE MAINTENANCE 121.8 Figure 3-
24.—Relative arrangement of the gears in an auxili- ary drive mechanism. 3-
24.) Most gears are made of steel, although cast iron, bronze, or fiber are
sometimes used. The timing gear train shown in figure 3-24 is used on some
two-stroke cycle diesel engines. The camshafts rotate at the same speed as
the crankshaft. Note that two idler gears are necessary to transfer crankshaft
rotation to the camshaft gears. The idler gears are used because the cam-
shafts and crankshaft are displaced a considerable distance. If idler gears
were not used, the crankshaft and camshaft gears would have to be
considerably larger. A similar timing gear train may be found in some four-
stroke cycle engines, except that the camshaft gear or gears will have twice as
many teeth as the crankshaft gear to permit the cam- shaft to rotate at one-half

the crankshaft speed. 3-37


Chapter 3—ENGINE MAINTENANCE danger that the piston will strike valves
that may be open and extending into the cylinder. Make certain that any gears
removed are replaced in the original position. Special punch marks, or
numbers (figure 3-24), are usually found on gear teeth that should mate. If they
are not present, make identifying marks to facilitate the correct mating of the
gears later. Bearing, bushing, and gear clearances must be properly maintained.
If bushing clearances exceed the allowable value, the bushings must be
re- newed. The allowable values for backlash and bushing clearances should be
obtained from the instruction manual for the engine involved. Usually, a broken or
chipped gear must be replaced. Care should be exercised in determin- ing
whether a pitted gear should be replaced. BLOWER ROTOR GEARS One of
the most important parts of a root type blower is the set of gears that drive
and syn- chronize the two rotors. Satisfactory operation depends on the
condition of these gears. Worn gears are found by measuring the backlash
of the gear set. Gears with a greater backlash than specified in the
applicable technical manual are considered to be excessively worn and, if not
replaced, will eventually cause extensive damage to the entire blower assembly.
A certain amount of gear wear is to be expected, but scored and otherwise
damaged rotor lobes resulting from excessively worn gears are inexcusable. It is
the duty of the engineering force to inspect the gears and lobes, and to measure
the clearance at frequent intervals. During the inspec- tion, it will be possible
to measure accurately the values of backlash. These values should be re-
corded. By observing the rate of increase of wear, it will be possible to estimate
the life of the gears and to determine when it will be necessary to replace them.
Lobe clearance can be found by determining the difference of the
maximum and minimum rotor lobe clearance at the same distance from the
center. To find the maximum clearance, hold the rotors so that there is maximum
clearance between the two rotor lobes. Then, with feeler gages deter- mine the
value of the rotor lobe clearance. (See figure 3-25.) Figure 3-26.—Checking the
backlash of blower rotor gears. The minimum clearance is found in a similar
manner except that rotor lobes are held in such a position as to take up all slack
and backlash. The difference of the two clearance readings is the value of the
backlash of the rotor lobes. Since a change in lobe clearance is normally caused
by wear of the gears, the gear clearance must be checked. The most direct
method for checking gear clearance is by the use of feeler gages. (See figure 3-
26.) Any gear set which has excessive lash or shows any sign of fracture must
be replaced with a new set. Since blower drive gears come in matched sets,
gears from different sets must not be interchanged. CHAIN
MECHANISMS In some engines, chains are not only used to drive camshafts
and auxiliaries but also to drive such parts as rotating supercharger
valves. Con- necting links for two types of chains are shown in figure 3-27. Note
that the connecting pins in one are secured by cotter pins, while the joint pins
shown in the other are riveted. The principal causes of drive chain failure are
improper chain tension, lack of lubrication, sheared cotter pins or
improperly riveted joint pins, and misalignment of parts, especially idler
gears. Chain drives should be checked for any symp- toms of such difficulties,
in accordance with the instructions in the appropriate engine manual. The
tension should be adjusted as required during 3-39

ENGINEMAN 1 & C 121.10 Figure 3-27.—Accessory drive chain link


assemblies. these inspections. An idler sprocket and chain tightener are used on
most engines to adjust chain tension. During operation, chains increase slightly
in length because of stretch and wear. Ad- justments should be made
for these increases whenever necessary. When you are installing a new chain,
peen the connecting link pins into place, but avoid excessive peening. After
peening, make sure the links move freely without binding in position. Cotter pins
must be secured or the joint pin ends riveted, whichever is applicable. Repair
links should be carried at all times. Always check engine timing after installing a
new timing and accessory drive mechanism. TURBOCHARGERS The
turbochargers used in the Navy today may operate with temperatures as high as
1200 °F and THIS SPACE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 3-40speeds up to
75,000 rpm. Therefore, it is of utmost importance that turbochargers be main-
tained in proper working order at all times. If a turbocharger is allowed to
operate without lubrication, cooling, or the proper clearances, it not only could
be completely destroyed in a matter of minutes but also could possibly cause
extensive damage to other machinery and personnel. All oil lines and air
duct connections should be inspected and free of leakage. The air filter should be
clean and in place and there should be no build-up of dust or dirt on the impeller.
Turn the impeller by hand and check for binding or rub- bing and listen for any
unusual noises. When the turbocharger is operating, listen for any unusual noise
or vibrations. If you hear a shrill high pitch whine, shut down the engine at once.
The whine may be caused by a failing bearing, and serious damage may
result. Do not confuse the whine heard as the turbine runs down with that of a
bad bearing. Noise from the turbocharger may also be caused by improper
clearances between the turbine wheel and the turbine housing. The
clearances should be checked at predetermined in- tervals in accordance with
the PMS. Check bearing axial end play and shaft radial movement. Crankcase
vents should not be directed towards the turbocharger air intakes, as the
corrosive gases may cause pitting of the blades and bearings, thereby
reducing the life of the turbocharger. Chapter 3—ENGINE MAINTENANCE 3-41

Background - The objective of this research is to improve current Gasoline


Direct Injection (GDI) engine technology for use in automotive applications. GDI
engines use stratified-charge, unthrottled operation to achieve improved part-
load fuel economy in comparison to conventional Port Fuel Injection (PFI)
engines. One disadvantage of current GDI technology is that the fuel spray
dynamics required for proper stratified charge operation usually involves liquid
fuel impingement on the piston. The piston is used to redirect the fuel spray such
that a near-stoichiometric fuel/air mixture is produced near the wall-mounted
spark plug, and a fuel-lean mixture is produced in the remaining volume of the
combustion chamber. However, a portion of the liquid fuel remains on the piston
and does not participate in the combustion process, resulting in high levels of
unburned hydrocarbon emissions and less-than-optimal fuel economy. The
premise of this project was that a laser ignition system could replace the wall-
mounted spark plug and ignite the mixture at a location away from the chamber
walls, negating the need for intentional fuel and piston interaction. This approach
was expected to result in improved fuel economy and emissions.

Approach - An existing single-cylinder research engine was modified to accept


the GDI system and laser ignition system. A pulsed Nd:YAG laser was used in
conjunction with a series of mirrors and a lens to transmit and focus the laser
beam to the desired ignition location within the combustion chamber. A fused
silica window installed in the cylinder head provided the optical path into the
combustion chamber. A 60-degree hollow cone-style fuel injector was positioned
to avoid piston impingement. The variables that were studied included the laser
focal point location, laser timing, fuel injection timing, and ignition spot energy
density. High-speed cylinder pressure data was used to evaluate the
performance of the engine.

Accomplishments - A complex interdependence between the fuel injection


timing, the laser focal point location, and the laser ignition timing was observed.
On the whole, the engine operated with highest fuel conversion efficiency when
the mixture was ignited along the spray centerline. This result confirmed the
benefit of laser ignition in controlling the ignition location. Additionally, it was
noted that the laser was able to ignite mixtures that would normally be
considered over-mixed (or insufficiently stratified) in a spark-ignited GDI engine.
Experiments with homogeneous air/fuel mixtures were performed to study the
effect of ignition spot energy density and the lean ignitability limit. The lean
operating limit was extended down to an equivalence ratio of 0.5 using the laser,
in comparison to the limit of 0.6 using the conventional spark ignition system.
Results also suggest that there is an optimum ignition spot energy density,
beyond which engine performance no longer improves

BMW to Deploy Direct Injection, Regen Braking and Stop/Start on All Models
12 September 2005

Declaring that a few per cent less fuel consumption


throughout an entire model range gives the public and
society in general more than a significant improvement of Direct injection
fuel economy on just one niche model, BMW has stated concepts. Source:
that it will implement spray-guided direct injection on all its Orbital
gasoline models in the future, as well as regenerative braking and stop/start
functionality.

These systems constitute what BMW introduced at Frankfurt IAA as its


Efficient Dynamics Technology package.

High-Precision Injection (HPI) is a lean spray-guided gasoline direct-injection


technology that BMW projects will increase fuel efficiency by up to 10% in the
Euro test cycle and between 5%–15% in real world driving.

A gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine sprays the fuel directly into the
combustion chamber of each cylinder (as opposed to a port fuel injection (PFI)
or carburetor engine) and delivers significantly increased performance and
decreased fuel consumption and emissions.

First-generation GDI systems are wall-guided—the spray hits the wall, and the
formation of the fuel-air cloud depends mainly on the charge movements. A
spray-guided technique uses the injection procedure itself and not the charge
movement to ensure that a combustible mixture is brought to the sparkplug at
exactly the right time, regardless of pressure and temperature conditions.

Systems providers such as Bosch (long-time BMW partner), Delphi, Siemens


and Orbital are all working on their spray-guided direct injection technologies,
with other automakers, such as Audi and DaimlerChrysler in partnership.

In the BMW HPI system, the injection valve is configured as a piezo-injector


and positioned in the middle between the valves and the spark plug at the
center of the combustion chamber. Injection is at 200 bar—an increase over
current systems.

In the BMW application, the engine is able to run on a lean mixture all the way
from idle speed to high revs. This delivers the enhanced fuel economy.

BMW High Precision Injection will first be launched in the European markets.

BMW will also implement regenerative braking via an intelligent alternator


control concept that will recharge the battery when braking or coasting.
Relieved of the workload to drive the alternator, the engine can apply more of
its power to motion.

The third component is Auto Start/Stop. This system will automatically switch
off the engine in as soon as the car comes to a standstill, with restart triggered
by pressing down on the clutch or the gas pedal. Similar to the intelligent
alternator control for regaining brake energy, the Automatic Engine Start/Stop
System is based in principle on conventional components.

The main difference is that software now serves to link the various sensors,
the starter and the alternator control with one another.

BMW did not provide a timeline for implementation


Fuel injection

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.


Jump to: navigation, search

Fuel Injection is a method to precisely meter fuel into an internal combustion


engine, where the fuel is then burned in air to produce heat. Carburetors were
the predominant method to meter fuel prior to the widespread use of fuel
injection, however various injection schemes have existed since the earliest
usage of the internal combustion engine.

Prior to 1980, nearly all gasoline engines used carburetors. Since 1990, all
gasoline passenger cars sold in the United States use electronic fuel injection
(EFI).

Contents
[hide]

• 1 Benefits
• 2 Basic Function
• 3 Gasoline or Diesel
• 4 Detailed Function
o 4.1 Pulsewidth Calculation
• 5 Various Injection Schemes
o 5.1 Indirect injection
o 5.2 Throttle-body injection
o 5.3 Central port injection
o 5.4 Sequential central point injection
o 5.5 Multi-port fuel injection
o 5.6 Direct injection
• 6 Evolution
o 6.1 Pre-Emission Era
o 6.2 Post Emission Era

• 7 External Links
[edit]
Benefits

An engine’s air/fuel ratio must be precisely controlled under all operating


conditions to achieve optimum engine performance. Modern EFI systems exceed
the overall performance available from a carburetor in this regard. The two
fundamental improvements are:

1. Reduced response time to rapidly changing inputs, e.g., rapid throttle


movements.
2. Deliver an equal quantity of fuel to each cylinder of the engine.

These two features result in the following performance benefits:

• Emissions
o Significantly reduced "engine out" or "feedgas"
emissions (the chemical products of engine combustion).
o A reduction in final tailpipe emissions (≈ 0.99%)
resulting from the ability to accurately condition the
"feedgas" in a manner that maximizes the function of the
catalytic converter.

• General Engine Operation


o Smoother function during quick throttle transitions.
o Engine starting.
o Extreme weather operation.
o Reduced maintenance interval.
o A slight increase in fuel economy.

• Power Output
o Fuel injection often produces more power than an
equivalent carbureted engine. However, fuel injection alone
does not increase maximum engine output; increased airflow
is necessary, to oxidize more fuel, which generates more
output. The combustion process converts the fuel's chemical
energy into heat, whether the fuel arrived via EFI or a
carburetor is not significant. Fuel injection components are
smaller than a carburetor, which permits more design
freedom to arrange the components in a manner that
improves the air's path into the engine. In contrast, a
carburetor's potential mounting locations are limited because
it is larger, it must be carefully oriented with respect to
gravity, and it must be equal distance to the engine's
cylinders. These design constraints impose packaging
limitations that compromise the air induction path.
o Fuel injection is more likely to increase efficiency than
power. When cylinder-to-cylinder fuel distribution is improved
(common with EFI), less fuel is required to generate the
same power output; this increases efficiency - (BSFC, brake
specific fuel consumption). When distribution is less than
ideal (and it always is under one condition or another), more
fuel than necessary is metered to the rich cylinders, in order
to provide enough fuel in the lean cylinders. Power output is
asymmetrical with respect to air/fuel ratio. In other words,
burning extra fuel in the rich cylinders does not reduce
power nearly as quickly as burning too little fuel in the lean
cylinders. This results in the rich cylinders "running even
richer" of the most efficient air/fuel ratio, but at least now all
the cylinders are generating maximum output. An analogy is
that of painting a wall. One coat of paint may not cover very
well. The second coat dramatically improves the
appearance, but some areas got more paint than necessary.
Improved distribution dramatically improves emissions,
much more so than power or efficiency, by having more
combustion events occur near the stoichiometric air/fuel
ratio.

