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The  Mango  Tree  Project

THE  MANGO  TREE  PROJECT


Energy  Audit  and  Recommendations
Agahozo-­Shalom  Youth  Village

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A  joint  project  between  students  from  United  States  Air  Force  Academy,  Tufts  University  and  Washington  University  in  St  Louis
The  Mango  Tree  Project The  Mango  Tree  Project

THE  TEAM TO  OUR  SUPPORTERS TABLE  OF  CONTENTS


Tufts  University The   Mango   Tree   Project   team   wishes   to   thank   its   many   generous   support-­
Michael  Sidebottom,  Tufts  B.S.  ‘10 ers,   partners,   and   friends   who   have   made   this   endeavour,   and   this   report,   pos-­
Cody  Valdes,  Tufts  B.A.  ‘13 VLEOH 7KLV SURMHFW ZDV WKH ¿UVW RI LWV NLQG IRU WKH DOO PHPEHUV LQYROYHG DQG KDV
And  Contributors:  Fred  Huang,  Tufts  B.S.  ’10,  Dante  DeMeo,   left   us   with   tremendous   insights   and   invaluable   friendships   after   an   entire   year  
Tufts  M.S.  ’10,  Patrick  Barber,  Tufts  B.S.  ’10,  Michael  Vizner,  Tufts  B.S.  ‘12 of   collaboration.   In   particular,   we   wish   to   thank   the   Agahozo-­Shalom   Youth   Vil-­
lage,   whose   staff,   youth,   and   leaders   warmly   invited   us   into   their   community   and  
United  States  Air  Force  Academy
Second  Lieutenant  David  Pool,  USAFA  ‘10
their   homes   for   the   duration   of   our   three-­week   assessment   trip   in   January   2010.   I.   Executive  Summary  
Cadet  First  Class  Leif  Lindblom,  USAFA  ‘11 Anne   Heyman,   Nir   Lahav,   and   Alain   Munyaburanga   deserve   special   thanks   for  
Cadet  Second  Class  David  Shrift,  USAFA  ‘12 their   generous   time   and   patience   with   us   as   we   navigated   our   way   through   the   II.   Rwanda  16  Years  On
humbling   process   of   understanding   a   new   community   in   an   unfamiliar   country.     III.   Village  Energy  Audit
Washington  University  in  St.  Louis
Tegan  Bukowski,  WUSTL  B.A.  ‘10,  Yale  ‘13 IV.   Recommendations
National  University  of  Rwanda/Brandeis  University
The   individual   groups   of   the   Mango   Tree   Project   wish   to   thank   their   own   support-­   A.   Renewable  Power  Production
ers   as   well.   The   United   States   Air   Force   Academy   Mango   Tree   Project   members  
6HWK.DUDPDJH0$&RH[LVWHQFHDQG&RQÀLFW%UDQGHLV
would  like  to  thank  the  Dean  of  Faculty,  Brigadier  General  Dana  Born  for  her  sup-­   B.   Strategic  Areas  for  Reduction  and  Education
B.A.  Economics,  NUR.
port   and   encouragement   in   the   beginning   stages   of   the   project,   the   Civil   and   En-­ V.   Conclusion
vironmental   Engineering   Department   for   providing   engineering   guidance   and  
resources,   the   Department   of   International   Programs   for   generously   funding  
WKH DVVHVVPHQW YLVLW &DSWDLQ -RVK $OGUHG IRU WHFKQLFDOO\ UHYLHZLQJ WKH ¿QDO UH-­
port,   and   Ms.   Leslie   Christensen   for   her   help   navigating   the   approval   process.

The  Tufts  Mango  Tree  Project  members  wish  to  thank  the  Institute  for  Global  Leadership,  
its  Director  Sherman  Teichman,  and  Assistant  Director  Heather  Barry  for  their  unwav-­
ering  support  of  this  student-­led  initiative  from  its  conception  in  September  2009.  Their  
guidance  and  enthusiasm  for  our  project,  which  attempted  to  bring  together  students  
from  three  universities  and  multiple  departments  to  work  together  towards  a  single  
REMHFWLYHJDYHXVWKHFRQ¿GHQFHZHQHHGHGWRWXUQRXUJUDQGDPELWLRQLQWRDUHDOLW\

VI.   Appendices
The  Washington  University  in  St  Louis  team  want  to  express  gratitude  to  the  Washington     A.   Hourly  Electricity  Usage  by  Building  Type  
University  Sam  Fox  School  of  Design  &  Visual  Arts  School  of  Architecture  for  their  im-­   B.   Phase  1  Energy  Model  Assumptions
mense  generosity  in  providing  not  one  but  two  travel  grants  to  travel  to  and  from  Rwanda.       C.   Phase  2  Energy  Model  Assumptions
3DUWLFXODUO\'HDQ%UXFH/LQGVH\IRUKLVFRQVWDQWVXSSRUWDQGFRQ¿GHQFHLQWKHWHDP   D.   Energy  Use  by  Appliance
Also,  Tegan  Bukowski  wishes  to  thank  the  Ghepardt  Institute  for  their  Civic  Engagement     E.   Experimental  Data  Phase  1  &  2
  F.   Biogas  Production  Chart
Scholarship.   Without   these   contributions,   the   project   would   have   been   impossible.
  G.   Biogas  Production  Calculations
  H.   Thermosyphon  Analysis
  I.   Thermosyphon  Energy  Savings
  J.   References
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The  Mango  Tree  Project The  Mango  Tree  Project

EXECUTIVE  SUMMARY
The   Mango  Tree   Project   is   an   endeavor   among   a  multidis-­ Renewable  energy  technologies  have  advanced  in  sophis-­
ciplinary   team  of  university  students  to  understand  and  im-­ tication  and  affordability  in  the  global  energy  market  to  the  
prove   upon   the   current   patterns   of   electricity   consumption   point  where  they  are  currently  the  only  reliable  and  afford-­
of   the   Agahozo-­Shalom   Youth   Village   (ASYV),   a   youth   re-­ able  route  to  achieving  long-­term  energy  independence  for  
habilitation  and  education  community  located  near  the  town   many  developing  communities.  Until  Rwanda’s  quickly  ex-­
RI5ZDPDJDQDLQHDVWHUQ5ZDQGD7KHYLOODJHDQRQSUR¿W panding   national   electricity   infrastructure   has   reached   the  
initiative  of  partners  in  the  United  States,  Rwanda,  and  Israel   state  where  it  can  provide  economical  and  reliable  service  
to  provide  a  safe  living  and  learning  environment  for  vulner-­ to   energy-­intensive   ventures   such   as   the   ASYV,   renew-­
able   and   orphaned   Rwandan   youth,   is   home   to   250   youth   able   energy   sources   will   offer   a   secure   and   cost-­effective  
and  approximately  100  staff,  a  number  which  will  double  to  a   means  to  sustaining  the  village’s  operations,  provided  that  
full  capacity  of  700  in  two  years.  It  is  currently  facing  consid-­ WKH\DUHSURSHUO\VRXUFHGLQVWDOOHGDQGFDUHGIRUDQG¿-­
HUDEOHEDUULHUVWRDFKLHYLQJ¿QDQFLDOVXVWDLQDELOLW\EHFDXVH nanced  through  a  relatively  large  up-­front  injection  of  capi-­
of  high  electricity  and  fuel  costs,  both  of  which  were  antici-­ tal.  Our  energy  audit  has  shown  that  at  the  current  rates  of  
pated   symptoms   of   Rwanda’s   developing   national   energy   electricity  consumption  and  purchase  exchange  from  Elec-­
infrastructure   at   the   village’s   conception,   but   nevertheless   trogaz,  Rwanda’s  national  supplier,  the  village  will  be  paying  
remain   substantial   obstacles   now  and  even  more  so  in  the   roughly  $55,000USD  per  year  in  two  years  time.  The  MTP  
immediate  future  as  the  village  expands.  As  a  team  of  stu-­ WHDPWKXVUHFRPPHQGVSXUVXLQJDVRODUWKLQ¿OPSKRWRYRO-­
dent  researchers  with  practical  experience  in  building  design,   taic  power  generation  system,  able  to  produce  electricity  for  
sustainable  systems  design,  renewable  energy  and  curricula   various   scales   of   need,   to   be   designed   and   maintained   in  
design,  the  Mango  Tree  Project  (MTP)  team  set  out  with  the   partnership  with  local  partners  such  as  Great  Lakes  Energy  
goal   of   providing   the   village   with   a   comprehensive   under-­ Ltd.  and  the  Solar  Electric  Light  Fund  (SELF).
standing  of  its  current  (and,  where  possible,  future)  electricity  
consumption  patterns,  and  then  to  provide  guidance  towards  
implementing  new  systems  for  achieving  cost-­savings  in  the  
near  future.    

