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Management of Local Potential Method with Application of Sustainable

Entrepreneur
(Case Study ; Branta Tinggi Village District Tlanakan Pamekasan Regency
Madura)
Tri Cahyono¹, Asfi Manzilati²
¹Economics Departement, Brawijaya University (UB), Indonesia
²Economics Departement, Brawijaya University (UB), Indonesia

Abstract
Resource potential (natural and human) in Indonesia is extremely
abundant and diverse types. However, the abundance of these resources is not
matched with the optimal management. A lot of economic potential in various
areas of abandoned due to lack of willingness from the government and local
communities to explore further. As happened in the Branta Tinggi Village District
Tlanakan Pamekasan Regency Madura. Various types of natural wealth and
potential of human resources was not accompanied by management of the
maximum. Even the people tend to work as beggars.
For this reason this study uses phenomenological approach in order to
know the social phenomena.
The purpose of this study is to determine: (1). How can local communities
manage the existing economic potential. (2). Why do people prefer to beg. (3).
The strategy of application of sustainable entrepreneur.
Findings from the research include: (1). Economic competencies less well
explored because of lack of creativity and knowledge in managing people. (2).
Participants choose to beg because it's easy to obtain pieces of rupiah. (3).
Strategy will be very effective if done in advance of social identifikasai to know
the grass roots issues in depth.

Keywords: management of economic potential, begging, entrepreneur

1. Introduction emergence of pockets of poverty.


Socio-economic problems The reason people are not competent
until recently become an important to work in odd jobs until volunteered
point for the government in to live as a vagrant or beggar.
improving the development process. Such as the case in one area
Inequity of distribution policies, in the village of Branta Tinggi
development (both physical and Pamekasan. The case is very unique
nonphysical), and local income been in this area, where most citizens live
singled out as the main issues their daily activities as a beggar. It is
affecting the poverty rate in various surprising when there is information
regions. This is because the policy beggar community in Madura. Areas
model is wrong and can stimulate the which upholds the moral values of

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Islam with the character of hard Why do people prefer to beg. (3).
working people there were more The strategy of application of
people who behave begging sustainable entrepreneur.
especially in the rural Branta Tinggi.
Rifa'i in A'la (2010) give 2. Theory
some reason that Madurese 2.1. Tackling Begging by
community had the bearing that rests Understanding the Causes of
on local values are: responsive, Mental
resilient, entrepreneur, advanture , To overcome the problem of
and sparingly and carefully, they are beggars, especially mentally
also sincere loyal and have strong begging, it must first be known
links with religion. Tenacity was contributing factors. The most
reflected by their behavior to meet prominent factor is the problem of
the demands of the economy. poverty that directly hit them
If further review, the mentally to beg. According to Staley
economic potential existing in these in Soesilo (2007), poverty stems
villages are very abundant. So, if this from the fact that the total
potential can be properly explored, productivity in developing countries
not inevitable slowing down of the is very low as a result of: lack of an
regional economy can be excited imperfect capital markets, and
again. Of course, to enhance economic backwardness.
production is required planting souls From this fact, many of the
entrepreneurs in local communities. marginalized are produced, including
Soul planting method is not the beggars as the most visible
as easy as turning the palm of the groups that rely on the mercy of
hand alone, but required an others. In other factors, low levels of
identification associated with life that is often used as a gauge of
complex social phenomena. For this poverty is essentially only one chain
reason the main focus of this of a number of factors which is a
research is to determine: (1). How syndrome of poverty (PRSP Team of
can local communities manage the UGM, 1996).
existing economic potential. (2).