Injection systems have evolved significantly since the mid 1980s. Current EFI
systems provide an accurate and cost effective method of metering fuel. The
emission and subjective performance characteristics have steadily improved with
the advent of modern digital controls, which is why EFI systems have replaced
carburetors in the marketplace.

EFI is becoming more reliable and less expensive through widespread usage. At
the same time, carburetors are less available and more expensive. Marine
applications are rapidly adopting EFI as reliability improves. If this trend
continues, it is conceivable that virtually all internal combustion engines,
including garden equipment and snow throwers, will eventually use EFI. The
1990 Subaru Justy was the last carbureted passenger car sold in the U.S.
A carburetor's fuel metering system is less expensive when emission regulations
are not a requirement, as is the case in developing countries. EFI will
undoubtedly replace carburetors in these nations too as they adopt emission
regulations similar to Europe and the U.S.

[edit]
Basic Function

The fuel injector, which acts as the dispensing nozzle, injects liquid fuel directly
into the engine. This usually requires an external pump. These are only two of
many components that comprise a complete fuel injection system.

The process of determining the amount of fuel, and its delivery into the engine,
are known as metering. Early injection systems used mechanical methods to
meter fuel. Modern systems, nearly all EFI, use an electronic injector to inject the
fuel, and a CPU to calculate the quantity of fuel.

A carburetor uses minute differences in air pressure to emulsify (premix fuel with
air), and then to push the mixture into the engine’s air intake. The carburetor
itself generates its own air pressure differences using the venturi principle. A
carburetor is a self-contained fuel metering system, and is cost competitive when
compared to injection, which requires several additional components in order to
duplicate the carburetor's function.

A point worth noting in times of diagnostic ambiguity is that a single carburetor


replacement can accomplish what might require numerous repair attempts to
identify which of the several injection components are malfunctioning.

[edit]
Gasoline or Diesel

The calibration, and often the design, of a fuel injection system differ depending
on the type of fuel: propane (LPG), gasoline, alcohol, methane (natural gas),
hydrogen or diesel. The vast majority of fuel injection systems are for gasoline or
diesel applications and to a lesser extent for LPG, and in the past, the designs
were quite different. With the advent of EFI, the two systems have grown similar
in concept, but the nature of the fuels and their respective combustion
characteristics will continue to require differences in their systems.

• Diesel
o At one time, nearly all diesel engines used high-pressure
"mechanical injection", i.e., not "electronic injection".
o Diesels are rapidly adopting EFI, which is based on an electronic
fuel injector similar to a modern gasoline application.

• Gasoline
o Prior to EFI, it was extremely rare for an automobile engine to be
equipped with fuel injection. If it was, it was most likely a low-
pressure mechanical system of "immature" technology. These early
systems were generally used on exotic performance vehicles, or for
racing.
o Robert Bosch GmbH, and Bendix introduced the first electronic
injection systems starting in the 1950s, and they were quite
dissimilar to today's EFI. (#Evolution)

[edit]
Detailed Function
Note: The following description applies to a modern EFI gasoline engine.
Parallels to a diesel can be made, but only conceptually.

Typical EFI Components

• Injectors
• Fuel Pump
• Fuel Pressure Regulator
• ECU - Electronic Control Unit; includes a digital CPU, and circuitry to
communicate with sensors and control outputs.
• Wiring Harness
• Various Sensors (Some, of the sensors required are listed here.)

• Crank/Cam Position: Hall effect sensor


• Airflow: MAF sensor, and/ or Load: MAP sensor
• Exhaust Gas Oxygen: O2 Sensor, Oxygen sensor, EGO
sensor, UEGO sensor

A contemporary EFI system requires a number of sensors to measure the


engine's operating conditions. A CPU interprets these conditions in order to
calculate the precise amount of fuel, among other things. The desired “fuel flow
rate” depends on several conditions, with the engine’s “air flow rate” being the
predominant factor.

The electronic fuel injector is normally closed and opens to flow fuel as long as
an electric pulse is applied to the injector. The pulse’s duration (pulsewidth) is
proportional to the amount of fuel desired. When the pulse is applied, pressurized
fuel passes from the fuel line, through the open injector, into the engine’s air
intake, usually just ahead of the intake valve.

Since the nature of fuel injection dispenses fuel in discrete amounts, and since
the nature of the 4-stroke-cycle engine has discrete induction (air-intake) events,
the CPU calculates and dispenses fuel in discrete amounts. The fuel quantity is
tailored for each individual induction event. In other words, every induction event,
of every cylinder, of the entire engine, is a separate calculation, and each injector
receives a unique pulsewidth based on that cylinder’s fuel requirements.

It is necessary to know the amount (actually mass) of air the engine "breathes"
during each induction event. This is proportional to the intake manifold’s air
pressure, which is proportional to throttle position. The amount of air inducted,
known as "air-charge", can be determined using one of several methods, but
they are beyond the scope of this topic. (See MAF sensor, or MAP sensor.)

Note: The right pedal is not the gas pedal; it is the air pedal. The throttle
pedal determines the air, and in turn, the airflow determines the fuel. The
same is true for carburetors.

The three elemental ingredients for combustion are fuel, air and ignition, the last
of which is outside this topic. The sensors and CPU interpret the air mass in
order to calculate the fuel mass. The nominal (chemically correct) air/fuel ratio is
14.64:1, by weight, for gasoline. This "molar balanced" ratio is called
stoichiometry.

Deviations from stoichiometry are required during non-standard operating


conditions such as heavy load, or cold operation, in which case the mixture ratio
can range from 10:1 to 18:1 (for gasoline).

Note: The stoichiometric ratio changes as a function of the fuel; diesel,


gasoline, ethanol, methanol, propane, methane (natural gas), or hydrogen.
Additionally, "flexible fuel vehicles" permit refueling with gasoline, and/or
an alcohol, resulting in all possible blends in the tank. These EFI systems
must be able to identify the blend and compensate accordingly.

Additionally, final pulsewidth is inversely proportional to fuel line pressure and


injector size. A larger capacity injector, or higher fuel line pressure, will inject
more fuel for the same pulsewidth. Compensation for these and many other
factors are addressed in the software.

In summary, the vehicle operator opens the engine’s throttle (right pedal), the
sensors measure airflow, the CPU calculates the desired air/fuel ratio, and then
outputs a pulsewidth providing the precise mass of fuel for efficient combustion.
This process is repeated every time an intake valve opens.
The modern EFI system treats each injection as series of discrete events, which
when all strung together, perform one, smooth, seamless experience. An
oversimplified analogy is that it is not unlike a motion picture that appears to
move from a series of individual images.

[edit]
Pulsewidth Calculation

These calculations are based on a 4-stroke-cycle, 5.0L, V-8, gasoline


engine. The data used are real.

Calculate injector pulsewidth from airflow.

First, the CPU determines airflow from the sensors. (The various methods
to determine airflow are beyond the scope of this topic. See MAF sensor,
or MAP sensor.)

• 1) (lbs-air/min) × (min/rev) × (rev/4-intake-stroke) = (lbs-


air/intake-stroke) = (air-charge)

Min/revolution is the reciprocal of engine speed (RPM) – minutes cancel.


Factor in the number of induction events per engine rev, minding whether
its a 2-stroke or 4-stroke engine.

• 2) (lbs-air/intake-stroke) × (fuel/air) = (lbs-fuel/intake-stroke)

Fuel/air is the desired mixture ratio, usually stoichiometric, but often


different depending on engine conditions.
• 3) (lbs-fuel/intake-stroke) × (1/injector-size) =
(pulsewidth/intake-stroke)

Injector-size is the flow capacity of the injector, which in this example is


24-lbs/hour.

All three terms above combined . . .

• (lbs-air/min) × (min/rev) × (rev/4-intake-stroke) × (fuel/air) ×


(1/injector-size) = (pulsewidth/intake-stroke)

Substituting real variables for the 5.0L engine at idle.

• (0.55lbs-air/min) × (min/700-revs) × (rev/4-intake-stroke) ×


(1/14.64) × (hour/24-lbs) × (3,600,000msecs/hour) = (2.0-
msecs/intake-stroke)

Substituting real variables for the 5.0L engine at maximum power.

• (28-lbs-air/min) × (min/5500-revs) × (rev/4-intake-stroke) ×


(1/11.00) × (hour/24-lbs) × (3,600,000msecs/hour) = (17.3-
msecs/intake-stroke)

Injector pulsewidth typically ranges from 2-msecs/engine-cycle at idle, to


20-msecs/engine-cycle at wide-open throttle. The pulsewidth accuracy is
approximately 0.01 msecs; injectors are very precise devices. The final
pulsewidth will change if fuel line pressure changes, which effectively
changes injector flow capacity.
To calculate a fuel-flow rate from pulsewidth . . .

• (Fuel flow rate) ≈ (pulsewidth) × (engine speed) × (number of


fuel injectors)

Looking at it another way:

• (Fuel flow rate) ≈ (throttle position) × (rpm) × (cylinders)

Looking at it another way:

• (Fuel flow rate) ≈ (air-charge) × (fuel/air) × (rpm) ×


(cylinders)

Substituting real variables for the 5.0L engine at idle.

• (2.0-msecs/intake-stroke) × (hour/3,600,000-msecs) × (24-


lbs-fuel/hour) × (4-intake-stroke/rev) × (700-revs/min) × (60-
min/hour) = (2.24-lbs-fuel/hour)

Substituting real variables for the 5.0L engine at maximum power,


and minding the units.

• (17.3-msecs/intake-stroke) × (hour/3,600,000-msecs) × (24-


lbs-fuel/hour) × (4-intake-stroke/rev) × (5500-revs/min) × (60-
min/hour) = (152-lbs-fuel/hour)

The fuel consumption rate is 68 times greater at maximum engine output


than at idle. This dynamic range of fuel flow is typical of naturally aspirated
passenger car engines. The dynamic range is greater on supercharged or
turbocharged engines. It is interesting to note that 15 gallons of gasoline
will be consumed in 37 minutes if maximum output is sustained. On the
other hand, this engine could continuously idle for almost 42 hours on the
same 15 gallons.
[edit]
Various Injection Schemes
[edit]
Indirect injection

This may be single point where the fuel is injected using one nozzle, usually in
the throttle housing, or multi point where each cylinder has its own injector in
the inlet manifold. The nozzles may be opened using the pressure in the fuel
system or there may be a solenoid on the injector that will pulse it open and
closed in a duty cycle according to the desired fuel requirement.

[edit]
Throttle-body injection

Electronic throttle-body injection (normally called TBI, though Ford used the
abbreviation, CFI) was introduced in the early 1980s as a transition technology to
fully electronic port injection. The system injects fuel into the throttle-body (a wet
system), because fuel passes through the intake runners like a carburetor
system. This system had all the drawbacks of a carburetor, and all the
drawbacks of early automotive electronics as well. Computer-controlled TBI was
inexpensive, and was primarily a transition phase from carburetors to port fuel
injection.

[edit]
Central port injection

General Motors developed a new "in-between" technique called central port


injection or CPI. It uses tubes from a central injector to spray fuel at the intake
port rather than the throttle-body (it is a dry system). However, fuel is
continuously injected to all ports simultaneously, which is less than optimal.

[edit]
Sequential central point injection

GM refined the CPI system into a sequential central port injection (SCPI) system
in the mid-1990s. It used valves to meter the fuel to just the cylinders that were in
the intake phase. This worked well on paper, but the valves had a tendency to
stick. Fuel injector cleaner sometimes worked, but the system remained
problematic.

[edit]
Multi-port fuel injection

The goal of all fuel injection systems is to carefully meter the amount and timing
of fuel to each cylinder. This is achieved with the more sophisticated fuel injection
systems, often called multi-port fuel injection (MFI) or sequential port fuel
injection (SFI). On gasoline applications, the system uses a single injector per
cylinder and injects fuel immediately ahead of the intake valves.

[edit]
Direct injection

See also: Gasoline Direct Injection

Since mid-2000s, many diesel engines feature direct injection (DI). The
injection nozzle is placed inside the combustion chamber itself and the piston
incorporates a depression (often toroidal) which is where initial combustion takes
place. Direct injection diesel engines are generally more efficient and cleaner
than indirect injection engines, but tend to be noisier; which is being addressed in
newer common rail designs.
Some hi-tech petrol engines utilize this system as well. This can improve the
engine's volumetric efficiency by permitting more design freedom for the air
induction system. The injector also features distinct spray modes to better
manage combustion characteristics.

[edit]
Evolution
[edit]
Pre-Emission Era

Frederick William Lanchester joined the Forward Gas Engine Company


Birmingham, England in 1889. He carried out what were possibly the earliest
experiments with fuel injection.

Indirect fuel injection has been used in diesel engines since the mid 1920s,
almost from their introduction (due to the higher energy required for diesel to
evaporate). The concept was adapted for use in petrol-powered aircraft during
World War II, and direct injection was employed in some notable designs like the
Daimler-Benz DB 603 and later versions of the Wright R-3350 used in the B-29
Superfortress.

A mechanical gasoline injection system developed by Bosch was first used in a


car in 1955 with the introduction of the Mercedes-Benz 300SL. An electronic fuel
injection system was also developed by the Bendix Corporation, but development
was abandoned as being too impractical at the time; there did not yet exist solid
state sensors or mass-produced transistors suitable for further development. The
patents were subsequently sold to Bosch.

In 1957, Chevrolet introduced a mechanical fuel injection option for its 283 V8
engine, made by General Motors' Rochester division. This system used a single
central plunger to feed fuel to all eight cylinders, in contrast to Mercedes'
individual plunger for each of the six cylinders, but it nevertheless produced 283
hp (211 kW) from 283 in³ (4.6 L), making it the first production engine in history to
exceed 1 hp/in³ (45.5 kW/L).

