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Bureau of American ethnology (Washington, D.C.).

Annual report of the Bureau of American ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian institution. 1881.

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Washington,D. 6Y.,July, 1880.

Prof. SPENCER F, Baird,

Secretary of the SmithsonianInstitution,

Washington, D. C.:
SIR I have the honor to transmit herewith the first annual
report of the operations of the Bureau of Ethnology.
By act of Congress, an appropriation was made to continue
researches in North American anthropology, the general direc-
tion of which was confided to yourself. As chief executive
ofiicer of the Smithsonian Institution, you entrusted to me the
immediate control of the affairs of the Bureau.. This report,
with its appended papers, is designed to exhibit the methods
and results of my' administration of this trust.
If any measure of success has been attained, it is largely due
to general instructions received from yourself and the advice
you have ever patiently given me. on all matters of importance.
I am indéfeted to my assistants, whose labors are delineated
in the_ report, for their industry;' iiearty co-operation, and en-
thusiastic love, of the science. Orily through their zeal have
your .plans been executed.
Much assistance has been rendered the Bureau by a large
body of scientific men engaged in the study of anthropology,
some of whose names hâvé been mentioned in the report and
acconip#nyingpapers, and others will be put on record when
thé subject-matter of their writings is fully pùblished.
I am, with respect, your obedient servant,


Introductory -.0000 .-n.. '00- '00_" --00 '00. -00- --0.- --00" .Uh, -n. xi
Bibliography of North American philology, by J. C. Pilling- xv
Lingnistic and other anthropologie researches, by J. 0. Dorsey. XVII
Linguistieresearches, byS. R.Riggs.– xviii
Linguistic andgenerairesearchea a,mongthé Kla.ma.th Indians, by A. S. Ga,taohet- xix
Stndiea a.inongtheiroqnois, byMrs. E. A. Smith. XXII
Workby Prof. Otis T. Mason nu.. '00_00 Ou-00 '00 XXII
Thé study of gesture speech, by Brevet Lieut. Col. Gan-ic'kMa.nery. XXIII
Studies on Central American pictnre writing, by Prof. E. S. Holden xxv
Thestudy of mortuary customs, by Dr. R. O. Yarrow nu 00 00" n.. xxvr
Investigations relating to cessions of lands by Indian tribes to the United States,
by 0. 0. Royce n u-- u. '00 .u. u. ""00 XXVII
Explorations by Mr. James Stevenson. n.. 00" .00- .00. 'OU" gxx
Researches among the Wintans, by Prof. J. W. PoweJl. XXXII
The preparation of manuals for use in .A.merican research "n. n_- .00- xxxrr
Linguistic classification of the North American tribes. on. --u -_uu 'O'-n.XXXIII



Process by combination n.u- '00 U_ -nn- U-h. n.n- '_n 3
Process by vocalic mutation Ouu. u. .u. "u" .u. 0--00' --o. 5
Process by intonation _00- "0 Ou- "00 -00--0 nu-- ..uu -"00' _n. 6
Process by placement--n '_un '00 n_. nu n-- "00-- Onu- n-u 6
Differentiation of the parts of speech. – 8



'rhe gene8is of philosophy 19

Twogrand stages of philosophy .–– 21
Mythologiephilosophyha.s four stages. u. u..00. 0 _.0 0 29
Ontgrowthfrom mythologie philosophYn.n.u "O..n "uu 0000 OUU_" 33
The course of évolution in mythologie philosophy. 38
Mythiotales. 43
The Cîn-aû-av Brothers disouss matters of importance to the Utes _On .uo 44
Origin of the echo 0-0. nu -00 .0 '00' '00_ 0. nu 45
The So'-kfls Wai'-i1n-ats_ --u u-- -00 00.. n. -0000 un
nu_ 47
Ta.vwots has a fight with the sun -0 ""u. no. .n. -00 52

Thefamily 59
The gens 59
Thephratry 60
Government – 61
Civil government – – 61
Methods of choosing oounoillors. 61
Functionsof civil government 63
Marriage legulations -– 63
Name régulations – 64
Kegnlations of personal adornment .––– 64
Eegulationa of order in encampment .–––- 64
Property rights 65
Rightsof persons 65
Community rights.- – 65
EigWs of religion. 65
Crimes 66
Theft- -––––– 66
Maiming • 66
Mnrder. 66
Treason 67
Withcraft 67
Outla-wry 67
Military government 68
Fellowïiood .• 68



ArchiBology 73
Picture writing 75
History, customs, and ethnie oharaoteristics.. 76
Originof man – 77
Language 78
Mythology ._u-- .u' uu – 81
Sociology .n_n .00. 83
Psychology 83


List of illustrations - 89
Introductory 91
Classificationof burial --u-- -u 00-- .uu..u..0.. '00'00" U 92
Inhumation 93
Pifburial 93
Grave burial u.. u.. 'uu'" u.. 0000 uu uu uU .u..00' ,'u 101
Stone graves or cists 113
Burial in motmds 115
Bnrial beneath or in cabins, wigwams, or houses .–– 122
Cave burial 126
Embalmment or mummineation m. .u.u. 130
Urn. burial 137
Surface burial 138
Cairn burial 142
Cremation u 143
Partial crémation. 150

Aerial sépulture. 152
Lodge burial 152
Box burial -s. – -155
Tree and scaffold burial 158
Partial scaffold burial and ossuaries 168
Superterrene and aerial burial in éanoes .u.n..u. 171
Aquatic burial -180
Living sepulchers 182
Mourning, sacrifice, feasts, etc. 183
Mourning 183
Saorinoe-– 187
Feasts 190
Superstition regaiding burial feasts 191
Food 192
Dances 192
Songs 194
Games 195
Posts.. -–– ––– –– 197
Fires. "00 .u. 00.0 000. -00 00.0 nO'U.U.n. 00 u.. U 198
Superstitions – – 199


List of illustrations 206

Introductory 207
Materials for the present investigation – 210
System of nomenclature 211
In Tvhat order are the hieroglyphs read? 221
The card catalogue ofhieroglyphs 223
Comparison of plates 1 and IV (Copan) 224
Are the hieroglyphs of Copan and Palenque identical? 227
Htritzilopochtli, Mexicangodof war, etc ..n.u-- -00' ..u_. o. uu 229
Tlaloc, or lis Mayareprésentative 237
Cakulcan or Quetzalcoatl 239
Comparison of the signs of thé Maya months 00" -00. nu '00' '00' 243


Character of the Indian title U 249

Indian boundaries – 253
Original and socondary cessions 256


Introductory .u. 269

Divisions of gesture speech.. 270
Theoriginof signlanguage nnn 00-- 'uUO 0000 .00'" 0000" "00 uun nu- 273
Gestures of the lower animais 875
Gestures of yonng children 276
Gesturesin mental disorder -– 276
Uninstraeted deaf-mutes 0000 ""00 "HU .UU. '00' .un' .u. 277
Gesturesof theblind 278
Lossof speech by isolation 278
Lowtribes of man 279
Gestures as an occasional resource u u. u. U U 00" u.00' 279
Gestures of fluent talkers .u. 0 279

The origin of sign language.
Involuntary responseto gestures – 280
Natural pantomime 280
Some theories upon primitive language .–– 282
Conclusions – 284
History of gesturelanguage nU_00_00 .00'00 .00- .'n-' 000000' 285
Modem use of gesture speech 293
Use by other peoples than North American Indians 294
Use by modern actors and orators 308
Our Indian conditions favorable to sign language .– 311
Théories entertained respecting Indian signs 313
Not correlated mth meagerness of language 314
Its origin from one tribe orregion 316
Is the Indian system spécial and pecnliar ? ""00 unu --00 0000 n. 319
To what extent prevalent as a System 323
Are signs conventional or instinctive T n. n' u n. on. u. 340
Classes of diversities in signs 341
Besults sought in the study of sign language – 346
Practical application 346
Relations to philology 349
Sign langnage with reference to grammar.. "0' ..u .000 00-- .0., uu 359
Gestures aiding archseologie research ..00 u.. 00- 00'00' 0'" ..00 368
Notable points for further researches – 387
Invention of new signs – 387
Danger of symbolie interprétation 388
Signs used by wornen and children 391
Positive signa rendered négative 391
Details-of positions of fingers 392
Motionsrelativetopartsofthebody .––– 393
Suggestions for collecting signs – 394
Mode in which researches hâve been made 395
List of authorities and collaborators 401
AlgonMan 403
Dakotan 404
Iroçpoian 405
Kaiowan 406
Kutinean 406
Panian 406
Eiman -1 406
Sahaptian – 406
Shoshonian .• 406
Tinnean – 407
"Wïchitan 407
Zunian 00" ""00 uun nuUn.uh- .00 0000 .0 407
Foreign correspondence – 407
Extracts from dictionary .nu."OU' '0000' nu .n. nn ",ou n-- .00. 409
Tribal signs 458
Propernames – -T 476
Phrases 479
Dialogues 486
Narratives .n. n.u- 500
Discourses v 521
Signais 529
Signais executed by bodily action 529
Signais in which objects are used in connection with personal action 532
Signala made when the person of the signalist is not visible 536

SoIiemeoi'lUnstratioB.–– 544
Otitlinea for arm positions in signiangoage -– 545
Types of hand positions in sign langua.ge -0000 ..u.n..00' 00 00 547
Examples0000 .00: 00" -u "00 .00..U' 00 -u'" ._00 uU U .00" 550
Introdnctory.–––– 555
List of manuscripts 00 n_n..00' .u. _u, .00.08 ._00 n u-u. n n U u.. 562



Howthé rabbit cangbt thé snn in a, trap, by J. 0. Dorsey .– 581

Details of a conjnrer's practice, by A. S. Gataohet-– .– 583
Thé relapse, byA.S.Gatsohet .–––– 585
Adog'srevenge,byS.R.Rigga .––. 587



The exploration of the Colorado River of the West, begun
in 1869 by authority of Congressional action, was by the same
authority subsequently continued as the second division of the
Geographical and Geological Survey of the Territories, and,
finally, as the Geographical and Geological Survey of the
Rocky Mountain Région.
By act of Congress of March 3,1879, the various geological
and geographical surveys existing at that time were discontin'-
ued and the United States Geological Survey was established.
In all the earlier surveys anthropologie researches among the
North American Indians were carried on. In that branch of
the work finally designated as the Geographical and Geologi-
cal Survey of the Rocky Mountain Region, such research con-
stituted an important part of the work. In the act creating
the Geological Survey, provision was made to continue work in
this field under the direction of the Smithsonian Institution, on
the basis of the methods developed and materials collected by
the Geographical and Geological Survey of the Rocky Mount-
ain Region.
Under the authority of the act of Congress providing for
the continuation of the work, the Secretary of the Smithsonian
Institution intrusted its management to the former'.1director

the Survey of the Rocky Mountain Region, and a bureau of e

ethnology was thus practically organized
In the Annual Report of the Geographical and Geological
Survey of the Rocky Mountain Region for 1877, the following
statement of the condition of the work at that time appears