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In a broader level of thinking, areas due to government policies that
the real cause of poverty that directly concentrated economic activities in
affects the number of beggars and urban areas. From the explanation, it
mentally create begging to be viewed is clear that in terms of socio-
in the light of political economy, economic profile of poverty is also a
which will require local government product of the impact of structure-
to take the appropriate policy. In this sharing access (filtering-effect) it
case, Yustika (2009) proposed the results in poor access of the poor in a
four clauses that have the potential to variety of opportunities, resources
be the cause of the difficulty in and fruit development (PRSP Team
efforts to reduce poverty. First, is the of UGM, 1996).
power of business groups and
marginalized sectors (farmers, 2.2 Prevention of Mental Begging
fishermen, workers, informal sector, Based Development Through
etc.) are biased, so the energy to Regional Advantages
influence policy become lame. In accordance with national
Second, the imbalance development objectives Indonesian
between the rate of development of man who wants to form completely
economic sectors due to the and evenly on the entire people of
economic development strategy Indonesia. Development should be
preferences that are not accurate. wearing at all levels of society.
Examples are policies that encourage Closely related is that after the era of
development of industrial sector / autonomy, the role of regions in this
service without involving the increasingly urgent need for further
agricultural sector in the past, has investigation. In the abstract concept
created pockets of poverty that are of the region, Wahyudi (2007)
not small. distinguish the two different views,
Third, economic inequality namely objective and subjective
among sectors of development due to views. Subjective view of looking at
failure of development strategies. the area as a means to an end, only
Fourth, the asymmetry of the one idea, a model to help study the
relationship between urban and rural world.

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Region is a classification often not used efficiently and
method, an intention to separate the effectively. What is expected is
properties in the area where the only actually the region should be able to
natural area is only the surface of the map the leading commodities in their
earth where humans live. While the respective areas of competence so
objective view, looking at the region that development can be directed
as a destination in itself, a toward specialization area seeded
determination that real, an organism (Muhammad, 2006). This is expected
which can be identified and mapped. to support the planning of the
In an effort to enhance the establishment of micro business
economic development of a region, which will turn suggesting the public
in addition to the capital and labor, about the importance of
also requires a careful planning and entrepreneurship as a sustainer of
understanding of existing life.
weaknesses and strengths. Planning Porter in Muhammad (2006)
is a way of thinking about socio- argued about the "Competitive
economic issues, primarily on future- Advantage" which describes how a
oriented, regarding the relationship developing area is actually inspired
between objectives and collective by the ideas of school of
decisions and pursue policies and commodities. Porter's ideas about the
programs that are comprehensive decisive advantage of a nation is
(Wahyudi (2007). influenced by four factors are
So after all can be classified intertwined namely: Factor
and described, the next method is to conditions; Firms Strategy, Structure
plan with inputs that have been and Rivalry; Related and Supporting
obtained, so the classification Industries; and Demand Conditions.
potential of a region can be mapped The existence of the domestic
based on its superiority. competition cluster among actors of
Furthermore, that until now the same economic activity will
there are many areas that do not encourage the creation factor, from
understand about the direction of here will continuously improve
development. Limited resources are competitive advantage in this cluster.

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3. Method 3.3. Informant
3.1. Approach To determine the accuracy
Because the objects under and actuality of information, the
study are not limited to the informant's presence is required. For
understanding, searching and data this reason, several informants who
description alone, it would require an deliberately appointed are: first, local
in depth analysis approach in order to people involved in the scope of the
obtain results that are more complex. research (the beggar and not a
For this reason, the type of research beggar).
used is descriptive research Where these communities are
descriptive research fenomenoligis directly involved in an integrated
where it tries to describe a system of social interaction of a
phenomenon that takes place when community. The purpose of the
the research conducted. In terms of community researchers chose
descriptive research is trying to beggars is to determine the extent to
explain contemporary phenomena which paradigm (myth) that
under study (a phenomenon that developed so influential in their
occurs at this time). begging behavior.
Furthermore, non-beggars
3.2. Location informant deliberately chosen in
Research conducted in the order to describe how interactions or
form of case study research where social relations of beggars among the
more specific research to try to learn general public (non-beggar with
and observe phenomena in a region beggar) and the extent to which
according to the needs of the social relationships influence these
research. The place or location of the interactions in the formation
research that is conducted in the paradigm (strengthening
village of Branta Tinggi. From the internalization myth) for beggars and
selection of the site, hopes to answer non-beggar.
the research problems. Second, the village head who
is directly involved and influence the
socio-economic mobility in the