Fuel injection systems such as Hilborn were occasionally used on modified


American V8 engines in high performance automobiles of the 1960s, in drag
racing, oval racing, and road racing. The primary motivation behind these
systems was, however, to reduce the airflow restriction in the air intake at wide-
open throttle by eliminating the venturi, with little attention to low speed or closed
throttle operation. Therefore, these racing-derived systems were generally quite
unsuitable for street use, although occasionally an individual would take up the
challenge of adapting such an engine.

[edit]
Post Emission Era

In 1968, in the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency began to


restrict exhaust emissions and enacted a series of automobile emissions control
laws coming into effect over the next several years. This change became the
primary driver behind the adoption of fuel injection systems on a mass scale.
Bosch developed the first production electronic fuel injection system, called D-
Jetronic (D for Druck, the German word for pressure), which was first used on the
Volkswagen 311 in 1967. This was a speed/density system, using intake
manifold pressure and engine speed to calculate fuel requirements. The system
used all analog discrete electronics and an electro-mechanical pressure sensor,
but the sensors were susceptible to vibration and dirt. These systems were
adopted by VW, Mercedes-Benz, Porsche, Saab and Volvo. Lucas licensed the
system and production units for Jaguar. Bosch replaced this with a mass-flow
system, initially using a mechanical airflow meter to judge how much fuel to
inject. This system, L-Jetronic (L for Luft, German for air), first appeared on the
1974 Porsche 914, and was very widely adopted on European cars of that
period. It was also licensed by Japanese firms and appeared on Japanese cars a
short time later.
In 1975, California's emissions regulations, the most stringent in the world,
required manufacturers to resort to a catalytic converter, which act as a
"catalyst", when exposed to gasoline combustion byproducts; no other
technology available could meet the California regulations. An oxidation catalyst
was designed into the vehicle's exhaust system. When hot products of
combustion, unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide, are exposed to the
catalyst material (platinum and/or palladium), these compounds are nearly all
oxidized into water and carbon dioxide. Stricter legislation to reduce compounds
called oxides of nitrogen occurred in 1980. This required a reduction catalyst
(rhodium) to reduce the various nitrogen oxides into free nitrogen and oxygen.
The introduction of the catalyst reduced tailpipe emission to approximately 10%
of the pre-regulated 1960 level. Nearly all vehicles of this vintage used a
carburetor.

Catalytic converters will not tolerate exposure to tetraethyl lead, an octane


enhancer in gasoline, and they will become almost totally ineffective after only a
short time. Unleaded fuel became available with the introduction of catalysts.

In order to take maximum advantage of a catalyst's chemical process, excellent


air/fuel ratio control is essential, which the EFI systems accomplished in two
stages. The first systems were "open loop", and then by 1980 "closed loop"
systems began to appear.

The early fuel injection systems were "open loop". This was generally fine, as
long as all the components of the system were clean and within operational
parameters. However, the electro-mechanical sensors often deteriorate with
time, or became dirty, and it was impossible to emissions compliance over the
life of the vehicle. Soon, even more stringent emissions legislation occurred. In
order to address these issues, "closed loop" feedback control of EFI appeared in
1980. Closed loop fuel control is accomplished with the Lambda-Sond sensor,
commonly referred to as the exhaust gas oxygen sensor, or EGO sensor, or O2
sensor. This sensor resembled a spark plug without an electrode and is designed
into the exhaust system upstream of the catalyst. The EGO sensor measures the
oxygen content in the exhaust. Oxygen, or the lack of it, is proportional to the
air/fuel mixture ingested into the engine.

"Closed loop feedback" fuel control made possible by digital EFI systems
reduced exhaust emissions to less than 1% of the 1960 models. Unleaded fuel
protects the catalytic converter so this level of emission performance is durable
for tens of thousands of miles.

Starting in 1982, Bosch used a mass airflow meter on their L-Jetronic system,
changing the name to LH-Jetronic (L for Luft, or air, and H for Heiße-leitung, or
hot-wire), as the first true sensor for actual air mass involved the use of a heated
platinum wire. The LH-Jetronic system is also notable in that it was the first
system to abandon an analog ECU (using mainly AF components) in favor of a
digital computer, which is now the prevailing form of ECU. This further refined
air/fuel ratio control.

The introduction of microprocessor controls allowed the integration of fuel


injection and ignition control, with systems first appearing in 1982 (The Bosch
Motronic system, which oddly reverted to using a mechanical airflow sensor until
the mid-to-late 1980s). Full engine management systems came shortly
afterwards, with control of all engine systems under the control of a single
computer. In 2005, many new cars had multiple computers on board controlling
every aspect of the car.

[edit]
External Links

Gasoline direct injection

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.


(Redirected from Gasoline Direct Injection)
Jump to: navigation, search
Gasoline direct injection or GDI is a variant of fuel injection employed in
modern four stroke petrol engines. The gasoline is injected right into the
combustion chamber of each cylinder, as opposed to conventional multi point
fuel injection that happens in the intake manifold.

[edit]
Theory of operation

The major advantages of a GDI engine are increased fuel efficiency and high
power output. This is achieved by the precise control over amount of fuel and
injection timings which are varied according to the load conditions. Basically, the
engine management system continuously chooses between three different
modes of combustion: ultra lean burn combustion, stoichiometric combustion and
high power output mode.

Each mode is characterized by air-fuel ratio, the amount of fuel in the air-fuel
mixture; the stoichiometric ratio for petrol is 14.7 to 1 by weight, but in ultra lean
mode, it could be as high as 65 to 1. These leaner mixtures than those ever
achieved in the conventional engines are desired because of reduced fuel
consumption.

• Ultra lean combustion mode is effective under normal running


conditions, when little acceleration is required. The fuel is not injected at
the intake stroke but rather at the latter stages of the compression stroke,
so that the small amount of air-fuel mixture is optimally placed just near
the spark plug. This stratified charge is surrounded by mostly air which
keeps the fuel away from the cylinder walls for lowest emissions. The
combustion takes place in a toroidal cavity on the piston's surface. This
technique enables the usage of ultra lean mixtures with very high air-fuel
ratio, impossible with traditional carburetors or even intake port injection.

• Stoichiometric combustion mode is activated for moderate load


conditions. In this mode, fuel is injected during the intake stroke. The air-
fuel mixture is homogeneous with the stoichiometric rates necessary for
the catalytic converter to remove a maximum of the major pollutants CO
and NOx from the exhaust gas.

• In full power mode, the air-fuel mixture is homogeneous as well and


contains the maximum amount of fuel that is possible to ignite without
knocking out, as defined by the compression ratio of the engine. The fuel
is injected during the intake stroke. This mode activates at high load
conditions and provides maximum output and torque.

Direct injection can also be accompanied by traditional methods such as VVT


and VLIM, which provide conventional control over airflow swirl patterns at
stoichiometric and full power modes. Water injection or EGR can help reduce
NOx emissions inevitable when burning ultra lean mixtures.

[edit]
History

The 1955 Mercedes-Benz 300SL, the first gasoline-powered automobile to use


fuel injection, had used direct injection. The Bosch fuel injectors were placed into
the bores on the cylinder wall used by the spark plugs in other Mercedes-Benz
six-cylinder engines (the spark plugs were relocated to the cylinder head). Later,
more mainstream applications of fuel injection favoured less expensive indirect
injection methods.

It was not until the 1990s that gasoline direct injection reappeared on the market.
Mitsubishi Motors was the first with a GDI engine in Japan, which it brought to
Europe in 1998, but high-sulphur fuel led to emissions problems, and fuel
efficiency was less than expected. PSA Peugeot Citroën also launched a GDI
engine in the late 1990s, but both were withdrawn from the market in 2001.
DaimlerChrysler produced a special engine for 2000, offered only in markets with
low sulphur fuel.
Later GDI engines have been tuned and marketed for their high performance.
Volkswagen/Audi led the trend with their 2001 GDI engine, under the product
name Fuel Stratified Injection (FSI). The technology, adapted from Audi's Le
Mans racecars, induces a electric charge in the fuel-air mixture.

BMW followed with a GDI V12. PSA is cooperating with BMW on a new line of
engines for future introduction.

General Motors had planned to produce a range of GDI engines by 2002, but in
the end Opel introduced the only direct injection gasoline engine, a version of the
2.0 L Ecotec.

Toyota's 2GR-FSE V6 will use a combination of direct and indirect injection in


2006. It uses two injectors per cylinder, a traditional port injector and a new direct
injector.

[edit]


DIRECT-INJECTION CREATES MORE EFFICIENT GASOLINE ENGINES

2001 Cleaner, Safer, Sooner releases

Snides Remarks: Notice the date obn this release...this and others showed up
in my e mail in response to my last article., Thanks whoever.

DEARBORN, MICHIGAN, AUGUST 21, 2001- Direct injection technology


originally developed for diesel engines has shown potential fuel economy
improvements of approximately 20 percent when adapted by Ford Motor
Company engineers for gasoline engines.

This technology - called DISI for direct injection spark ignition - is being tested
in a 1.1-liter three-cylinder gasoline engine that achieves 70 hp.

In primarily urban driving, this translates to a 21 percent improvement in fuel


economy from the engine technology alone. In mixed urban and highway
driving, the engine is expected to improve gas mileage by 10 to 15 percent.
Combining DISI with other new technologies that take advantage of its low-
RPM efficiency should produce even greater savings.

The engine is also expected to meet or exceed European Stage IV emissions


standards - that take effect in 2005.

How it Works

In a direct injection engine, the injection nozzle is located inside the


combustion chamber, rather than in the induction pipe as in multi-port or
throttle-body fuel injection.

With a conventional fuel injected engine, all cylinders are supplied with a mist-
like mixture of air and fuel, at a constant 14.7:1 ratio. One or more injector
nozzles spray fuel into the air stream being fed to the intake valves. This
spray is mixed with air during the intake stroke and flushed into the cylinder,
where it is ignited by the spark plug.

The throttle valve determines how much of the air-fuel mixture enters each
cylinder. A closed throttle valve means little air in the engine, and thus a small
amount of injected fuel, while an open throttle means a lot of air in the engine,
equating to a lot of fuel.

Under traditional technology, the air-fuel mixture inside the cylinder can't
deviate very much from the optimum 14.7:1 ratio of air to fuel. In particular,
air-fuel mixtures that are too lean simply won't ignite.

DISI engine technology uses so-called stratified charging to overcome this


limitation.

With DISI, the spark plug is surrounded by a relatively small, precisely shaped
volume of ignitable air-fuel mixture that results when fuel is sprayed toward
the spark plug just before ignition. Only the area directly around the spark
plug, at the top of the cylinder, contains air-fuel mixture. Other areas inside
the combustion chamber merely contain air or recirculated exhaust gas.

This stratification of the charge allows the new DISI engine to burn mixtures
with a much higher rate of air than conventional lean-mix engines. With the
Ford DISI engine, the fuel-air ratio can increase to 60 parts of air (instead of
14.7) for every part of fuel.

The cushion of non-combustible gas around the combustion chamber also


means that less combustion heat has to be evacuated. This improves the
thermal efficiency of the engine.

Fuel is injected into the cylinder. The shaped piston crown guides the air/fuel
mix to the spark plug.
As the spark plug fires, igniting the mixture, surrounding areas contain only air
or recirculated gases, forming an insulating cushion at the cylinder walls and
cylinder head.

Another factor contributing to improved fuel economy is the ability to increase


the compression ratio from about 10:1, as is normal, to approximately 11.7:1
without the need for premium fuel, because direct injection reduces the
tendency of engine knock. The higher compression ratio alone increases
efficiency by about two percent.

The DISI charge stratification process works best at low and medium loads in
the lower half of the engine speed range, where traditional gasoline engines
are least efficient.

The major fuel reduction potential of 21 percent is realized in the urban


driving cycle because, under these driving conditions, the DISI engine
operates in a stratified-lean mode most of the time.

Synergistic Technology

Changes in the coolant system also could help to improve fuel economy for a
vehicle equipped with the DISI engine.

A typical feature of DI engine thermodynamics is the difference in thermal


losses, depending on whether the engine is operated in the economy or full-
load mode. In the economy mode, an insulating blanket of air and recirculated
exhaust gas helps keep heat away from the cylinder walls and head. In the
high-powered mode, more heat is released.

A new control system for the coolant circuit could shut off the fan motor over a
longer period of time or reduce the operating speed of the water pump, during
economy mode operation. Either would reduce operating drag on the engine,
and improve economy.
More Press Releases on Technology

FACT SHEET: SAFETY INNOVATION (August 16, 2005)

FACT SHEET: CERTIFICATION TEST LAB (August 16, 2005)

FORD LICENSES INNOVATION TO CUT PRODUCT DEVELOMENT TIME


AND COST ACROSS INDUSTRY (August 16, 2005)

FORD EXTENDS SAFETY LEADERSHIP WITH ADVANCED OCCUPANT


PROTECTION TECHNOLOGY (August 16, 2005)

TESTING THE SCIENCE OF PERFORMANCE: FORD TEAMS WITH


IRONMAN FOR UNPRECEDENTED WIND TUNNEL STUDY (July 15, 2005)

manifold (automotive engineering)

Left side of a Ford Cologne V6 engine, clearly showing a (rusty) cast iron
exhaust manifold - three exhaust ports into one pipe.

In automotive engineering, an intake manifold or inlet manifold is a part of an


engine that supplies the fuel/air mixture to the cylinders. An exhaust manifold or
header collects the exhaust gases from multiple cylinders into one pipe.