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The  Mango  Tree  Project The  Mango  Tree  Project

AGAHOZO  SHALOM  YOUTH  VILLAGE RWANDA  16  YEARS  ON

As  a  uniquely  transformative  healing  and  rehabilitation  com-­ 5ZDQGDZLOOIRUJHQHUDWLRQVEHGH¿QHGE\WKHXQVSHDNDEOH At   the   same   time,   Rwanda   has   developed   at   a   remark-­
munity,  ASYV   is   ideally   placed   to   become   a   truly   state-­of-­ tragedy  that  brought  it  infamy  in  April  1994,  when  in  just  100   DEOH SDFH RYHU WKH ODVW GHFDGH DQG ZLWK RQJRLQJ FRQÀLFW
the-­art   educational   space   for   Rwanda’s   most   vulnerable   days   more   than   800,000  Tutsis   and  Hutu  moderates   were   in   neighboring   Democratic   Republic   of   the   Congo   and   vi-­
youth   by   specializing   in   these   renewable   technologies,   systematically  slaughtered  by  extremist  Hutus,  marking  the   olently-­contested   elections   marring   the   Republic   of   Kenya  
which  represent  the  future  for  its  under-­25  generation.  The   nadir   of   a   decade   of   instability   within   the   heart   of   the  Afri-­ in  2007/8,  it  has  fast  risen  from  nothingness  to  emerge  as  
MTP   team   aims   to   provide  ASYV   with   its   expertise   in   as-­ can  continent.  The  scars  of  the  genocide  and  its  preceding   somewhat  of  an  exemplar  for  the  Central  and  East  African  
sessing   and   sourcing   renewable   technologies   in   order   to   years  of  civil  war  have  settled  deep  in  the  fabric  of  Rwandan   region.  According   to   the   World   Bank’s   2007   World   Gover-­
JXLGHLWWRZDUGVLWVORQJWHUP¿QDQFLDODQGHGXFDWLRQDODV-­ society,   both   physically   and   spiritually.   While   these   scars   nance   Indicators,   the   country   has   surpassed   expectations  
pirations.  The  recommendations  contained  within  this  pro-­ are  stored  most  viscerally  in  the  minds  of  the  men,  women,   of   political   stability,   government   effectiveness,   and   control  
posal  are  thus  intended  to  be  practical  and  actionable  while   and  children  who  partook  in  or  were  victim  to  the  genocide’s   of  corruption,  and  has  rebuilt  its  governance  structures  with  
remaining  modest  in  light  of  our  position  as  students,  as  out-­ inescapable  violence,  the  most  saddening  manifestation  of   remarkable   speed.   Rwanda   has   gained   a   reputation   as   a  
siders,  and  as  individuals  who  will  have  minimal  stake  in  any   the  pogroms’  destruction  was  the  unknowable  number  of  in-­ leader   in   the   continent   in   the   reduction   of   corruption   and  
action  taken  as  a  result  of  this  report.   nocent  children  who  came  of  age  in  its  aftermath.  For  these   promotion   of   government   accountability,   having   “built   up  
\RXWK OLIH ZRXOG EH DQG FRQWLQXHV WR EH  GH¿QHG E\ WKH a   culture   of   good   governance,   transparency   and   evidence  
absence  of  familial  support,  or  the  well-­intentioned  efforts  of   based  policy  making,”  according  to  the  Millennium  Develop-­
This  report  is  intended  to  be  read  by  any  and  all  individuals   DIXQFWLRQLQJVWDWHEXUHDXFUDF\WR¿OOWKDWYRLG ment  Goal  Monitor1.    With  Africa’s  largest  solar  power  farm  
living   or   working   in   the   village,   those   people   who   have   a   now   situated   just   seven   kilometers   from   the   capital   city   of  
stake  or  interest  in  the  village  from  abroad,  and,  in  particu-­ Kigali,  Rwanda  is  also  positioning  itself  to  become  a  leader  
lar,   any   individuals   who   may   have   an   interest   in   support-­ in  Africa’s  renewable  energy  sector.  And  as  part  of  its  con-­
LQJ WKH$JDKR]R6KDORP <RXWK 9LOODJH DV LW WDNHV LWV ¿UVW Today,  Rwanda  has  an  estimated  860,000  orphans  of  a  total   tinued  commitment  to  developing  its  core  infrastructure,  the  
steps  into  renewable  technologies  and  other  energy-­related   population  of  nearly  10  million.  What  many  see  as  Rwanda’s   Rwandan   government   has   endeavored   to   make   its   capital  
cost  savings  measures  over  the  immediate  and  near-­term   saddest  statistic  presents  a  gargantuan  barrier  to  unlocking   FLW\.LJDOLWKH¿UVWIXOO\ZLUHOHVV$IULFDQFLW\ZLWKKLJKVSHHG
IXWXUH,WLVWKXVRUJDQL]HGDVVXFK¿UVWDUHVRPHLQWURGXF-­ the  immense  human  potential  of  the  country’s  under-­25  gen-­ broadband  coverage.
tory  notes  on  Rwanda’s  immediate  history  and  the  context   eration.  According  to  UNICEF,  Rwanda  is  believed  to  have  
in  which  ASYV  has  established  itself,  followed  by  the  MTP’s   the   highest   concentrations   of   orphans   in   the   world.   Many   Nevertheless,   the   future   of   the   country’s   leadership   in   its  
energy  audit  of  the  village,  after  which  we  present  our  rec-­ of  these  children  were  orphaned  during  the  genocide,  while   public,   private,   and   cultural   institutions   faces   considerable  
ommendations   for   the   production   of   energy,   the   reduction   others   have   lost   parents   to   HIV/AIDS,   the   rates   of   which   challenges.   Some   have   characterized   the   post-­genocide  
of  energy  use,  and  the  concomitant  implementation  of  edu-­ have  increased  since  the  Hutu  militias  of  1994  used  mass   generation   as   a   lost   one,   made   passive   and   pliant   by   an  
cational  systems  and  materials  surrounding  the  technology.   rape  as  a  systematic  weapon  of  war.   overabundance   of   paternalistic   aid   that   has   created   a    

 1.    Marie  Chene,  “Overview  of  Corruption  in  Rwanda,”  Transparency  International  Anti-­Corruption  Resource  Center.  Available  online  at  (http://www.u4.no/helpdesk/helpdesk/query.
cfm?id=164).  Accessed  December  13,  2009.
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The  Mango  Tree  Project The  Mango  Tree  Project