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village of Branta Tinggi community. 3.4. Data Analysis
From this village chief hopes In this study, overall there are
researchers were able to obtain four stages that are used to analyze
information about how the role of the data, namely:
institutions in influencing the socio- 1. Data Collection
economic mobility (primarily related The data collected is the
to behavioral issues beg the people) result of interviews, observation,
in villages linked through the documentation and so forth. The data
policies adopted or are still planned. collected is still a necessary raw data
Third, religious scholars and and sorting to find major issues that
local community leaders who are more focused research.
civic structures such informants have
an influence on social action. As 2. Data Presentation
informal leaders, clerics by many Presentation of data is the
people believed to have the data generated through the process of
"authority of truth"which is very data reduction will be directly
large and charismatic as he is presented as a set of structured
regarded as a saint who was awarded information that gives the possibility
the blessing of Divine (Sirodj, 2009). of penerikan conclusions and taking
Kyai and community leaders are action.
expected to provide a general
description of the relationship 3. Data Reduction
between society and the figure of Data reduction is a form of
informal leaders and the extent of the analysis that sharpens, classify,
influence of both (religious scholars directed, discard the unnecessary,
and community leaders) to action and organize data in such a way that
(behavior) Branta Tinggi village final conclusions can be drawn
community. (Miles and Huberman, 1992). The
main purpose of this reduction is to
obtain data sharper and more focused
on the research so as to facilitate the
conclusion.

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4. Conclusions Withdrawal (agriculture and fisheries) can not be
Conclusion is done realized with the good.
continuously for researchers to do From the agricultural sector
research. Conclusion is to know in for example, the number of
depth about the object being studied. abandoned land that became one of
Thus, the ease in knowing the main the potential evidence Praise be to
issues of research. Allaah Economy of the basic sector
is not explored optimally.
4. Results Much like the agricultural
4.1. Management is Not Optimal sector, fisheries sector is also
Economic Potential experiencing a similar fate. The fish
Areas with a population of catches many fishermen are not put
2.210 inhabitants is a wide range of to good use. This is because the
potential resources (natural and fishermen only take certain kinds of
human). Start the potential for an fish only. So the other fish are
exotic beach with a wide range always caught in geratis distributed
biological richness in it . Until the to locals.
existence of artesian well water In addition, the risks to be
sources that can be utilized to meet borne to manage the basic sector is
the needs of the water bath and for also quite high. No wonder, no
agriculture. optimal management of high risk
Surely not stopped there, the potential for economic and offered to
presence of major transportation make people feel at home tersebutlah
routes and its location close to the work as beggars.
center of the regional economy has
established regional Praise be to 4.2. Begging Activities Main More
Allaah is feasible to be developed than Work
further. However, until now the Begging behavior is
economic potential existing motivated by the myths that
management responded only developed in the community. Where
mediocre. So the development of the people in the village of Branta Tinggi
region by relying on the basic sector (especially those living in the hamlet

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of Violation), condemned by ki increasingly stable to doing
Moko (local village elders in the profession as a beggar. In addition,
1920's) become beggars because the ease of obtaining pieces of rupiah
their behavior is stingy. However, main attraction for diving profession.
the activities of this begging later
became a separate polemic because 4.3 Strategies to Shifting Behavior
begging activities spread to many Behavior Begging Be Working
regions that are not associated with (Production)
these myths. Activities that are left
From information of local begging, actually worsens the image
government, transmission of begging of the area. Lack of initiative to
behavior is against a background of produce by utilizing the potential that
risks high enough from the basic exists to make the activities of
sector and the tendency to behave beggar become endemic behavior.
consumptive society. For this reason, For this reason good strategy in
people in other areas looking at the tackling this begging behavior that is
activities of begging is an activity to invested in a sustainable
obtain pieces solutif rupiah. entrepreneurial spirit to the
Sure enough, the agricultural community.
sector of most farmers be object of In general, the application of
the game from the middlemen and methods of sustainable
moneylenders. So the fate of the entrepreneurship is not separated
peasants became increasingly worse from the cooperation between village
with the existence of this institutions, communities and other
phenomenon. Not only that, the stakeholders. Obviously, this is used
fishery sector also provides a very to sustain (support) of the poor,
high risk. The catch is uncertain and especially the beggars by utilizing its
risk amid the sea of uncertainty resources in order to decide what
making local people think twice to resources are utilized and how to use
develop this sector further. them.
Not surprisingly, the high Final goal, of course, to
risks of that work, society change the paradigm of begging to