Due to the suction effect of the downward movement of the pistons in a


reciprocating piston engine, a partial vacuum (lower than atmospheric pressure)
exists in the intake manifold. This vacuum can be used as a source of automobile
ancillary power, used to drive auxiliary systems (ignition advance, power assisted
brakes, cruise control, windscreen wipers, ventilation system valves, etc).

This vacuum can also be used to 'suck' any piston blow-by gases from the
engine's crankcase. This is known as a closed crankcase ventilation or positive
crankcase ventilation (PCV) system. This way the gases are burned with the
gas/fuel mixture.

The intake manifold is located between the carburetor and the cylinder head. On
multi point injected engines, the intake manifold holds the fuel injectors.

Exhaust manifolds are generally and traditionally simple cast iron units which
collect engine exhaust and deliver it to the exhaust pipe. However, when greater
performance is required, this restrictive tube is often replaced with individual
headers which are tuned for low restriction and improved performance. Headers
have been widely available from aftermarket sources for decades, and some
manufacturers have begun using them as original equipment. The Honda J30A2
engine does away with exhaust manifolds altogether, using an integral engine
block passage to route gases directly to the catalytic converter.

Cover of Popular Hot Rodding magazine, showing racing fuel injection system on
V8 engine in the late 1960s

Fuel injection is a technology used in internal combustion engines to mix the


fuel with air prior to combustion.

As in a traditional carburetor, fuel is converted to a fine spray and mixed with air.
However, where a traditional carburetor forces the incoming air through a venturi
to pull the fuel into the air stream, a fuel injection system forces the fuel through
nozzles under pressure to inject the fuel into the air stream without requiring a
venturi.
The use of a venturi reduces volumetric efficiency by approximately 15%, which
results in a reduction in engine power. Thus, a fuel injection system increases the
power that an engine with the same engine displacement will produce.
Additionally, fuel injection allows for more precise control over the mixture of fuel
and air, both in proportion and in uniformity.

The fuel injection may be purely mechanical, purely electronic or a mix of the
two. Early systems were mechanical but from about 1980 onward more and more
systems were completely electronic. By the middle of the decade, nearly all new
passenger vehicles were equipped with electronic fuel injection. The 1990
Subaru Justy was the last passenger car sold in the United States with a
carburetor.

The modern electronic systems that cars are equipped with today utilise a
number of sensors to monitor engine conditions, and an electronic control unit
(ECU) to accurately calculate the needed amount of fuel. Thus fuel injection can
increase fuel efficiency and reduce pollution.

Indirect injection

Typical gasoline engines are usually equipped with indirect injection systems.
They may be single point where the fuel is injected using one nozzle, usually in
the throttle housing, or multi point where each cylinder has its own injector in
the inlet manifold. The nozzles may be opened using the pressure in the fuel
system or there may be a solenoid on the injector that will pulse it open and
closed in a duty cycle according to the desired fuel requirement.

Throttle-body injection

Electronic throttle-body injection (normally called TBI, though Ford used the
abbreviation, CFI) was introduced in the early 1980s as a transition technology to
fully-electronic port injection. The system injects fuel into the throttle-body (a wet
system), so fuel can condense and cling to the walls of the intake system. This
system also resulted in harming emissions. Computer-controlled TBI was
inexpensive and simple, however, and lasted well into the 1990s.

Central port injection

General Motors developed a new "in-between" technique called central port


injection or CPI. It uses tubes from a central injector to spray fuel at the intake
port rather than the throttle-body (it is a dry system). However, fuel is
continuously injected to all ports simultaneously, which is less than optimal.

Sequential central point injection

GM refined the CPI system into a sequential central port injection (SCPI) system
in the mid-1990s. It used valves to meter the fuel to just the cylinders that were in
the intake phase. This worked well on paper, but the valves had a tendency to
stick. Fuel injector cleaner sometimes worked, but the system remained
problematic.

Multi-port fuel injection

The goal of all fuel injection systems is to carefully meter the amount and timing
of fuel to each cylinder. This is achieved with the more sophisticated fuel injection
systems, often called multi-port fuel injection (MFI) or sequential port fuel
injection (SFI). It uses a single injector per cylinder and sprays the fuel right
above the intake valves.

Direct injection

See also: Gasoline Direct Injection

Since mid-2000s, many diesel engines feature direct injection (DI). The
injection nozzle is placed inside the combustion chamber itself and the piston
incorporates a depression (often toroidal) which is where initial combustion takes
place. Direct injection diesel engines are generally more efficient than indirect
injection engines, but tend to be noisier; that is being adressed in newest
common rail designs.

Some hi-tech petrol engines utilise this system as well, since it gives a better
volumetric efficiency as only air is drawn in through the induction system,
increasing amount of air induced and minimising fuel losses. The injector also
features several spray modes so that the fuel is better distributed and a powerful
air-fuel mixture is created.

History

Frederick William Lanchester joined the Forward Gas Engine Company


Birmingham, England in 1889. He carried out what was possibly the earliest
experiments with fuel injection.

Indirect fuel injection has been used in diesel engines since the mid 1920s,
almost from their introduction (due to the higher energy required for diesel to
evaporate). The concept was adapted for use in petrol-powered aircraft during
World War II, and direct injection was employed in some notable designs like the
Daimler-Benz DB 603 and later versions of the Wright R-3350 used in the B-29
Superfortress.

An injection system developed by Bosch was first used in a car in 1955 with the
introduction of the Mercedes-Benz 300SL. An electronic fuel injection system
was also developed by the Bendix Corporation.

In 1957, Chevrolet introduced a mechanical fuel injection option for its 283 V8
engine, made by General Motors' Rochester division. This system used a single
central plunger to feed fuel to all eight cylinders, in contrast to Mercedes'
individual plunger for each of the six cylinders, but it nevertheless produced 283
hp (211 kW) from 283 in³ (4.6 L), making it the first production engine in history to
exceed 1 hp/in³ (45.5 kW/L).
Fuel injection systems such as Hillborn were frequently seen on modified
American V8 engines in high performance automobiles of the 1960s, in drag
racing, oval racing, and road racing. These systems were quite unsuitable for
street use, however.

Fuel injection became widespread with the introduction of electronically


controlled fuel injection systems in the 1980s and the gradual tightening of
automobile emissions controls and fuel economy laws. Meeting modern
emissions standards whilst retaining acceptable performance would be
impossible without it. In addition, the development of microprocessor technology
made it possible to control the amount of fuel injected precisely.

Theory of operation

The major advantages of a GDI engine are increased fuel efficiency and high
power output. This is achieved by the precise control over amount of fuel and
injection timings which are varied according to the load conditions. Basically, the
engine management system continuously chooses between three different
modes of combustion: ultra lean burn combustion, stoichiometric combustion and
high power output mode.

Each mode is characterized by air-fuel ratio, the amount of fuel in the air-fuel
mixture; the stoichiometric ratio for petrol is 14.6 to 1, but in ultra lean mode, it
could be as high as 65 to 1, resulting in much leaner mixtures than those ever
achieved in the conventional engines.

• Ultra lean combustion mode is effective under normal conditions, when


little acceleration is required. The fuel is not injected at the intake stroke
but rather at the latter stages of the compression stroke, so that the small
amount of air-fuel mixture is optimally stratified just below the spark plug.
The initial combustion takes in a toroidal cavity on the piston's surface.
This technique enables the usage of ultra lean mixtures with very high air-
fuiel rates, impossible with traditional intake valves.
• Stoichiometric combustion mode is activated for moderate load
conditions. In this mode, fuel is conventionally injected furing the intake
stroke to obtain stoichiometric rates.

• In full power mode, the air-fuel mixture is homogeneous and consists of


maximum amount of fuel that is possible to ignite without knocking out, as
defined by the compression ratio of the engine. The fuel is injected during
the intake stroke. This mode activates at high load conditions and
provides maximum output and torque.

Direct injection can also be accompanied by traditional methods such as VVT


and VLIM, which provide conventional control over airflow swirl patterns at
stoichiometric and full power modes. EGR can help reduce NOx emissions
inevitable when burning ultra lean mixtures.

History

Mitsubishi Motors was the first with a GDI engine in Japan in the 1990s. This
engine was brought to Europe in 1998, but high-sulphur fuel led to emissions
problems, and fuel efficiency was less than expected. PSA Group also launched
a GDI engine in the late 1990s, but both were withdrawn from the market in
2001. DaimlerChrysler produced a special engine for 2000, offered only in
markets with low sulphur fuel.

Later GDI engines were tuned and marketed for high performance rather than
economy. Volkswagen led the trend with their 2001 GDI engine, and BMW
followed with a GDI V12. PSA is cooperating with BMW on a new line of engines
for future introduction.

Direct injection- savior of the two-stroke outboard. That's what some


manufacturers trumpeted a year or two ago. But instead of joyfully harvesting the
promised benefits of smoother running engines, improved fuel economy,
nonsmoking exhaust and reduced emissions, many boaters were stunned by a
grim reaping of engines that fouled early on and even self-destructed. Sure, you
get great fuel economy, no smoke and zero emissions when the engine breaks
and doesn't run. But that's not what the motor makers had in mind. And while one
major outboard manufacturer is now struggling to stem the plague that's crippling
its engines (and its reputation), along comes Yamaha with impressive new two-
stroke technology for its 2000 model year engines. Technology that could well
leapfrog the company over the competition to the No. 1 spot in sales. Right now,
if you count Evinrude and Johnson as separate brands, Yamaha is No. 2 behind
Mercury.

Yamaha has developed a high-pressure direct injection system (HPDI) that's


used on seven all-new 2.6-liter 76 degrees V6 engines in 150- and 200-hp
ratings. These engines meet year 2006 emission requirements, and deliver fuel
economy in the engine's most commonly used rpm range-2500 to 5500. Yamaha
claims extensive testing has proved its engines have the reliability that has
eluded its competitors.

Compared to conventional carburetion, direct injection (DI) is more than merely


an alternative method of getting fuel into the engine. In carbureted two-strokes,
the fuel/oil mixture enters the cylinder from the bottom of the piston. The mixture
travels up and around the piston skirt to reach the top piston ring. Because the oil
is thinned by fuel, enough oil passes around the bottom ring to move up and
lubricate the top piston ring.

Conventional two-strokes also carry a fuel penalty because the exhaust port is
partially uncovered by the piston as it moves up on its compression stroke. So
some of the intake charge is pushed out the exhaust along with the remains of
the previous cycle's burnt gases. Emissions take a hit for the same reason.

With DI, the exhaust port is completely covered by the piston before the fuel is
squirted directly into the combustion chamber, so no fuel is wasted. But DI can
pose some lubrication challenges. Oil is still drawn in from the bottom of the
cylinder but fuel is injected from the top. Since the fuel and oil don't mix, the oil
isn't thinned sufficiently to move up and lubricate the top piston ring. That's a
recipe for engine disaster-as one manufacturer has discovered.

Yamaha's HPDI system gets around this problem with a new, patented bottom
piston ring that's made with a taper for oil bypass every 30 degrees. The 12
tapered areas around the ring allow sufficient oil to reach and lubricate the top
ring.

DI two-strokes have a potential for combustion fine-tuning that's similar to today's


computer-controlled fuel-injected auto engines'. HPDI takes advantage of this
potential with a sophisticated engine management system to elevate the two-
stroke to new levels of efficiency. These outboards, like their automotive
counterparts, use multiple sensors to transmit data such as crank position,
throttle position, timing, rpm, water temperature, air temperature, atmospheric
pressure and the amount of oxygen in the exhaust to the computer. Yamaha
uses an industry exclusive O2 sensor to continually monitor the oxygen content
of the exhaust gases. The computer analyzes all this data and automatically
adjusts the ignition timing and fuel mixture to each individual cylinder for
maximum power and fuel efficiency, and fewer emissions during the next
combustion cycle.

There are some other significant differences between HPDI and the other
outboard DI systems. High fuel pressure is the most obvious. Yamaha's high-
speed fuel pump cranks fuel pressures up to 700 psi before fuel is injected into
the cylinders. The competition uses fuel pressures that vary from 90 to 250 psi.
Higher pressures mean greater atomization, which results in better burning and
more power from the injected fuel charge. The HPDI injectors, unlike those used
in competing systems, don't protrude into the combustion chamber. So there's no
disruption in fuel flow, and there's less possibility of carbon buildup a
maintenance headache and durability concern as well.
With today's desire for instant gratification, Yamaha needed to engineer instant
starting into its outboards. So while conventional direct injection systems may
require longer cranking times because the fuel is not yet pressurized when the
engine is started, HPDI uses a pressure sensor inside the fuel pump. This sensor
informs the computer of the fuel pressure in the system, and the computer
increases the duration that each fuel injector is open, enriching the fuel mixture
for immediate starting. There's also a pressure regulator inside the pump to
maintain a constant pressure of 700 psi. Conventional DI systems, by
comparison, can suffer from fuel pressure fluctuations-which is not the hot setup
for consistent smooth running.

In an initial test run of Yamaha's 200-hp HPDI engine, we found it to perform as


advertised. Instant start-up, no smoking, quiet and excellent acceleration, and a
wonderful torque range. Reliability, of course, is something that will have to be
proved by time. The fact that we saw many competing brand engine dealers
looking to sign on with Yamaha at its
product intro/dealer meeting indicates the
strong interest in the marque. Yamaha
started life over 100 years ago manufacturing
organs. The company's HPDI engines
continue to make music. Sweet, indeed.