III.  VILLAGE  ENERGY  AUDIT

lacuna  where  Rwandan  self-­empowerment  need  take  root.   This  is  the  context  in  which  ASYV  has  established  itself  as   The  scope  of  our  energy  audit  was  to  accomplish  the   Our  research  as  it  related  to  the  energy  consumption  of  the  
This  is  unlikely,  for  the  extraordinary  demands  imposed  on   a   true   leader   in   the   rehabilitation   and   leadership   develop-­ following:   village   had  a  straight  forward  goal.  This  was  to  produce   a  
the  individual  –  particularly  parentless  youth  –  in  the  wake   ment   of   Rwanda’s   youth.   Of   the   challenges   currently   fac-­ complete   energy   model   by   structure   and   by   hour-­of-­day  
of   the   country’s   civil   war   have   often   been   beyond   fathom.   LQJWKHYLOODJHWKHRQHLGHQWL¿HGWRWKH0DQJR7UHH3URMHFW for  all  energy  usage  in  the  village,  which  could  inform  any  
Others   would   argue,   more   convincingly,   that   President   as   a   primary   barrier   to   longevity   and   sustainability   in   pur-­  ‡7RFROOHFW¿[WXUHVSHFL¿FDWLRQVIRUDOOHQHUJ\ future   steps   taken   to   develop   a   renewable   energy   power  
Paul   Kagame’s   16-­year   tenure   (extended   in  August   2010   VXLW RI WKHVH JRDOV LV WKH ¿QDQFLDO EXUGHQ DQG XQFHUWDLQW\                                consuming  devices  in  the  village generation   system   by   the   village   and   its   partners.   Prior   to  
for  an  additional  7  years)  has  only  ingrained  the  passivity-­ of  its  electricity  supply.  Through  our  direct  research  into  the   our  assessment  of  the  village,  its  administrators  had  only  a  
WRDXWKRULW\ WKDW \LHOGHG WKH JHQRFLGH¶V VWDUWOLQJ HI¿FLHQF\ village’s   primary   points   of   electricity   consumption   and   our    ‡7RGRFXPHQWEHKDYLRUDOXVHVRIHQHUJ\ rough  idea  of  how  much  energy  the  village  was  using  and  
and  which  continues  to  extend  beyond  the  country’s  closed   conversations  and  interactions  with  the  directors  and  youth                                  particlarly  with  respect  to  those  which  are which  points  were  drawing  on  the  most  energy  in  compari-­
political  forum,  into  the  classroom  and  the  purviews  of  the   of  the  village,  we  have  gained  a  detailed  understanding  of   DPHQDEOHDQGVLJQL¿FDQWVXFKDVZKHQDQGIRU VRQ WR RWKHUV 2XU ¿UVW WDVN DPRXQWHG WR GLVFRYHULQJ KRZ
youth.  No  matter  how  much  truth  these  broad  characteriza-­ the   village’s   current   electricity   use   patterns   as   well   as   an                                  how  long  lights  are  kept  in  use much  money  was  being  spent  on  each  new  block  of  energy  
tions   contain,   the   reality   is   that   hundreds   of   thousands   of   informed   projection   of   its   future   demand.   We   have   shared   credits  from  Electrogaz,  Rwanda’s  national  energy  supplier,  
Rwanda’s  post-­genocide  youth  have  been  forced  to  come   WKHVH ¿QGLQJV LQ WKH IROORZLQJ SDJHV DQG RQ RXU ZHEVLWH  ‡7RUHFRUGDFWXDOYLOODJHHQHUJ\XVDJHGDWDIRUD and   where   this   money   was   being   used.   (See   Figure   6   for  
of   age   as   heads   of   households,   street   orphans,   manual   http://www.mangotreeproject.org.   VWDWLVWLFDOO\VLJQL¿FDQWSHULRGRIWLPHDQGGHYHORS Electrogaz  Purchase  Record).  We  have  produced  a  working  
laborers,   and   by   various   other   stunting   means   of   survival                                  a  model  of  the  village’s  current  (Phase  1)  energy     model  of  energy  use  in  the  village  that  the  village  adminis-­
that   have   diminished   their   prospects   for   positive   social   in-­                                use  over  a  typical  24-­hour  period trators  will  now  be  able  to  reference  when  talking  about  their  
tegration  and  personal  development.  While  the  country  has                                  (See  Figures  2  &  3) current   energy   use   to   potential   funders,   solar   photovoltaic  
WDNHQUHPDUNDEOHVWHSVLQLWVORQJDQGGLI¿FXOWVWUXJJOHIRU systems  experts,  and  other  relevant  parties.
reconciliation,  these  developments  have  succeeded  despite   ‡7RH[WUDSRODWHDPRGHOIRUSUHGLFWLQJWKHYLOODJH¶V
the   persistence   of   the   genocide’s   most   glaring   underlying                                  future  (Phase  2)  energy  use,  factoring  in  future                
causes,  including  a  lack  of  positive  youth  engagement.  With                                  buildings  and  a  population  at  maximum  capacity     The   ultimate   goal   of   our   assessment   is   to   provide   the   vil-­
nearly  ten  percent  of  its  national  population  orphaned  and                                  (See  Figure  4) lage  with  sustainable  energy  design  alternatives  from  which  
a  greater  number  considered  to  be  vulnerable,  Rwanda  ur-­ to  develop  a  strategic  plan  for  increasing  its  independence  
gently  requires  a  sustained,  concerted,  and  caring  effort  to   from   the   national   grid.  The   funding   and   implementation   of  
help  this  generation  reclaim  its  vitality,  trust,  and  entrepre-­ our  recommended  systems  will  allow  the  village  to  become  
neurial  spirit.     more  sustainable,  both  economically  and  in  terms  of  its  en-­
vironmental  impact.

8 9
The  Mango  Tree  Project The  Mango  Tree  Project

ON  SITE  ASSESSMENT BEHAVIORAL  OBSERVATIONS

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The  second  task  of  the  on-­site  assessment  was  to  observe   What  we  learned  from  our  time  spent  with  the  village  youth  al-­
7KH¿UVWWDVNRIWKHRQVLWHDVVHVVPHQW ZDVWRGHWHUPLQH
the   behavioral   energy   usage   patterns   of   the   children   and   ORZHGXVWRFUHDWHDQDFFXUDWHXVDJHVFKHGXOHWKDWLVDGLD-­
the  quantity  and  energy  usage  rating  of  all  the  appliances  
VWDII1RZWKDWZHKDGFROOHFWHG¿[WXUHGDWDZHQHHGHGWR gram   depicting   how   many   of   each   type   of   energy-­consuming  
DQG¿[WXUHVLQWKHYLOODJH7KHLGHQWLFDOFRQVWUXFWLRQRIPDQ\
GHWHUPLQH KRZ DQG ZKHQ WKHVH ¿[WXUHV ZHUH EHLQJ XVHG device  are  in  use  for  each  hour  of  the  day.  (See  Figure  2)  This  
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The   need   to   observe   behavior   and   to   hold   focus   groups   schedule   became   the   backbone   for   the   energy   usage   model,  
layouts  that  would  each  serve  as  a  model  for  multiple  build-­
with  the  community  members  was  the  most  critical  reason   which  we  could  then  compare  against  the  experimental  data  we  
ings.  We  recorded  as  much  information  about  each  energy-­
for  travelling  to  Rwanda  to  perform  an  on-­site  assessment.   had  gathered.
consuming  device  as  possible,  particularly  the  manufacturer  
While   in   the   village,   we   spoke   with   new   students,   return-­
information,  model  number,  and  wattage  of  each,  so  that  we  
ing  students,  administrators,  and  house  mothers  about  their  
could  create  a  physical  layout  of  energy-­consuming  devices  
energy  usage.  Some  sample  questions  we  asked  were  the  
by  structure.  Although  it  took  us  several  days  to  completely  
following:
map  out  the  village,  this  process  entailed  the  strictly  techni-­
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was  addressed  when  analyzing  the  behavioral  observations  
Figure  1  Children’s  Home  Energy  Usage  by  Appliance      they  normally  go  to  bed?
we  recorded.  This  data  is  available  in  Figure  1  and  Appendix  
D.
 ‡+RZPDQ\WLPHVDGD\GRWKHKRPHVERLOZDWHUXV
     ing  electric  kettles?  What  do  they  use  them  for?

Experimental  Data
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The  third  task  of  the  on-­site  assessment  was  to  collect  ac-­ Unfortunately,  under  this  service  model,  the  village  did  and  
does  not  receive  a  monthly  electricity  usage  statement,  as    ‡:KHQGR\RXVHHOLJKWVRQGXULQJGD\OLJKWKRXUV"
tual  energy  usage  data.  Prior  to  our  assessment  of  the  vil-­
is   common   practice   for   post-­paid   utility   service   providers.          Which  ones?  For  how  long?
lage,   the   only   estimate   that   village   administrators   had   of  
how  much  energy  the  village  was  using  was  based  on  how   Therefore,   we   gathered   this   data   on   an   hourly   basis   from  
the   village’s   electricity   meter   to   create   a   more   accurate    ‡:KHQGR\RXVHHOLJKWVRQGXULQJQLJKWWLPH
often   they   needed   to   buy   more   energy   credits.   Because  
measure  of  how  much  energy  is  being  used  every  hour  and          hours?  Which  ones?  For  how  long?
Electrogaz  sells  electricity  via  a  pre-­paid,  credit-­based  sys-­
tem,   the   village   had   been   purchasing   a   certain   number   of   ensure  that  our  model  accurately  represented  the  village’s  
NLORZDWWKRXUVDWD¿[HGUDWHRI5:) a86' SHU energy  usage.  (See  Appendix  E  and  Figure  5  below  for  ac-­
kWh. tual  data)

10 11
The  Mango  Tree  Project The  Mango  Tree  Project

ENERGY  MODEL
PHASE  1
7RSURSHUO\PRGHOWKHHQHUJ\XVDJHRIWKHYLOODJHZH¿UVW
organized  the  village’s  structures  into  eight  units  based  on  
their  usage  and  their  similarity  to  one  another.  (See  Figure  
2  and  Appendix  A)  
Figure  2  Hourly  Energy  Usage  Model  by  Building

The  eight  structures  are  as  follows:

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The  label  “Typical”  indicates  a  structure  that  is  representa-­


tive  of  two  or  more  near-­identical  structures  and  is  used  to  
model  all  such  structures.  Each  of  these  structures  was  or-­
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any  time  of  the  day,  which  gave  us  the  precise  control  nec-­
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experimental  data  that  we  had  gathered.  (See  Appendix  B  
for  the  assumptions  we  used  in  modeling  for  Phase  1’s  en-­
ergy  usage)

12 13
The  Mango  Tree  Project The  Mango  Tree  Project

We  used  our  gathered  data  to  create  a  high  and  a  low  estimate  of  hourly  energy  usage  and  used  the  average  of  these  two  as-­ The  next  task  was  to  extrapolate  the  Phase  1  model  to  the  size  of  the  village  when  it  becomes  fully  operation  with  500  children  and  
VHVVPHQWVDVRXUPRGHO2IVLJQL¿FDQFHIRUWKHSXUSRVHVRIWKLVUHSRUWDQGWKHYLOODJH¶VSODQVWRLPSOHPHQWDUHQHZDEOHSRZHU 150  –  250  staff  and  several  new  structures  in  2012.  There  were  several  key  assumptions  that  allowed  us  to  do  this  effectively.  (See  
generation  system  is  the  time  at  which  village  power  usage  spikes.  From  18:00  to  23:00  hours  the  village  uses  the  greatest   Appendix  C  for  Phase  2  Assumptions)  In  particular  were  the  following:
relative  amount  of  energy  during  a  given  day,  but  as  solar  power  generation  systems  can  not  produce  energy  at  this  time  (after  
sunset),  the  village  will  still  be  forced  to  draw  upon  electricity  from  the  grid  or  electricity  stored  in  independent  batteries  from   ‡7KHQXPEHURIFKLOGUHQLQWKHYLOODJHGRXEOHV FKLOGUHQWRFKLOGUHQ FDXVLQJWKHQXPEHURIFKLOGUHQ¶VKRXVHVLQXVHWRDOVR
the  day’s  solar  production.  This,  of  course,  will  incur  additional  costs  for  the  village  on  top  of  solar  power  production  systems.   double  (16  houses  to  32  houses).

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Figure  3  Hourly  Energy  Usage  Phase  1
children’s  houses,  so  the  increase  in  total  energy  consumption  will  be  nearly  proportional  to  the  percent  increase  in  children.

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the  increase  in  children  or  staff  members  using  that  particular  type  of  structure.

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of  occupants.

In  order  to  check  this  extrapolated  model,  we  scaled  up  the  experimental  data  we  had  gathered.  

Figure  4  Hourly  Energy  Usage  Model  Phase  2

14 15
The  Mango  Tree  Project The  Mango  Tree  Project

CONCLUSIONS  AND  RECOMMENDATIONS

Because  we  had  assumed  that  the  increase  in  total  energy  consumption  would  be  nearly  proportional  to  the  increase  in  the   There  are  several  key  points  and  conclusions  to  glean  from   7KH ¿QDO FRQFOXVLRQ LV UHÀHFWHG LQ WKH FRVW VXPPDU\
number  of  children,  we  decided  to  scale  up  the  experimental  data  by  a  factor  of  two.  When  we  compared  this  Phase  2  experi-­ our  energy  audit,  some  of  which  have  directly  informed  our   Based  on  the  extrapolated  model,  when  the  village  is  fully  
decision   process   while   assessing   various   sustainable   en-­ operational,   we   predict   the   cost   for   energy   will   be   nearly  
mental  data  with  the  Phase  2  model  we  had  created,  the  two  sets  of  data  matched  up  well.  We  decided  to  keep  the  assumption  
ergy  systems,  and  others  that  will  support  the  village  in  un-­ 31,000,000  RWF  (55,000  USD)  per  year.  (See  Figure  6  for  
WKDWDFWXDOHQHUJ\XVHZLOOURXJKO\GRXEOHDQGDGMXVWHGWKHPRGHODFFRUGLQJO\WRPDNHLW¿WWKH3KDVHH[SHULPHQWDOGDWD
derstanding  and  curtailing  its  own  energy  usage.   Cost  Summary)  With  the  ultimate  goal  to  foster  as  sustain-­
DEOHD¿QDQFLDOPRGHODVSRVVLEOHIRUWKHYLOODJHDVLWPRYHV
entirely  to  Rwandan  hands,  the  current  and  projected  costs  
are   economically   unsustainable.   Therefore,   by   using   this  
7KH ¿UVW DQG PRVW XVHIXO LQ WKH ORQJ WHUP LV WKH GHWDLOHG
content   of   the   audit   itself.  The   village   now   has   a   concrete   foresight  and  data  to  craft  potential  solutions,  the  village  and  
model  of  how  much  energy  it  uses,  both  on  an  hourly  and  a   its  partners  can  help  implement  smart  solutions  that  will  re-­
GDLO\EDVLVWKDWTXDQWL¿HVWKHDPRXQWRIHQHUJ\WKHYLOODJH duce   the   yearly   energy   cost   to   a   level   that   the   village   can  
Figure  5  Hourly  Energy  Usage  Phase  2 uses  and  the  cost  associated  with  that  energy  use,  both  cur-­ sustain  on  its  own  for  many  years  to  come.
rently  and  when  the  village  begins  operating  at  full  capacity  
in  roughly  two  years  time.  

The  second  is  that  the  majority  of  the  energy  use  is  due  to  
lighting,  primarily  in  the  children’s  homes  and  primarily  dur-­
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important  insight  for  the  village’s  staff  and  students,  inform-­
ing   them   about   which   hours   of   the   day   contribute   most   to  
the  village’s  energy  spending.  (See  Appendix  A  in  particu-­
lar)  It  also  gave  us  guidance  regarding  where  to  focus  our  
energies  in  the  reduction  portion  of  our  report,  which  led  us  
to   concentrate   particularly   on   making   the   village’s   lighting  
PRUHHI¿FLHQW

Figure  6  Cost  Summary  Phase  1  &  2

16 17
The  Mango  Tree  Project The  Mango  Tree  Project

IV.  RECOMMENDATIONS

A.  RENEWABLE  POWER  PRODUCTION


Problems  Approach A  high  level  of  sustainability  ensures  the  production  meth-­
In  order  to  provide  the  most  objective  and  holistic  renewable   od   will   produce   enough   energy   to   reduce   or   eliminate   the  
energy  recommendations  to  ASYV,  the  Mango  Tree  Project   village’s  reliance  upon  outside  sources  of  energy.  Sustain-­
team   considered   multiple   forms   of   renewable   energy   pro-­ ability  also  prescribes  cradle-­to-­cradle  system  and  material  
Figure  7  ASYV  Purchasing  History
duction   and   evaluated   each   on   their   economic,   social   and   design.  The  system  must  utilize  local  materials  and  techni-­
engineering   value.   The   renewable   energy   methods   as-­ cal  support,  as  well  as  provide  adequate  supply  of  energy  
VHVVHGZHUHVRODUSKRWRYROWDLF WKLQ¿OPDQGFRQFHQWUDWHG to  the  village.
solar),  solar  hot  water,  geothermal,  wind,  and  biogas  energy    
production. The   economic   feasibility   of   each   system   was   also   consid-­
  ered  while  evaluating  each  of  the  energy  production  meth-­
Our  recommendations  for  the  production  of  renewable  en-­ ods.  This  factor  did  not  serve  as  a  decisive  factor  because  
ergy   will   be   limited   to   the   direction   we   believe   the   village   the  team  believed  it  best  to  leave  this  design  constraint  for  
should   take   when   and   if   it   decides   to   implement   a   power   the  village  and  its  funders  to  assess,  balancing  the  weight  
generation  system,  at  which  time  it  will  behoove  the  village   and   scope   of   this   requirement   with   the   long-­term   security  
to  obtain  a  realistic  cost-­quotation  from  a  local  partner  with   and  cost-­savings  that  such  systems  would  provide.
ORFDO H[SHULHQFH LQ WKH ¿HOG VXFK DV *UHDW /DNHV (QHUJ\  
Ltd.   While   presenting   an   accurate   price   for   the   landscap-­ Finally,   each   production   system   was   evaluated   for   educa-­
ing,  ground  preparation,  designing,  constructing,  and  main-­ tional   and   social   value.  Again,   the   team   did   not   deem   this  
tenance  of  a  solar  array  farm  in  the  village  grounds  is  out  of   design   constraint   a   controlling   requirement   but   kept   it   in  
RXUWHFKQLFDOVFRSHZHKDYHFRQ¿GHQWO\FRQFOXGHGWKDWD mind  while  determining  all  possible  solutions.  This  is  consid-­
VRODU SKRWRYROWDLF WKLQ¿OP DUUD\ ZLOO SURYLGH WKH PRVW UHOL-­ ered  to  be  the  social  sustainability  of  the  system.  It  must  be  
able  and  consistent  supply  of  solar  electricity  to  the  village   DFFHSWHGDQGXQGHUVWRRGE\WKHFRPPXQLW\WRIXOO\EHQH¿W
and  that  our  energy  audit  will  greatly  inform  the  design  pro-­ the   village.   We   have   supplemented   our   recommendations  
cess  that  accompanies  it. here  for  the  production  of  energy  with  a  series  of  recommen-­
dations  for  educational  materials  and  systems  adjoining  the  
Design  Factors production  system,  which  will  help  bring  the  systems  ‘to  life’  
The   Mango   Tree   Project   Team   considered   several   design   for  the  youth,  the  primary  stakeholders  of  the  technology.  
factors   to   rate   each   renewable   energy   method.   Among    
these,  sustainability  was  determined  to  be  the  most  impor-­ Each  of  these  design  constraints  was  applied  to  each  power  
tant  factor.   generation  system  to  evaluate  the  overall  sustainability  and  
effectiveness.