During the same officeseason'the ethnographie work was more thor-
oughly organized, and the aid of a large number of volunteer assistants
living throughout the country was secured. Mr. W. H. Dall^ of the
United States Coast Survey, prepared a paper on the tribes of Alaska,
and edited other papers on certain tribes of Oregon and Washington
Territory. He also superintended the construction of an ethnographie
map to accompany his paper, including on it the latest geographic de-
termination from ail available sources. His long residence and extended
scientificlabors in that region peculiarly fitted him for the task, and he
has made a valuable contribution both to ethnology and geography.
With the same volume was published a paper on the habits and cus-
toms of certain tribes of the State of Oregon and Washington Territory,
prepared by the late Mr. George Gibbs while he was engaged in scien-
tific work in that region for the government. The volume also contains
a Niskwalli vocabulary with extended grammatic notes, the last great
work of the lamented author.
In addition to the map above mentioned and prepared by Mr. Dall,
a second has been made, embracing the western portion of Washington
Territory and the northern part of Oregon. The map includes the re-'
sults of the latest geographic information and is colored to show the
distribution of Indian tribes, chiefly from notes and maps left by Mr.
The Survey is indebted to the following gentlemen for valuable con-
tributions to this volume Gov. J. Furujelm, Lieut. E. De Meulen, Dr.
Wm. F. Tolmie, and Rev. Father Mengarini.
Mr. Stephen Powers, of Ohio, who has spent several years in the
study of the Indians of California, had the year before been engaged to
prepare a paper on that subject. In the mean time at my request he
was employed by the Bureau of Indian Affairs to travel among these
tribes for the purpose of making collectionsof Indian arts for the Inter-
national Exhibition. This afforded him opportunity of more thoroughly
accomplishing his work in the preparation of the above-mentioned
paper. On his return the new material was incorporated with the old,
and the whole has been printed.
At our earliest knowledge of the Indians of California they were di-
vided into small tribes speaking diverse languages and belonging to
radically different stocks, and the whole subject was one of great com-
plexity and interest. Mr. Powers has snccessfully unraveled the diffi-

cuit problems relating to the classification and affinities of a very large

number of tribes, and his account of their habits and customs is of
much interest.
la the volume with his paper will be found a number of vocabularies
collected byhimself, Mr. George Gibbs, General George Crook, U.-S.
A., General W. B. Hazen, U. S. A., Lieut. Edward Ross, U. S. A., As-
sistant Surgeon Thomas F. Azpell, U. S. A.; Mr. Ezra Williams, Mr. J.
R. Bartlett, Gov. J. Furujelm, Prof. F. L. O. Roehrig, Dr. William A.
Gabb, Mr. H. B. Brown, Mr. Israel S. Diehl, Dr. Oscar Loew, Mr. Al-
bert S. Gatschet, Mr. Livingston Stone, Mr. Adam Johnson, Mr. Buck-
ingham Smith, Padre Aroyoj Rev. Father Gregory Mengarini, Padre
Juan Comelias, Hon. Horatio Hale, Mr. Alexander S. Taylor, Eev. An-
tonio Timmeno, and Father Bonaventure Sitjar.
The volume is accompanied by a map of the State of California, com-
piled from the latest official sources and colored to show the distribution
of linguistic stocks.
The Rev. J. Owen Dorsey, of Maryland, has been engaged for more
than a year in the preparation of a grammar and dictionary of the Ponka
language. His residence among these.Indians as a missionary has fur-
nished him favorable opportunity for the necessary studies, and he has
pushed ferward the work with zeal and ability, his only hope of reward
being a desire to make a contribution to science.
Prof. Otis T. Mason, of Columbian College, has for the past year ren-
dered the office much assistance in the study of the history and statistics
of Indian tribes.
On June 13, Brevet Lieut. Col. Garrick Mallery, U. S. A., at the re-
quest of the Secretary of the Interior, joined my corps under orders from
the honorable Secretary of War, and since that time has been engaged
in the study of the statistics and history of the Indians of the western
portion of the United States.
In April last, Mr. A. S. Gatschet was employed as a philologist to as-
sist in the ethnographie work of this Survey. He had previously been
engaged in the study of the languages of various North American tribes.
In June last at the request of this office he was employed by the Bureau
of Indian Affairs to collect certain statistics relating to the Indians of
Oregon and Washington Territory, and is now in the field. His scien-
tifie reports have since that time been forwarded through the honorable
Commissioner of Indian Affairs to this office. His work will be ineluded
in a volume now in course of preparation.
Dr. H. O. Yarrow, U. S. A., now on duty at the Army Medical Museum,
in Washington, has been engaged during the past year in the collection
of material for a monograph on the customs and rites of sepulture. To
aid him in this work circulars of inquiry have been widely circulated
among ethnologists and other scholars throughout North America, and
much material has been obtained which will greatly supplement his own
extended observations and researches..
XU.1J.1 J.1/JJJ-

Many other gentlemen throughout the United States have rendered

me valuable assistance in this department of investigation. Their labors
will receive due acknowledgment at the proper time, but I must not fail
to render my sincere thanks to these gentlemen, who have so cordially
and efficiently co-operated with me in this work.
A small volume, entitled "Introduction to the Study of Indian Lan-
guages," has been prepared and published. This book is intended for
distribution among collectors. In its préparation I have been greatly
assisted by Prof. W. D. Whitney, the distinguished philologist of Taie
Collège. To him I am indebted for that part relating to the représenta-
tion of the sounds of Indian languages; a work which could not be
properly performed by any other than a profound scholar in this branch.
1 complete the statement of the office-work of the past season by men-
tioning that a tentative classification of the linguistic families of the
Indians of the United States has been prepared. This has been a work
of great labor, to which I have devoted much of my own time, and in
which I have received the assistance of several of the gentlemen above
In pursning these ethnographie investigations it has been the endeavor
as far as possible to produce results that would be,of practical value in
the administration of Indian affairs, and for this purpose especial atten-
tion has been paid to vital statistics, to the discovery of linguistic affin-
ities, the progress made by the Indians toward civilization, and the
causes and remedies for the inevitable conflict that arises from the spread
of civilization over a région previously inhabited by savages. I may
be allowed to express the hope that our labors in this direction will not
be void of such useful results.

In 1878 no report of the

Survey of the Rocky Mountain
Region was published, as before its completion the question of
reorganizing all of the surveys had been raised, but the work
was continued by the same methods as in previous years.
The operations of the Bureau of Ethnology duiïng the past
fiscal year will be briefly described.
In the plan of organization two methods of operation are
First. The prosecution of research by the direct employ-
ment of scholars and specialists and
Second. By inciting and guiding research immediately con-
ducted by collaborators at work throughout the country.
It has been the effort of the Bureau to prosecute work in
the various branches of North American on a
systematic plan, so that every important field should be cnlti-
vated, limited only by the amount appropriated by Congress.

With1 little exception ail

Tittlfi exr.entinn sound n.nthrnnnlno-ip.
ail snirrirl
anthropologie in-o-ostirrn+irvn
in the lower states of culture exhibited by tribes of men, as
distinguished from nations, must have a firm foundation in
language Customs, laws, governments, institutions, mytholo-
gies, religions, and even arts can not be properly understood
without a fundamental knowledge of the languages which ex-
press the ideas and thoughts embodied therein. Actuated by
these considerations prime attention has been given to language.
It-is not probable that there are many languages in North
America entirely unknown, and in fact it is possible there are
none; but of many of the known languages only short vocabu-
laries have appeared. Except for languages entirely unknown,
the time for the publication of short vocabularies has passed;
they are no longer of value. The Bureau proposes hereafter
to publish short vocabularies only in the exceptional cases
mentioned above.
The distribution of the Introduction to the Study of Indian
Languages is resulting in the collection of a large series of
chrestomathies, which it is believed will be worthy of publica-
tion. It is also proposed to publish grammars and dictionaries
when those have been thoroughly and carefully prepared.
In each case it is deemed desirable to connect with the gram-
mar and dictionary a body of literature designed as -texts for
reference in explaining the facts and principles of the lan-
guage. These texts will be accompanied by interlinear transla-
tions so arranged as greatly to facilitate the study of the chief
grammatic characteristics


There is being prepared in the officea bibliography of North

American languages. It was originally intended as a card
catalogue for office use, but has gradually assumed propor-
tions which seem to justify its publication. It is designed as
an author's catalogue, arranged alphabetically, and is to include
'1 ! n
K/dl THE

titles of grammars, dictionaries, vocabularies, translations of the

scriptures, hymnals, doctrinse christianse, tracts, school-books,
etc., general discussions, and reviews when of sufficient import-
ance in short, a catalogue of authors who have wntten in or
upon any of the languages of North America, with a list of
their works.
It has. been the aim in preparing this material to make not
only full titles of all the works containing linguistics, but also
to exhaust editions. Whether full titles of editions subsequent
to thé first will be printed will depend somewhat on the size of
the volume it will make, there being at present about four
thousand five hundred cards, probably about three thousand
The bibliography is based on the library of the Director, but
much time has been spent in various libraries, public and
private, the more important being the Congressional, Boston
Public, Boston Athenseum, Harvard College, Congregational
of Boston, Massachusetts Historical Society, American Anti-
quarian Society of Worcester, the John Carter Brown at Provi-
dence, the Watkinson at Hartford, and the American Bible
Society at New York. It is hoped that Mr. Pilling may find
opportunity to visit the principal libraries of New York and
Philadelphia, especially those of the historical societies, before
the work is printed.
In addition to personal research, much correspondence has
been carried on with the various missionaries and Indian
agents throughout the United States and Canada, and with
gentlemen who have written upon the subject, among whom
are Dr. H. Rink, of Copenhagen, .Dr. J. C. E. Buschman, of
Berlin, and the well-known bibliographers, Mr. J. Sabin, of
New York, Hon. J. R. Bartlett, of Providence, and Senor Don
J. G. Icâzbalceta, of the City of Mexico.
Mr. Pilling has not attempted ta classify the material lin-
guistically. That work has been left for a future publication,
intended to embody the results of an attempt to classify the
tribes of North America on the basis of language, and now in
course of preparation by the Director.