Direct Fuel Injection (with Turbocharging/Supercharging)


Also called fuel stratified injection or direct injection stratified charge

In conventional multi-port fuel injection systems, fuel is injected into the port and
mixed with air before the air-fuel mixture is pumped into the cylinder. In direct
injection systems, fuel is injected directly into the cylinder so that the timing and
shape of the fuel mist can be precisely controlled. This allows higher
compression ratios and more efficient fuel intake, which deliver higher
performance with lower fuel consumption.
Automobile engines
Petrol Car Engines

Have you ever opened the hood of your car and wondered what was going on in
there? A car engine can look like a big confusing jumble of metal, tubes and
wires to the uninitiated. You might want to know what's going on in there simply
out of curiosity. After all, you ride in your car every day -- wouldn't it be nice to
know how it works? Or maybe you are tired of going to the mechanic and hearing
things that are totally meaningless to you and then paying $750 for whatever that
stuff means. Or perhaps you are buying a new car, and you hear funny words
like "3.0 liter V-6" and "dual overhead cams" and "tuned port fuel injection." What
does all of that mean?

::INTERNAL COMBUSTION::
To understand the basic idea behind how a reciprocating internal
combustion engine works, it is helpful to have a good mental image of how
"internal combustion" works. One good example is an old Revolutionary War
cannon. You have probably seen these in movies, where the soldiers load the
cannon with gun powder and a cannon ball and light it. That is internal
combustion, but it is hard to imagine that having anything to do with engines.
A more relevant example might be this: Say that you took a big piece of plastic
sewer pipe, maybe 3 inches in diameter and 3 feet long, and you put a cap on
one end of it. Then say that you sprayed a little WD-40 into the pipe, or put in a
tiny drop of gasoline. Then say that you stuffed a potato down the pipe. Like this:
I am not recommending that you do this! But say you did... What we have here is
a device commonly known as a potato cannon. When you introduce a spark,
you can ignite the fuel. What is interesting, and the reason we are talking about
such a device, is that a potato cannon can launch a potato about 500 feet
through the air!
The potato cannon uses the basic principle behind any reciprocating internal
combustion engine: If you put a tiny amount of high-energy fuel (like gasoline) in
a small, enclosed space and ignite it, an incredible amount of energy is released
in the form of expanding gas. You can use that energy to propel a potato 500
feet. In this case, the energy is translated into potato motion. You can also use it
for more interesting purposes. For example, if you can create a cycle that allows
you to set off explosions like this hundreds of times per minute, and if you can
harness that energy in a useful way, what you have is the core of a car engine!
Almost all cars currently use what is called a four-stroke combustion cycle to
convert gasoline into motion. The four-stroke approach is also known as the Otto
cycle, in honor of Nikolaus Otto, who invented it in 1867. The four strokes are
illustrated in Figure. They are:
• Intake stroke
• Compression stroke
• Combustion stroke
• Exhaust stroke
The working of an internal combustion engine is divided into four stages called
four strokes of the engine and hence the engine is called a four stroke engine.

The intake stroke:


When the engine starts, the piston moves downwards in the cylinder, because of

which a region of low pressure is created in the cylinder, above the piston. At this
moment, the intake valve opens and the fuel mixture (petrol vapour and air
mixture) is sucked into the cylinder from the carburetor.
The compression stroke:
When the sufficient amount of the fuel mixture (petrol vapour and air mixture) has
entered the cylinder, the intake valve gets closed. The piston is then forced to
move upwards which compresses the fuel-mixture to about one-eighth of its
original volume. Higher the compression ratio, more will be the efficiency of the
engine.

The power stroke:


Before the piston completes its upward movement, compressing the petrol
vapour and air mixture, the spark plug produces a little electric spark inside the
cylinder and this spark sets fire to the petrol-air mixture. The petrol vapour burns
quickly in a little explosion, producing a large volume of gases and enormous
heat. The heat thus produced expands the gases rapidly. The pressure of rapidly
expanding hot gases pushes the piston downward with a great force. The piston
pushes the piston rod and the piston rod pushes the crank shaft. The crank shaft
is joined to the wheels of a car. When the crank shaft turns, the wheels rotate
and move the car.

The exhaust stroke:


When the piston has been pushed to the bottom of the cylinder by the hot
expanding gases in the power stroke, then the exhaust valve opens. After that,
due to the momentum gained by the wheels, the piston is pushed upwards. The
upward movement of the piston, expels the spent gases through the exhaust
valve into the atmosphere, carrying away the unused heat. The exhaust valve
then closes, the intake valve opens up, and the above four strokes of the engine
are repeated again and again.
:: PARTS OF AN ENGINE ::

Here's a quick description of each one, along with a lot of vocabulary that will
help you understand what all the car ads are talking about.

Cylinder:
The core of the engine is the cylinder. The piston moves up and down inside the
cylinder. The engine described here has one cylinder. That is typical of most
lawn mowers, but most cars have more than one cylinder (four, six and eight
cylinders are common). In a multi-cylinder engine the cylinders usually are
arranged in one of three ways: inline, V or flat (also known as horizontally
opposed or boxer), as shown in the following figures.

Inline - The cylinders are arranged in a line in a single bank.


V - The cylinders are arranged in two banks set at an angle to one another.

Flat - The cylinders are arranged in two banks on opposite sides of the
engine.

Different configurations have different smoothness, manufacturing-cost and


shape characteristics that make them more suitable in some vehicles.
Spark plug:
The spark plug supplies the spark that ignites the air/fuel mixture so that
combustion can occur. The spark must happen at just the right moment for things
to work properly.

Valves:
The intake and exhaust valves open at the proper time to let in air and fuel and to
let out exhaust. Note that both valves are closed during compression and
combustion so that the combustion chamber is sealed.

Piston:
A piston is a cylindrical piece of metal that moves up and down inside the
cylinder.

Piston rings:
Piston rings provide a sliding seal between the outer edge of the piston and the
inner edge of the cylinder. The rings serve two purposes:
• They prevent the fuel/air mixture and exhaust in the combustion chamber
from leaking into the sump during compression and combustion.
• They keep oil in the sump from leaking into the combustion area, where it
would be burned and lost.
Most cars that "burn oil" and have to have a quart added every 1,000 miles are
burning it because the engine is old and the rings no longer seal things properly.

Combustion chamber:
The combustion chamber is the area where compression and combustion take
place. As the piston moves up and down, you can see that the size of the
combustion chamber changes. It has some maximum volume as well as a
minimum volume. The difference between the maximum and minimum is called
the displacement and is measured in liters or CCs (Cubic Centimeters, where
1,000 cubic centimeters equals a liter). So if you have a 4-cylinder engine and
each cylinder displaces half a liter, then the entire engine is a "2.0 liter engine." If
each cylinder displaces half a liter and there are six cylinders arranged in a V
configuration, you have a "3.0 liter V-6." Generally, the displacement tells you
something about how much power an engine has. A cylinder that displaces half a
liter can hold twice as much fuel/air mixture as a cylinder that displaces a quarter
of a liter, and therefore you would expect about twice as much power from the
larger cylinder (if everything else is equal). So a 2.0 liter engine is roughly half as
powerful as a 4.0 liter engine. You can get more displacement either by
increasing the number of cylinders or by making the combustion chambers of all
the cylinders bigger (or both).

Connecting rod:
The connecting rod connects the piston to the crankshaft. It can rotate at both
ends so that its angle can change as the piston moves and the crankshaft
rotates.

Crank shaft:
The crank shaft turns the piston's up and down motion into circular motion just
like a crank on a jack-in-the-box does.

Sump:
The sump surrounds the crankshaft. It contains some amount of oil, which
collects in the bottom of the sump (the oil pan).

::WHAT CAN GO WRONG::


So you go out one morning and your engine will turn over but it won't
start... What could be wrong? Now that you know how an engine works, you can
understand the basic things that can keep an engine from running. Three
fundamental things can happen: a bad fuel mix, lack of compression or lack of
spark. Beyond that, thousands of minor things can create problems, but these
are the "big three." Based on the simple engine we have been discussing, here is
a quick run-down on how these problems affect your engine:

Bad fuel mix:


A bad fuel mix can occur in several ways:
• You are out of gas, so the engine is getting air but no fuel.
• The air intake might be clogged, so there is fuel but not enough air.
• The fuel system might be supplying too much or too little fuel to the mix,
meaning that combustion does not occur properly.
• There might be an impurity in the fuel (like water in your gas tank) that
makes the fuel not burn.

Lack of compression:
If the charge of air and fuel cannot be compressed properly, the combustion
process will not work like it should. Lack of compression might occur for these
reasons:
• Your piston rings are worn (allowing air/fuel to leak past the piston during
compression).
• The intake or exhaust valves are not sealing properly, again allowing a
leak during compression.
• There is a hole in the cylinder.
The most common "hole" in a cylinder occurs where the top of the cylinder
(holding the valves and spark plug and also known as the cylinder head)
attaches to the cylinder itself. Generally, the cylinder and the cylinder head bolt
together with a thin gasket pressed between them to ensure a good seal. If the
gasket breaks down, small holes develop between the cylinder and the cylinder
head, and these holes cause leaks.

Lack of spark :
The spark might be nonexistent or weak for a number of reasons:
• If your spark plug or the wire leading to it is worn out, the spark will be
weak.
• If the wire is cut or missing, or if the system that sends a spark down the
wire is not working properly, there will be no spark.
• If the spark occurs either too early or too late in the cycle (i.e. if the
ignition timing is off), the fuel will not ignite at the right time, and this can
cause all sorts of problems.
Many other things can go wrong. For example:
• If the battery is dead, you cannot turn over the engine to start it.
• If the bearings that allow the crankshaft to turn freely are worn out, the
crankshaft cannot turn so the engine cannot run.
• If the valves do not open and close at the right time or at all, air cannot get
in and exhaust cannot get out, so the engine cannot run.
• If someone sticks a potato up your tailpipe, exhaust cannot exit the
cylinder so the engine will not run.
• If you run out of oil, the piston cannot move up and down freely in the
cylinder, and the engine will seize.

::ENGINE SUBSYSTEMS::
As you can see in the previous descriptions under "What Can Go Wrong," an
engine has a number of systems that help it do its job of converting fuel into
motion. Most of these subsystems can be implemented using different
technologies, and better technologies can improve the performance of the
engine. Here's a look at all of the different subsystems used in modern engines:

Valve train:
The valve train consists of the valves and a mechanism that opens and closes
them. The opening and closing system is called a camshaft. The camshaft has
lobes on it that move the valves up and down, as shown in Figure

Most modern engines have what are called overhead cams. This means that the
camshaft is located above the valves, as you see in Figure 5. The cams on the
shaft activate the valves directly or through a very short linkage. Older engines
used a camshaft located in the sump near the crankshaft. Rods linked the cam
below to valve lifters above the valves. This approach has more moving parts
and also causes more lag between the cam's activation of the valve and the
valve's subsequent motion. A timing belt or timing chain links the crankshaft to
the camshaft so that the valves are in sync with the pistons. The camshaft is
geared to turn at one-half the rate of the crankshaft. Many high-performance
engines have four valves per cylinder (two for intake, two for exhaust), and this
arrangement requires two camshafts per bank of cylinders, hence the phrase
"dual overhead cams."

Ignition system:
The ignition system (Figure 6) produces a high-voltage electrical charge and
transmits it to the spark plugs via ignition wires. The charge first flows to a
distributor, which you can easily find under the hood of most cars. The
distributor has one wire going in the center and four, six, or eight wires
(depending on the number of cylinders) coming out of it. These ignition wires
send the charge to each spark plug. The engine is timed so that only one cylinder
receives a spark from the distributor at a time. This approach provides maximum
smoothness.

Cooling system:
The cooling system in most cars consists of the radiator and water pump. Water
circulates through passages around the cylinders and then travels through the
radiator to cool it off. In a few cars (most notably Volkswagen Beetles), as well as
most motorcycles and lawn mowers, the engine is air-cooled instead (You can
tell an air-cooled engine by the fins adorning the outside of each cylinder to help
dissipate heat.). Air-cooling makes the engine lighter but hotter, generally
decreasing engine life and overall performance.
Air intake system:
Most cars are normally aspirated, which means that air flows through an air
filter and directly into the cylinders. High-performance engines are either
turbocharged or supercharged, which means that air coming into the engine is
first pressurized (so that more air/fuel mixture can be squeezed into each
cylinder) to increase performance. The amount of pressurization is called boost.
A turbocharger uses a small turbine attached to the exhaust pipe to spin a
compressing turbine in the incoming air stream. A supercharger is attached
directly to the engine to spin the compressor.
Starting system:
The starting system consists of an electric starter motor and a starter lenoid.
When you turn the ignition key, the starter motor spins the engine a few
revolutions so that the combustion process can start. It takes a powerful motor to
spin a cold engine. The starter motor must overcome:
• All of the internal friction caused by the piston rings
• The compression pressure of any cylinder(s) that happens to be in the
compression stroke
• The energy needed to open and close valves with the camshaft
• All of the "other" things directly attached to the engine, like the water
pump, oil pump, alternator, etc.
Because so much energy is needed and because a car uses a 12-volt electrical
system, hundreds of amps of electricity must flow into the starter motor. The
starter solenoid is essentially a large electronic switch that can handle that much
current. When you turn the ignition key, it activates the solenoid to power the
motor.

Lubrication system:
The lubrication system makes sure that every moving part in the engine gets oil
so that it can move easily. The two main parts needing oil are the pistons (so
they can slide easily in their cylinders) and any bearings that allow things like the
crankshaft and camshafts to rotate freely. In most cars, oil is sucked out of the oil
pan by the oil pump, run through the oil filter to remove any grit, and then
squirted under high pressure onto bearings and the cylinder walls. The oil then
trickles down into the sump, where it is collected again and the cycle repeats.

Fuel system:
The fuel system pumps gas from the gas tank and mixes it with air so that the
proper air/fuel mixture can flow into the cylinders. Fuel is delivered in three
common ways: carburetion, port fuel injection and direct fuel injection.
• In carburetion, a device called a carburetor mixes gas into air as the air
flows into the engine.
• In a fuel-injected engine, the right amount of fuel is injected individually
into each cylinder either right above the intake valve (port fuel injection) or
directly into the cylinder (direct fuel injection).