18 19
The  Mango  Tree  Project The  Mango  Tree  Project

 
RESULTS  
Solar Geothermal Wind
The  Mango  Tree  Project  Team  has  considered  several  dif-­ Concentrated   solar   is   not   a   viable   option   due   to   the   lack   Geothermal   energy   production   was   determined   to   be   cost   7KH0DQJR7UHH3URMHFW7HDPZDVXQDEOHWRFROOHFWVXI¿-­
ferent   design   solutions   for   ASYV.   These   design   solutions   of  expertise  and  maintenance  ability  already  established  in   prohibitive   due   to   the   inability   for   a   reasonably   sized   (ie:   cient  wind  data  to  determine  whether  wind  electricity  produc-­
comprised   of   vastly   different   energy   production   methods   Rwanda   (or   surrounding   countries).   The   long-­term   main-­ small)  system  to  provide  adequate  energy  for  the  village.  The   tion  would  be  a  feasible  option  for  ASYV.  Because  this  data  
that  would  be  implemented  in  different  ways.  The  most  eco-­ WHQDQFH RI WKLV V\VWHP ZRXOG ODUJHO\ XQGHUPLQH DQ\ SUR¿W end-­goal  of  the  village  is  to  be  energy  neutral  and  a  geother-­ is  inconclusive,  the  Mango  Tree  Project  Team  encourages  
QRPLFGHVLJQVROXWLRQLVVRODUSKRWRYROWDLF WKLQ¿OP HQHUJ\ made  by  the  system.  Our  consultations  with  Antony  Simm   mal  system  simply  would  not  be  able  to  produce  enough  en-­ ASYV  to  follow  closely  as  3E,  the  European-­based  energy  
production.  Solar  PV  has  the  greatest  potential  for  payback   of   Stadtwerke   Mainz,   implementing   partner   of   Kigali   So-­ ergy  to  provide  for  all  energy  needs  of  the  village.  Six  factors   ¿UPUHOHDVHVLWVSLRQHHULQJUHSRUWRQWKHFRXQWU\¶VZLQGHQ-­
within   the   next   20   years,   has   lower   front-­end   cost,   and   is   laire,  the  largest  operational  Sub-­Saharan  photovoltaic  so-­ exclude  geothermal  electricity  production:  lack  of  available   ergy   potential   to   the   Rwandan   Ministry   of   Infrastructure   in  
easier  to  install  and  maintain  in  Rwanda.  Based  on  the  anal-­ ODU IDUP FRQ¿UPHG WKH XQGHVLUDELOLW\ RI LPSOHPHQWLQJ DQG equipment,   high   resource   temperature   requirements,   low   December  2010.  A  full  wind  data  survey  will  adequately  de-­
ysis  provided,  the  solar  photovoltaic  energy  production  sys-­ maintaining  a  concentrated  solar  power-­production  system   SODQWHI¿FLHQF\KLJKZDWHUÀRZUHTXLUHPHQWVKLJKSDUDVLWLF termine  wind  energy  production  potential,  and  while  it  may  
tem  has  the  lowest  estimated  payback  period  of  all  available   in  a  country  like  Rwanda,  where  the  topography  and  climate   power  requirements,  and  high  capital  cost.  Only  commercial   prove  unfeasible  for  the  village  to  obtain  the  bulk  of  its  en-­
WHFKQRORJLHVWKRXJKHVWLPDWLQJDQH[DFW¿JXUHLVDPDWWHU prohibit  sustained  periods  of  direct  sunshine  over  the  course   equipment   (>100kW)   for   geothermal   electricity   production   ergy  needs  through  wind  power  given  its  topographical  loca-­
2
of  conjecture.    Importantly,  similar  photovoltaic  systems  are   of  an  entire  day.  While  concentrated  solar  systems  produce   exists,  and  the  in  situ  resource  temperature  must  be  greater   tion,  a  single  wind  turbine  located  at  the  top  of  the  village’s  
DOUHDG\LQXVHLQ5ZDQGD$VDUHVXOWWKLQ¿OPH[SHUWLVHDQG intensely  under  direct  sunshine,  they  fail  to  deliver  sustained   than  220°F  (104  C),  while  lower  resource  temperatures  yield   upper-­most  hill,  adjacent  to  the  children’s  school,  would  cer-­
PDUNHWV IRU UHSODFHPHQW SDUWV H[LVW LQ VXI¿FLHQW VXSSO\ LQ DQG HI¿FLHQW VXSSOLHV RI HQHUJ\ XQGHU WKH ORZ RU PHGLXP ORZHUSODQWHI¿FLHQF\ZKLFKOHDGVWRKLJKJHRWKHUPDOÀRZ tainly  serve  as  an  invaluable  source  of  educational  material  
5ZDQGDVLJQL¿FDQWO\FXWWLQJDQ\PDLQWHQDQFHUHSDLUFRVWV cloud  cover  that  frequents  Rwanda’s  skies  in  the  way  that   UDWHV KLJKZDWHUÀRZUDWHV DQGKLJKSRZHUUHTXLUHPHQWV and   skills-­development   for   the   youth,   if   not   a   valuable   but  
for  the  photovoltaic  system.    3 solar   photovoltaic   systems   do.   This   factor,   coupled   with   for  cooling,  feed  and  well  pumps.  Additionally,  a  geothermal   modest  source  of  energy  for  the  school  as  well.  This,  how-­
  the   highly   advanced   technical   skills   and   materials   needed   electricity  plant  costs  roughly  $1,500-­3,000  per  kW  capacity.   ever,  may  only  be  advisable  as  a  secondary  aspiration  for  
to   maintain   concentrated   solar   systems   in   the   likely   even-­ Due  to  low  in  situ  resource  temperatures  in  Rwanda,  geo-­ the  village,  given  the  unknowability  of  the  economic  return  
tual   case   of   overheating   or   breakdown,   tipped   the   scales   thermal  electricity  production  is  not  a  viable  production  op-­ such  a  wind  turbine  would  provide.
4
squarely  in  the  direction  of  solar  photovoltaics.   tion  for  ASYV.  
   

