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Integrated Curriculum for Secondary Schools

Curriculum Specifications

Form 1

Curriculum Development Centre

Ministry of Education Malaysia
Copyright © 2002 by Ministry of Education Malaysia

Copyright reserved. Except for use in a review, the reproduction or utilization of this work in any form or
by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including
photocopying, and recording is forbidden without the prior written permission from the Director of the
Curriculum Development Centre, Ministry of Education Malaysia.




Learning Area: 1. Introduction to Science 3


Learning Area: 1. Cell as a Unit of Life 9


Learning Area: 1. Matter 12
Learning Area: 2. The Variety of Resources on Earth 14
Learning Area: 3. The Air Around Us 17

Learning Area: 1. Sources of Energy 21
Learning Area: 2. Heat 23


Our nation Malaysia is dedicated to achieving a greater unity for all her peoples; maintaining a democratic way of
life; creating a just society in which the wealth of the nation shall be equitably distributed; ensuring a liberal
approach to her rich and diverse cultural traditions; building a progressive society, orientated towards modern
science and technology;

The people of Malaysia pledge their united efforts to attain these ends guided by the following principles:



Education in Malaysia is an on-going effort towards developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and
integrated manner, so as to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically
balanced and harmonious based on a firm belief in and devotion to God. Such an effort is designed to produce
Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable and competent, who possess high moral standards and who are
responsible and capable of achieving a high level of personal well being as well as being able to contribute to the
harmony and betterment of the family, society and the nation at large.


In consonance with the National Education Philosophy,

science education in Malaysia nurtures
a Science and Technology Culture by focusing
on the development of individuals who are competitive,
dynamic, robust and resilient and able
to master scientific knowledge and technological competency.

The aspiration of the nation to become an industrialised In a recent development, the Government has made a
society depends on science and technology. It is envisaged decision to introduce English as the medium of instruction in
that success in providing quality science education to the teaching and learning of science and mathematics. This
Malaysians from an early age will serve to spearhead the measure will enable students to keep abreast of developments
nation into becoming a knowledge society and a competitive in science and technology in contemporary society by
player in the global arena. Towards this end, the Malaysian enhancing their capability and know-how to tap the diverse
education system is giving greater emphasis to science and sources of information on science written in the English
mathematics education. language. At the same time, this move would also provide
opportunities for students to use the English language and
The Science curriculum has been designed not only to provide hence, increase their proficiency in the language. Thus, in
opportunities for students to acquire science knowledge and implementing the science curriculum, attention is given to
skills, develop thinking skills and thinking strategies, and to developing students’ ability to use English for study and
apply this knowledge and skills in everyday life, but also to communication, especially in the early years of learning.
inculcate in them noble values and the spirit of patriotism. It is
hoped that the educational process en route to achieving The development of this curriculum and the preparation of the
these aims would produce well-balanced citizens capable of corresponding Curriculum Specifications have been the work
contributing to the harmony and prosperity of the nation and its of many individuals over a period of time. To all those who
people. have contributed in one way or another to this effort, may I, on
behalf of the Ministry of Education, express my sincere
The Science curriculum aims at producing active learners. To gratitude and thanks for the time and labour expended.
this end, students are given ample opportunities to engage in
scientific investigations through hands-on activities and
experimentations. The inquiry approach, incorporating thinking
skills, thinking strategies and thoughtful learning, should be (Dr. SHARIFAH MAIMUNAH SYED ZIN)
emphasised throughout the teaching-learning process. The Director
content and contexts suggested are chosen based on their Curriculum Development Centre
relevance and appeal to students so that their interest in the Ministry of Education Malaysia
subject is enhanced.

As articulated in the National Education Policy, science, innovative, and able to apply scientific knowledge in
education in Malaysia is an on-going effort towards developing decision-making and problem solving in everyday life.
the potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner
to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, The elective science subjects prepare students who
emotionally and physically balanced and harmonious. The are more scientifically inclined to pursue the study of science
primary and secondary school science curriculum is developed at post-secondary level. This group of students would take up
with the aim of producing such individuals. careers in the field of science and technology and play a
leading role in this field for national development.
As a nation that is progressing towards a developed
nation status, Malaysia needs to create a society that is For every science subject, the curriculum for the year is
scientifically oriented, progressive, knowledgeable, having a articulated in two documents: the syllabus and the curriculum
high capacity for change, forward-looking, innovative and a specifications. The syllabus presents the aims, objectives and
contributor to scientific and technological developments in the the outline of the curriculum content for a period of 2 years for
future. In line with this, there is a need to produce citizens who elective science subjects and 5 years for core science
are creative, critical, inquisitive, open-minded and competent subjects. The curriculum specifications provide the details of
in science and technology. the curriculum which includes the aims and objectives of the
curriculum, brief descriptions on thinking skills and thinking
The Malaysian science curriculum comprises three strategies, scientific skills, scientific attitudes and noble values,
core science subjects and four elective science subjects. The teaching and learning strategies, and curriculum content. The
core subjects are Science at primary school level, Science at curriculum content provides the learning objectives, suggested
lower secondary level and Science at upper secondary level. learning activities, the intended learning outcomes, and
Elective science subjects are offered at the upper secondary vocabulary.
level and consist of Biology, Chemistry, Physics, and
Additional Science.

The core science subjects for the primary and lower

secondary levels are designed to provide students with basic
science knowledge, prepare students to be literate in science,
and enable students to continue their science education at the
upper secondary level. Core Science at the upper secondary
level is designed to produce students who are literate in


The aims of the science curriculum for secondary school are to 5. Face challenges in the scientific and technological world
provide students with the knowledge and skills in science and and be willing to contribute towards the development of science
technology and enable them to solve problems and make and technology.
decisions in everyday life based on scientific attitudes and
noble values. 6. Evaluate science- and technology-related information
wisely and effectively.
Students who have followed the secondary science curriculum
will have the foundation in science to enable them to pursue 7. Practise and internalise scientific attitudes and good
formal and informal further education in science and moral values.
8. Realise the importance of inter-dependence among
The curriculum also aims to develop a concerned, dynamic and living things and the management of nature for survival of
progressive society with a science and technology culture that mankind.
values nature and works towards the preservation and
conservation of the environment. 9. Appreciate the contributions of science and technology
towards national development and the well-being of mankind.