For a number of years Mr. Dorsey has been engaged in

investigations among a group of cognate Dakotan tribes em-
bracing three languages (Jîegiha,spoken by the Ponkas and
Omahas, with a closely related dialect of the same, spoken by
the Kansas, Osage, and Kwapa tribes; the j^oiwere, spoken
by the Iowa, Oto, and Missouri tribes; and the Hotcaflgara,
spoken by the Winnebago.
In July, 1878, he repaired to the Omaha reservation, in the
neighborhood of which most of these languages are spoken,
for the purpose of continuing his studies.
Mr. Dorsey commenced the study of the q;egiha in 1871,
and has continued his researches in the group until the present
time. He has collected a very large body of linguistic mate-
rial, both in grammar and vocabulary, and when finally pub-
lished a great contribution will be made to North American
These languages are excessively complex because of the
synthetic characteristics of the verb, incorporated particles
being used in an elaborate and complex scheme.
In these languages six general classes of pronouns are found:
lst. The free personal.
2d. The incorporated personal.
3d. The demonstrative.
4th. The interrogative..
5th. The relative.
6th. Theindefinite.
One of -the most interesting features of the language is
found in the genders or particle classifiers. The genders or
classifiers are animate and inanimate,and these are again divided
into the standing,sitting, reclining, and moving but in the Win-
nebago the redining and movingconstitute but one class. They
are suffixed to nouns, pronouns, and verbs. When nouns, ad-
jectives, adverbs, and prepositions are used as predicants, i. e.,

to perform the function of verbs, these classifiers are also suf-

fixed. The classifiers point out with particularity the gender
or class of the subject and object. When numerals are used
as nouns the classifiers are attached.
In nouns and pronouns case functions are performed by an
elaborate system of postpositions in conjunction with the classi-
The verbs are excessively complex by reason of the use of
many incorporated particles to denote cause, manner, instru-
ment,purpose; condition,time, etc. Voice, mode, and tense are
not systematically différentiated in the morphology,but voices,
modes, and tenses, and a great variety of adverbial qualifica-
tions enter into the complex scheme of incorporated particles.
Sixty-six sounds are found in the (jfîegîha sixty-two in the
j,oiwere; sixty-two in the Hotcangara; and the alphabet
adopted by the Bureau is usedsuccessfully for their expression.
While Mr. Dorsey has been prosecuting his linguistic studies
among these tribes he has had abundant opportunity to carry
on other branches of anthropologie research, and he has côl-
lected extensive and valuable materials on sociology, mythol-
ogy, religion, arts, customs, etc His final publication of the
(pegihawill embrace a volume of literature made up of mythic
tales, historical narratives, letters, etc., in the Indian, with inter-
linear translations, a selection from which appears in the papers
appended to this report. Another volume will be devoted to
the grammar and a third to the dictionary.


In 1852 the Smithsonian Institution published a grammar

and dictionary of the Dakota language prepared by Mr. Riggs.
Since that time Mr. Riggs, assisted by his sons, A. L. and T
L. Riggs, and by Mr.'Williamson, has been steadily engaged
in revising and enlarging the grammar and dictionary; and at
the request of the Bureau he is also preparing a volume of
Dakota literature as texts for illustration to the grammar and

dictionary. He is rapidly this work for publication,

and it will soon appear.
The work of Mr. Riggs and that of Mr. Dorsey, mentioned
above, with the materials already published, will place the
Dakotan languages on record more thoroughly than those of
any other family in'this country.
The following is a table of the
languages of this family now
recognized by the Bureau


1. Dakota. (Sioux), in four dialects:

(a) Mdéwaka^o^a11 and Waqpékute.
(&) Waqpétonwan (Warpeton) and Sisife^wa11 (Sisseton).
These two are about equivalent to the modern Isa^'yati
(c) Ihank'tonwa11 (Yankton), including the Assiniboins.
(d) Tîtonwa11(Teton).
2. (pégiha,, in two (?) dialects:
(a) Uma^ha11 (Omaha), spoken by the Omahas and Ponkas.
(5) TJgâqpa (Kwapa), spoken by the Kwapas, Osages, and Kansas.
3. j,oiwére, in two dialects
(a) jQoiwére, spoken by the Otos and Missouris.
(b) jfléypwere, spoken by the Iowas.
4. Hotcan'gara, spoken by the Winnebagos.
5. ÎTûmankaki (Mandan), in two dialects:
(a) Mitfitahankuc.
(b) Buptâri.
6. Hi^âtsa (Hidatsa), in two (?) dialects:
(a) Hidâtsa or Minnetaree.
(b) Absâroka or Crow.
7. Tûtelo, in Canada.
8. Katâ'ba (Catawba), in South Carolina.


Of the Klamath language of
Oregon there are two dialects-
one spoken by the Indians of Klamath Lake and the other by
the Modocs-constituting the Lutuami family of Hale and
Mr. Gatschet has sperit much time among these Indians, at
their réservation and elsewhere, and has at the present time

in manuscript nearly ready for the printer a large body ot

Klamath literature, consisting of mythic, ethnie, and historic
were told by
tales, a grammar and a dictionary. The stories
the Indians and recorded by himsëlf, and constitute a valuable
contribution to the subject. Some specimens will appear in
the papers appended to this report.
The grammatic sketch treats of both dialects, which differ
but slightly in grammar but more in vocabulary..The gram-
mar is divided into three principal parts Phonology, Mor-
phology, and Syntax.
In Phonology fifty different sounds are recognized, includ-
and compound consonants, the vowels in different
ing simple
quantities, and thé diphthongs.
A characteristic feature 'of this language is described in
explaining syllabic reduplication, which performs
and distributive functions. Reduplication for various pur-
of North America.
poses is found in most of the languages
In the Nahuatl, Sahaptin, and Selish families it is most promi-
nent. Mr. Gratschet's researches will add materially to the
in tribal lan-
knowledge of the functions of reduplication
The verbal inflection is comparatively simple, for in it the
and are not incorporated. In the verb
subject object pronouns
Mr. Gatschet recognizes ten general forms, a part of which
he designates as verbals, as follows
1. Infinitive in -a.
2. Durative in ota.
3. Causative in -oga.
4. Indefinite in -ash.
5. Indefinite in -uïsh.
6. Conditional-in -asht.
7. Desiderative in -ashtka.
8. Intentional in -tki.
9. Participle in -ank.
10. Past participle and verbal adjectives in -tko.
Tense and mode inflection is very rudimentary and is mostly
of the pre-
accomplished by the use of particles. The study
fixes and suffixes of derivation is one of the chief difficulties of

the language, for they combine in clusters, and are not easily
analyzed, and their functions are often obscure.
The inflection of nouns by case endings and postpositions is
rich in forms; that of the adjective and numeralless elaborate.
Of the pronouns, only the demonstrative show a complexity
of forms.
Another feature of this language is found in verbs appended
to certain numerals, and thus serving as numerical classifiers.
These verbs express methods of counting and relate to form;
that is, in each case they present the Indian in the act of
counting objects of a particular form and placing them, in
groups of tens.
The appended verbs used as classifiers signify toplace, but
in Indian languages we are «not apt to find a word so highly
diffèrentiated as place, but in its stead a series of words with
verbs and adverbs undifferentiated, each signifying to place,
with a qualification, as I place upon,I lay àlongsideof,I stand up,
by, etc. Thus we get classifiers attached to numerals in the
Klamath, analogous to the classifiers attached to verbs, nouns,
numerals, etc., in the Ponka, as mentioned above.
These classifiers in Klamath are further discriminated as to
form; but these form discriminations are the homologues of
attitude discriminations in the Ponka, for the form determines
the attitude.
It is interesting to note how often in these lower languages
attitude or form is woven into the grammatic structure. Per-
haps this arises from a condition of expression imposed by the
want of the verb to be, so that when existence in place is to be
afïïrmed, the verbs of attitude, i. e., to stand, to sit, to lie, and
sometimes to move,are used to predicate existence in place,
and thus the mind comes habitually to consider all things as
in the one or the other of these attitudes. The process of
growth seems to be that verbs of attitude are primarily used
to affirm existence in place until the habit of considering the
attitude is established; thus participles of attitude are used
with nouns, &c., and finally, worn down by the law of phonic
change, for economy, they become classifying particles. This


view of thé origin of classifying particles seems to be war-

ranted by studies from a great-variety of Indian sources.
The syntactic portion is divided into four parts
Ist. On tlie predicative relation;
2à. On the objective relation;
3d. On the attributive relation; and the
4th. Exhibits the formation of simple -and compound sen-
tencés, followed by notes on the incorporative tendency of the
language, its rhetoric, figures, and idioms.
The alphabet adopted by Mr. Gatschet differs slightly from
that used by the Bureau, particularly in the modification of
certain Roman characters and the introduction of one Greek
character. This occurred from the fact that Mr. Gatschet's
material had been partly prepare€ prior to the adoption of the
alphabet now in use.
Mr. Gatschet has collected much valuable material relating
to governmental and social institutions, mythology, religion,
music,. poetry, oratory, and other interesting matters. The
body of Klamath literature, or otherwise the text previously
mentioned, constitutes the basis of these investigations.


Mrs. Smith, of Jersey City, has undertaken to prepare a

series of chrestomathies of the Iroquois language, and has
already made muéh progress. Three of them are ready for
the printer, and that on the Tuscarora language has been
increased much beyond the limits at first established. She
has also collected interesting material relating to the my-
thology, habits, customs, &c., of these Indians, and her con-
tributions will be interesting and important.


On the advent of the white man in America a great number of

tribes were found.- For a variety of reasons the nomenclature
\j£ xnxi uuitJBiAU
±;x.HJ>iU.LiUU-ï. XXTtl

of these tribes became excessively complex. Names were

greatly multiplied for each tribe and a single name was often
inconsistently applied to different tribes. Several important rea-
sons conspired to bring abontthis complex state of synonymy:'
lst. A great numberof languages were spoken, andofttimes
the first names obtained for-tribes were not the names used
themselves, but the naines by which they were known to some
other tribes.
2d. The governmental organization of the Indians was not
understood, and the names for gentes, tribes, and confederacies
were confounded.
3d. The advancing occupancy of the country by white men
changed the habitat of the Indians, and in their migrations
from point to point their names were changed.
Under these circumstances the nomenclature of Indian tribes
became ponderous and the synonymy complex. To unravel
this synonymy is a task of great magnitude. Early in the
fiscal year the materials already collected on this subject were
turned over to Professor Mason and clerical assistance given
him, and he has prepared a card catalogue of North American
tribes, exhibiting the synonymy, for use in the office. This is
being constantly revised and enlarged, and will eventually be
Professor Mason is also engaged in editing a grammar and
dictionary of the Chata language, by the late Rev. Cyrus Bying-
ton, the manuscript of which was by Mrs. Byington turned
over to the Bureau of Ethnology. The dictionary is Chata-
English, and Professor Mason has prepared an English-Chata
of about ten thousand words. He has also undertaken to
enlarge the grammar by a further study of the language
among the Indians themselves.



The growth of the languages of civilized peoples in their

later stages may be learned from the study of recorded litera-

ture and by comparative methods many interesting facts may

be discovered pertaining to periods anterior to the develop-
ment of writing. “
In the study of peoples who have not passed beyond the
tribal condition, laws of linguistic growth anterior to the writ-
ten stage may be discovered. Thus, by the study of the lan-
guages of tribes and the languages of nations, the methods
and laws of development are discovered from the low condi-
tion represented by the most savage tribe to the highest condi-
tion existing in the speech of civilized man. But there is a
development of language anterior to this-a prehistoric condi-
tion-of profound interest to the scholar, because in it the
beginnings of language-the first steps in the organization of
articulate speech-are involved.
On this prehistoric stage, light is thrown from four sources:
lst. Infant speech, in which the development of the language
of the race is epitomized.
2d. Gesture speech, which, among tribal peoples, never
passes beyond the first stages of linguistic growth; and these
stages are probably homologous to the earlier stages of oral
3d. Picture writing, in which we again find some of the
characteristics ôf prehistoric speech illustrated.
4th. It may be possible to learn something of the elements
of which articulate speech is compounded by studying the in-
articulate language of the lower animais.
The traits of gesture speech that seem to illustrate the con-
dition of prehistoric oral language are found in the synthetic
character of its signs. The parts of speech are not differen-
tiated, and the sentence is not integrated; and this character-
istic is more marked than in that of the lowest oral language
yet studied. For this reason the facts of gesture speech con-
stitute an important factor in the philosophy of language.
Doubtless, care must be exercised in its use because of the
advanced mental condition of the people who thus express their
thought, but with due caution it may be advantageously used.
In itself, independent of its relations to oral speech, the subject
is of great interest.