2    Interview,  Antony  Simm,  Stadwerke  Mainz  &  Kigali  Solaire,  Kigali,  January  2010.
3    Interview  and  email  correspondence,  Sam  Dargin,  Great  Lakes  Energy  Rwanda,  Kigali,  January  2010.   4    Rafferty,  Kevin.  “GEOTHERMAL  POWER  GENERATION.”  GeoHeat.  Geo-­Heat  Center,  Jan.  2000.  Web.  8  Sept.  2010.  <http://geoheat.
oit.edu/pdf/powergen.pdf>.
20 21
The  Mango  Tree  Project The  Mango  Tree  Project

IMPLEMENTATION  METHODS
Biogas
%LRJDVZDVGHWHUPLQHGWREHDQLQVXI¿FLHQWVRXUFHRIHQ-­ In  addition  to  engineering  and  economic  sustainability,  the   Figure  9  Plastic  Tube  Biodigester,  Lowest-­Cost  on  Market
ergy  to  provide  electrical  energy  to  the  village  but  may  con-­ Mango  Tree  Project  team  also  desires  socio-­cultural  sustain-­
WULEXWHWRKLJKHUFRRNLQJHI¿FLHQFLHVGLPLQLVKLQJUHOLDQFHRQ ability.  The  team  is  conscious  of  ensuring  equal  investment  
HQHUJ\IURP¿UHZRRGDQGWKHUHE\UHGXFLQJWKHUHVSLUDWRU\ by  the  community,  which  will  augment  the  sustainability  and  
strain  on  village  staff  of  non-­stop  wood  burning  in  the  kitch-­ VHUYH WR HGXFDWH DOO LQYROYHG LQ WKH EHQH¿WV DQG ZRUNLQJV
en  facilities.5    ASYV  is  planning  to  acquire  40  head  of  cattle,   of  new  designs.  For  this  reason  the  team  believes  multiple  
from  which  biogas  may  be  produced  with  the  construction  of   solutions  should  be  presented  to  ASYV  by  the  Mango  Tree  
relatively  simple  biogas  digesters  located  near  to  the  kitchen   Project  team.  From  these  options  the  village  will  decide  what  
space  in  outdoor  pits.  (See  Figure  9  below)  According  to  the   solution  best  suits  their  needs  and  desires.  These  solutions  
Biogas   Production   Estimates   given   in  Appendices   F   &   G,   include  a  modular  solar  photovoltaic  system  for  each  house,  
40  average  weight  dairy  cows  will  yield  approximately  0.13   a  larger  system  incorporating  multiple  (16  to  32)  houses,  a  
kWh   electrical   power   production   or   49.6m3   of   biogas   per   V\VWHPVXI¿FLHQWIRUVXSSRUWLQJDOORI3KDVH FXUUHQW FRQ-­
day  in  a  system  such  as  that  pictured  in  Figure  8.  Questions   VWUXFWLRQ DQG ¿QDOO\ DQ DOOLQFOXVLYH V\VWHP LQFRUSRUDWLQJ
for  the  village  to  consider  before  pursuing  a  biogas  genera-­ both   Phase   1   and   Phase   2   (future)   construction.  Addition-­
tion  system  include,  What  systems  will  be  erected  to  collect   ally,  the  MTP  will  facilitate  the  education  of  ASYV  throughout  
and  consolidate  all  bovine  waste  into  the  biodigester,  What   the  entire  process  including:  concept,  design,  construction,  
will  be  done  with  the  treated  slurry  after  the  waste  has  been   and  sustainment.
digested,   and   Can   the   space   required   for   one   or   multiple  
biodigesters  (multiple  smaller  digesters  providing  the  great-­
HVW HI¿FLHQF\  EH DOORFDWHG SUHIHUDEO\ QHDU WR WKH NLWFKHQ
IDFLOLWLHV" :KLOH WKH ¿JXUHV JLYHQ LQ$SSHQGLFHV ) DQG *
provide   accurate   estimates   of   what  ASYV   could   expect   to  
produce  from  40  mature  cows,  a  guiding  principle  for  con-­
sidering   a   biogas   system   should   be   that   “biogas   is   a   site-­
VSHFL¿FRSHUDWLRQ´DQGWKXVDORFDOSDUWQHUVXFKDV0DQQD
Energy  Ltd.  (a  private-­sector  enterprise  based  in  Kigali)  or  
the  Kigali  Institute  for  Science  and  Technology,  a  leader  in  
WKH ¿HOG RI ELRJDV LQ 5ZDQGD ZRXOG EH DGYLVDEOH IRU WKH
design  and  implementation  of  any  biogas  system.6    

7KHIROORZLQJ¿QGLQJVGHULYHIURPLQIRUPDWLRQSURYLGHGGXULQJFRPPXQLFDWLRQVZLWK0D]HQ=RDELIRUPHU0DVWHUVVWXGHQWVSHFLDOL]LQJLQELRJDVDWWKH$UDYD,QVWLWXWHIRU
Environmental  Studies  in  Israel,  a  report  by  Aashish  Meta  titled  “The  Economics  and  Feasibility  of  Electricity  Generation  Using  Manure  Digesters  on  Small  and  Mid-­size  
Dairy  Farms,”  University  of  Wisconsin  –  Madison,  January  2002,  and  calculations  based  on  the  provided  information  by  the  Mango  Tree  Project  team.  Potential  respitory  
VLFNQHVVUHVXOWLQJIURPFRQVWDQWH[SRVXUHWR¿UHZRRGVPRNHLQWKHNLWFKHQIDFLOLWLHVKDVEHHQLGHQWL¿HGE\WKHYLOODJHOHDGHUVKLSDVDPDMRUFRQFHUQIRUWKH0DQJR7UHH
Project  to  consider.  
22  6        Email  correspondence,  Mazen  Zoabi,  March  2010.   Figure  10  Thermosyphon  Design  Principles 23
The  Mango  Tree  Project The  Mango  Tree  Project

B.  STRATEGIC  AREAS  FOR  REDUCTION  


&  EDUCATION

Separate  from  independent  power  generation  systems  con-­ maintenance,   and   serves   as   a   great   way   to   educate   the  
structed  by  the  village,  there  are  measures  that  the  village’s   village   in   energy   savings   while   reducing   energy   use   from  
youth  and  staff  can  consider  undertaking  to  reduce  their  use   in-­home   water   heating   devices.  According   to  our  technical  
of  energy  on  a  day-­to-­day  basis.  These  include  infrastruc-­ report   conducted   by   US   Air   Force   cadet   Leif   Lindblom,   a  
ture  augmentation  of  each  children’s  home  using  solar  hot   simple   thermosyphon   for   each   home   may   be   constructed  
water  devices  as  well  as  behavioral  changes  that  will  serve   using  local  materials  and  labor.  (See  Figure  10  and  Appen-­
as   much   as   an   educative   process   in   the   spirit   of   environ-­ dices  H  &  I  for  diagrams  and  calculations)    A  thermosyphon  
PHQWDODQGFRPPXQLW\¿QDQFLDOVWHZDUGVKLS7KHHGXFDWLYH is   a   simple   water   heating   device   located   on   the   roof   of   a  
opportunities  presented  by  any  action  taken  to  reduce  elec-­ home  that  uses  the  different  densities  of  water  at  different  
tricity   use   and,   in   particular,   to   produce   renewable   energy   temperatures   to   separate   hot   from   cold   water.   Assuming  
on-­site,  are  many  and  invaluable  to  the  four  problem  areas   water  enters  an  ASYV  house  at  16C,  a  thermosyphon  that  
ZHUHLGHQWL¿HGE\WKH073WHDPZKHUHUHGXFWLRQVLQHQHUJ\ increases  the  water  source  to  65C  will  result  in  a  50%  de-­
usage   can   be   realized:   water   heating   in   children’s   homes,   crease  in  energy  consumption  for  heating  water  (i.e.  for  tea).  
phantom   loads   of   plugged-­in   appliances,   external   house   2QH N:K FDQ KHDW  / NHWWOHV ¿OOHG ZLWK & ZDWHU WR
lighting,   and   dining   hall   lighting.   Each   of   these   areas   has   100C  while  the  same  amount  of  electricity  can  heat  20,  1L  
been  addressed  below. NHWWOHV¿OOHGZLWK&ZDWHUWR&

Water  Heating This  method  cannot  provide  electrical  energy  production  but  
Water  heating  for  tea  and  coffee  (and  perhaps  for  hot  show-­ PD\VLJQL¿FDQWO\UHGXFHHQHUJ\FRQVXPSWLRQUHODWHGWRKRW
ers   and   clothes   cleaning,   but   these   were   only   uses   iden-­ water   usage   on   a   house-­by-­house   and   daily   basis.   More-­
WL¿HG E\ WKH YLOODJH \RXWK WKURXJK KHDUVD\  FRQVXPHV DS-­ over,  if  it  is  true  that  the  village  youth  and  guests  frequently  
proximately  11%  of  the  electricity  used  by  a  single  children’s   use  the  Black  &  Decker  boilerplate  for  heating  water  for  use  
home  in  a  given  day.  (See  Figure  1  above)  Solar  hot  water   in   showers   and   clothes-­cleaning   buckets,   a   large   enough  
is  a  viable  technology  using  local  materials  and  may  serve   water   tank   built   into   a   thermosyphon   system   would   more  
as   simple   way   for   family   homes   to   invest   in   a   sustainable   than  compensate  for  this  ‘extra’  hot  water  demand.  
energy  project  and  reduce  their  daily  energy  consumption.  
This  method  requires  relatively  little  initial  cost,  infrequent