OBJECTIVES 10. Realise that scientific discoveries are the result of human
endeavour to the best of his or her intellectual and mental
capabilities to understand natural phenomena for the
The science curriculum for secondary school enables students betterment of mankind.
11. Create awareness on the need to love and care for the
1. Acquire knowledge in science and technology in the environment and play an active role in its preservation and
context of natural phenomena and everyday life experiences. conservation.

2. Understand developments in the field of science and


3. Acquire scientific and thinking skills.

4. Apply knowledge and skills in a creative and critical

manner for problem solving and decision-making.

Inferring Using past experiences or
previously collected data to draw
conclusions and make explanations
Science emphasises inquiry and problem solving. In inquiry and
of events.
problem solving processes, scientific and thinking skills are
utilised. Scientific skills are important in any scientific
investigation such as conducting experiments and carrying out
Predicting Stating the outcome of a future
event based on prior knowledge
gained through experiences or
Scientific skills encompass science process skills and
collected data.
manipulative skills.

Science Process Skills

Communicating Using words or graphic symbols
such as tables, graphs, figures or
Science process skills enable students to formulate their models to describe an action, object
questions and find out the answers systematically. or event.
Descriptions of the science process skills are as follows:
Using Space- Describing changes in parameter
Observing Using the sense of hearing, touch, Time with time. Examples of parameters
smell, taste and sight to collect Relationship are location, direction, shape, size,
information about an object or a volume, weight and mass.

Interpreting Data Giving rational explanations about

Classifying Using observations to group an object, event or pattern derived
objects or events according to from collected data.
similarities or differences.

Measuring and Making quantitative observations

Using using numbers and tools with
Numbers standardised units. Measuring
makes observation more accurate.

Manipulative Skills
Defining Defining all variables as they are
Operationally used in the experiment by Manipulative skills in scientific investigation are psychomotor
describing what must be done and skills that enable students to:
what should be observed.
x Use and handle science apparatus and laboratory
substances correctly.
Controlling Identifying the fixed variable, x Handle specimens correctly and carefully.
Variables manipulated variable, and x Draw specimens, apparatus and laboratory substances
responding variable in an accurately.
investigation. The manipulated x Clean science apparatus correctly, and
variable is changed to observe its x Store science apparatus and laboratory substances
relationship with the responding correctly and safely.
variable. At the same time, the
fixed variable is kept constant.

Hypothesising Making a general statement about

the relationship between a
Thinking is a mental process that requires an individual to
manipulated variable and a
integrate knowledge, skills and attitude in an effort to
responding variable in order to
understand the environment.
explain an event or observation.
This statement can be tested to
One of the objectives of the national education system is to
determine its validity.
enhance the thinking ability of students. This objective can be
achieved through a curriculum that emphasises thoughtful
learning. Teaching and learning that emphasises thinking skills
Experimenting Planning and conducting activities
is a foundation for thoughtful learning.
to test a certain hypothesis. These
activities include collecting,
Thoughtful learning is achieved if students are actively involved
analysing and interpreting data and
in the teaching and learning process. Activities should be
making conclusions.
organised to provide opportunities for students to apply thinking
skills in conceptualisation, problem solving and decision-

Thinking skills can be categorised into critical thinking skills and Sequencing Arranging objects and
creative thinking skills. A person who thinks critically always information in order based on
evaluates an idea in a systematic manner before accepting it. A the quality or quantity of
person who thinks creatively has a high level of imagination, is common characteristics or
able to generate original and innovative ideas, and modify features such as size, time,
ideas and products. shape or number.

Thinking strategies are higher order thinking processes that

involve various steps. Each step involves various critical and Prioritising Arranging objects and
creative thinking skills. The ability to formulate thinking information in order based on
strategies is the ultimate aim of introducing thinking activities in their importance or priority.
the teaching and learning process.

Analysing Examining information in detail

Critical Thinking Skills by breaking it down into
smaller parts to find implicit
A brief description of each critical thinking skill is as follows: meaning and relationships.

Attributing Identifying criteria such as

Detecting Bias Identifying views or opinions
characteristics, features,
that have the tendency to
qualities and elements of a
support or oppose something
concept or an object.
in an unfair or misleading way.
Comparing and Finding similarities and
Contrasting differences based on criteria
Evaluating Making judgements on the
such as characteristics,
quality or value of something
features, qualities and
based on valid reasons or
elements of a concept or

Grouping and Separating and grouping Making Making a statement about the
Classifying objects or phenomena into Conclusions outcome of an investigation
categories based on certain that is based on a hypothesis.
criteria such as common
characteristics or features.

Creative Thinking Skills

A brief description of each creative thinking skill is as follows: Synthesising Combining separate elements
or parts to form a general
Generating Ideas Producing or giving ideas in a picture in various forms such
discussion. as writing, drawing or artefact.

Relating Making connections in a

certain situation to determine a Making Making a general statement
structure or pattern of Hypotheses on the relationship between
relationship. manipulated variables and
responding variables in order
Making Using past experiences or to explain a certain thing or
Inferences previously collected data to happening. This statement is
draw conclusions and make thought to be true and can be
explanations of events. tested to determine its validity.

Predicting Stating the outcome of a future

event based on prior Making Analogies Understanding a certain
knowledge gained through abstract or complex concept
experiences or collected data. by relating it to a simpler or
concrete concept with similar
Making Making a general conclusion characteristics.
Generalisations about a group based on
observations made on, or
some information from, Inventing Producing something new or
samples of the group. adapting something already in
existence to overcome
Visualising Recalling or forming mental problems in a systematic
images about a particular idea, manner.
concept, situation or vision.

Thinking Strategy

Description of each thinking strategy is as follows: Mastering of thinking skills and thinking strategies (TSTS)
through the teaching and learning of science can be developed
through the following phases:
Conceptualising Making generalisations based
on inter-related and common 1. Introducing TSTS.
characteristics in order to 2. Practising TSTS with teacher’s guidance.
construct meaning, concept or 3. Practising TSTS without teacher’s guidance.
model. 4. Applying TSTS in new situations with teacher’s
Making Decisions Selecting the best solution from 5. Applying TSTS together with other skills to accomplish
various alternatives based on thinking tasks.
specific criteria to achieve a
specific aim. Further information about phases of implementing TSTS can be
found in the guidebook “Buku Panduan Penerapan Kemahiran
Problem Solving Finding solutions to challenging Berfikir dan Strategi Berfikir dalam Pengajaran dan
or unfamiliar situations or Pembelajaran Sains” (Curriculum Development Centre, 1999).
unanticipated difficulties in a
systematic manner.