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be productive paradigm. The entrepreneurial spirit in a sustainable
framework (conceptual framework) manner to the public.
the planning and implementation of And this identification
sustainable entrepreneurship method process is very important to do with
is briefly following the steps as the reason there were so many
follows: resources (natural and human) that
have not been properly empowered.
1. Social Identification The potential resources (natural and
Social identification, especially the human) are very abundant in number
poor and beggars in the village area and potential to be developed further.
Branta Tinggi is a series of criteria
established and used to identify the 2. Regional Development Planning
receipt as well as methods to To begin preparations for
overcome it. All of this relates to the planning the development potential
utilization of resources and capacity of the area needed a core group
building society based in the which is the relevant village (village
perspective of potential community chiefs and other community leaders)
livelihood and natural resources. and the technical team who will plan
Those criteria are: the management of poverty
a. The poverty rate and the alleviation and economic potential of
percentage of the number of each of these areas. Before the core
beggars. group work, before they must be
b. Social ties and political society provided by a training work plan and
(the relationship between try to develop a draft action plan
institutions with the public). which will be triggered and the basis
c. Community dependence on of discussions with village
local resources. government.
Above criteria was used as This plan can then be
reference in determining any location discussed and disseminated to the
that can be explored in depth in order public which is then discussed for
to alleviate poverty, especially feedback, additions or corrections
poverty of the beggars and instill can then be launched for all the

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support elements of the public and managing well the economic
affected stakeholders. potential is there. In accordance with
In the early stages of the opinion Yustika (2009), that have
planning the preparation of potential pioneered the introduction of
development areas, can be input for simultaneous aspects of local and
the actions of such action: cultural (informal institutions) in
identification of local potentials that order to observe the facts of poverty
can be developed from various in more detail.
sectors, investment in agriculture, Empowerment and provision
irrigation planning, breeding and of capital to raise the local potential
fisheries management models, can be implemented such as the
education center job training and Village Credit Institution (VCI) in
entrepreneurship as well as religious, Bali. Where the institution is useful
skills development or production of to extend credit established and
information centers. managed by the community. The
Surely at this planning stage, institute is focused on providing
the community formed in certain capital and directly as a means of
clusters (clusters of fishermen and assistance to communities in
farmers clusters) with a view to managing capital are given. Capital
facilitate the implementation of is not in money but in the form of aid
action plans later. In addition to skills and other knowledge to
effectivelymanagement of the manage the business. This institution
existing economic potential. to run with a healthy, then the capital
of each recipient are required to
3. Capital Approval attend regular meetings as a means of
Because the main goal of this reporting activity.
ongoing entrepreneur program is a To streamline the
local community, the local potential performance of the receiver of
(the value of existing local) must be capital established strict rules
driven. Mobilization of local involving customary sanctions (Isna,
potential is intended to give 2007). Sanctions created by the
confidence to the community in indigenous people so that they feel

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responsible and disciplined in full on district areas, especially the village
the capital they receive to develop of Branta Tinggi.
their business. Mental changes begging to
Of course, this program mental work is the initial target of
requires cooperation with local reducing the number of beggars in
government for more effective the village of Branta Tinggi. Next the
performance because of the development of micro Business
considerable assistance means (such should put emphasis on business
as penujang means business, formation, training, marketing and
additional capital and strengthen its network development. Because the
marketing network.) With area to biodiversity (both land and
bersinerginya formal and informal sea) and supported by adequate
institutions, which encouraged transport is indeed no doubt be
capital aid can work well and the developed further.
ideals of rural economic growth Target a begging habit pattern
based local values can be realized. changes to the routine work does
require a short time is not enough.
4. Implementation Program Reason is that it has become a habit
Implementation conducted by in the village of Branta Tinggi.
the community in developing the However, this method should be
potential of rural areas in order to dressed in the changing patterns that
overcome the Branta Tinggi beggar had formed them. At least be
should be with the involvement of supported by institutional model
the technical team and the local combined with the formulation of
government. In their activities, input in the form of local culture.
methods of sustainable As the picture below, that are
entrepreneurship is focused on expected with sustained entrepreneur
mental changes begging to mental can form a new institution, it can be
work and business development in an individual incentive to economic
the form of the establishment of activity (mental mentally begging to
Micro Business which are based on work). If institutional directs
the potential advantages Tlanakan individuals to take the right decisions