24 25
The  Mango  Tree  Project The  Mango  Tree  Project

Phantom  Loads Figure  11  Phantom  Loads  by  Device  and  Building

3KDQWRPORDGVDUHGH¿QHGDVWKHHOHFWULFLW\WKDWµVHHSV¶RXWRISOXJJHGLQDSSOLDQFHVZKHQWKH\DUHQRWLQXVHDOOSKDQWRP
load  electricity  is  completely  wasted.  The  village  currently  loses  an  estimated  6518  watts  per  day  due  to  phantom  loads  
–  this  includes  desktop  computers  and  fully-­charged  laptop  computers  plugged  in  over  night,  radios  and  water  heaters  
plugged  in  throughout  the  day,  and  printers,  fax  machines,  and  other  large  but  infrequently  used  appliances.  This  costs  
the  village  over  314,000RWF  per  year.  Where  appropriate,  the  recommended  course  of  action  should  be  the  investment  
in  power  strips  that  can  be  unplugged  and/or  turned  off  when  appliances  are  no  longer  being  used  and  the  education  of  
youth  and  staff  about  the  importance  of  unplugging  their  home  appliances  immediately  after  use.  The  numbers  provided  
LQ)LJXUHDQGWKHDERYHFDOFXODWLRQRI\HDUO\FRVWVKRXOGSURYLGHDVXI¿FLHQWLPSHWXVIRULQFUHDVHGVWHZDUGVKLSDPRQJ
WKH\RXWKLQWKLVDUHDKRXVHE\KRXVHFRPSHWLWLRQVWRUHGXFHSKDQWRPORDGVDQGJHQHUDOHOHFWULFLW\FRQVXPSWLRQZLOORQO\
increase  their  awareness  and  passion  about  this  particular  cause  of  energy  waste.    

26 27
The  Mango  Tree  Project The  Mango  Tree  Project

External  Light  Fixtures

While  the  MTP  team  remains  cognizant  of  the  security  mea-­ Watt  Stopper    and  similar  companies  manufacturing  remote  
sures  in  place  in  the  village  to  protect  the  youth  and  staff  after   sensor  light  attachments  offer  sound  products  in  the  range  
GDUNVXFKDVWKHXVHRIÀXRUHVFHQWOLJKWVRQWKHH[WHULRUVRI of   $13-­20USD   and   upwards   of   $75USD   for   the   mounting  
children’s  homes,  the  dining  hall  and  school,  we  have  pre-­ of  motion-­sensor  lights.  7  Given  the  potential  range  of  each  
sented  two  options  for  reducing  the  electricity  waste  of  out-­ sensor,   a   single   home   may   have   one   sensor   activated   for  
door  lights  that  the  village  can  consider  and  weigh  against   multiple   lights   (or   across   multiple   homes,   for   that   matter).  
the  potential  security  implications  of  both.  The  homes  have   For  the  outsides  of  the  school  and  dining  hall  and  security  
8   lights   turned   on   at   all   times   when   the   sun   is   down   until   RI¿FHDELOHYHOOXPLQDLUHWKDWGLPVWRDSSUR[LPDWHO\
the   children   go   to   sleep   at   around   10pm-­12am,   when   the   when  no  motion  is  sensed  and  returns  to  100%  when  motion  
homes  diligently  turn  off  their  outside  lights  and  retire.  Some   is  detected,  and  with  a  range  of  between  25’  and  50’,  could  
of  these  lights  are  redundant,  for  example  when  two  lights   provide   a   safe   and   ideal   alternative   to   the   current   lighting  
face   each   other   on   the   sides   of   two   different   homes,   and   system,  which  has  all  lights  on  at  all  hours  of  the  night.  Con-­
others  are  simply  unnecessary  for  the  purpose  of  illuminat-­ sidering  these  middle-­ground  alternatives  while  keeping  in  
ing  ‘social  space’  for  the  youth,  as  they  fall  on  the  wrong  side   mind  necessary  security  measures,  the  village  may  wish  to  
of  the  building.  It  is  problematic  that  all  lights  are  turned  on   investigate  and  invest  in  a  system  of  motion-­sensor  bi-­lumi-­
ZLWKWKHÀLSRIDVLQJOHVZLWFKEHFDXVHWKHNLGVZLOOQRUPDOO\ naire  lights  for  the  outsides  of  its  buildings.  The  replacement  
congregate  on  only  one  side  of  the  home  if  and  when  they   of   the   current   outdoor   lights   with   bi-­luminaire   motion   sen-­
decide  to  go  outside  at  night,  which  is  not  always  frequently.   sor  lights  would  represent  less  of  a  loss  to  the  village  than  
The  installation  of  either  motion  sensors  that  automatically   imagined,  as  all  DOP  36-­Watt  lights  taken  from  the  outsides  
operate  the  external  lights  in  the  presence  of  people  or  mul-­ of  the  children’s  homes,  dining  hall,  and  school  could  serve  
tiple  independent  switch-­to-­light  circuits  that  allow  the  youth   as  eventual  replacements  for  the  internal  lights  in  the  dining  
WR VZLWFK RQ SDUWLFXODU VHFWLRQV RI WKH H[WHUQDO OLJKWLQJ ¿[-­ hall  and  school.
WXUHVZRXOGKDYHDWUHPHQGRXVO\EHQH¿FLDOHIIHFWLQUHGXF-­
ing  consumption  during  these  peak  hours.  

http://www.wattstopper.com/products/details.html?id=39&category=63&type=Commercial
and  http://www.wattstopper.com/products/details.html?id=108&category=64&type=Commercial  (Accessed  July  2010)  In  America,  Home  Depot  offers  a  sound  range  of  items  in  
WKH86'UDQJH:HKDYHQR¿JXUHVIRUPRWLRQVHQVRUVWKDWPLJKWEHDYDLODEOHLQ5ZDQGD

28 29
The  Mango  Tree  Project The  Mango  Tree  Project

Dining  Hall  Internal  Light  Fixtures

Finally,  inside  the  dining  hall  are  over  100  36-­Watt  lights  that   With  self-­initiated  and  competitive  initiatives  to  reduce  daily  
illuminate  the  interior  as  the  youth  take  their  dinner  and  that   energy  consumption,  which  can  and  should  be  devised  by  
remain  on  well  after  most  have  left  for  their  homes  after  night-­ the  students  as  much  as  possible,   the  vil  lage   as  a  whole  
fall.  Because  the  walls  of  the  dining  hall  are  painted  white,   would   realize   equal   parts   cost   savings   and   education   ex-­
DQG WKXV KLJKO\ UHÀHFWLYH ZH UHFRPPHQG WKDW WKH YLOODJH periences  worthy  of  its  investment.  Strategic  investments  in  
undertakes  an  experimental  period  of  two  weeks  whereby  a   this  area  might  include  energy-­use  monitoring  systems  for  
full  half  of  the  main  hall’s  ceiling  lights  are  disconnected  and   each  home  that  can  display  data  in  live  time  and  feed  data  
NHSW RXW RI XVH LQ RUGHU WR HYDOXDWH WKH VXI¿FLHQF\ RI WKH to  the  ASYV  website  which  all  youth  and  staff  can  see,  and  
half  that  remain  in  use  after  dark  and  take  appropriate  steps   monitoring  systems  for  solar  photovoltaic  power  generation  
given  the  feedback  of  the  youth  and  kitchen  staff.  Given  that   systems  such  as  the  WEB  Log  device  offered  by  the  Ger-­
WKHOLJKW¿[WXUHVFRQVXPHURXJKO\RIWKHGLQLQJKDOO¶V man  company  Meteo  Control,  which  are  used  by  the  Kigali  
overall  consumption  of  58KWh/day  (7650RWF/day),  the  vil-­ Solaire  solar-­panel  farm  to  aggregate  and  show  data  on  the  
lage  might  expect  to  realize  a  daily  cost  savings  of  approxi-­ farm’s  electricity  production.  
mately  3800RWF/day  during  this  experiment.  