Besides the above thinking skills and thinking strategies,

another skill emphasised is reasoning. Reasoning is a
skill used in making logical, just and rational judgements.
Mastering of critical and creative thinking skills and
thinking strategies is made simpler if an individual is able
to reason in an inductive and deductive manner. Figure 1
gives a general picture of thinking skills and thinking

Figure 1 : TSTS Model in Science

Thinking Skills manner. It is a mental process that promotes critical, creative,

analytical and systematic thinking. Mastering of science
process skills and the possession of suitable attitudes and
knowledge enable students to think effectively.
Critical Creative
The mastering of science process skills involves the
xAttributing xGenerating ideas mastering of the relevant thinking skills. The thinking skills that
xComparing and xRelating are related to a particular science process skill are as follows:
contrasting xMaking inferences
xGrouping and xPredicting
classifying xMaking
Reasoning Science Process Skills Thinking Skills
xSequencing hypotheses
xPrioritising xSynthesising
xAnalysing xMaking
xDetecting bias
Observing Attributing
xEvaluating Comparing and contrasting
xMaking xMaking analogies
conclusions xInventing
Classifying Attributing
Comparing and contrasting
Grouping and classifying
Thinking Strategies

x Conceptualising Measuring and Using Relating

x Making decisions Numbers Comparing and contrasting
x Problem solving
Making Inferences Relating
Comparing and contrasting
Relationship between Thinking Skills and Science Process Analysing
Skills Making inferences

Science process skills are skills that are required in the process Predicting Relating
of finding solutions to a problem or making decisions in a Visualising

Teaching and Learning based on Thinking Skills
Science Process Skills Thinking Skills and Scientific Skills
Using Space-Time Sequencing
Relationship Prioritising This science curriculum emphasises thoughtful learning based
on thinking skills and scientific skills. Mastery of thinking skills
Interpreting data Comparing and contrasting and scientific skills are integrated with the acquisition of
Analysing knowledge in the intended learning outcomes. Thus, in
Detecting bias teaching and learning, teachers need to emphasise the mastery
Making conclusions of skills together with the acquisition of knowledge and the
Generalising inculcation of noble values and scientific attitudes.
The following is an example and explanation of a learning
Defining operationally Relating outcome based on thinking skills and scientific skills.
Making analogy
Analysing Example:
Controlling variables Attributing
Comparing and contrasting Learning Outcome: Compare and contrast metallic
Relating elements and non-metallic elements.

Making hypothesis Attributing Thinking Skills: Comparing and contrasting

Comparing and contrasting
Generating ideas Explanation:
Making hypothesis
Predicting To achieve the above learning outcome, knowledge of the
Synthesising characteristics and uses of metals and non-metals in everyday
life are learned through comparing and contrasting. The mastery
Experimenting All thinking skills of the skill of comparing and contrasting is as important as the
knowledge about the elements of metal and the elements of
Communicating All thinking skills non-metal.

x Giving emphasis to these attitudes and values.
Science learning experiences can be used as a means to x Practising and internalising these scientific attitudes and
inculcate scientific attitudes and noble values in students. noble values.
These attitudes and values encompass the following:

x Having an interest and curiosity towards the environment. When planning teaching and learning activities,
x Being honest and accurate in recording and validating data. teachers need to give due consideration to the above stages to
x Being diligent and persevering. ensure the continuous and effective inculcation of scientific
x Being responsible about the safety of oneself, others, and attitudes and values. For example, during science practical
the environment. work, the teacher should remind pupils and ensure that they
x Realising that science is a means to understand nature. carry out experiments in a careful, cooperative and honest
x Appreciating and practising clean and healthy living. manner.
x Appreciating the balance of nature.
Proper planning is required for effective inculcation of
x Being respectful and well-mannered.
scientific attitudes and noble values during science lessons.
x Appreciating the contribution of science and technology. Before the first lesson related to a learning objective, teachers
x Being thankful to God. should examine all related learning outcomes and suggested
x Having critical and analytical thinking. teaching-learning activities that provide opportunities for the
x Being flexible and open-minded. inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values.
x Being kind-hearted and caring.
x Being objective. The following is an example of a learning outcome
x Being systematic. pertaining to the inculcation of scientific attitudes and values.
x Being cooperative.
x Being fair and just. Example:
x Daring to try.
Year: Form One
x Thinking rationally.
x Being confident and independent.
Learning Area: 1. Matter
The inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values generally
occurs through the following stages: Learning Objective: 2.3 Appreciating the importance of
x Being aware of the importance and the need for scientific the variety of earth’s resources to
attitudes and noble values. man.
Learning Outcome:

Practise reducing the use, reusing TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES
and recycling of materials, e.g.
using old unfinished exercise books Teaching and learning strategies in the science curriculum
as notebooks and collecting old emphasise thoughtful learning. Thoughtful learning is a process
newspaper for recycling. that helps students acquire knowledge and master skills that
Suggested Learning will help them develop their minds to the optimum level.
Activities Carry out projects, campaigns, or Thoughtful learning can occur through various learning
competitions on reducing the use, approaches such as inquiry, constructivism, contextual
reusing and recycling of materials. learning, and mastery learning. Learning activities should
Scientific attitudes and therefore be geared towards activating students’ critical and
noble values Love and respect for the creative thinking skills and not be confined to routine or rote
environment. learning. Students should be made aware of the thinking skills
and thinking strategies that they use in their learning. They
Being responsible for the safety of should be challenged with higher order questions and problems
oneself, others and the and be required to solve problems utilising their creativity and
environment. critical thinking. The teaching and learning process should
enable students to acquire knowledge, master skills and
Appreciating the balance of nature. develop scientific attitudes and noble values in an integrated
Being systematic.

Being cooperative. Teaching and Learning Approaches in Science


Inculcating Patriotism nquiry-discovery emphasises learning through experiences.