Exhaust system:
The exhaust system includes the exhaust pipe and the muffler. Without a muffler,
what you would hear is the sound of thousands of small explosions coming out
your tailpipe. A muffler dampens the sound. The exhaust system also includes a
catalytic converter. .

Emission control system:


The emission control system in modern cars consists of a catalytic converter, a
collection of sensors and actuators, and a computer to monitor and adjust
everything. For example, the catalytic converter uses a catalyst and oxygen to
burn off any unused fuel and certain other chemicals in the exhaust. An oxygen
sensor in the exhaust stream makes sure there is enough oxygen available for
the catalyst to work and adjusts things if necessary.

Electrical system:
The electrical system consists of a battery and an alternator. The alternator is
connected to the engine by a belt and generates electricity to recharge the
battery. The battery makes 12-volt power available to everything in the car
needing electricity (the ignition system, radio, headlights, windshield wipers,
power windows and seats, computers, etc.) through the vehicle's wiring.

Diesel Engines Work

::THE DIESEL CYCLE::


Rudolf Diesel developed the idea for the diesel engine and obtained the
German patent for it in 1892. His goal was to create an engine with high
efficiency. Gasoline engines had been invented 1876 and, especially at that
time, were not very efficient.
The main differences between the gasoline engine and the diesel engine are:
• A gasoline engine intakes a mixture of gas and air, compresses it and
ignites the mixture with a spark. A diesel engine takes in just air,
compresses it and then injects fuel into the compressed air. The heat of
the compressed air lights the fuel spontaneously.
• A gasoline engine compresses at a ratio of 8:1 to 12:1, while a diesel
engine compresses at a ratio of 14:1 to as high as 25:1. The higher
compression ratio of the diesel engine leads to better efficiency.
• Gasoline engines generally use either carburetion, in which the air and
fuel is mixed long before the air enters the cylinder, or port fuel injection, in
which the fuel is injected just prior to the intake stroke (outside the
cylinder). Diesel engines use direct fuel injection -- the diesel fuel is
injected directly into the cylinder.
Note that the diesel engine has no spark plug, that it intakes air and compresses
it, and that it then injects the fuel directly into the combustion chamber (direct
injection). It is the heat of the compressed air that lights the fuel in a diesel
engine.
In the simplified animation above, the green device attached to the left side of the
cylinder is a fuel injector. However, the injector on a diesel engine is its most
complex component and has been the subject of a great deal of experimentation
-- in any particular engine it may be located in a variety of places. The injector
has to be able to withstand the temperature and pressure inside the cylinder and
still deliver the fuel in a fine mist. Getting the mist circulated in the cylinder so that
it is evenly distributed is also a problem, so some diesel engines employ special
induction valves, pre-combustion chambers or other devices to swirl the air in the
combustion chamber or otherwise improve the ignition and combustion process.
One big difference between a diesel engine and a gas engine is in the
injection process. Most car engines use port injection or a carburetor rather than
direct injection. In a car engine, therefore, all of the fuel is loaded into the cylinder
during the intake stroke and then compressed. The compression of the fuel/air
mixture limits the compression ratio of the engine -- if it compresses the air too
much, the fuel/air mixture spontaneously ignites and causes knocking. A diesel
compresses only air, so the compression ratio can be much higher. The higher
the compression ratio, the more power is generated.
Some diesel engines contain a glow plug of some sort (not shown in this figure).
When a diesel engine is cold, the compression process may not raise the air to a
high enough temperature to ignite the fuel. The glow plug is an electrically heated
wire (think of the hot wires you see in a toaster) that helps ignite the fuel when
the engine is cold so that the engine can start. According to Cley Brotherton, a
Journeyman heavy equipment technician:
All functions in a modern engine are controlled by the ECM communicating
with an elaborate set of sensors measuring everything from R.P.M. to engine
coolant and oil temperatures and even engine position (i.e. T.D.C.). Glow
plugs are rarely used today on larger engines. The ECM senses ambient air
temperature and retards the timing of the engine in cold weather so the
injector sprays the fuel at a later time. The air in the cylinder is compressed
more, creating more heat, which aids in starting.

::DIESEL FUEL::
If you have ever compared diesel fuel and gasoline, you know that they are
different. They certainly smell different. Diesel fuel is heavier and oilier. Diesel
fuel evaporates much more slowly than gasoline -- its boiling point is actually
higher than the boiling point of water. You will often hear diesel fuel referred to as
"diesel oil" because it is so oily.
Diesel fuel evaporates more slowly because it is heavier. It contains more carbon
atoms in longer chains than gasoline does (gasoline is typically C9H20, while
diesel fuel is typically C14H30). It takes less refining to create diesel fuel, which is
why it is generally cheaper than gasoline.
Diesel fuel has a higher energy density than gasoline. On average, 1 gallon
(3.8 L) of diesel fuel contains approximately 155x106 joules (147,000 BTU), while
1 gallon of gasoline contains 132x106 joules (125,000 BTU). This, combined with
the improved efficiency of diesel engines, explains why diesel engines get better
mileage than equivalent gasoline engines.

::UNDERSTANDING THE CYCLE::


If you read How Two-stroke Engines Work, you learned that one big difference
between two-stroke and four-stroke engines is the amount of power the engine
can produce. The spark plug fires twice as often in a two-stroke engine -- once
per every revolution of the crankshaft, versus once for every two revolutions in a
four-stroke engine. This means that a two-stroke engine has the potential to
produce twice as much power as a four-stroke engine of the same size.
The two-stroke engine article also explains that the gasoline engine cycle, where
gas and air are mixed and compressed together, is not really a perfect match for
the two-stroke approach. The problem is that some unburned fuel leaks out each
time the cylinder is recharged with the air-fuel mixture. (See How Two-stroke
Engines Work for details.)
It turns out that the diesel approach, which compresses only air and then injects
the fuel directly into the compressed air, is a much better match with the two-
stroke cycle. Many manufacturers of large diesel engines therefore use this
approach to create high-power engines.
The figure below shows the layout of a typical two-stroke diesel engine:

At the top of the cylinder are typically two or four exhaust valves that all open at
the same time. There is also the diesel fuel injector (shown above in yellow). The
piston is elongated, as in a gasoline two-stroke engine, so that it can act as the
intake valve. At the bottom of the piston's travel, the piston uncovers the ports for
air intake. The intake air is pressurized by a turbocharger or a supercharger (light
blue). The crankcase is sealed and contains oil as in a four-stroke engine.
The two-stroke diesel cycle goes like this:
1. When the piston is at the top of its travel, the cylinder contains a charge of
highly compressed air. Diesel fuel is sprayed into the cylinder by the
injector and immediately ignites because of the heat and pressure inside
the cylinder. This is the same process described in How Diesel Engines
Work.
2. The pressure created by the combustion of the fuel drives the piston
downward. This is the power stroke.
3. As the piston nears the bottom of its stroke, all of the exhaust valves open.
Exhaust gases rush out of the cylinder, relieving the pressure.
4. As the piston bottoms out, it uncovers the air intake ports. Pressurized air
fills the cylinder, forcing out the remainder of the exhaust gases.
5. The exhaust valves close and the piston starts traveling back upward, re-
covering the intake ports and compressing the fresh charge of air. This is
the compression stroke.
6. As the piston nears the top of the cylinder, the cycle repeats with step 1.
From this description, you can see the big difference between a diesel two-stroke
engine and a gasoline two-stroke engine: In the diesel version, only air fills the
cylinder, rather than gas and air mixed together. This means that a diesel two-
stroke engine suffers from none of the environmental problems that plague a
gasoline two-stroke engine. On the other hand, a diesel two-stroke engine must
have a turbocharger or a supercharger, and this means that you will never find a
diesel two-stroke on a chain saw -- it would simply be too expensive.

Gas Turbine Engines Work


When you go to an airport and see the commercial jets there, you can't help but
notice the huge engines that power them. Most commercial jets are powered by
turbofan engines, and turbofans are one example of a general class of engines
called gas turbine engines.

::A LITTLE BACKGROUND::


There are many different kinds of turbines:
• You have probably heard of a steam turbine. Most power plants use coal,
natural gas, oil or a nuclear reactor to create steam. The steam runs
through a huge and very carefully designed multi-stage turbine to spin an
output shaft that drives the plant's generator.
• Hydroelectric dams use water turbines in the same way to generate
power. The turbines used in a hydroelectric plant look completely different
from a steam turbine because water is so much denser (and slower
moving) than steam, but it is the same principle.
• Wind turbines, also known as wind mills, use the wind as their motive
force. A wind turbine looks nothing like a steam turbine or a water turbine
because winds is slow moving and very light, but again, the principle is the
same.
A gas turbine is an extension of the same concept. In a gas turbine, a
pressurized gas spins the turbine. In all modern gas turbine engines, the engine
produces its own pressurized gas, and it does this by burning something like
propane, natural gas, kerosene or jet fuel. The heat that comes from burning the
fuel expands air, and the high-speed rush of this hot air spins the turbine.

::ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES::


So why does the M-1 tank use a 1,500 horsepower gas turbine engine instead of
a diesel engine? It turns out that there are two big advantages of the turbine over
the diesel:
• Gas turbine engines have a great power-to-weight ratio compared to
reciprocating engines. That is, the amount of power you get out of the
engine compared to the weight of the engine itself is very good.
• Gas turbine engines are smaller than their reciprocating counterparts of
the same power.
The main disadvantage of gas turbines is that, compared to a reciprocating
engine of the same size, they are expensive. Because they spin at such high
speeds and because of the high operating temperatures, designing and
manufacturing gas turbines is a tough problem from both the engineering and
materials standpoint. Gas turbines also tend to use more fuel when they are
idling, and they prefer a constant rather than a fluctuating load. That makes gas
turbines great for things like transcontinental jet aircraft and power plants, but
explains why you don't have one under the hood of your car.

::THE GAS TURBINE PROCESS::


Gas turbine engines are, theoretically, extremely simple. They have three parts:
• Compressor - Compresses the incoming air to high pressure
• Combustion area - Burns the fuel and produces high-pressure, high-
velocity gas
• Turbine - Extracts the energy from the high-pressure, high-velocity gas
flowing from the combustion chamber

In this engine, air is sucked in from the right by the compressor. The compressor
is basically a cone-shaped cylinder with small fan blades attached in rows (eight
rows of blades are represented here). Assuming the light blue represents air at
normal air pressure, then as the air is forced through the compression stage its
pressure rises significantly. In some engines, the pressure of the air can rise by a
factor of 30. The high-pressure air produced by the compressor is shown in dark
blue.
This high-pressure air then enters the combustion area, where a ring of fuel
injectors injects a steady stream of fuel. The fuel is generally kerosene, jet fuel,
propane or natural gas. If you think about how easy it is to blow a candle out,
then you can see the design problem in the combustion area -- entering this area
is high-pressure air moving at hundreds of miles per hour. You want to keep a
flame burning continuously in that environment. The piece that solves this
problem is called a "flame holder," or sometimes a "can." The can is a hollow,
perforated piece of heavy metal. Half of the can in cross-section is shown below:
The injectors are at the right. Compressed air enters through the perforations.
Exhaust gases exit at the left. You can see in the previous figure that a second
set of cylinders wraps around the inside and the outside of this perforated can,
guiding the compressed intake air into the perforations.
At the left of the engine is the turbine section. In this figure there are two sets of
turbines. The first set directly drives the compressor. The turbines, the shaft and
the compressor all turn as a single unit:
At the far left is a final turbine stage, shown here with a single set of vanes. It
drives the output shaft. This final turbine stage and the output shaft are a
completely stand-alone, freewheeling unit. They spin freely without any
connection to the rest of the engine. And that is the amazing part about a gas
turbine engine -- there is enough energy in the hot gases blowing through the
blades of that final output turbine to generate 1,500 horsepower and drive a 63-
ton M-1 Tank! A gas turbine engine really is that simple.
In the case of the turbine used in a tank or a power plant, there really is nothing
to do with the exhaust gases but vent them through an exhaust pipe, as shown.
Sometimes the exhaust will run through some sort of heat exchanger either to
extract the heat for some other purpose or to preheat air before it enters the
combustion chamber.
The discussion here is obviously simplified a bit. For example, we have not
discussed the areas of bearings, oiling systems, internal support structures of the
engine, stator vanes and so on. All of these areas become major engineering
problems because of the tremendous temperatures, pressures and spin rates
inside the engine. But the basic principles described here govern all gas turbine
engines and help you to understand the basic layout and operation of the engine.
::OTHER VARIATIONS::
Large jetliners use what are known as turbofan engines, which are nothing more
than gas turbines combined with a large fan at the front of the engine. Here's the
basic (highly simplified) layout of a turbofan engine:

You can see that the core of a turbofan is a normal gas turbine engine like the
one described in the previous section. The difference is that the final turbine
stage drives a shaft that makes its way back to the front of the engine to power
the fan (shown in red in this picture). This multiple concentric shaft approach,
by the way, is extremely common in gas turbines. In many larger turbofans, in
fact, there may be two completely separate compression stages driven by
separate turbines, along with the fan turbine as shown above. All three shafts
ride within one another concentrically.
The purpose of the fan is to dramatically increase the amount of air moving
through the engine, and therefore increase the engine's thrust. When you look
into the engine of a commercial jet at the airport, what you see is this fan at the
front of the engine. It is huge -- on the order of 10 feet (3 m) in diameter on big
jets, so it can move a lot of air. The air that the fan moves is called "bypass air"
(shown in purple above) because it bypasses the turbine portion of the engine
and moves straight through to the back of the nacelle at high speed to provide
thrust.
A turboprop engine is similar to a turbofan, but instead of a fan there is a
conventional propeller at the front of the engine. The output shaft connects to a
gearbox to reduce the speed, and the output of the gearbox turns the propeller.

