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APPLICATION OF A TABLE OF CONTENTS:


1.ABSTRACT
SHUNT ACTIVE
2.INTRODUCTION
POWER FILTER TO
3.SHUNT ACTIVE POWER
COMPENSATE FILTER OPERATION

MULTIPLE NON- 3.1 Series


Inductance
LINEAR LOADS 3.2
Direct Control of the Grid
Current
3.3
Ramp time Current Control

4. A SHUNT ACTIVE
POWER FILTER WITH
HARMONIC VOLTAGE
SOURCING LOADS

4.1
Compensation for
Harmonic Voltage
Sources
4.2
Series Inductance XL

5. A THREE-PHASE SHUNT
ACTIVE POWER FILTER
WITH MULTIPLE
NON-LINEAR LOADS
5.1 Mixed-
Type Harmonic Sources And
Unbalanced loads
5.2 DC
Bus

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6. CONCLUSION reactor is able to handle


7. REFERENCES predominantly the harmonic
ABSTRACT voltage sources, as well as the
unbalance, so that the grid
currents are sinusoidal, in phase
In this paper, the with the grid voltages and
implementation of a shunt symmetrical.
active power filter with a small
series reactor for a three-phase
system is presented. The
system consists of multiple non- 2. INTRODUCTION
linear loads, which are a
combination of harmonic current Non-linear loads,
sources and harmonic voltage especially power electronic
sources, with significant loads, create harmonic currents
unbalanced components. The and voltages in the power
filter consists of a three-phase systems. For many years,
current-controlled voltage various active power filters
source inverter (CC-VSI) with a (APF) have been developed to
filter inductance at the ac suppress the harmonics, as well
output and a dc-bus capacitor. as compensate for reactive
The CC-VSI is operated to power, so that the utility grid
directly control the ac grid will supply sinusoidal voltage
current to be sinusoidal and in and current with unity power
phase with the grid voltage. The factor.
switching is controlled using Conventionally, the shunt
ramptime current control, which type APF acts to eliminate the
is based on the concept of zero reactive power and harmonic
average current error. The currents produced by non-linear
simulation results indicate that loads from the grid current by
the filter along with the series injecting compensating currents
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intended to result in sinusoidal forcing shunt APF with a series


grid current with unity power reactor installed at the Point of
factor. This filter has been Common Coupling (PCC) is
proven to be effective in investigated to handle the
compensating harmonic current harmonic and unbalance
sources, but it cannot properly problems from mixed loads
compensate for harmonic ( Figure 1).
voltage sources. Many
electronic appliances, such as
switched mode power supplies
and electronic ballasts, are
harmonic voltage sources. A
voltage sourcing series active
power filter is suitable for
controlling harmonic voltage
sources, but it cannot properly
compensate for harmonic
current sources.
In many cases, non-linear
loads consist of combinations of Figure 1. Active Power Filter
harmonic voltage sources and configuration
harmonic current sources, and
3. SHUNT ACTIVE POWER
may contain significant load
FILTER OPERATION
unbalance (ex. single phase
The three-phase shunt
loads on a three phase system).
active power filter is a three-
To compensate for these mixed
phase current controlled
non-linear loads, a combined
“voltage source inverter”
system of a shunt APF and a
(CC-VSI) with a mid-point
series APF can be effective .
earthed, split capacitor in the dc
In this paper, a
combination of a grid current
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bus and inductors in the ac significantly change the


output . harmonic voltage at the loads.
Conventionally, a shunt Therefore,
APF is controlled in such a way there are still harmonic voltages
as to inject harmonic and across the grid impedance,
reactive compensation currents which continue to produce
based on calculated reference harmonic currents..
currents. The injected currents
are meant to “cancel” the 3.2 Direct Control of the Grid
harmonic and reactive currents Current
drawn by the non-linear loads. In this scheme (see Figure
However, the reference or 1), the CC-VSI is operated to
desired current to be injected directly control the ac grid
must be determined by current rather than it’s own
extensive calculations with current. The grid current is
inherent delays, errors and slow sensed and directly controlled to
transient response. follow symmetrical sinusoidal
3.1 Series Inductance reference signals in phase with
A key component of this the grid voltage. Hence, by
system is the added series putting the current sensors on
inductance XL (see Figure 2), the grid side, the grid current is
which is comparable in size to forced to behave as a sinusoidal
the effective grid impedance, current source and the grid
ZS. Without this inductance (or appears as a high-impedance
a series active filter), load circuit for harmonics. By forcing
harmonic voltage sources would the grid current to be sinusoidal,
produce harmonic currents the APF automatically provides
through the grid impedance, the harmonic, reactive, negative
which could not be and zero sequence currents for
compensated by a shunt APF. the load, following the basic
Currents from the APF do not current summation rule:
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igrid time current control is based on