Inquiry generally means to find information, to question and to
The science curriculum provides an opportunity for the investigate a phenomenon that occurs in the environment.
development and strengthening of patriotism among students. Discovery is the main characteristic of inquiry. Learning through
For example, in learning about the earth’s resources, the discovery occurs when the main concepts and principles of
richness and variety of living things and the development of science are investigated and discovered by students
science and technology in the country, students will appreciate themselves. Through activities such as experiments, students
the diversity of natural and human resources of the country and investigate a phenomenon and draw conclusions by
deepen their love for the country. themselves. Teachers then lead students to understand the
science concepts through the results of the inquiry. Thinking

skills and scientific skills are thus developed further during the Contextual Learning
inquiry process. However, the inquiry approach may not be
suitable for all teaching and learning situations. Sometimes, it Contextual learning is an approach that associates learning
may be more appropriate for teachers to present concepts and with daily experiences of students. In this way, students are
principles directly to students. able to appreciate the relevance of science learning to their
lives. In contextual learning, students learn through
investigations as in the inquiry-discovery approach.
Constructivism suggests that students learn about something Mastery Learning
when they construct their own understanding. The important
attributes of constructivism are as follows: Mastery learning is an approach that ensures all students are
able to acquire and master the intended learning objectives.
ƒ Taking into account students’ prior knowledge. This approach is based on the principle that students are able
ƒ Learning occurring as a result of students’ own to learn if they are given adequate opportunities. Students
effort. should be allowed to learn at their own pace, with the
ƒ Learning occurring when students restructure their incorporation of remedial and enrichment activities as part of
existing ideas by relating new ideas to old ones. the teaching-learning process.
ƒ Providing opportunities to cooperate, sharing ideas
and experiences, and reflecting on their learning. Teaching and Learning Methods
Teaching and learning approaches can be implemented
Science, Technology and Society through various methods such as experiments, discussions,
simulations, projects, and visits. In this curriculum, the
Meaningful learning occurs if students can relate their learning teaching-learning methods suggested are stated under the
with their daily experiences. Meaningful learning occurs in column “Suggested Learning Activities.” However, teachers
learning approaches such as contextual learning and Science, can modify the suggested activities when the need arises.
Technology and Society (STS).
The use of a variety of teaching and learning methods can
Learning themes and learning objectives that carry elements of enhance students’ interest in science. Science lessons that are
STS are incorporated into the curriculum. STS approach not interesting will not motivate students to learn and
suggests that science learning takes place through subsequently will affect their performance. The choice of
investigation and discussion based on science and technology teaching methods should be based on the curriculum content,
issues in society. In the STS approach, knowledge in science students’ abilities, students’ repertoire of intelligences, and the
and technology is to be learned with the application of the availability of resources and infrastructure. Besides playing the
principles of science and technology and their impact on role of knowledge presenters and experts, teachers need to act
society. as facilitators in the process of teaching and learning. Teachers

need to be aware of the multiple intelligences that exist among should provide students with the opportunities to design their
students. Different teaching and learning activities should be own experiments. This involves students drawing up plans as
planned to cater for students with different learning styles and to how to conduct experiments, how to measure and analyse
intelligences. data, and how to present the outcomes of their experiment.

The following are brief descriptions of some teaching and

learning methods.

A discussion is an activity in which students exchange

Experiment questions and opinions based on valid reasons. Discussions
An experiment is a method commonly used in science lessons.
can be conducted before, during or after an activity. Teachers
In experiments, students test hypotheses through investigations
should play the role of a facilitator and lead a discussion by
to discover specific science concepts and principles.
asking questions that stimulate thinking and getting students to
Conducting an experiment involves thinking skills, scientific
express themselves.
skills, and manipulative skills.

Usually, an experiment involves the following steps: Simulation

ƒ Identifying a problem. In simulation, an activity that resembles the actual situation is

ƒ Making a hypothesis. carried out. Examples of simulation are role-play, games and
ƒ Planning the experiment the use of models. In role-play, students play out a particular
- controlling variables. role based on certain pre-determined conditions. Games
- determining the equipment and materials require procedures that need to be followed. Students play
needed. games in order to learn a particular principle or to understand
- determining the procedure of the experiment and the process of decision-making. Models are used to represent
the method of data collection and analysis. objects or actual situations so that students can visualise the
ƒ Conducting the experiment. said objects or situations and thus understand the concepts
ƒ Collecting data. and principles to be learned.
ƒ Analysing data.
ƒ Interpreting data. Project
ƒ Making conclusions.
ƒ Writing a report.
A project is a learning activity that is generally undertaken by
an individual or a group of students to achieve a certain
learning objective. A project generally requires several lessons
In the implementation of this curriculum, besides guiding
to complete. The outcome of the project either in the form of a
students to do an experiment, where appropriate, teachers

report, an artefact or in other forms needs to be presented to The use of other tools such as data loggers and computer
the teacher and other students. Project work promotes the interfacing in experiments and projects also enhance the
development of problem-solving skills, time management skills, effectiveness of teaching and learning of science.
and independent learning.

Visits and Use of External Resources CONTENT ORGANISATION

The learning of science is not limited to activities carried out in

the school compound. Learning of science can be enhanced The science curriculum is organised around themes. Each
through the use of external resources such as zoos, museums, theme consists of various learning areas, each of which
science centres, research institutes, mangrove swamps, and consists of a number of learning objectives. A learning objective
factories. Visits to these places make the learning of science has one or more learning outcomes.
more interesting, meaningful and effective. To optimise learning
opportunities, visits need to be carefully planned. Students may
be involved in the planning process and specific educational Learning outcomes are written based on the hierarchy of the
tasks should be assigned during the visit. No educational visit is cognitive and affective domains. Levels in the cognitive domain
complete without a post-visit discussion. are: knowledge, understanding, application, analysis, synthesis
and evaluation. Levels in the affective domain are: to be aware
of, to be in awe, to be appreciative, to be thankful, to love, to
Use of Technology practise, and to internalise. Where possible, learning outcomes
relating to the affective domain are explicitly stated. The
Technology is a powerful tool that has great potential in inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values should be
enhancing the learning of science. Through the use of integrated into every learning activity. This ensures a more
technology such as television, radio, video, computer, and spontaneous and natural inculcation of attitudes and values.
Internet, the teaching and learning of science can be made Learning areas in the psychomotor domain are implicit in the
more interesting and effective. learning activities.
Computer simulation and animation are effective tools for the
teaching and learning of abstract or difficult science concepts. Learning outcomes are written in the form of measurable
Computer simulation and animation can be presented through behavioural terms. In general, the learning outcomes for a
courseware or Web page. Application tools such, as word particular learning objective are organised in order of
processors, graphic presentation software and electronic complexity. However, in the process of teaching and learning,
spreadsheets are valuable tools for the analysis and learning activities should be planned in a holistic and integrated
presentation of data. manner that enables the achievement of multiple learning
outcomes according to needs and context. Teachers should

avoid employing a teaching strategy that tries to achieve each
learning outcome separately according to the order stated in
the curriculum specifications.