::JET ENGINE THRUST::


The goal of a turbofan engine is to produce thrust to drive the airplane forward.
Thrust is generally measured in pounds in the United States (the metric system
uses Newton’s, where 4.45 Newtons equals 1 pound of thrust). A "pound of
thrust" is equal to a force able to accelerate 1 pound of material 32 feet per
second per second (32 feet per second per second happens to be equivalent to
the acceleration provided by gravity). Therefore, if you have a jet engine capable
of producing 1 pound of thrust, it could hold 1 pound of material suspended in the
air if the jet were pointed straight down. Likewise, a jet engine producing 5,000
pounds of thrust could hold 5,000 pounds of material suspended in the air. And if
a rocket engine produced 5,000 pounds of thrust applied to a 5,000-pound object
floating in space, the 5,000-pound object would accelerate at a rate of 32 feet per
second per second.
Thrust is generated under Newton's principle that "every action has an equal and
opposite reaction." For example, imagine that you are floating in space and you
weigh 100 pounds on Earth. In your hand you have a baseball that weighs 1
pound on Earth. If you throw the baseball away from you at a speed of 32 feet
per second (21 mph / 34 kph), your body will move in the opposite direction (it
will react) at a speed of 0.32 feet per second. If you were to continuously throw
baseballs in that way at a rate of one per second, your baseballs would be
generating 1 pound of continuous thrust. Keep in mind that to generate that 1
pound of thrust for an hour you would need to be holding 3,600 pounds of
baseballs at the beginning of the hour. If you wanted to do better, the thing to do
is to throw the baseballs harder. By "throwing" them (with of a gun, say) at 3,200
feet per second, you would generate 100 pounds of thrust.
In a turbofan engine, the baseballs that the engine is throwing out are air
molecules. The air molecules are already there, so the airplane does not have to
carry them around at least. An individual air molecule does not weigh very much,
but the engine is throwing a lot of them and it is throwing them at very high
speed. Thrust is coming from two components in the turbofan:
• The gas turbine itself - Generally a nozzle is formed at the exhaust end of
the gas turbine (not shown in this figure) to generate a high-speed jet of
exhaust gas. A typical speed for air molecules exiting the engine is 1,300
mph (2,092 kph).
• The bypass air generated by the fan - This bypass air moves at a slower
speed than the exhaust from the turbine, but the fan moves a lot of air.

Rotary Engines Work

A rotary engine is an internal combustion engine, like the engine in your car, but
it works in a completely different way than the conventional piston engine.

In a piston engine, the same volume of space (the cylinder) alternately does four
different jobs -- intake, compression, combustion and exhaust. A rotary engine
does these same four jobs, but each one happens in its own part of the housing.
It's kind of like having a dedicated cylinder for each of the four jobs, with the
piston moving continually from one to the next.
The rotary engine (originally conceived and developed by Dr. Felix Wankel) is
sometimes called a Wankel engine, or Wankel rotary engine.

::THE BASICS::
Like a piston engine, the rotary engine uses the pressure created when a
combination of air and fuel is burned. In a piston engine, that pressure is
contained in the cylinders and forces pistons to move back and forth. The
connecting rods and crankshaft convert the reciprocating motion of the pistons
into rotational motion that can be used to power a car.
In a rotary engine, the pressure of combustion is contained in a chamber formed
by part of the housing and sealed in by one face of the triangular rotor, which is
what the engine uses instead of pistons.

The rotor follows a path that looks like something you'd create with a Spirograph.
This path keeps each of the three peaks of the rotor in contact with the housing,
creating three separate volumes of gas. As the rotor moves around the chamber,
each of the three volumes of gas alternatively expands and contracts. It is this
expansion and contraction that draws air and fuel into the engine, compresses it
and makes useful power as the gases expand and then expels the exhaust.
::THE PARTS::
A rotary engine has an ignition system and a fuel-delivery system that are similar
to the ones on piston engines. If you've never seen the inside of a rotary engine,
be prepared for a surprise, because you won't recognize much.
Rotor
The rotor has three convex faces, each of which acts like a piston. Each face of
the rotor has a pocket in it, which increases the displacement of the engine,
allowing more space for air/fuel mixture.
At the apex of each face is a metal blade that forms a seal to the outside of the
combustion chamber. There are also metal rings on each side of the rotor that
seal to the sides of the combustion chamber.
The rotor has a set of internal gear teeth cut into the center of one side. These
teeth mate with a gear that is fixed to the housing. This gear mating determines
the path and direction the rotor takes through the housing.
Housing
The housing is roughly oval in shape (it's actually epitrochoid in shape -- check
out this Java demonstration of how the shape is derived). The shape of the
combustion chamber is designed so that the three tips of the rotor will always
stay in contact with the wall of the chamber, forming three sealed volumes of
gas.
Each part of the housing is dedicated to one part of the combustion process. The
four sections are:
• Intake
• Compression
• Combustion
• Exhaust
The intake and exhaust ports are located in the housing. There are no valves in
these ports. The exhaust port connects directly to the exhaust, and the intake
port connects directly to the throttle.
Output Shaft
The output shaft has round lobes mounted eccentrically, meaning that they are
offset from the centerline of the shaft. Each rotor fits over one of these lobes. The
lobe acts sort of like the crankshaft in a piston engine. As the rotor follows its
path around the housing, it pushes on the lobes. Since the lobes are mounted
eccentric to the output shaft, the force that the rotor applies to the lobes creates
torque in the shaft, causing it to spin.
::HOW IT'S PUT TOGETHER::
A rotary engine is assembled in layers. The two-rotor engine we took apart has
five main layers that are held together by a ring of long bolts. Coolant flows
through passageways surrounding all of the pieces.
The two end layers contain the seals and bearings for the output shaft. They also
seal in the two sections of housing that contain the rotors. The inside surfaces of
these pieces are very smooth, which helps the seals on the rotor do their job. An
intake port is located on each of these end pieces.
The next layer in from the outside is the oval-shaped rotor housing, which
contains the exhaust ports. This is the part of the housing that contains the rotor.
The center piece contains two intake ports, one for each rotor. It also separates
the two rotors, so its outside surfaces are very smooth

In the center of each rotor is a large internal gear that rides around a smaller
gear that is fixed to the housing of the engine. This is what determines the orbit
of the rotor. The rotor also rides on the large circular lobe on the output shaft.

::PRODUCING POWER::
Rotary engines use the four-stroke combustion cycle, which is the same cycle
that four-stroke piston engines use. But in a rotary engine, this is accomplished in
a completely different way.
The heart of a rotary engine is the rotor. This is roughly the equivalent of the
pistons in a piston engine. The rotor is mounted on a large circular lobe on the
output shaft. This lobe is offset from the centerline of the shaft and acts like the
crank handle on a winch, giving the rotor the leverage it needs to turn the output
shaft. As the rotor orbits inside the housing, it pushes the lobe around in tight
circles, turning three times for every one revolution of the rotor.

As the rotor moves through the housing, the three chambers created by the rotor
change size. This size change produces a pumping action. Let's go through each
of the four stokes of the engine looking at one face of the rotor.
Intake
The intake phase of the cycle starts when the tip of the rotor passes the intake
port. At the moment when the intake port is exposed to the chamber, the volume
of that chamber is close to its minimum. As the rotor moves past the intake port,
the volume of the chamber expands, drawing air/fuel mixture into the chamber.
When the peak of the rotor passes the intake port, that chamber is sealed off and
compression begins.
Compression
As the rotor continues its motion around the housing, the volume of the chamber
gets smaller and the air/fuel mixture gets compressed. By the time the face of the
rotor has made it around to the spark plugs, the volume of the chamber is again
close to its minimum. This is when combustion starts.
Combustion
Most rotary engines have two spark plugs. The shape of the combustion
chamber is long, so the flame would spread too slowly if there were only one
plug. When the spark plugs ignite the air/fuel mixture, pressure quickly builds,
forcing the rotor to move.
The pressure of combustion forces the rotor to move in the direction that makes
the chamber grow in volume. The combustion gases continue to expand, moving
the rotor and creating power, until the peak of the rotor passes the exhaust port.
Exhaust
Once the peak of the rotor passes the exhaust port, the high-pressure
combustion gases are free to flow out the exhaust. As the rotor continues to
move, the chamber starts to contract, forcing the remaining exhaust out of the
port. By the time the volume of the chamber is nearing its minimum, the peak of
the rotor passes the intake port and the whole cycle starts again.
The neat thing about the rotary engine is that each of the three faces of the rotor
is always working on one part of the cycle -- in one complete revolution of the
rotor, there will be three combustion stokes. But remember, the output shaft
spins three times for every complete revolution of the rotor, which means that
there is one combustion stroke for each revolution of the output shaft.

::KEY DIFFERENCES::
There are several defining characteristics that differentiate a rotary engine from a
typical piston engine.
Fewer Moving Parts
The rotary engine has far fewer moving parts than a comparable four-stroke
piston engine. A two-rotor rotary engine has three main moving parts: the two
rotors and the output shaft. Even the simplest four-cylinder piston engine has at
least 40 moving parts, including pistons, connecting rods, camshaft, valves, valve
springs, rockers, timing belt, timing gears and crankshaft.
This minimization of moving parts can translate into better reliability from a rotary
engine. This is why some aircraft manufacturers (including the maker of Sky car)
prefer rotary engines to piston engines.
Smoother
All the parts in a rotary engine spin continuously in one direction, rather than
violently changing directions like the pistons in a conventional engine do. Rotary
engines are internally balanced with spinning counterweights that are phased to
cancel out any vibrations.
The power delivery in a rotary engine is also smoother. Because each
combustion event lasts through 90-degrees of the rotor's rotation, and the output
shaft spins three revolutions for each revolution of the rotor, each combustion
event lasts through 270-degrees of the output shaft's rotation. This means that a
single-rotor engine delivers power for three-quarters of each revolution of the
output shaft. Compare this to a single-cylinder piston engine, in which
combustion occurs during 180 degrees out of every two revolutions, or only a
quarter of each revolution of the crankshaft (the output shaft of a piston engine).
Slower
Since the rotors spin at one-third the speed of the output shaft, the main moving
parts of the engine move slower than the parts in a piston engine. This also helps
with reliability.
Challenges
There are some challenges in designing a rotary engine:
• Typically, it is more difficult (but not impossible) to make a rotary engine
meet U.S. emissions regulations.
• The manufacturing costs can be higher, mostly because the number of
these engines produced is not as high as the number of piston engines.
• They typically consume more fuel than a piston engine because the
thermodynamic efficiency of the engine is reduced by the long
combustion-chamber shape and low compression ratio.

Electric Motors Work


Electric motors are everywhere! In your house, almost every mechanical
movement that you see around you is caused by an AC or DC electric motor.

::MOTORS EVERYWHERE!::
Look around your house and you will find that it is filled with electric motors.
Here's an interesting experiment for you to try: Walk through your house and
count all the motors you find. Starting in the kitchen, there are motors in:
• The fan over the stove and in the microwave oven
• The dispose-all under the sink
• The blender
• The can opener
• The refrigerator - Two or three in fact: one for the compressor, one for the
fan inside the refrigerator, as well as one in the icemaker
• The mixer
• The tape player in the answering machine
• Probably even the clock on the oven
In the utility room, there is an electric motor in:
• The washer
• The dryer
• The electric screwdriver
• The vacuum cleaner and the Dustbuster mini-vac
• The electric saw
• The electric drill
• The furnace blower
Even in the bathroom there's a motor in:
• The fan
• The electric toothbrush
• The hair dryer
• The electric razor
Your car is loaded with electric motors:
• Power windows (a motor in each window)
• Power seats (up to seven motors per seat)
• Fans for the heater and the radiator
• Windshield wipers
• The starter motor
• Electric radio antennas
Plus, there are motors in all sorts of other places:
• Several in the VCR
• Several in a CD player or tape deck
• Many in a computer (each disk drive has two or three, plus there's a fan or
two)
• Most toys that move have at least one motor (including Tickle-me-Elmo for
its vibrations)
• Electric clocks
• The garage door opener
• Aquarium pumps
In walking around my house, I counted over 50 electric motors hidden in all sorts
of devices. Everything that moves uses an electric motor to accomplish its
movement.

::PARTS OF AN ELECTRIC MOTOR::


Let's start by looking at the overall plan of a simple two-pole DC electric motor.
A simple motor has six parts, as shown in the diagram below:
• Armature or rotor
• Commutator
• Brushes
• Axle
• Field magnet
• DC power supply of some sort
An electric motor is all about magnets and magnetism: A motor uses magnets to
create motion. If you have ever played with magnets you know about the
fundamental law of all magnets: Opposites attract and likes repel. So if you have
two bar magnets with their ends marked "north" and "south," then the north end
of one magnet will attract the south end of the other. On the other hand, the north
end of one magnet will repel the north end of the other (and similarly, south will
repel south). Inside an electric motor, these attracting and repelling forces create
rotational motion.
In the diagram you can see two magnets in the motor: The armature (or rotor) is
an electromagnet, while the field magnet is a permanent magnet (the field
magnet could be an electromagnet as well, but in most small motors it isn't in
order to save power).
::ELECTROMAGNETS AND MOTORS::

An electromagnet is the basis of an electric motor. You can understand how


things work in the motor by imagining the following scenario. Say that you
created a simple electromagnet by wrapping 100 loops of wire around a nail and
connecting it to a battery. The nail would become a magnet and have a north and
south pole while the battery is connected.
Now say that you take your nail electromagnet, run an axle through the middle of
it and suspend it in the middle of a horseshoe magnet as shown in the figure

below. If you were to attach a battery to the electromagnet so that the north end
of the nail appeared as shown, the basic law of magnetism tells you what would
happen: The north end of the electromagnet would be repelled from the north
end of the horseshoe magnet and attracted to the south end of the horseshoe
magnet. The south end of the electromagnet would be repelled in a similar way.
The nail would move about half a turn and then stop in the position shown.