In taking up this subject for original investigation, valuable

published matter was found for comparison with that obtained
by Colonel Mallery. His opportunities for collecting materials
from the Indians themselves were abundant, as delegations of
various tribes are visiting Washington from time to time, by
which the information obtained during his travels was supple-
Again, the method of investigation by the assistance of a
number of collaborators is well illustrated in this work, and
contributions from various sources were made to the materials
for study. The methods of obtaining these contributions will
be more fully explained hereafter. One of the papers ap-
pended to this report was prepared by Colonel Mallery and
relates to this subject.
During the continuance of the Survey of the Colorado River,
and of the Rocky Mountain Region, the Directôr and his
assistants made large collections of pictographs. When Colonel
Mallery joined the corps these collections were turned over to
him for more careful study. From various sources these pic-
tographs are rapidly accumulating, and now the subject is
assuming large proportions, and valuable results are expected.
An interesting relation between gesture speech and picto-
graphy consists in the discovery that to the delineation of nat-
ural objects is added the représentation of gesture signs
Materials in America are very abundant, and the prehistoric
materials may be studied in the light given by the practices
now found among Indian tribes.



In Central America and Mexico, picture writing had pro-

gressed to a stage far in advance of anything discovered to the
northward. Some of the most interesting of these are the
rock inscriptions of Yucatan, Copan, Palenque, and other ruins
of Central America.
Professor Holden has devoted much time to the study of

Il- 8_- _J_ t_ mL_ _t 7_u1_ _i~i.

these inscriptions, for the purpose of discovering the character-
istics of the pictc-graphic method and deciphering the records.
and the discôveries madebJ him are of great interest.
The Bureau has given him clerical assistance and such other
aid as has been found possible, and a paper by him on this sub-
ject appears with this volume.


The tribes of North America do not constitute a homoge-

neous people. In fact, more than seventy distinct linguistic
stocks are discovered, and these are again divided by important
distinctions of language. Among these tribes varying stages
of culture have been reached, and these varying stages are ex-
hibited in their habits and customs; and in a territory of such
vast extent the physical environment affecting culture and cus-
toms is of great variety. Forest lands on the one hand, prairie
lands on the other, unbroken plains and regions of rugged
mountains, the cold, naked, desolate shores of sea and lake
at the north and the dense chaparral of the torrid south, the
valleys of quiet rivers and the cliffs and gorges of the canon
land-in ail a great diversity of physical features are found,
imposing diverse conditions for obtaining subsistence, in means
and methods of house-building, creating diverse wants and fur-
nishing diverse waysfor their supply. Through diversities of
languages and diversities of environment, diversity of tradi-
tions and diversity of institutions have been produced; so that
in many important respects one tribe is never the counterpart
of another.
These diversities have important limitations in the unity of
the human race and the social, mental, and moral homogeneity
that has everywhere controlled the progress of culture. The
way of human progress is one road, though wide.
From the interesting field of research cultivated by Dr. Yar-
row an abundant harvest will be gathered. The materials
already accumulated are large, and are steadily increasing
through his vigorous work. These materials constitute some-

thing more than a record of quaint customs and abhorrent rites

in which morbid curiosity may revel. In them we find the
evidences of traits of character and lines of thought that yet
exist and profoundly influence civilization. Passions in the
highest culture deemed most sacred-the love of husband and
wife, parent and child, and kith and kin, tempering, beautify-
ing, and purifying social life and culminating at death, have
their origin far backin the early history of the race and leaven
the society of savagery and civilization alike At either end
of the line bereavement by death tears the heart andmortuary
customs are symbols of mourning. The mystery which broods
over the abbey where lie the bones of king and bishop, gathers
over the ossuary where lie the bones of chief and shamin; for
the same longing to solve the mysteries of life and death, the
same yearning for a future life, the same awe of powers more
than human, exist alike in the mind of the savage and the sage.
By such investigations we learn the history of culture in
these important branches, and in a paper appended to this
report Dr. Yarrow presents some of the results of his studies.



When civilized man first came to America the continent was

partially occupied by savage tribes, who obtained subsistence
by hunting, by fishing, by gathering vegetal products, and by
rude garden culture in cultivating small patches of ground.
Semi-nomadic occupancy-for such purposes was their tenure
to the soil.
On the organization of the present government such theories
of natural law were entertained that even this imperfect occu-
pancy was held to be sufficient title. Publicists, jurists, and
statesmen agreed that no portion of the wasteof lands between
the oceans could be acquired for the homes of the incoming
civilized men but by purchase or conquest in just war. These
theories were most potent in establishing practical relations,

and controlling governmental dealings with Indiau tribes. They

were adjudged to be dependent domestic nations.
Under this theory a system of Indian affairs grew up, the
history of which, notwithstanding mistakes and innumerable
personal wrongs, yet demonstrates the justice inherent in the
public sentiment of the nation from its organizatiôn to the
present time.
The difficulties subsisting in the adjustment of rights be-
tween savage and civilized peoples are multiformand complex.
Ofttimes the virtues of one condition are the crimes of the
other; happiness is misery; justice, injustice. Thus, when the
civilized man would do the best, he gave the most offense.
Under such circumstances it was impossible for wisdom and
justice combined to avert conflict.
One chapter in the history of Indian affairs in America is a
doleful tale of petty but costly and cruel wars but there are
other chapters more pleasant to contemplate:
The attempts to educate the Indians and teach them the
ways of civilization have been many; much labor has been
given, much treasure expended. While to a large extent ail
of these efforts have disapppinted their enthusiastic promoters,
yet good has been done, but rather by the personal labors of
missionaries, teachers, and frontiersmen associating with In-
dians in their own land than by institutions organized and
supported by wealth and benevolence not immediately in con-
tact with savagery. `
The great boon to the savage tribes of this country, unrec-
ognized by themselves, and, to a large extent, unrecognized
by civilized men, has been the presence of civilization, which,
under the laws of acculturation, has-irresistibly improved their
culture by substituting new and civilized for old and savage
arts, new for old customs – in short, transforming savage into
civilized life. These unpremeditated civilizing influences have
had a marked effect. The great body of the Indians of North
America have passed through stages of culture in the last
hundred years achieved by our Anglo-Saxon ancestors only
by the slow course of events through a thousand years.
The Indians of the. continent have not greatly diminished

in numbers, and the tribes longest in contact with civilization

are increasing. The whole body of Indians is making rapid
progress toward a higher culture, notwithstanding the petty
conflicts yet occurring where the relations of thé Indian tribes
to our civilization have not yet been adjusted by the adoption
upon their part of the first conditions of a higher life.
The part which the General Government, representing pub-
lic sentiment, has done in the extinguishment of the vague
Indian title to lands in the granting to them of lands for civ-
ilized homes on reservations and in severalty, in the establish-
ment and support of schools, in the endeavors to teach them
agriculture and other industrial arts-in these and many other
ways justice and beneficence have been shown. Thus the
history of the tribes of America from savagery to civilization
is a history of three:
First. The history of acculturation-the enect of the pres-
ence of civilization upon savagery.
Second. The history of Indian wars that have arisen in part
from the crimes and in part from the ignorance of either party.
.Third. The history of civil Indian affairs. This last is di-
vided into a number of parts:
1st. The extinguishment of the Indian title.
2d. The gathering of Indians upon reservations.
3d. The instrumentalities used to teach the Indians civilized
industries; and
4th. The establishment and operation of schools.
From the organization of the Government to the present
time these branches of Indian affairs have been in operation;
lands hâve been bought and bought again; Indian tribes have
been moved and moved again; reservations have been estab-
lished and broken up. The Government has sought to give
lands in severalty to the Indians from time to time along the
whole course of the history of Indian affairs. Every experi-
ment to teach the Indians the industries of civilization that
could be devised has been tried, and from all of these there
has resulted a mixture of failure and success.
A review of the century's history abundantly demonstrates
that there is no short road to justice and peace; but a glance


at the present state of affairs exhibits thé fact that these tribal
communities will speedily be absorbed in the citizenship of
the republic. No new method is to be adopted; the workjs
almost done patient and persistent effort for a short future
like that of the long past will accomplish all. It remains for
us but to 'perfect the work wisely begun by the founders of
the Government.
The industries and social institutions of the pristine Indians
have largely been destroyed, and they are groping their way
to civilized life. To the full accomplishment of this, three
things are necessary:
lst. The organization of the civilized family, with its rûles
of inheritance in lineal descent.
2d. The civilized tenure of property in severalty must be
substituted for communal property.
3d. The English language must be acquired, that the
thoughts and ways of civilization may be understood.
To the history of Indian affairs much time has been given
by the various members of the Bureau of Ethnology. One
of the more important of these studies is that prosecuted by
Mr. Royce in preparing a history of the cessions of lands by
Indian tribes to the Government of the United States. A
paper by him appended to this report illustrâtes the character
of these investigations.


In the early exploration of the southwestern portion of the

United States by Spanish travelers and conquerors, about sixty
pueblos were discovered. These pueblos were communal vil-
lages, with architecture in untooled stone. In the coriquest
about half of the pueblos were destroyed. Thirty-one now
remain, and two of these are across the line, on Mexican terri-
tory. The ruins of the pueblos yet remain, and some of them
have been identified.
The Navajos, composed of a. group of tribes of the Atha-
bascan family, and the Coaninis, who live on the south side of
V~ ..l.J..l.l.l..J.V.LJVU~. XXXI

~7 N "1 w n
the Grand Canon of the Colorado, are now known to be the
people, or part of them at least, who were driven from the
In addition to the ruins that have been made in historié
times, others are found scattered throughout New Mexico,
Arizona, Southern California, Utah, and Colorado. Whether
the ancient inhabitants of these older ruins are represented by
any of the tribes who now occupy the territory is not known.
These pueblo people were not homogeneous. Among the
pueblos now known at least five linguistic families are repre-
sented, but in their study a somewhat homogeneous stage of
culture is presented.
In a general way the earlier or older ruins represent very
rude structures, and the progress of development from the
earlier to the later exhibits two classes of interesting facts.
The structures gradually increase in size and improve in archi-
tecture. As the sites for .new villages were selected, more
easily defensible positions were chosen. The cliff dwellings
thus belong to the later stage.
From the organization of the exploration of the Colorado
River to thé present time, the pueblos yet inhabited, as well
as those in ruins, have been a constant subject of study, and
on the organization of the Bureau much valuable matter had
already been collected. Early in the fiscal year a party was
organized to continue explorations in this field, and placed
under the direction of Mr. James Stevenson. The party left
Washington on the first of August last.
Mr. Frank H. Cushing, of the Smithsonian Institution, and
Mr. J. K. Hillers, photographer of the Bureau,- with a number
of general assistants, accompanied Mr. Stevenson. The party
remained in the field until early winter, studying the ruins and
making large and valuable collections of pottery, stone imple-
ments, etc., and Mr. Hillers succeeded in making an excellent
suite of photographs.
When Mr. Stevenson returned with his party to Washington,
Mr. Cushing remained at Zuni to study the language, my-
thology, sociology, and art of that the most interesting pueblo.
An illustrated catalogue of the collections made by Mr. Steven-

son has been printed. It was intended to form an appendix

to this report, but the volume has grown to such a size that it
is thoùght best to issue it with the next report.