The Suggested Learning Activities provide information on the

scope and dimension of learning outcomes. The learning
activities stated under the column Suggested Learning
Activities are given with the intention of providing some
guidance as to how learning outcomes can be achieved. A
suggested activity may cover one or more learning outcomes.
At the same time, more than one activity may be suggested for
a particular learning outcome. Teachers may modify the
suggested activity to suit the ability and style of learning of their
students. Teachers are encouraged to design other innovative
and effective learning activities to enhance the learning of


Learning Area: 1. Introduction to Science

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

1.1 Describe examples of natural A student is able to: During learning benefit – faedah
Understanding phenomena that students see activities, bring out career – kerjaya
that science is around them: x list what he sees around him the science discuss – bincangkan
part of a) growth of human from a baby that is related to science, concepts and educator – pendidik
everyday life. to an adult, x explain the importance of principles students importance – kepentingan
b) fall of a ball to the ground, science in everyday life, have learned in professional – profesional
c) melting of ice. x name some careers in science primary school. related – berkaitan
such as: role play – main peranan
Discuss the uses and benefits of a) science teachers Talks on careers talks – ceramah
science in everyday life. b) doctors in science by natural phenomena –
c) engineers professionals. fenomena alam
Attend talks on careers in science. d) environmental scientists

1.2 Carry out a scientific A student is able to: Scientific affect – mempengaruhi
Understanding investigation/experiment, investigation determine – menentukan
the steps in e.g. ‘To find out what affects the x state the steps in a scientific involves the use of hypothesis – hipotesis
scientific number of times a pendulum investigation/experiment, science process identify – mengenal pasti
investigation. swings back and forth in a given x carry out a scientific skills. investigation – penyiasatan
time (oscillations)‘. investigation. involve – melibatkan
measure – mengukur
observe – memerhati

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

Students will be: There should be a

guided discussion oscillations – ayunan
a) determining what they want to for steps (a) to (c) lengkap
find out (identifying the before students swings back and forth –
problem), carry out the berayun ulang alik
b) making a smart guess (forming experiment. pendulum – bandul
a hypothesis), variable – pemboleh ubah
c) planning how to test the
hypothesis (planning the
x identifying the variables,
x determining the apparatus
and materials required,
x determining the procedure
to carry out the
experiment, method to
collect and analise data.
d) carrying out the experiment,
e) writing down what has been
observed (collecting data),
f) finding a meaning for what has This activity helps
been observed (analysing and the teacher to
interpreting data), identify students’
g) deciding whether the capabilities to
hypothesis is true (making carry out a
conclusions), scientific
h) writing a report on the investigation.
investigation (reporting).

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

Students can be asked to report

their investigations to the class.
They should emphasise the steps
they have taken; what they have
changed; what they have kept the
same and what they have

1.3 Identify physical quantities (length, A student is able to: Product abbreviation – singkatan
Knowing mass, time, temperature and descriptions can appropriate – sesuai
physical electric current), their values and x state the physical quantities be found on corresponding symbol –
quantities and units found on product length, mass, time, temperature labels, boxes of simbol berpadanan
their units. descriptions. and electric current, electrical electric current – arus
x state the S.I. units and the appliances, food elektrik
Find words with the prefixes used corresponding symbols for packets, etc. length – panjang
in measurements such as kilo-, these physical quantities, mass – jisim
centi-, and milli- . x state the symbols and values of S.I. is an measurement – ukuran
prefixes for unit of length and abbreviation for physical quantity – kuantiti
Find the symbols used for these mass: milli-, centi-, and kilo-, the French term fizik
units of measurement. x identify and use appropriate Systéme prefix – imbuhan
prefixes in the measurement of International symbol – simbol
Find the values of these prefixes. length and mass. d’Unités which value – nilai
system for units.

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

1.4 Measure the lengths of straight A student is able to: Make sure calipers – angkup
Understanding lines, curves and the diameters of students take curve – garis lengkung
the use of objects using rulers, threads and x choose the right tool and measurements displacement – sesaran
measuring calipers. measure length, correctly and estimate – menganggarkan
tools. x estimate the area of regular accurately. irregular – tidak sekata
Estimate the areas of regular and and irregular shapes using regular – sekata
irregular shapes using graph graph paper, volume – isi padu
paper. x choose the right tool and
measure the volume of liquid,
Measure the volume of liquids x choose the right tool to
using measuring cylinders, measure the body temperature
pipettes and burettes. and the temperature of a liquid,
x determine the volume of solid
Determine the volume of regular using the water displacement
and irregular solids using the method.
water displacement method.

Measure the body temperature

and the temperature of water.

Discuss the right choice of tools in

making measurements.

Apply the above measuring skills

in the context of experiments.

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

1.5 Find the weights of different A student is able to: Unit for weight: beam balance – neraca alur
Understanding objects using a spring balance. newton determine – menentukan
the concept of x determine the weight of an Unit for mass: difference – perbezaan
mass. Discuss weight as the pull of the object, kilogram force – daya
earth (gravitational force) on an x explain the concept of weight, lever balance – neraca tuas
object. x explain the concept of mass, Carry out an mass – jisim
x determine the mass of an experiment in matter – jirim
Discuss mass as quantity of object, which students pull – tarikan
matter. x explain the difference between have to apply the spring balance – neraca
mass and weight, skill of measuring spring
Find the mass of different objects x apply the use of spring and mass and weight. weight – berat
using beam balance or lever beam/lever balance in the
balance. context of an experiment.
Discuss the difference between
mass and weight.

Apply the skills of using spring

balance and beam/lever balance
in the context of an experiment.

1.6 Discuss the various units of A student is able to: act out – lakonkan
Realising the measurements, e.g. units for advantage – kebaikan
importance of length (foot, yard, chain, mile, x give examples of problems that arise – timbul
standard units meter, kilometer), units for weight may arise if standard units are disadvantage – keburukan
in everyday (pound, ounce, kati, tahil, gram, not used. realising – menyedari
life. kilogram). standard – piawai
scene – babak
Act out a scene to show the various – pelbagai
problems caused by not using

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
standard units e.g. buying things
at the market.

Discuss the advantages and

disadvantages of using different
units of measurement.


