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circuit

ideas

Mini UPS System s.c. dwiv


edi

 D. Mohan Kumar When the mains power fails,


diode D3 gets reverse biased and

T
his circuit provides an uninter- D4 gets forward biased so that the vary between 10.5V and 12V, when
rupted power supply (UPS) battery can automatically take up the UPS system is in battery mode.
to operate 12V, 9V and 5V the load without any delay. When Outputs at points B and C provide
DC-powered instruments at up to 1A the battery voltage or input voltage 9V and 5V, respectively, through regu-
current. The backup battery takes up falls below 10.5V, a cut-off circuit is lator ICs (IC1 and IC2), while output
the load without spikes or delay when used to prevent deep discharging of A provides 12V through the zener
the mains power gets interrupted. It the battery. Resistor R3, zener diode diode. The emergency lamp uses two
can also be used as a workbench power ZD1 (10.5V) and transistor T2 form ultra-bright white LEDs (LED2 and
supply that provides 12V, 9V and 5V the cut-off circuit. When the volt- LED3) with current limiting resistors
operating voltages. The circuit im- age level is above 10.5V, transistor R5 and R6. The lamp can be manually

mediately disconnects the load when T2 conducts and its base becomes switched ‘on’ and ‘off’ by S1.
the battery voltage reduces to 10.5V to negative (as set by R3, VR2 and ZD1). the circuit is assembled on a gen-
prevent deep discharge of the battery. But when the voltage reduces below eral-purpose PCB. There is adequate
LED1 indication is provided to show 10.5V, the zener diode stops conduc- space between the components to
the full charge voltage level of the bat- tion and the base voltage of transis- avoid overlapping. heat sinks for tran-
tery. miniature white LEDs (LED2 and tor T2 becomes positive. It goes into sistor T2 and regulator ICs (7809 and
LED3) are used as emergency lamps the ‘cut-off’ mode and prevents the 7805) to dissipate heat are used.
during power failure at night. current in the output stage. Preset The positive and negative rails
A standard step-down trans- VR2 (22k) adjusts the voltage below should be strong enough to handle
former provides 12V of AC, which 0.6V to make T2 work if the voltage high current. Before connecting the
is rectified by diodes D1 and D2. Ca- is above 10.5V. circuit to the battery and transformer,
pacitor C1 provides ripple-free DC to When power from the mains is connect it to a variable power supply.
charge the battery and to the remain- available, all output voltages—12V, Provide 12V DC and adjust VR1 till
ing circuit. When the mains power is 9V and 5V—are ready to run the LED1 glows. After setting the high
on, diode D3 gets forward biased to load. On the other hand, when the voltage level, reduce the voltage to
charge the battery. Resistor R1 limits mains power is down, output volt- 10.5V and adjust VR2 till the output
the charging current. Potentiometer ages can run the load only when the trips off. After the settings are com-
VR1 (10k) with transistor T1 acts as battery is fully charged (as indicated plete, remove the variable power sup-
the voltage comparator to indicate by LED1). For the partially charged ply and connect a fully-charged battery
the voltage level. VR1 is so adjusted battery, only 9V and 5V are available. to the terminals and see that LED1 is
that LED1 is in the ‘off’ mode. when Also, no output is available when the on. After making all the adjustments
the battery is fully charged, LED1 voltage goes below 10.5V. If battery connect the circuit to the battery and
glows indicating a full voltage level voltage varies between 10.5V and transformer. The battery used in the
of 12V. 13V, output at terminal A may also circuit is a 12V, 4.5Ah UPS battery. 

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