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(such as work and production contribute to good economic
decisions), then eventually it will performance.

Figure 01. Institutional Planning and Change Become Begging Mental


Mental Work / Production
Sustainability
Entrepreneurhip
Methods

Institutional Culture and


Individual
Planning Mental
Begging

Decision Works
/ Production

Economic
Performanc
e
The decision will also affect a The system is properly used
person's production in developing a in a relatively poor and beggars in
network. Especially for network the village Branta Tinggi because of
development, should be viewed as a its emphasis on the importance of
significant factor in the response to interpersonal social model and
mental begging. At least there are traditional patterned gemeinschaft.
four types of network ties based on
the relationship be maintained, 5. Monitoring and Evaluation
including: personal and ethnic ties, Monitoring and evaluation is
geographic proximity, organizational conducted as an assessment and the
integration, and the buyer and seller achievement of the work done. This
relationships (Perry, 2000). activity should be discussed between
the technical team (the government)

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with the stake holders and society. management of potential areas to beg
While reviews can be done monthly in the village of Branta Tinggi of
or yearly. Here is the flow of mental sustainable entrepreneurial methods:
mitigation planning process and
Figure 02. Model Reduction and Management of Mental Culture of Begging
Regional Potential of Interlinkage between LPPM University and the Social
Service

Result Final Goal


Stage

a. An understanding of the a. Potential areas


community, particularly to be optimized
beggars b. Institutional
Social Identification b. Comprehension activities Establishment
c. Understanding problems
c. The
establishment of
Regional a. Participation SMEs and
Development b. Agreement on the purpose business
Planning of activities networks

d. Communities
a. Making formal rules empowered

Capital Approval b. The deal amounts of capital e. The poverty


and other capital assistance. rate based on
income level is
reduced

f. The number of
Implementation a. Effective Management beggars was
Program Kegiatan b. Reducing the number of reduced by up to
beggars zero percent
c. The development of the
quantity of work or business
community

Monitoring and
Evaluation Knowledge of weaknesses
and strengths

The important thing to note is


that the program should be

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conducted regularly and 3. Strategy implementation of local
continuously in strengthening the values is felt very appropriate to
capacity of communities in the deal with begging activity. But,
village of Branta Tinggi in this strategy should be done by
implementing programs that have following several separate stages,
been defined. Progress and tangible namely: identification, planning,
results are expected in instituting an provision of capital to the rural
example the approach taken in this credit system, implementation,
method into the local government monitoring and evaluation.
program.
5.2. Recommendation
5. Summary and Recomendation 1. The development of economic
5.1. Summary potential is expected to be done in
From the research results a creative way of thought of
obtained can be summarized that: begging for change into
1. The overwhelming economic productive thought patterns.
potential in the rural Branta 2. The hope, changing the strategy
Tinggi until now not managed of begging to be productive way
properly. So that people from the of thought this should be done by
past until now still experiencing forming new examples for the
poverty. The lack of creativity of beggars are able to follow the
each individual and related exemplary behavior. Surely this
government sectors in develop must be no synergy between the
base which is the main problem government and these examples
why people work as beggars. for this strategy can be embodied
2. Citizens prefer to be beggars in practice.
because it easier to obtain rupiahs.
Basic sector that offers a high
enough risk to make the activities
of begging as a top choice. That's
what this activity is growing and
thriving.

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