During the fall the Director made an expédition into North-

ern California for the purpose of studying the Wintuns. Much
linguistic, sociologie, and technologie material was collected,
and more thorough anthropologie researches initiated among a
series of tribes heretofore neglected.


In the second plan of operations adopted by the Bureau,

that of promoting the researches of collaborators, aid in publi-
cation and, to some extent, in preparation of scientific papers,
has been given, and by various ways new investigations and
lines of research have been initiated. For this latter purpose
a series 'of manuals with elementary discussions and schedules
of interrogatories have been prepared.
The first is entitled Introduction to the Study of Indian
Languages, by J. W. Powell.
This has been widely distributed throughoutNorth America,
and the collection of a large body of linguistic material has
resulted therefrom
A second volume of this character is entitled Introduction to
the Study of Mortuary Customs, by Dr. H. C. Yarrow.
This also has been widely circulated with abundant success.
A third hand-book of the same character is entitled Intro-
duction to the Study of Sign Language, by Colonel Mallery.
This was circulated in like manner with like results.
A second edition of the Introduction to the Study of Indian
Languages, enlarged to meet the advanced wants of the time,
has been prepared.

The papers by Dr. Yarrow and Colonel Mallery, and the

catalogue of manuscripts in the Bureau, prepared by Mr. Pill-
ing, appended to this volume, will illustrate the value of these
It is proposed in the near future to prepare similar volumes,
as follows
Introduction to the Study of Medicine Practices of the North
American Indians
Introduction to the Study of the Tribal Governments of
North America
Introduction to the Study of North American Mythology.
These additional manuals are nearly ready. Still others
are projected, and it is hoped that the field of North American
anthropology will be entirely covered by them. The series
will then be systematically combined in a Manual of Anthro-
pology for use in North America.


There is in course of preparation by the Bureau a linguistic

classification of North American tribes, with an atlas exhibit-
ing their priscan homes, or the regions inhabited by them at
the time they were discovered by white men.

The foregoing sketch of the Bureau, for the first fiscal year
of its existence, is designed to set forth the plan on which it is
organized and the methods of research adopted, and the papers
appended thereto will exhibit the measure of success attained.
It is the purpose of the Bureau of Ethnology to organize
anthropologic research
aiiiurupuiugic researon in America









Possible ideas and thoughts are vast in number. A distinct word for
every distinct idea and thought would require a vast vocabulary. The
problem in language is to express many ideas and thoughts with com-
paratively few words.
Again, in the evolution of any language, progress is from a condition
where few ideas are expressed by a few words to a higher, where many
ideas are expressed by the use of many words; but the number of ail
possible ideas or thoughts expressed is increased greatly out of pro-
portion with the increase of the number of words.
And still again, in ail of those languages which have been most thor-
oughly studied, and by inference in ail languages, it appears that the
few original words used in any language remain as the elements for the
greater number finally used. In the evolution of a language the intro-
duction of absolutely new material is a comparatively rare phenome-
non. The old material is combined and modified in many ways to form
the new.
How has the small stock of words found as the basis of a language
been thus combined and modified?
The way in which the old materials have been used gives rise to what
will here be denominated THE GtBAmiea.tio peoobssbs.


Two or more words may be united to form a new one, or to perform

the office of a new one, and four methods or stages of combination may
be noted.
a. By juxtaposition, where the two words are placed together and yet
remain as distinct words. This method is illustrated in Chinese, where
the words in the combination when taken alone sèldom give a clew to
their meaning when placed together.
b. By compounding, where two words are made into
one, in which
case the original elements of the new word remain in an unmodified
condition, as in liouse-top, rain-bow, tell-taie.

c. By agglutination, in which case one or more of the elements enter-

ing into combination to form the new word is somewhat changed-the
elements are fused together. Yet this modification is not so great as
to essentiallyobscure the primitive words, as in truthful, where we easily
in which holy
recognize the original words truth and full; and holiday,
and day are recognized.
d. By infleetion. Hère one or more of the elements entering into the
compound has been so changed that it can scarcely be recognized.
There is a constant tendency to economy in speech by which words are
gradually shortened as they are spoken by generation after generation.
In those words which are combinations of others there are certain ele-
ments that wear out more rapidly than others. Where some particular
word is combined with many other different words the tendency to
modify by wear this oft-used element is great. This is more especially
the case where the combined word is used in certain categories of com-
binations, as where particular words are used to denote tense in the
denote past
verb; thus, did may be used in combination with a verb to
time until it is worn down to the sound of d. The same wear occurs
I where particular words are used to form cases in nouns, and a variety of
illustrations might be given. These categories constitute conjugations
and declensions, and for convenience such, combinations may be called
paradigmatic. Then the oft-repeated elements of paradigmatic combina-
tions are apt to become excessively worn and modified, so that the primi-
'tive words or themes to which they are attached seem to be but slightly
changed by the addition. Under these circumstances combination
called inflection.
As a morphologie process, no well-defined plane of demarkation be-
tween these four methods of combination can be drawn, as one runs into
another; but, in general, words may be said tobe juxtaposed when two
words being placed together the combination peiforms the fonction of
a new word, while in form the two words remain separate.
Words may be said to be compound when two or more words are com-
bined to form one, no change being made in either. Words maybe said
to be agglutinated when the elementary words are changed but slightly,
i. e., only to the extent that their original forms are not greatly ob-
scured and words may be said to be inflected when in the combination
the oft-repeated element or formative part has been so changed that its
origin is obscured. These inflections are used chiefly in the paradig-
matic combinations.
In the preceding statement it has been assumed that there can be. rec-
it is
ognized, in these combinations of inflection, a theme or root, as
sometimes called, and a formative element. The formative element is
used with a great many different words to define or qualify them; that
is, to indicate mode, tense, nuniber, person, gender, etc., of verbs, nouns,
and other parts of speech.
When in a language juxtaposition is the chief method of combination,

there may also be distinguished two kinds of elements, in some sense

corresponding to themes and formative parts. The theme is a word the
meaning of which is determined by the formative word placed by it
that is, the theme is a word having many radically different meanings;
with which meaning it is to be understood is determined only by the
formative word, which thus serves as its label. The ways in which the
theme words are thus labeled by the formative word are very curious,
but the subject cannot be entered-into here.
When words are combined by compounding, the formative elements
cannot so readily be distinguished from the theme nor for the purposes
under immediate considération can compounding be well separated from
When words are combined by agglutination, theme and formative
part usually appear. The formative parts are affixes and affixes may
be divided into three classes, prefixes, suffixes, and infixes. These affixes
are often called incorporated particles.
In those Indian languages where combination is chiefly by agglutina-
tion, that is, by the use of affixes, i. e., incorporated particles, certain
parts of the conjugation of the verb, especially those which denote
gender, number, and person, are èffectèd by the use of article pronouns;
but in those languages where article pronouns are not found the verbs
are inflected to accomplish the same part of their conjugation. Per-
haps, when we come more fully to study the formative elements in these
more highly infLected languages, we may discover in such elements
greatly modified, i. e., worn out, incorporated pronouns.


Here, in order to form a new word, one or more of the vowels of the
old word are changed, as in man-men, where an e is substituted for a
ran–run, where u is substituted for a; lead-led, where e, with its proper
sound, is substituted for ea with its proper sound. This method is used
to a very limited extent in English. When the history of the words in
which it occurs is studied it is discovered to be but an instance of the
wearing out of the différent elements of combined words; but in the He-
brew this method prevails to a very large extent, and scholars have not
yet been able to discover its origin in combination as they have in Eng-
lish. It ma'y or may not have been an original grammatic process, but
because of its importance in certain languages it has been found neces-
sary to deal with it as a distinct and original process.


In English, new words are not formed by this

method, yet words are
intoned for certain purposes, chiefly rhetorical. We use the
rising in-
tonation (or inflection, as it is usually called) to indicate that a
is asked, and various effects are given to speech by the varions intona-
tions of rhetoric. But this process is used in other languages to form
new words with which to express new ideas. In Chinese eight distinct
intonations are found, by the use of which one word may be made to
express eight different ideas, or perhaps it is better to say that eight
words may be made of one.


The place or position of a word may affect its significant use. Thus
in English we say JoTm strudlc James. By the position of those words
to each other we know that John is-the actor, and that James receives
the action.

By the grammatic processes language is organized. Organization

postulâtes the difîerentiation of organs and their combination into in-
tegers. The integers of language are sentences, and their organs are
the parts of speech. Linguistic organization,
then, consists in the dif-
ferentiation of the parts of speech and the integration of the sentence.
For example, let us take the words
John, father, and love. JoTm is the
name of an individual; love is the name of a mental
action, &n&father
the name of a person. We put them
together, John loves father, and
they express a thought John becomes a noun, and is the subject of the
sentence; love becomes a verb, and is the predicant f ailier a noun, and
is the object; and we now have an organized sentence. A sentence re-
quires parts of speech, and parts of speechare such because they are
used as the organic elements of a sentence.
The criteria of rank in languages are, first, grade of
organization, i. e.,
the degree to which the grammatic processes and methods are special-
ized, and the parts of speech differentiated; second, sematologic con-
tent, that is, the body of thought which the language is compétent to
The grammatic processes may be used for three purposes:
First, for derivation, where a new word to express a new idea is made
by combining two or more old words, or-by changing the vowel of one
word, or by changing the intonation of one word.

Second, for modification, a word may be qualified or defined by thé

processes of combination, vocalic mutation or intonation.
It should here be noted that the plane between derivation and quali-
fication is not absolute.
Third, for relati on. When words as signs of ideas are used together
to express thought, the relation of the words must be expressed by some
means. In English the relation of words is expressed both by place-
ment and combination, i. e., inflection for agreement.
It should hère be noted that paradigmatic inflections are used for two
distinct purposes, qualification and relation. A word is qualified by in-
flection whenthe idea expressed by the inflection pertains to the idea
expressed by the word infleeted thus a noun is qualified by inflection
when its number and gender are expressed. A word is related by in-
flection when the office of the word in the sentence is pointed ont
thereby; thus, nouns are related by case inflections verbs are related
by inflections for gender, number, and person. Ail inflection for agree-
ment is inflection for relation.
In English, three of the grammatic processes are highly specialized.
Combination is used chiefly for derivation, but to some slight extent
for qualification and relation in the paradigmatic categories. But its
use in this manner as compared with many other languages has almost t
disappeared. e
Vocalie mutation is usedto a very limited extent and only by accident,
and can scarcely be said to belong to the English language.
Intonation is used as a grammatic process only to a limited.extent-
simply to assist in forming the interrogative and imperative modes. Its
use here is almost rhetorical; in ail other cases it is purely rhetorical.
Placement is largely used in the language, and is highly specialized,
performing the office of exhibiting the relations of words to each other
in the sentence; i. e., it is used chiefly for syntactic relation.
Thus one of the four processes does not belong to the English lan-
guage the others are highly. specialized.
The purposes for which the processes are used are dérivation, modifi-
cation, and syntactic relation.
Derivation is accomplished by combination.
Modification is accomplished by the differentiation of adjectives and
adverbs, as words, phrases, and clauses.
Syntactic relation is accomplished by placement. Syntactic relation
must not be confounded with the relation expressed by prepositions.
Syntactic relation is the relation of the parts of speech to each other as
intégral parts of a sentence. Prepositions express relations of thought
of another order. They relate words to each other as words.
Placement relates words to each other as parts of speech.
In the Indian tongues combination is used for all three purposes, per-
forming the three different fonctions of derivation, modification, and re-

lation. also, isis nsp.fi
Placement, a.lsn.
3?lafifiTnfint. used fnv
for rAln.Wn-n nnrl for
relation, and fnr Ytn€h
both Vindc
Mnds nf
of rol«
tion, syntactic and prepositional.
With regard, then, to the processes and purposes for which they are
used, we find in the Indian languages a low degree of spécialisation i
processes are used for diverse purposes, and purposes are aceomplished
by diverse processes.