Creating  educational  curricula  around  the  renewable  power  


The  educative  value  of  steps  –  both  tangible  and  behavioral   generation   systems   and   energy   saving   systems   (such   as  
–   taken   to   reduce   the   energy   consumption   of   each   home   the  photovoltaic  solar  farm  and  thermosyphon  systems)  will  
ZLOOOHDYHLPSDFWVIDUEH\RQGWKHYLOODJH¶V¿QDQFLDOERWWRP be  crucial  to  generating  life-­long  passions  for  sustainability  
line.  The  MTP  team  observed  an  extraordinarily  high  sense   and  familiarity  with  renewable  technologies.  Next  to  a  pho-­
of   stewardship   and   commitment   to   the   village’s   collective   tovoltaic  solar  farm  could  be  a  wooden  billboard  display  with  
well-­being  among  the  students  during  its  assessment  trip  in   LED  indicators  of  the  level  of  electricity  being  produced  by  
January  2010.  This,  with  little  surprise,  extended  to  the  task   the  panels  and  the  amount  of  electricity  being  drawn  from  
of  turning  off  all  home  lights  at  bed  time,  which  was  a  topic   the   grid,   if   any.   Such   an   LED   display   would   contextualize  
of  conversation  during  an  all-­village  meeting  during  our  as-­ the   overall   contribution   of   the   solar   panels   to   the   village’s  
sessment  trip. energy  supply,  and  further  incentivize  the  youth  and  staff  to   Figure  13  WEB  Log  Metering  Device  at  Kigali  Solaire
reduce  their  electricity  use  in  the  hours  when  the  village  is  
consistently  relying  on  the  grid  as  a  supplement  to  its  pho-­
tovoltaic  array.  This  wooden  billboard  would  also  contain  a  
static  informational  display  about  the  inner-­workings  of  solar  
photovoltaic  energy  systems.  

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The  Mango  Tree  Project The  Mango  Tree  Project

VII.  CONCLUSIONS

7KHUHFRPPHQGDWLRQVFRQWDLQHGZLWKLQWKLVUHSRUWVWHPIURPWKHYLOODJH¶VVWDWHGGHVLUHWRUHGXFHWKH¿QDQFLDOEXUGHQ
of  its  energy  use  and  from  the  data  collected  during  the  Mango  Tree  Project  team’s  energy  audit  conducted  in  Janu-­
ary  2010.  We  have  considered  the  most  relevant  renewable  energy  technologies  for  power  generation  in  the  village,  
informing  our  analysis  with  insights  gained  through  interviews  and  consultations  with  four  leaders  in  Rwanda’s  renew-­
DEOHHQHUJ\¿HOG±.LJDOL6RODLUH*UHDW/DNHV(QHUJ\/WGWKH6RODU(OHFWULF/LJKW)XQG 6(/) DQGWKH.LJDOL,QVWLWXWH
for  Science  and  Technology  (KIST),  whose  collective  knowledge  draws  upon  private  sector  experience  (Great  Lakes),  
QRQSUR¿WZRUNLQSDUWQHUVKLSZLWKFRPPXQLWLHV 6(/) PXQLFLSDOVFDOHJHQHUDWLRQ .LJDOL6RODLUH DQGJURXQGEUHDN-­
ing  research  (KIST).  Our  conclusion  is  that  a  solar  photovoltaic  array  situated  on  the  face  of  the  village’s  hill  above  its  
dining  hall  will  be  the  smartest  option  for  generating  power  and  reducing  dependency  on  the  unreliable  and  uneco-­
nomical  national  grid.  Most  importantly,  the  local  capacity  for  quoting,  building,  and  maintaining  such  a  solar  array  is  in  
abundant  supply  given  the  presence  of  the  above  four  organizations  and  institutes.   APPENDICES
Finally,   we   have   recommended   various   strategic   measures   the   village   can   take   to   reduce   its   energy   consumption  
DQGFXOWLYDWHHQYLURQPHQWDODQG¿QDQFLDOVWHZDUGVKLSZKLOHGRLQJVR7KHVHLQFOXGHDGRSWLQJVRODUZDWHUKHDWHUVRQ
the  children’s  homes  and  bi-­luminaire  motion-­sensor  lights  on  the  exteriors  of  the  village  buildings,  in  addition  to  an  
experimental  removal  of  50%  of  the  interior  dining  hall  lights.  In  order  to  familiarize  the  village  youth  and  staff  with  all  
renewable  technologies,  concepts,  and  systems  implemented  by  the  village  in  its  pursuit  of  energy  savings,  we  have  
offered  our  ideas  for  the  education  of  all  community  members  whose  physical  living  space  will  be  altered  by  the  above  
recommendations  and  whose  understandings  of  the  social,  habitual,  and  cultural  factors  that  impact  their  community’s  
HQHUJ\XVHZLOOEHRISDUDPRXQWLPSRUWDQFHWRWKHYLOODJH¶V¿QDQFLDOVXVWDLQDELOLW\

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The  Mango  Tree  Project The  Mango  Tree  Project

Appendix  A  Hourly  Electricity  Usage  by  Building   Appendix  A  Hourly  Electricity  Usage  by  Building

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The  Mango  Tree  Project The  Mango  Tree  Project

APPENDIX  B  Phase  1  Assumptions

Appendix  A  Hourly  Electricity  Usage  by  Building  

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The  Mango  Tree  Project The  Mango  Tree  Project
 
Appendix  D  Energy  Use  by  Appliance
APPENDIX  C  Phase  2  Assumptions

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The  Mango  Tree  Project The  Mango  Tree  Project

 
Appendix  D  Energy  Use  by  Appliance
Appendix  E  Experimental  Data  Phase  1  &  2

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The  Mango  Tree  Project The  Mango  Tree  Project

Appendix  F  Biogas  Production  Chart


Appendix  G  Biogas  Production  Calculations
Biogas Production Sorted by Biogas/kg animal

Animal
Type Duck Broiler Layer Pig Turkey Horse Sheep Beef Dairy Veal
Weight per animal 3 2 2 70 8 400 60 500 500 40 kg

Manure
Total 0.33 0.19 0.13 5.88 0.38 20.40 2.40 29.00 43.00 2.48 kg (per day)
TS 0.09 0.05 0.03 0.77 0.10 6.00 0.66 4.25 6.00 0.21 kg (per day)
VS 0.06 0.04 0.02 0.60 0.07 4.00 0.55 3.60 5.00 0.09 kg (per day)
Total Manure /kg animal 0.110 0.085 0.064 0.084 0.047 0.051 0.040 0.058 0.086 0.062 kg/kg animal (per day)

Output
T.Biogas 0.0267 0.0167 0.0110 0.3338 0.0330 1.62 0.1975 1.56 1.24 0.0230 m3 per day
T.Power 0.0072 0.0045 0.0030 0.0904 0.0089 0.44 0.0535 0.42 0.34 0.0062 kW
Biogas/kg manure 81.04 89.43 86.09 56.77 87.86 79.44 82.28 53.91 28.91 9.29 l/kg manure (per day)
Power/kg manure 21.95 24.22 23.32 15.38 23.80 21.51 22.28 14.60 7.83 2.52 W/kg manure (per day)
Biogas/kg animal 8.91 7.60 5.51 4.77 4.13 4.05 3.29 3.13 2.49 0.58 l/kg animal (per day)
Power/kg animal 2.41 2.06 1.49 1.29 1.12 1.10 0.89 0.85 0.67 0.16 W/kg animal (per day)

Biogas Equivalents (Numbers of animals "down" equal to one animal "across". Eg. 12.5 ducks = 1 pig)
Duck 1.00 0.63 0.41 12.48 1.24 60.59 7.38 58.46 46.49 0.86 Number of Animals
Broiler 1.60 1.00 0.66 19.96 1.98 96.90 11.81 93.49 74.35 1.38 Number of Animals
Layer 2.43 1.52 1.00 30.30 3.00 147.06 17.92 141.89 112.83 2.09 Number of Animals
Pig 0.08 0.05 0.03 1.00 0.10 4.85 0.59 4.68 3.72 0.07 Number of Animals
Turkey 0.81 0.51 0.33 10.10 1.00 49.05 5.98 47.33 37.63 0.70 Number of Animals
Horse 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.21 0.02 1.00 0.12 0.96 0.77 0.01 Number of Animals
Sheep 0.14 0.08 0.06 1.69 0.17 8.21 1.00 7.92 6.30 0.12 Number of Animals
Beef 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.21 0.02 1.04 0.13 1.00 0.80 0.01 Number of Animals
Dairy 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.27 0.03 1.30 0.16 1.26 1.00 0.02 Number of Animals
Veal 1.16 0.73 0.48 14.49 1.43 70.34 8.57 67.87 53.97 1.00 Number of Animals

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The  Mango  Tree  Project The  Mango  Tree  Project

Appendix  H  Thermosyphon  Analysis   Appendix  H  Thermosyphon  Analysis  

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The  Mango  Tree  Project The  Mango  Tree  Project

Appendix  I  Total  System  Load  by  Appliance  Full  Village


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46 47