Learning Area: 1. Cell as a Unit of Life

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

1.1 Gather information on living A student is able to: General structure animal cell – sel haiwan
Understanding organisms and identify the of a cell may cell wall – dinding sel
cells. smallest living unit that makes up x identify that cell is the basic unit include cell wall, cheek cells – sel pipi
the organism. of living things, cell membrane, chloroplast – kloroplas
x prepare slides following the protoplasm cytoplasm – sitoplasma
Prepare slides of cheek cells and proper procedure, (cytoplasm and handling – mengendali
onion cells. x use a microscope properly, nucleus), general – umum
x identify the general structures chloroplast and microscope – mikroskop
Study the general structure of of animal cells and plant cells, vacuole. nucleus – nukleus
cheek cells and onion cells under x draw the general structure of onion – bawang
a microscope using the correct an animal cell and a plant cell, The usage and plant cell – sel tumbuhan
procedure. x label the general structure of handling of a precaution – langkah
an animal cell and a plant cell, microscope is keselamatan
Draw and label the different x state the function of each cell introduced in this prepare – sediakan
structures of an animal cell and a structure, learning area. protoplasm – protoplasma
plant cell. remind – ingatkan
x state the similarities and
Remind pupils of sample – sampel
differences between an animal
Compare an animal cell to a plant the safety slide – slaid
cell and a plant cell.
cell. precautions to be structure – struktur
taken when vacuole – vakuol
Gather information on cell preparing samples
structures and discuss their of cheek cells.

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

1.2 Gather information about A student is able to: Use prepared multicellular organism –
Understanding unicellular organisms and slides or fresh organisma multisel
unicellular multicellular organisms. x state the meaning of unicellular specimens. unicellular organism –
organism and organism and multicellular organisma satu sel
multicellular Provide students with picture organism, Introduce the term microorganism –
organism. cards, name cards, cards with the x give examples of unicellular ‘microorganisms’. mikroorganisma
labels ‘unicellular’ and organism and multicellular
‘multicellular’. Students match the organism.
three cards for each organism.

Observe examples of unicellular

organisms and multicellular
organisms under a microscope.

1.3 Gather information and discuss A student is able to: arrange sequentially –
Understanding the following: susun mengikut urutan
that cells form a) types of human cells, x name the different types of cell – sel
tissues, organs b) functions of different types of human cells, function – fungsi
and systems in human cells. x state the function of different human being – manusia
the human types of human cells, ladder – tangga
body. x arrange sequentially cell organ – organ
organisation from simple to organisation of cells –
complex using the terms cell, organisasi sel
tissue, organ, system and system – sistem
organism. simple – mudah
tissue – tisu

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

Use a graphic organiser (e.g.

ladder of hierarchy) to show the
hierarchy of cell organisation:

cell Æ tissue Æ organ Æ

system Æ organism


1.4 Discuss why human beings are A student is able to: complex organism –
Realising that complex organisms. organisma kompleks
humans are x explain why human beings are human being – manusia
complex complex organisms. realising – menyedari


Learning Area: 1. Matter

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

1.1 Through activities, show that A student is able to: air – udara
Understanding things such as book, air, water, living things – benda hidup
that matter has soil and living things have mass x state that things have mass and mass – jisim
mass and occupy space. occupy space, matter – jirim
and occupies x explain what matter is, occupies – memenuhi
space. Discuss what matter is. x relate things and matter, water – air
x carry out activities to show that soil – tanih
List examples of matter. air, water, soil and living things
have mass and occupy space.

1.2 Gather information and discuss A student is able to: particle – zarah
Understanding a) what matter is made up of, simulate – membuat
the three b) what the three states of matter x state that matter is made up of simulasi
states of are. particles, arrangement – susunan
matter. x state the three states of matter, movement – gerakan
Compare the three states of x state the arrangement of state of matter – keadaan
matter in terms of: particles in the three states of jirim
a) the arrangement of particles, matter,
b) the movement of particles. x state the differences in the
movement of particles in the
Simulate the arrangement and three states of matter.
movement of particles in the three
states of matter.

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

1.3 Recall the definition of density. A student is able to: Archimedes definition – takrifan
Understanding Principle need not explain – menerangkan
the concept of Through activities, find the x define density, be introduced. float – timbul
density. densities of: x explain why some objects and liquid – cecair
a) objects with regular shape and liquids float, object with irregular shape –
objects with irregular shape, x solve simple problems related objek berbentuk tak sekata
b) different liquids. to density, object with regular shape –
x carry out activities to explore objek berbentuk sekata
Discuss why some objects and the densities of objects and recall – ingat semula
liquids float by relating to density. liquids. solve – selesaikan

1.4 Gather information and discuss A student is able to: aplication – aplikasi
Appreciating how: appreciating – menghargai
the use of x describe how man uses the applies – mengaplikasi
properties of a) man uses his knowledge of different states of matter, build – bina
matter in different states of matter to x describe how man applies the float – pelampung
everyday life. store and transport gases and concept of density, gas – gas
liquids, x carry out an activity to explore property – sifat
b) man uses the concept of the applications of the concept raft – rakit
density in making rafts, floats of floating and sinking related to store – menyimpan
etc. density. transport – mengangkut

Carry out an activity to explore the

applications of the concept of
floating and sinking related to

Learning Area: 2. The Variety of Resources on Earth

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

2.1 Gather information about the A student is able to: life – kehidupan
Knowing the resources on earth, i.e. water, air, knowing – mengetahui
different soil, minerals, fossil fuels and x list the resources on earth resource – sumber
resources on living things. needed to sustain life, to sustain life – menyokong
earth. x list the resources on earth used kesinambungan kehidupan
in everyday life.

2.2 Gather information and discuss A student is able to: appearance – rupa
Understanding a) what elements, characterstic – ciri
elements, compounds and mixtures are, x state what elements, classify – mengelaskan
compounds b) what metals and non- compounds and mixtures are, compound – sebatian
and mixtures. metals are, x give examples of elements, component – komponen
c) examples of elements, compounds and mixtures, conductivity –
compounds, mixtures, metals x state the differences between kekonduksian
and non-metals. elements, compounds and electricity – elektrik
mixtures, element – unsur
Compare and contrast the x carry out activities to compare hardness – kekerasan
properties of elements, and contrast the properties of heat – haba
compounds and mixtures. different metals and non- mixture – campuran
metals, separate – mengasingkan
Carry out activities to compare the x classify elements as metals and understanding –
properties of metals and non- non-metals based on their memahami
metals in terms of appearance, characteristics,
hardness, conductivity of heat and x give examples of metals and
conductivity of electricity. non-metals,

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

Carry out activities to separate the x carry out activities to separate

components of mixtures e.g. the components of a mixture.
a) mixture of iron filings and
sulphur powder,
b) mixture of sand and salt.