You can see that this half-turn of motion is simply due to the way magnets
naturally attract and repel one another. The key to an electric motor is to then go
one step further so that, at the moment that this half-turn of motion completes,
the field of the electromagnet flips. The flip causes the electromagnet to
complete another half-turn of motion. You flip the magnetic field just by changing
the direction of the electrons flowing in the wire (you do that by flipping the
battery over). If the field of the electromagnet were flipped at precisely the right
moment at the end of each half-turn of motion, the electric motor would spin
freely.

The armature takes the place of the nail in an electric motor. The armature is an
electromagnet made by coiling thin wire around two or more poles of a metal
core.
The armature has an axle, and the commutator is attached to the axle. In the
diagram to the right, you can see three different views of the same armature:
front, side and end-on. In the end-on view, the winding is eliminated to make the
commutator more obvious. You can see that the commutator is simply a pair of
plates attached to the axle. These plates provide the two connections for the coil
of the electromagnet.

armature

The "flipping the electric field" part of an electric motor is accomplished by two
parts: the commutator and the brushes.
The diagram at the right shows how the commutator and brushes work together
to let current flow to the electromagnet, and also to flip the direction that the
electrons are flowing at just the right moment. The contacts of the commutator

are attached to the axle of the electromagnet, so they spin with the magnet. The
brushes are just two pieces of springy metal or carbon that make contact with the
contacts of the commutator.

::PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER::


In this figure, the armature winding has been left out so that it is easier to see the
commutator in action. The key thing to notice is that as the armature passes
through the horizontal position, the poles of the electromagnet flip. Because of
the flip, the north pole of the electromagnet is always above the axle so it can
repel the field magnet's North Pole and attract the field magnet's South Pole.
If you ever have the chance to take apart a small electric motor, you will find that
it contains the same pieces described above: two small permanent magnets, a
commutator, two brushes, and an electromagnet made by winding wire around a
piece of metal. Almost always, however, the rotor will have three poles rather
than the two poles as shown in this article. There are two good reasons for a
motor to have three poles:
• It causes the motor to have better dynamics. In a two-pole motor, if the
electromagnet is at the balance point, perfectly horizontal between the two
poles of the field magnet when the motor starts; you can imagine the
armature getting "stuck" there. That never happens in a three-pole motor.
• Each time the commutator hits the point where it flips the field in a two-
pole motor, the commutator shorts out the battery (directly connects the
positive and negative terminals) for a moment. This shorting wastes
energy and drains the battery needlessly. A three-pole motor solves this
problem as well.
It is possible to have any number of poles, depending on the size of the motor
and the specific application it is being used in.

Fuel Cells Work

::WHAT IS A FUEL CELL?::


A fuel cell is an electrochemical energy conversion device that converts
hydrogen and oxygen into electricity and heat. It is very much like a battery that
can be recharged while you are drawing power from it. Instead of recharging
using electricity, however, a fuel cell uses hydrogen and oxygen.

The fuel cell will compete with many other types of energy conversion devices,
including the gas turbine in your city's power plant, the gasoline engine in your
car and the battery in your laptop. Combustion engines like the turbine and the
gasoline engine burn fuels and use the pressure created by the expansion of the
gases to do mechanical work. Batteries store electrical energy by converting it
into chemical energy, which can be converted back into electrical energy when
needed.
A fuel cell provides a DC (direct current) voltage that can be used to power
motors, lights or any number of electrical appliances. There are several different
types of fuel cells, each using a different chemistry. Fuel cells are usually
classified by the type of electrolyte they use. Some types of fuel cells show
promise for use in power generation plants. Others may be useful for small
portable applications or for powering cars.
The proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is one of the most
promising technologies. This is the type of fuel cell that will end up powering
cars, buses and maybe even your house.

::PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE::


The proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) uses one of the simplest
reactions of any fuel cell. First, let's take a look at what's in a PEM fuel cell:
In Figure you can see there are four basic elements of a PEMFC:
• The anode, the negative post of the fuel cell, has several jobs. It conducts
the electrons that are freed from the hydrogen molecules so that they can
be used in an external circuit. It has channels etched into it that disperse
the hydrogen gas equally over the surface of the catalyst.
• The cathode, the positive post of the fuel cell, has channels etched into it
that distribute the oxygen to the surface of the catalyst. It also conducts
the electrons back from the external circuit to the catalyst, where they can
recombine with the hydrogen ions and oxygen to form water.
• The electrolyte is the proton exchange membrane. This specially
treated material, which looks something like ordinary kitchen plastic wrap,
only conducts positively charged ions. The membrane blocks electrons.
• The catalyst is a special material that facilitates the reaction of oxygen
and hydrogen. It is usually made of platinum powder very thinly coated
onto carbon paper or cloth. The catalyst is rough and porous so that the
maximum surface area of the platinum can be exposed to the hydrogen or
oxygen. The platinum-coated side of the catalyst faces the PEM.

Figure shows the pressurized hydrogen gas (H2) entering the fuel cell on the
anode side. This gas is forced through the catalyst by the pressure. When an H2
molecule comes in contact with the platinum on the catalyst, it splits into two H+
ions and two electrons (e-). The electrons are conducted through the anode,
where they make their way through the external circuit (doing useful work such
as turning a motor) and return to the cathode side of the fuel cell.
Meanwhile, on the cathode side of the fuel cell, oxygen gas (O2) is being forced
through the catalyst, where it forms two oxygen atoms. Each of these atoms has
a strong negative charge. This negative charge attracts the two H+ ions through
the membrane, where they combine with an oxygen atom and two of the
electrons from the external circuit to form a water molecule (H2O).
This reaction in a single fuel cell produces only about 0.7 volts. To get this
voltage up to a reasonable level, many separate fuel cells must be combined to
form a fuel-cell stack.
PEMFCs operate at a fairly low temperature (about 176 degrees Fahrenheit, 80
degrees Celsius), which means they warm up quickly and don't require
expensive containment structures. Constant improvements in the engineering
and materials used in these cells have increased the power density to a level
where a device about the size of a small piece of luggage can power a car.

::PROBLEMS WITH FUEL CELLS::


We learned in the last section that a fuel cell uses oxygen and hydrogen to
produce electricity. The oxygen required for a fuel cell comes from the air. In fact,
in the PEM fuel cell, ordinary air is pumped into the cathode. The hydrogen is not
so readily available, however. Hydrogen has some limitations that make it
impractical for use in most applications. For instance, you don't have a hydrogen
pipeline coming to your house, and you can't pull up to a hydrogen pump at your
local gas station.
Hydrogen is difficult to store and distribute, so it would be much more convenient
if fuel cells could use fuels that are more readily available. This problem is
addressed by a device called a reformer. A reformer turns hydrocarbon or
alcohol fuels into hydrogen, which is then fed to the fuel cell. Unfortunately,
reformers are not perfect. They generate heat and produce other gases besides
hydrogen. They use various devices to try to clean up the hydrogen, but even so,
the hydrogen that comes out of them is not pure, and this lowers the efficiency of
the fuel cell.
Some of the more promising fuels are natural gas, propane and methanol. Many
people have natural-gas lines or propane tanks at their house already, so these
fuels are the most likely to be used for home fuel cells. Methanol is a liquid fuel
that has similar properties to gasoline. It is just as easy to transport and
distribute, so methanol may be a likely candidate to power fuel-cell cars.
::EFFICIENCY OF FUEL CELLS::
In this section, we will take a look at how fuel cells might improve the efficiency of
cars today. Remember that pollution reduction is one of the primary goals of
the fuel cell.
We will compare a fuel-cell-powered car to a gasoline-engine-powered car and a
battery-powered car. Since all three types of cars have many of the same
components (tires, transmissions, etc.), we'll ignore that part of the car and
compare efficiencies up to the point where mechanical power is generated. Let's
start with the fuel-cell car. (All of these efficiencies are approximations, but they
should be close enough to make a rough comparison.)
Fuel-Cell-Powered Electric Car
If the fuel cell is powered with pure hydrogen, it has the potential to be up to 80-
percent efficient. That is, it converts 80 percent of the energy content of the
hydrogen into electrical energy. But, as we learned in the previous section,
hydrogen is difficult to store in a car. When we add a reformer to convert
methanol to hydrogen, the overall efficiency drops to about 30 to 40 percent.
We still need to convert the electrical energy into mechanical work. This is
accomplished by the electric motor and inverter. A reasonable number for the
efficiency of the motor/inverter is about 80 percent. So we have 30- to 40-percent
efficiency at converting methanol to electricity, and 80-percent efficiency
converting electricity to mechanical power. That gives an overall efficiency of
about 24 to 32 percent.
Gasoline-Powered Car
The efficiency of a gasoline-powered car is surprisingly low. All of the heat that
comes out as exhaust or goes into the radiator is wasted energy. The engine
also uses a lot of energy turning the various pumps, fans and generators that
keep it going. So the overall efficiency of an automotive gas engine is about 20
percent. That is, only about 20 percent of the thermal-energy content of the
gasoline is converted into mechanical work.
Battery-Powered Electric Car
This type of car has a fairly high efficiency. The battery is about 90-percent
efficient (most batteries generate some heat, or require heating), and the electric
motor/inverter is about 80-percent efficient. This gives an overall efficiency of
about 72 percent.
But that is not the whole story. The electricity used to power the car had to be
generated somewhere. If it was generated at a power plant that used a
combustion process (rather than nuclear, hydroelectric, solar or wind), then only
about 40 percent of the fuel required by the power plant was converted into
electricity. The process of charging the car requires the conversion of alternating
current (AC) power to direct current (DC) power. This process has an efficiency
of about 90 percent.
So, if we look at the whole cycle, the efficiency of an electric car is 72 percent for
the car, 40 percent for the power plant and 90 percent for charging the car. That
gives an overall efficiency of 26 percent. The overall efficiency varies
considerably depending on what sort of power plant is used. If the electricity for
the car is generated by a hydroelectric plant for instance, then it is basically free
(we didn't burn any fuel to generate it), and the efficiency of the electric car is
about 65 percent.
Surprised?
Maybe you are surprised by how close these three technologies are. This
exercise points out the importance of considering the whole system, not just the
car. We could even go a step further and ask what the efficiency of producing
gasoline, methanol or coal is.
Efficiency is not the only consideration, however. People will not drive a car just
because it is the most efficient if it makes them change their behavior. They are
concerned about many other issues as well. They want to know:
• Is the car quick and easy to refuel?
• Can it travel a good distance before refueling?
• Is it as fast as the other cars on the road?
• How much pollution does it produce?
This list, of course, goes on and on. In the end, the technology that dominates
will be a compromise between efficiency and practicality.

::OTHER TYPES OF FUEL CELLS::


There are several other types of fuel-cell technologies being developed for
possible commercial uses:
• Alkaline fuel cell (AFC): This is one of the oldest designs. It has been
used in the U.S. space program since the 1960s. The AFC is very
susceptible to contamination, so it requires pure hydrogen and oxygen. It
is also very expensive, so this type of fuel cell is unlikely to be
commercialized.
• Phosphoric-acid fuel cell (PAFC): The phosphoric-acid fuel cell has
potential for use in small stationary power-generation systems. It operates
at a higher temperature than PEM fuel cells, so it has a longer warm-up
time. This makes it unsuitable for use in cars.
• Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC): These fuel cells are best suited for large-
scale stationary power generators that could provide electricity for
factories or towns. This type of fuel cell operates at very high
temperatures (around 1,832 F, 1,000 C). This high temperature makes
reliability a problem, but it also has an advantage: The steam produced by
the fuel cell can be channeled into turbines to generate more electricity.
This improves the overall efficiency of the system.
• Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC): These fuel cells are also best suited
for large stationary power generators. They operate at 1,112 F (600 C), so
they also generate steam that can be used to generate more power. They
have a lower operating temperature than the SOFC, which means they
don't need such exotic materials. This makes the design a little less
expensive.
::APPLICATIONS OF FUEL CELLS::
As we've discussed, fuel cells could be used in a number of applications. Each
proposed use raises its own issues and challenges.
Automobiles
Fuel-cell-powered cars will start to replace gas- and diesel-engine cars in about
2005. A fuel-cell car will be very similar to an electric car but with a fuel cell and
reformer instead of batteries. Most likely, you will fill your fuel-cell car up with
methanol, but some companies are working on gasoline reformers. Other
companies hope to do away with the reformer completely by designing advanced
storage devices for hydrogen.
Portable Power
Fuel cells also make sense for portable electronics like laptop computers, cellular
phones or even hearing aids. In these applications, the fuel cell will provide much
longer life than a battery would, and you should be able to” recharge" it quickly
with a liquid or gaseous fuel.
Buses
Fuel-cell-powered buses are already running in several cities. The bus was one
of the first applications of the fuel cell because initially, fuel cells needed to be
quite large to produce enough power to drive a vehicle. In the first fuel-cell bus,
about one-third of the vehicle was filled with fuel cells and fuel-cell equipment.
Now the power density has increased to the point that a bus can run on a much
smaller fuel cell.
Home Power Generation
This is a promising application that you may be able to order as soon as 2002.
General Electric is going to offer a fuel-cell generator system made by Plug
Power. This system will use a natural gas or propane reformer and produce up to
seven kilowatts of power (which is enough for most houses). A system like this
produces electricity and significant amounts of heat, so it is possible that the
system could heat your water and help to heat your house without using any
additional energy.
Large Power Generation
Some fuel-cell technologies have the potential to replace conventional
combustion power plants. Large fuel cells will be able to generate electricity more
efficiently than today's power plants. The fuel-cell technologies being developed
for these power plants will generate electricity directly from hydrogen in the fuel
cell, but will also use the heat and water produced in the cell to power steam
turbines and generate even more electricity. There are already large portable
fuel-cell systems available for providing backup power to hospitals and factories.