It is next in order to consider to what degree the parts of speech are

differentiated in Indian languages, as compared with English.
Indian nouns are extremely connotive, that is, the name does more
than simply denote the thing to which it belongs; in denoting the ob-
ject it also assigns to it some quality or characteristic. Every object
has many qualities and characteristics, and by describing but a part of
these the true office of the noun is but imperfectly performed. Astrictly
denotive name expresses no one quality or character, but embraces all
qualities and characters.
In Ute the name for bear is lie seizes, or the liugger. In this case^the
verb is used for the noun, and in so doing the Indian names the bear •
by predicating one of his characteristics. Thus noun and verb are un-
differentiated. In Seneca the north is the sun never goes
there, and this
sentence may be used as adjective or noun; in such cases noun, adject-
ive, verb, and adverb are found as one vocable or word, and the four
parts of speech are undifferentiated. In the Pavant language a school-
house is called pô-1dnt4n4n-yî-Mn. The first part of the word, pâ-M?tt,
signifies sorcery is practiced, and is the name given by the Indians to
any writing, from the fact that when they first learned of writing they
supposed it to be a method of practicing sorcery; în-in-yî is the verb
signifying to count, and the meaning of the word has been extended so
as to signify to read: Mn signifies
wigwam, and is derived from thé
verb Mri, to stay. Thus the name of the school-house literally
a, staying place where sorcery is or where papers are read. The
Pavant in naming a school-house describes the purpose for which it is
used. These examples illustrate the general characteristics of Indian
nouns; they are excessively connotive; a simply denotive name israrely
found. In general their name=words predicate some attribute of the ob-
ject named, and thus nonn, adjective, and predicant are undifferentiated.
In many Indian languages there is no separate word for
eye, Mnd,
arm, or other parts and organs of the body, but the word is found with an
incorporated or attached pronoun signifying my hand, myeye your hand,
your eye; his hand, Us eye, etc., as the case may be. If the Indian, in
naming these parts, refers to his ownbody, he says my; if he refers to
povvell.] AJSXILîIjJBj

the body of the person to whom he is speaking, he says your, &c. If

an Indian should find a detached foot thrown from the amputating-table
of an army field hospital, he would say something like this I have
found somebody Msfoot. The linguistic characteristicis widely spread,
thongh not universal.
Thus the Indian has no command of a fally differentiated noun ex-
pressive of eye, hand, arm, or other parts and organs of the body.
In the pronouns we often have the most difficult part of an Indian
language. Pronouns are only to a limited extent independent words.
Amongthefreepronounsthestudentmustearlylearnto distingnish be-
tween the personal and the demonstrative. The demonstrativepronouns
are more commonly used. The Indian is more accustomed to say this
person or thing, that person or thing, than he, she, or it. Among the
free personal pronouns the student may find an equivalent of the pro-
noun I, another signifying I and you; perhaps another signifying I and
lie, and one signifying we, more than two, including the speaker and
those present; and another ineluding the speaker and persons absent.
He will also find personal pronouns in the second and third person, per-
haps with singular, dual, and plural forms.
To a large extent the pronouns are incorporated in the verbs as pre-
fixes, infixes, or suffixes. In such cases we will call them article pro-
nouns. These article pronouns point ont with great particularity the
person, number, and gender, both of subject and object, and sometimes
of the indirect object. When the article pronouns are used the personal
pronouns may or may not be used; but it is believed that the personal
pronouns will always be found. Article pronouns may not always be
found. In those languages which are characterized by them they are
used alike when the subject and object nouns are expressed and when
they are not. The student may at first find some difficulty with thèse
article pronouns. Singular, dual, and plural forms will be found. Some-
times distinct incorporated particles will be used for subject and object,
but often this will not be the case. If the subject only is expressed,
one particle may be used; if the object only is expressed, another
particle; but if subject and object are expressed an entirely different
particle may stand for both.
But it is in the genders of these article pronouns that the greatest
difficulty may be found. The student must entirely free his mind of
the idea that gender is simply a distinction of sex. In Indian tongues,
genders are usually methods of classification primarily into animate and
inanimate. The animate may be again divided into maie and female,
but this is rarely the case. Often by these genders ail objects are classi-
fied by characteristics found in their attitudes or supposed constitution.
Thus we may have the animate and inanimate, one or both, divided into
the standing, the sitting, and the lying or they may be divided into the
watery, the mushy, the earihy, the stony, the woody, and the fleshy. The
gender of these article pronouns has rarely been worked ont in any

language. The extent to which these classifications enter into the arti-
cle pronouns is not well known. The subject requires more thorough
study. These incorporated particles are here called article pronouns.
In the conjugation of the verb they take an important part, and have
by some writers been called transitions. Besides pointing out with par-
ticularity the person, number, and gender or the subject and object,
they perform the same offices that are usually performed by those in-
flections of the verb that occur to make them agree in gender, number,
and person with the subject. In those Indian languages where the arti-
cle pronouns are not found, and the personal pronouns only are used,
the verb is usually inflected to agree with the subject or object, or both,
in the same particulars.
The article pronouns as they point out person, number, gender, and
case of the subject and object, are not simple particles, but are to a
greater or lesser extent compound; their component elements may be
broken apart and placed in different parts of the verb. Again, the arti-
cle pronoun in some languages may have its elements combined into a
distinct word in such a manner that it will not be incorporated in the
verb, but will be placed immediately before it. For this reason the term
article pronoun has been chosen rather than attachée, pronoun. The older
term, transition, was given to them because of their analogy in function
to verbal inflections.
Thus the verb of an Indian language contains within itself incorpor-
ated article pronouns which point ont with great particularity the gen-
der, number, and person of the subject and object. In this manner
verb, pronoun, and adjective are combined, and to this extent these
parts of speech are undifferentiated.
In some languages the article pronoun constitutes a distinct word, but
whether free or incorporated it is a complex tissue of adjectives.
Again, nouns sometimes contain particles within themselves to predi-
cate possession, and to this extent nouns and verbs are undifferentiated.
The verb is relatively of much greater importance in an Indian tongue
than in a civilized language. To a large extent the pronoun is incor-
porated in the verb as explained above, and thus constitutes a part of
its conjugation.
Again, adjectives are used as intransitive verbs, as in most Indian
languages there is no verb to be used as a predicant or copula. Where
in English we would say the man is good the Indian would say that
man good, using the adjective as an intransitive verb, i. e., as a predi-
cant. If he desired to affirm it in the past tense, the intransitive verb
good would be inflected, or otherwise modified, to indicate the tense;
and so, in like manner, all adjectives whenused to predicate can be modi-
fied to indicate mode, tense, number, person, &c., as other intransitive
Adverbs are used as intransitive verbs. In English we may say
lie is there/ the Indian would say that person there usually preferring
the demonstrative 1_to the
11_ _1 '"1 n
personal pronoun. The adverb fliere would,
therefore, be used as a predicant or intransitive verb, and might be con-
jugated to denote different modes, tenses, numbers, persons, etc. Verbs
will often receive adverbial qualifications by the use of incorporated
particles, and, still further, verbs may contain within themselves ad-
verbial limitations without our being able to trace such meanings to any
definite particles or parts of the verb.
Prépositions are intransitive verbs. In English we may say the hat
is on the table; the Indian would say that liât on table; or he might
change the order, and say that hat table on; but the preposition on
would be used as an intransitive verb to predicate, and may be conju-
gated. Prepositions may often be found as particles incorporated in
verbs, and, still further, verbs may contain within themselves preposi-
tional meanings withont our being able to trace such meanings to any
definite particles within the verb. But the verb connotes such' ideas
that something is needed to complete its meaning, that something being
a limiting or qualifying word, phrase, or clause. Prépositions may be
prefixed, infixed, or suffixed to nouns, i. e., they may be particles incor-
porated in nouns.
Nouns may be used as intransitive verbs under the circumstances
when in English we would use a noun as the complement of a sentence
after the verb to be.
The verb, therefore, often includes within itself subject, direct object,
indirect object, qualifier, and relation-idea. Thus it is that the study
of an Indien language is, to a large extent, the study ofits verbs.
Thus adjectives, adverbs, prépositions, and nouns are used as in-
transitive verbs; and, to such extent, adjectives, adverbs, prépositions,
nonns, and verbs are undifferentiated.
From the remarks above, it will be seen that Indian verbs often in-
clude within themselves meanings which in English are expressed by
adverbs and adverbial phrases and^clauses. Thus the verb may express
within itself direction, manner, instrument, and purpose, one or all, as
the verb to go may be represented by a word signifying go home; an-
other, go away from home; another, go to a place other than home; an-
other, go from a place other than home; one, go from tMs place, with
reference to home; one, to go up; another, to go doion; one, go around;
and, perhaps, there will be a verb go up MU; another, go up a valley;
another, go up a river, etc. Then we may have to go on foot, to go on
horseback, to go in a canoë; still another, to go for water; another for
wood, etc. Distinct words may be used for ail these, or a fewer number
used, and these varied by incorporated particles. In like manner, the
English verb to brealc may be represented by several words, each of which
will indicate the manner of performing the act or the instrument with
which it is done. Distinct words may be used, or a common word varied
with incorporated particles.
The verb to strike may be represented by several words, signifying