2.3 Discuss the importance of earth’s A student is able to: appreciating – menghargai
Appreciating resources (water, air, soil, concept map – peta
the importance minerals, fossil fuels and living x explain the importance of konsep
of the variety things) to man. variety of earth’s resources to conservation –
of earth’s man, pemuliharaan
resources to Draw a concept map to show the x state the meaning of the needs of life – keperluan
man. relationship between these preservation and conservation of hidup
resources to the basic needs of resources on earth, preservation –
life. x state the importance of the pemeliharaan
preservation and conservation of resource – sumber
Gather information on the resources on earth, relationship – hubung kait
preservation and conservation of x practise reducing the use, sustainable development –
resources on earth. reusing and recycling of pembangunan lestari
Discuss the importance of the
preservation and conservation of
resources on earth (e.g. recycling
of paper reduces the
cutting down of trees; conserving
clean water prevents water

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

Carry out a project, campaign or

competition on reducing the use,
reusing and recycling of materials
e.g. using old unfinished exercise
books as note books and
collecting old newspapers.

Learning Area: 3. The Air Around Us

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

3.1 Gather information on: A student is able to: Air is a mixture of carbon dioxide – karbon
Understanding a) the composition of air, nitrogen, oxygen, dioksida
what air is b) the percentage of nitrogen, x state what air is made up of, carbon dioxide, composition – komposisi
made up of. oxygen and carbon dioxide in x explain why air is a mixture, inert gases, water dust – habuk
air. x state the percentage of vapour, microorganism –
nitrogen, oxygen and carbon microorganisms mikroorganisma
Carry out activities to show: dioxide in air, and dust. nitrogen – nitrogen
a) the percentage of oxygen in x carry out activities to show: oxygen – oksigen
air, a) the percentage of oxygen in inert gas – gas nadir
b) that air contains water vapour, air, water vapour – wap air
microorganisms and dust. b) that air contains water
vapour, microorganisms
and dust.

3.2 Gather information on the A student is able to: lime water – air kapur
Understanding properties of oxygen and carbon glowing – berbara
the properties dioxide. x list the properties of oxygen indicator – penunjuk
of oxygen and and carbon dioxide, reaction – tindak balas
carbon dioxide. Carry out activities to show the x identify oxygen and carbon solubility – keterlarutan
properties of oxygen and carbon dioxide based on their wooden splint – kayu uji
dioxide in the following aspects: properties,
x choose a suitable test for
a) solubility in water, oxygen and carbon dioxide

b) reaction with sodium


Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

c) the effect on:

glowing and burning wooden
splinter, litmus paper, lime
water, bicarbonate indicator.

3.3 Gather information and discuss A student is able to: energy – tenaga
Understanding respiration. exhaled air – udara
that oxygen is x state that energy, carbon dioxide hembusan
needed in Carry out an experiment to show and water vapour are the inhaled air – udara
respiration. that during respiration, living products of respiration, sedutan
things x relate that living things use role – peranan
(a) use oxygen, oxygen and give out carbon rate of respiration – kadar
(b) give out carbon dioxide. i oxide during respiration, respirasi
x compare and contrast the yeast – yis
content of oxygen in inhaled and
exhaled air in humans,
x state that oxygen is needed for
x carry out an experiment to show
that living things use oxygen and
give out carbon dioxide during

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

3.4 Gather information and discuss A student is able to: Charcoal is an candle – lilin
Understanding combustion. example of carbon. charcoal – arang
that oxygen is x state what combustion is, combustion – pembakaran
needed for Carry out experiments to: x state that oxygen is needed for carbon – karbon
combustion a) show that oxygen is needed combustion, product – hasil
(burning). for combustion, x list the products of combustion,
b) investigate the effect of the x carry out experiments to
size of a container on the investigate combustion.
length of time a candle burns.

Carry out activity to test for the

products of combustion of
charcoal and candle.

3.5 Gather information and discuss: A student is able to: air pollution –
Analysing the control – kawalan
effects of air a) x explain what air pollution is, effect – kesan
pollution. hat air pollution is, x list examples of air pollutants, analysing – menganalisis
b) x list the sources of air pollutants, environment – alam sekitar
xamples of air pollutants, x prevent – mencegah
c) escribe the effects of air pollutant – bahan cemar
he sources of air pollutants, pollution, source – sumber
d) x
he effects of air pollution on xplain the steps needed to
man and the environment, prevent and control air
e) pollution.
he steps needed to control air

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

Carry out a project to study:

ir pollution in an area around
the school,
he effects of air pollution.

3.6 Gather information and discuss: A student is able to: describe – perihalkan
Realising the habit – amalan
importance of a) how life would be without clean x suggest – cadangkan
keeping the air air, escribe how life would be
clean. b) ways to keep the air clean, without clean air,
c) habits that keep the air clean. x suggest ways to keep the air
Carry out an activity to show the x practise habits that keep the air
pollutants in cigarette smoke. clean.


Learning Area: 1. Sources of Energy

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

1.1 Gather information about the A student is able to: energy change –
Understanding various forms and sources of perubahan bentuk tenaga
various forms energy, and energy changes. x list the various forms of energy, form – bentuk
and sources of x list the various sources of slope – satah condong
energy. Discuss the sun as the primary energy, kinetic energy – tenaga
source of energy. x identify energy changes, kinetik
x identify the sun as the primary potential energy – tenaga
Carry out activity to see the source of energy, keupayaan
change of energy change x carry out an activity to primary source – sumber
x from potential to kinetic investigate the change of primer
energy, e.g. a ball rolling energy from potential to kinetic various – pelbagai
down a slope. energy and vice versa. vice versa – sebaliknya
x from kinetic to potential
energy, e.g. the winding of
the spring in a toy car.

1.2 Gather information and discuss A student is able to: Project includes the efficient – cekap
Understanding the meaning of renewable and making of scrap conserve – memulihara
renewable and non-renewable energy sources. x define renewable and non- books, models and non-renewable – tidak
non-renewable renewable sources of energy, posters. boleh diperbaharui
energy. x renewable – boleh
roup the various sources of diperbaharui
energy into renewable and non- solar energy – tenaga suria

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

Carry out a project on:

a) renewable and non-renewable x explain why we need to
energy sources, conserve energy,
b) the uses of solar energy, x suggest ways to use energy
c) the ways to increase efficient efficiently.
use of energy.