= iAPF + i load the concept of zero average
The sinusoidal grid current current error (ZACE). In this
reference signal is given by: application, the current error
iref = signal is the difference between
k vgrid-1 the actual grid current and the
where vgrid-1 is the desired/reference grid current
fundamental component of the waveform.
grid voltage, and k is obtained
from
an outer control loop regulating
the CC-VSI dc-bus voltage. 4. A SHUNT ACTIVE POWER
FILTER WITH HARMONIC
VOLTAGE SOURCING LOADS

4.1 Compensation for


Harmonic Voltage Sources
To show a compensation
for harmonic voltage sources, a
simulation was conducted using

Figure 2. Circuit equivalent circuit constants from the

for harmonics literature based on a three-

3.3 Ramp time Current phase ac system with a grid

Control voltage of 400V-50Hz, a 60kW

The performance and the diode rectifier load with dc filter

effectiveness of the filter are capacitor, a filter inductance

enhanced by the use of the (Linv) of 0.45mH (5.3%), ZS of

ramp time current control 1.8%, and XL of 1.8%, without a

technique to control the CC-VSI. high frequency filter. The circuit

The principle operation of ramp equivalent from the harmonic

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point of view is shown in Figure voltage cannot be removed


2. completely by the harmonic
The three-phase shunt voltage on XL, because the
APF successfully forces inverter cannot produce
sinusoidal current from the grid, sufficient harmonic voltage to
as shown in Figure 3(a) and compensate load harmonic
3(b). In doing this, the APF voltage. Then, harmonic
compensates the harmonic voltages still occur across grid
voltages because the load impedance. As a result, the
harmonic voltage in Figure 3(c) inverter loses its controllability;
appears across XL in Figure and the compensation by the
3(d). These same harmonic active filter cannot be
voltages appear in the inverter accomplished.
voltage in Figure 3(e) and
across the inverter inductance
in Figure 3(f). Thus, the load
harmonic voltages do not
appear across ZS and load
harmonic currents are not 4.2 Series Inductance XL
created through this grid There are several ways to
impedance. Also, assuming the determine the size of XL. It is
grid voltage harmonics are suggested that the minimum
negligible, the ac grid voltage at value of XL is 6%. The XL is
the PCC will be sinusoidal. used for a different purpose and
Figure 4 shows that when not related to harmonic voltage
XL is reduced to 0.5%, the filter type loads.
cannot suppress the harmonics The practical choice of XL
properly, so that the grid is that it should be as small as
currents are still distorted and possible to minimize cost.
contain significant amount of Furthermore, if the APF can
harmonics. The load harmonic directly force the grid current to
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be sinusoidal, the voltage at the


PCC will have similar
characteristics to the grid
(except very small fundamental
voltage drop and very small
phase shift). In order to make
the loads operate in the similar
operating point to which they
Fig.3 Simulation results for XL=1.8% a)I
were connected directly to the grid b)I grid
grid, then the size of XL should spectrum

be chosen close to ZS ≈ XS in
per-unit value (usually the
resistance of the grid
impedance is very small
compared to its inductance).
From the above
simulation, it is proven that with
the XL = 1.8%, the
compensation is successful. The
value of XL could be lower than
1.8% provided that minimum
di/dt of Linv exceeds the
maximum di/dt permitted by the
inductance XL. Otherwise, the
value of Linv has to be reduced.
However, decreasing the Linv
will increase the high switching
frequency ripple in the ac grid
currents.

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5. A THREE-PHASE SHUNT
ACTIVE POWER FILTER WITH
MULTIPLE NON-LINEAR
LOADS

By directly controlling the


grid current, a three-phase
shunt APF can be provided for
all non-linear loads at the PCC
instead of compensating each
load individually. The system is
simpler and more efficient
because only one current sensor
for each phase is located in the
Figure 3. Simulation results grid side.
for XL = 1.8%; (c) spectrum
of V load harmonics, Figure 4. Simulation
(d) V on XL, (e) V output results for XL = 0.5% ; (a)
CC-VSI, (f) V on filter Igrid, (b) Igrid spectrum
inductance, (g) V at PCC

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(d) V on XL, (e) V output CC-


VSI, (f) V on filter
inductance, (g) V at PCC
From the preceding
explanation, the shunt APF with
a series reactor can compensate
the harmonic voltage sources in
the loads. This filter combination
can also succeed for harmonic
current sources. In this case, the
reactor will function to limit the
slope of the falling and rising
edges of the load current . For
mixed loads, it is practical to
provide a series reactor for total
loads. The reactor is installed at
the PCC and integrated with the
APF. The size can be chosen for
the possible maximum power of
harmonic voltage sources.