severally to strike with theflst, to strilce with a club, to strilee with the open
Jiand, to strike with a lohip, to strilee with a switch, to strike with a flat in-
strument, ètc. A common word may be used with incorporated parti-
cles or entirely different words used.
Mode in an Indian tongue is a rather difficult subject. Modes analo-
gous to those of civilized tongues are found, and many conditions and
qualifications appear in the verb which in English and other civilized
languages appear as adverbs, and adverbial phrases and clauses. No
plane of separation can be drawn between such adverbial qualifications
and true modes. Thus there may be a form of the verb, which shows
that the speaker makes a declaration as certain, i. e., an indicative
mode; another which shows that the speaker makes a declaration with
doubt, i. e., a dubitative mode; another that he makes a declaràtion on
hearsay, i. e., a qaotative mode; another form will be used in making a
command, giving an imperative mode; another in imploration, i. e., an
implorative mode; another form to denote permission, i. e., a permissive
mode; another in negation, i. e., a negative mode; another form will be
used to indicate that the action is simultaneous with some other action,
i. e., a simulative mode; another to denote desire or wish that something
be done, i. e., a desidérative mode; another that the action ought to be
done, i. e., an obligative mode; another that action is repetitive from
time to time, i. é., a frequentative mode; another that action is caused,
i. e., a causative mode, etc.
These forms of the verb, which we are compelled to call modes, are of
great number. Usually with each of them a particular modal particle
or incorporated adverb will be used but the particular particle which
gives the qualified meaning may not always be discovered; and in one
language a différent word will be introduced, wherein another thé same
word will be used with an incorporated particle.
It is stated above that incorporated particles may be used to indicate
direction, manner, instrument, and purpose; in fact, any adverbial quali-
fication whatever may be made by an incorporated particle instead of
an adverb as a distinct word.
No line of demarkation can be drawn between these adverbial parti-
cles and those mentioned above as modal particles. Indeed it seems
best to treat ail these forms of the verb arising from incorporated par-
ticles as distinct modes. In this sense, then, an Indian language has a
multiplicity-of modes. It should be further remarked that in many
cases thèse modal or adverbial particles are excessively worn, so that
they may appear as additions or changes of simple vowel or consonant
sounds. When incorporated particles are thus used, distinct adverbial
words, phrases, or clauses may also be employed, and the idea expressed
In an Indian language it is usually fouud difficult to elaborate a system
of tenses in paradigmatic form. Many tenses or time particles arefound
incorporated in verbs. Some of these time particles are excessively
poweelJ VOICE – MODE TENSE. 13

worn, and may appear rather as inflections than as incorporated par-

ticles. Usually rather distinct present, past, and future tenses are dis-
covered often a remote or ancient past, and less often an immediate
future. But great specification of time in relation to the present and
in relation to other time is usually found.
It was seen above that adverbial particles cannot be separated from
modal particles. In like manner tense particles cannot be separated
from adverbial and modal particles.
In an Indian language adverbs are differentiated only to a limited ex-
tent. Adverbial qualifications are found in the verb, and thus there are
a multiplicity of modes and tenses, and no plane of demarkation can be
drawn between mode and tense. From preceding statements it will ap-
pear that a verb in an Indian tongue may have incorporated with it a
great variety of particles, which can be arranged in three general classes,
i. e., pronominal, adverbial, andprëpositional.-
The pronominal particles we have called article pronouns; they serve
to point out a variety of characteristics in the snbject, object, and indi-
rect object of the verb. They thus subserve pnrposes which in English
are subserved by differentiated adjectives as distinct parts of speech.
They might, therefore, with some propriety, have been called adjective
particles, but these elements perform another function; they serve thepur-
pose which is usually called agreementin language; that is, they make
the verb agrée with the subject and object, and thus indicate the syntac-
tic relation between subject, object, and verb. Inthis sense they might
with propriety have been called relation particles, and doubtless this
fonction was in mind when some of the older grammarians called them
The adverbial particles perform the functions of voice, mode, and
tense, together with many other functions that are performed in lan-
guages spoken by more highly civilized people by differentiated adverbs,
adverbial phrases, and clauses.
The preposàtional particles perform the function of indicating a great
variety of subordinate relations, like the prepositions used as distinct
parts of speech in English.
By the demonstrative function of some of the pronominal particles,
they are closely related to adverbial particles, and adverbial particles
are closely related to prepositional particles, so that itwill be sometimes
difâcult to say of a particular particle whether it be pronominal or ad-
verbial, and of another particular particle whether it be adverbial or
Thus the three classes of particles are not separated by absolute planes
of demarkation.
The use of these particles as parts of the verb; the use of nouns, ad-
jectives, adverbs, and prepositions as intransitive verbs; and the direct
use of verbs as nouns, adjectives, and adverbs, make the study of an
Indian tongue to a large extent the study of its verbs.

To the extent that voice, mode, and tense are accomplished by the
use of agglutinated particles or inflections, to that extent adverbs and
verbs are undifferentiated.
To the extent that adverbs are found as incorporated particles in
verbs, the two parts of speech are undifferentiated.
To the extent that prepositions are particles incorporated in the verb,
prepositions and verbs are undifferentiated.
To the extent that prepositions are aftixed to nouns, prepositions and
nouns are undifferentiated.
In ail these particulars it is seen that the Indian tongues belong to a
very low type of organization. Various scholars have called attention
to this feature by describing Indian languages as being holophrastic,
polysynthetic, or synthetic. The term synthetic is perhaps the best,
and may be used as synonymous with undifferentiated.
Indian tongues, therefore, may be said to be highly synthetié in that
their parts of speech are imperfectly differentiated.
In these same particulars the English language is highly organized,
as the parts of speech are highly differentiated. Yet the difference is
one of degree, not of kind.
To the extent in the English language that inflection is used for quali-
fication, as for person, number, and gender of the noun and pronoun,
and for mode and tense in the verb, to that extent the parts of speech
are undifferentiated. But we have seen that inflection is used for this
purpose to a very slight extent.
There is yet in the English language one important differentiation
which has been but partially accomplished. Verbs as usually consid-
ered are undifferentiated parts of speech they are nouns and adjectives,
one or both, and predicants. The predicant simple is a distinct part of
speech. The English language has but one, the verb to be, and this is
not always a pure predicant, for it sometimes contains within itself an
adverbial element when it is conjugated for mode and tense, and a con-
nective element when it is conjugated for agreement. With adjectives
and nouns this verb is used as a predicant. In the passive voice also it
is thus used, and the participles are nouns or adjectives. In what is
sometimes called the progressive form of the active voice nouns and
adjectives are differentiated in the participles, and the verb "to be" is
used as a predicant. But in what is usually denominated the active
voice of the verb, the English language has undifferentiated parts of
speech. An examination of the history of the verb to be in the English
language exhibits the'fact that it is coming more and more to be used as
the predicant; and what is usually called the common form of the active
voice is coming more and more to be limited in its use to special sig-
The real active voice, indicative mode, present tense, first person, sin-
gular number, of the verb to eat, is am eating. The expression I eat,
signifies I am aeotistomed to eat. So, if we consider the common form of

thé active voice throughout its entire conjugation, we discover that

many of its forms are limited to spécial uses.
Throughout the conjugation of the verb the auxiliaries are predicants,
but these auxiliaries, to the extent that they are modified for mode,
tense, number, and person, contain adverbial and connective elements.
In like manner many of the lexical elements of the English language
contain more than one part of speech: To <tsceK~is to go up; <o descend
is to go down; and to depart is to go from.
Thns it is seen that the English language is also synthetic in that its
parts of speech are not completely differentiated. The English, then,
differs in this respect from an Indian language only in degree.
In most Indian tongues no pure predicant has been
but in some the verb to &e,or predicant, has been slightly developed,
chiefly to amrm existence in a place.
It will thus be seen that by the criterion of organization Indian tongues
are of very low grade.
It need but to be affirmed that by the criterion of sematologic content
Indian languages are of a very low: grade. Therefore the frequently-
expressed opinion that the languages of barbarie peoples have a more
highly organized grammatic structure than the languages of civilized
peoples has its complete refutation.
It is worthy of remark that ail paradigmatic inflection in a civilized
tongue is a relie of its barbarie condition. When the parts of speech
are fully differentiated and the process of placement fully
so that the order of words in sentences has its full significance, no use-
ful purpose is subserved by inflection.
Economy in speech is the force by which its development has been
accomplished, and it divides itself properly into economy of utterance
and economy of thought. Economy of utterance has had to do with the
phonio constitution of words economy of thought has developed the
AU paradigmatic inflection requires unnecessary thought. In thé
clause if ~e was 7Mfe,if fally expresses the subjunctive condition, and
it is quite unnecessary to express it a second time byusing another form
of the verb to &e. And so the people who are using the English lan-
guage are deciding, for the subjunctive form is rapidly becoming obso-
lete with the long list of paradigmatic forms which have disappeared.
Every time thé pronoun Ae, s&e,or it is used it is necessary to think
of the sex of its antecedent, though in its use there is no reason why
sex should be expressed, say, one time in ten thousand. If one pronoun
non-expressive of gender were used instead of the three, with three
gender adjectives, then in nine thousand nine hundred and ninety-nine
cases the speaker would be relieved of the necessity of an unnecessary
thought, andinthe one case an adjectivewouldfullyexpress it. Butwhen
these innections are greatly multiplied, as they are in the Indian lan-
guages, alike with the Greek and Latin, the speaker is compelled in the

choice of a word to express his idea to think of a multiplicity of things

which have no connection with that which he wishes to express.
A -PoK~aIndian, in saying that a man killed a rabbit, would have to
say the man, he, one, animate, standing, in thé nominative case, pur-
posely killed, by shooting an arrow, the rabbit, he, the one, animate,
sitting, in the objective case; for the form of a verb to kill would have
to be selected, and the verb changes its form by inflection and incor-
porated particles to denote person, number, and gender as animate or
inanimate, and gender as standing, sitting, or lying, and case; and the
form of the verb would also express whether the killing was done acci-
dentally or purposely, and whether it was by shooting or by some other
process, and, if by shooting, whether by bow and arrow, or with a gun;
and the form of the verb would in like manner have to express ail of
thèse things reJating to the object; that is, the person, number, gender,
and case of the object; and from the multiplicity of paradigmatic forms
of the verb to kill this particular one would have to be selected. Per-
haps one time in a million it would be the purpose to express ail of these
particulars, and in that case the Indian would have the whole expres-
sion in one compact word, but in the nine hundred and ninety-nine thou-
sand nine hundred and ninety-nine cases ail of these particulars would
have to be thought ofin the selection of the form of the verb, when no.
valuable purpose would be accomplished thereby.
In the development of the English, as well as the French and German,
linguistic evolution has not been in vain.
Judged by these criteria, the English stands alone in the highest
rank; but as a written language, in thé way in which its alphabet is
used, the English has but emerged from a barbarie condition.






3AE 17





The wonders of the course of nature have ever challenged attention.