1.3 Discuss the importance of A student is able to: Discussion can be management –
Realising the conserving energy sources. in the form of pengurusan
importance of x describe the importance of forum, brain
conserving Discuss the use and management conserving energy sources, storming etc.
energy of energy sources. x explain the use and
sources. management of energy

Learning Area : 2. Heat

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

2.1 Carry out activities to show: A student is able to: daily life – kehidupan
Understanding harian
heat as a form a) the sun gives out heat, x state that the sun gives out difference – perbezaan
of energy. b) ways to produce heat, heat, example – contoh
c) heat and temperature are not x state other sources of heat, gives out – mengeluarkan
the same e.g. ask students to x state that heat is a form of heat – haba
predict and observe how the energy, meaning – maksud
temperatures change when x give examples of the uses of temperature – suhu
hot and cold water are mixed. heat,
x state the meaning of
Discuss: temperature,
a) that heat is a form of energy, x state the difference between
b) the uses of heat in our daily life heat and temperature.
c) what temperature is,
d) the difference between
temperature and heat.

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
2.2 Carry out activities to show that A student is able to: conduction – konduksi
Understanding heat causes solids, liquids and Explain the effect of contract – mengecut
heat flow and gases to expand and contract. x state that heat causes solids, heating and cooling convection – perolakan
its effect. (ball and ring, mercury in liquids and gases to expand on solids, liquids expand – mengembang
thermometer and air in round- and contract, and gases. flow – mengalir
bottomed flask) x state that heat flows in three gas – gas
different ways (conduction, insulator – penebat
Carry out activities to show how convection and radiation), land breeze – bayu darat
heat flows by conduction, x state that heat flows from hot to liquid – cecair
convection and radiation. cold, natural phenomena –
x give examples of heat flow in fenomena alam
Carry out group activities to natural phenomena, radiation – sinaran
discuss: x state what a heat conductor is, sea breeze – bayu laut
a) natural phenomena such as x state what a heat insulator is, solid – pepejal
land breeze, sea breeze and x list uses of heat conductors and
the warming of the earth by the heat insulators in daily life,
x carry out an experiment to
b) how buildings can be kept
investigate the use of different
materials as heat insulators.
c) what a heat conductor is,
d) what a heat insulator is,
e) the uses of heat conductors
and heat insulators in daily life.

Carry out an experiment to

investigate the use of different
materials as heat insulators.

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

2.3 Carry out activities to show the A student is able to: Physical processes boiling – pendidihan
Analysing the change in state of matter in include melting, condensation –
effect of heat physical processes. x state the change in state of boiling, freezing, kondensasi
on matter. matter in physical processes, evaporation, evaporation – penyejatan
Discuss: x explain that change in state of condensation and freezing – penyejukbekuan
(i) the effects of heat on the matter involves the absorption sublimation. melting – peleburan
state of matter, and release of heat, process – proses
(ii) examples of daily x give examples of daily reference – rujukan
observations which show a observations which show a sublimation –
change in state of matter. change in state of matter. pemejalwapan

2.4 Discuss the use of expansion A student is able to: bimetallic strip – jalur
Applying the and contraction of matter in the dwilogam
principle of following: x explain with examples the use expansion –
expansion of expansion and contraction of pengembangan
and a) mercury in a thermometer, matter in daily life, contraction – pengecutan
contraction of b) bimetallic strip in a fire alarm, x apply the principle of expansion fire alarm – alat penggera
matter. c) gaps in railway tracks, and contraction of matter in kebakaran
d) rollers in steel bridges. solving simple problems. roller – penggolek
steel bridge – jambatan
Discuss the use of the principle of keluli
expansion and contraction of
matter to solve simple problems.

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

2.5 Carry out experiments to show A student is able to: absorb – menyerap
Understanding that: dull – pudar
that dark, dull x state that dark, dull objects dark – gelap
objects absorb a) dark, dull objects absorb heat absorb heat better than white, shiny – berkilat
and give out better than white, shiny shiny objects,
heat better. objects, x state that dark, dull objects give
b) dark, dull objects give out heat out heat better than white,
better than white, shiny shiny objects,
objects. x carry out experiments to
investigate heat absorption and
heat release.

2.6 Discuss and put into practice A student is able to: improve air circulation –
Appreciating activities such as the opening of memperbaiki pengudaraan
the benefits of windows in the classroom or x put into practice the principle of comfortable living –
heat flow. laboratory to improve air heat flow to provide kehidupan yang selesa
circulation. comfortable living.


Advisors Sharifah Maimunah Syed Zin (Ph.D) Director

Curriculum Development Centre

Rohani Abd. Hamid (Ph.D) Deputy Director

Curriculum Development Centre

Editorial Ahmad Hozi H.A. Rahman Principal Assistant Director (Science and Mathematics)
Advisors Curriculum Development Centre
Yeap Chin Heng (Ph.D) Assistant Director (Head of Core Science Unit)
Curriculum Development Centre
Cheah Eng Joo Assistant Director (Head of Elective Science Unit)
Curriculum Development Centre
S. Sivagnanachelvi Assistant Director (Head of English Unit)
Curriculum Development Centre

Editor Aizatul Adzwa Mohd. Basri Assistant Director

Curriculum Development Centre


Ahmad Hozi H.A. Rahman Curriculum Development Rusilawati Othman Curriculum Development Centre

Yeap Chin Heng (Ph.D) Curriculum Development Salbiah Mohd. Som Curriculum Development Centre

Cheah Eng Joo Curriculum Development Salehuddin Mustafa Curriculum Development Centre

Aizatul Adzwa Mohd. Curriculum Development Salina Hanum Curriculum Development Centre
Basri Centre Osman Mohamed

Johari Shamsudin Curriculum Development Zaidah Mohd. Yusof Curriculum Development Centre

Norani Abdul Bari Curriculum Development Zaidi Yazid Curriculum Development Centre

Rosli Suleiman Curriculum Development Zainon Abdul Majid Curriculum Development Centre
Chan Ah Jun SMK Durian Tunggal, Melaka Lee Yuet Lai SMK Sulaiman, Bentung,
Emily Ng Joo Lee SMJK Chung Hwa, Kelang, Roselina Azizan Sekolah Alam Shah
Selangor Kuala Lumpur

Curriculum Development Centre
Ministry of Education