A three-phase shunt APF


has been proven for balanced
loads. However, the system may
contain significant amounts of
load unbalance as in
commercial buildings with non-
linear single- phase computer
Figure 4. Simulation results
type loads. Such loads produce
for XL = 0.5%; (c) spectrum
large negative sequence and
of V load harmonics,
harmonic currents. Hence, the
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filter has to inject the inverse of combined with the series


the negative sequence current reactor is able to successfully
to balance the unbalanced compensate the total mixed
loads. The shunt APF discussed loads that produce harmonic
previously has the ability to and unbalanced currents. The
balance the asymmetrical grid currents become sinusoidal
current. This is because the CC- and in phase with the grid
VSI is operated to directly voltage. The magnitude is
control the ac grid current to determined by the active power
follow a three-phase balanced required by the system.
sinusoidal reference signal Furthermore, the grid
without measuring and currents are symmetrical in
determining the negative magnitude and phase. These
sequence component. Once the currents are balanced because
grid currents are able to follow the CC-VSI is able to generate
the reference signal, the three different currents for each
inverter creates the inverse of phase. For each phase, the
the negative sequence currents current controller is able to
automatically. At the PCC, all force the average current error,
three currents are potentially which is the difference between
accessible to be directly the reference signal and the
controlled by the CC-VSI. actual current to be zero. Then,
the individual phase current can
5.1 Mixed-Type Harmonic follow its reference signal
Sources And Unbalanced closely. From Figure 7, it is
loads obvious that phase B of the
Figures 6 and 7 show inverter current is not the same
results with several non-linear as other two phases, since the
loads to demonstrate the single-phase load is connected
validity of the filter. In Figure 6, between phase A and C. Hence,
the shunt active power filter the inverter not only generates
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harmonics to eliminate the load


harmonics but also provide 5.2 DC Bus
balancing to create the
symmetrical grid currents. Figure 8 shows the
simulation results of the
dynamic condition of the dc-bus
Fig.5 3-Ph. Load currents
voltage. It can be seen that the
Fig.6 3-Ph. Currents
dc-capacitor voltage is
after compensation
decreased when the load is
increased. This is because the
active power demanded by the
load is higher than that supplied
from the grid. The dc-bus has to
provide the active power to
fulfill the power balance.

Figure 8. Dynamic state of


Figure 7. Three-phase
dc-bus when the load is
output currents of the CC-
changing; upper graph: load
VSI
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and grid currents - phase A; voltage, and the calculation


lower graph: dc-bus voltage process of the grid current
amplitude can be eliminated.
Once the transient interval Figure 8 also shows that the dc-
is finished, the dc-bus voltage is bus contains a ripple voltage at
recovered and remains at the the second harmonic frequency
reference voltage – 800V (by since the system has a single-
using a PI controller), and the phase diode rectifier load.
magnitude of the grid active
currents is fixed at a designated
value. At this time, the total
active power demanded by the
load is supplied from the grid, 6. CONCLUSION
because the active power filter This paper proposes the
only supplies the reactive implementation of a three-
power. phase active power filter
together with a decoupling
This same process will reactor in series with the load
occur when the load is operated to directly control the
decreased. In this case, the dc- ac grid current to be sinusoidal
capacitor voltage will increase in and in phase with the grid
a transient state. Hence, the dc voltage. From the simulation
bus capacitor must be sized not results, this system provides
only to minimize the ripple but unity power factor operation of
also to provide maximum non-linear loads with harmonic
expected power unbalance until current sources, harmonic
the PI loop again achieves voltage sources, reactive, and
steady state. The above result unbalanced components.
shows that the amplitude of the
grid currents is regulated
directly by controlling the dc bus
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7.REFERENCES
1. Power Electronics ,
P.C.Sen , 2000n.d
2. Network theory and filter
design, Vasudev K Atre,
1998 n.d, Wiley Eastern
3. M.El-Habrouk, M.K
Darwish and P.Mehta , “
Active Power Filter : A
Review” , IEEE Proc.
Electric Power Appl. , Sept
2000
4. B.Singh, K.Al-Haddad and
A.Chandra, “ A Review of
Active Filter for Power
Quality Improvements” ,
IEEE Trans. On Industrial
Electronics, Feb. 1999

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