In savagery, in barbarism, and -in civilization alike, the mind of man
has sought the explanation of things. The movements of the heavenly
bodies, the change of seasons, the succession of night and day, the
powers of the air, majestic mountains, ever-flowing rivers, perennial
springs, the night of birds, the gliding of serpents, the growth of trees,
the blooming of flowers, the forms of storm-carved rocks, the mysteries
of life and death, the institutions of society-many are the things to be
explained. The yearning to know is universal. ~OM)and wAyare ever-
lasting interrogatories profoundly instinct in humanity. In the evolu-
tion of the human mind, thé instinct of cosmic interrogation follows
hard upon the instinct of self-préservation.
In all the operations of nature, man's weal and woe are involved. A
cold wave sweeps from the north-rivers and lakes are frozen, forests
are buried under snows, and the fierce winds almost congeal the life-
nuids of man himself, and indeed man's sources of supply are buried
under the rocks of water. At another time the heavens are as brass,
and the clouds corne and go with mockery of uniulnlled promises of
rain, thé fierce midsununer sum pours its beams upon the sands, and
blasts heated in the furnace of the desert sear the végétation; and the
traits, which in more congenial seasons are subsistence and luxury,
shrivel before the eyes of famishing men. A river rages and destroys
the adjacent valley with its flood. A mountain bursts forth with its
rivers of fire, the land is buried and the people are swept away. Light-
ning shivers a tree and rends a skull. The silent, unseen powers of
nature, too, are at work bringing pain or joy, health or sickness, life or
death, to mankind. In like manner man's welfare is involved in all the
institutions of society. How and why are the questions asked about ail
these things-questions springing from the deepest instinct of self-

In all stages of savage, barbarie, and civilizedinquiry, every question

has found an answer, every 7t(KPhas had its </K<s,every ~y its because.
The sum of the answers to thé questions raised by any people constitute
its philosophy; hence all peoples have had philosophies consisting of
their accepted explanation of things. Such a philosophy must neces-
sarily resnit from the primary instincts developed in man in the early
progress of his differentiation from the beast. This 1 postulate: if
démonstration is necessary, démonstration is at hand. Not only has
every people a philosophy, but every stage of culture is characterized by
its stage of philosophy. Philosophy has been unfolded with the evolu-
tion of thé human understanding. The history of philosophy is the
history of human opinions from the earlier to the later days-from the
lower to the higher culture.
In the production of a philosophy, phenomena must be discerned, dis-
cruMMM~, c~ass~e~. Discernment, discrimination, and classification are
the processes by which a philosophy is developed. In studying thé
philosophy of a people at any stage of culture, to understand what such
a people entertain as the sum of their hnowledge, it is necessary that we
should understand what phenomena they saw, heard, felt, discerned;
what discriminations they made, and what resemblances they seized upon
as a basis for the classincation on which their explanations rested. A
philosophy will be higher in the scale, nearer the trath, as the discern-
ment is wider, the discrimination nicer, and the classification better.
The sense. of thé savage is dull compared with the sense of thé civil-
ized man. There is a myth carrent in civilization to the effect that the
barbarian has highly developed perceptive faculties. It has no more
fbundation than the myth of the wisdom of the owl. A savage sees but
few sights, hears but few sounds, tastes but few flavors, smells but few
odors; his whole sensuous life is narraw and blunt, and his facts that
are made up of the combination of sensuous impressions are few. In
comparison, the civilized man has his vision extended away toward
the infinitesimal and away toward the infinite; bis perception of sound
is multiplied to the comprehension of rapturous symphonies; his per-
ception of taste is increased to the enjoyment of delicious viands; his
perception of smell is developed to the appréciation of most exquisite
perfumes and his facts that are made up of thé combination of sensuous
impressions are multiplied beyond enumeration. The stages of discern-
ment from the lowest savage to the highest civilized man constitute a
series the end of which is far from the beginning.
If the discernment of the savage is little, his discrimination is less.
AU his sensuous perceptions are confused; but the confusion of con-
fusion is that universal habit of savagery-the confusion of thé object-
ive with the subjective-so that the savage sees, hears, tastes, smells,
feels the imaginings of his own mind. Subjectively determined sensuous
processes are diseases in civilization, but normal, functional methods in

The sn.Tra.o*~ nïtI~Cm~T
savage philosopher ~lasa~OC
classi&es ~~O*
by ~t~UlfUT-î
obvious T'~N~TY1~1p).Tt~RR––Hn~ift~t~
characters. The civilized philosopher classifies by essential affinitives
-homologie characteristics–and the progress of philosophy is marked
by changes from analogie categories to homologie categories.


There are two grand stages of philosophy-the mythologie and sci-

entinc. In the first, ail phenomena are explained by analogies derived
from subjective human expériences in the latter, phenomena are ex-
plained as orderly successions of events.
In sublime egotism, man first interprets thé cosmos as an extension of
himself; he classifies thé phenomena of the outer word by their analogies
with subjective phenomena; his measure of distance is his own pace, his
measure of time his own sleep, for he says, "Itis a thousand paces to
the great rock,~ or, It is a hundred sleeps to the great feast." Noises
are voices, powers are hands, movements are made afoot. By subjective
examination discovering in himself will and design, and by indnctive
reason discovering will and design in his fellow men and in animals, he
extends the induction to ail the cosmos, and there discovers in allthiugs
will and design. Ail phenomena are snpposed to be the acts of some
one, and that some one having will and purpose. In mythologie phi-
losophy thé phenomena of thé outer physical world are supposed to be
the acts of living, willing, designing personages. The simple are com-
pared with and explained by thé complex. In scientinc philosophy,
phenomena are supposed to be chiidren of antecedent phenomena, and
so far as science goes with its explanation they are thus interpreted.
Man with the subjective phenomena gathered about himis studiedfrom
an objective point of view, and the phenomena of subjective life are rele-
gated to the categories established in the classification of the phenomena
of thé outer worid; thus the complex is studied by resolving it into its
simple eonstituents.
There is an unknown known, and there is a khown unknown. The
unknown known is the philosophy of savagery; the known unknown is
the philosophy of civilization. lu those stages of culture that we call
savagery and barbarism, all things are known-supposed to be known;
but when at last something is known, understood, explained, then to
those who have that knowledge in full compréhension ail other things
become unknown. Then is ushered in the era of investigation and dis-
covery then science is born; then is the beginning of civilization. The
philosophy of savagery is complete; thé philosophy of civilization frag-
mentary. Ye men of science, ye wise fools, ye have discovered thé law

of gravity, but ye cannot tell what gravity is. But savagery bas a
cause and a method for ail things; nothing is left unexplained.
In the lower stages of savagery the cosmos is bounded by the great
plain of land and sea on which we tread, and the firmament, the azure
surface above, set with brilliants; and beyond is an abyss of-nothing.
Within these bounds ail things are known, ail things are explained;
there are no mysteries but the whims of the gods. But when the plain
on-which we tread becomes a portion of the surface of a great globe,
and the domed firmament becomes the heavens, stretching beyond
Alcyone and-Sirias, with this enlargement of the reahn of philosophy the
verity of philosophy is questioned. The savage is a positive man; the
scientist is a doubting man.
The opinions of a savage people are childish. Society grows! 1 Some
say society develops; others that society evolves; but, somehow, I like
to say it grows. The history of thé discovery of growth is a large part
of the history of human culture. That individuals grow, that the child
grows to be a man, the coït à'horse, the scion a tree, is easily recognized,
though with unassisted eyé thé processes of growth are not discovered.
But that races grow-races of men, races of animals, races of plants,
races or groups of worlds-is a very late discovery, and yet all of us do
not grasp so great a thought. Consider that stage of culture where the
growth of individuals is not fully recognized. That stage is savagery.
To-day the native races of North America are agitated by discussions
over that great philosopic question, "Do the trees grow or were they
created~ That the grass grows they admit, but thé orthodox philoso-
phers stoutly assert that thé forest pines and the great sequoias were
created as they are.
Thus in savagery thé philosophers dispute over the immediate crea-
tion or development of individuals-in civilization over the immediate
creation or development of races. I know of no single fact that better
illustrates the wide difference between these two stages of culture. But
let us look for other terms bf comparison. The scalping scene is no
more the true picture of savagery than thé bayonet charge of civil-
ization. Savagery is sylvan life. Contrast Ka-ni-ga with New York.
Ka-ni-ga is an Indian village in the Rocky Mountains. New York is,
-won–New York. Thé home in the forest is a shelter of boughs, the
home in New York is a palace of granité. The dwellers in jE<MM- are
clothed in the skins of animais, rudely tanned, rudely wrought, and col-
ored with daubs of clay. For the garments of New York, nocks are
tended, fields are cultivated, ships sail on the sea, and men dig in the
mountains for dye-stu&s stored in the rocks. Thé industries of .Xa-tM-~s
employ stone knives, bone awls, and human muscle; thé industries of
New York employ the tools of the trades, the machinery of the manu-
factories, and the power of the sun-for water-power is but sunshine,
and the coal mine is but a pot of pickeled sunbeams.

Even the nursery rhymes are in contrast; theprattlerinNewTork

Daffydown dilly
Has corneup to town,
With a green petticoat
And a blue gown <<
but in savagery the outer and nether garments are not yet dinerentiated
andmore: blueandgreenarenotdin'erentiated,forthelndianhas but one
name for the two the green grass and the blue heavens are of the same
hue in the Indian tongue. But the nursery tales of Ka-ni-ga are of the
animals, for the savages associate with the animals on terms of recog-
nized equality and this is what the prattler in .E'a~M-~M says:
The poor little bee
That lives in the tree,
The poor little bee
That lives in the tree,
Hasonly onearrow
In his quiver.
Thé arts and industries of savagery and civilization are not in greater
contrast than their philosophy. To fully present to you the condition
of savagery, as illustrated m their philosophy, three obstacles appear.
After ail the years I have spent among the Indians in their mountain
villages, I am not certain that I have sufficiently divorced myself from
the thoughts and ways of civilization to properly appreciate their child-
ish beliefs. The second obstacle subsists in your own knowledge of the
methods and powers of nature, and the ways of civilized society; and
when I attempt to tell you what an Indian thinks, I fear you will never
fully forget what you know, and thus you will be led to give too deep a
meaning to a savage explanation; or, on the other hand, contrasting au
Indian concept with your own, thé manifest absurdity will soundto you
as an idle tale too simple to deserve mention, or too false to deserve
credence. The third diniculty lies in the attempt to put savage thoughts
into civilized language, our words are so full of meaning, carry with
them so many great thoughts and collateral ideas.
Some examples of thé philosophie methods belonging to widely
separated grades of culture mayserve to make the previous statements
WM.–Thé Ute philosopher discerns that men and animals breathe.
He recognizes vaguely the phenomena of the wind, and discovers its
resemblance to breath, and explains the winds by relegating themto the
class of breathings. He declares that there is a monster beast in the
north that breathes the winter winds, and another in the south, and
another in the east, and another in the west. The facts relating to winds
are but partially discerned; the philosopher has not yet discovered that
there is an earth-surrounding atmosphère. He fails in making the
proper discriminations. His relegation of the winds to the.class of

breathings is analogie, but not homologic. The basis of his philosophy

is personality, and hence he has four wind-gods.
Thé philosopher of the ancient Northland discovered that he could
cool his brow with a fan, or kindie a fiame, or sweep away the dust with
the wafted air. The winds also cooled his brow, the winds also swept
away the dust and kindled the fire into a great connagration~ and when
thé wind blew he said, "Somebodyis fanning the waters of the fiord,
or "Somebodyis fanning the evergreen forests," and he relegated the
winds to the class of fannings, and he said, "The god Hraesvelger, clothed
with eagle-plumes, is spreading his wings for flight, and the winds rise
from under them.~
The early Greek philosopher discovered that air may be imprisoned
in vessels or movein the ventilation of caves, and he recognized wind as
something more than breath, something more than fanning, something
that can be gathered up and scattered abroad, and so when the winds
blew he said, "The sacks have been untied," or*"The caves hâve been
The philosopher of civilization has discovered that breath, the fan-
wafted breeze, the air confined in vessels, the air moving in ventila-
tion, that these are ail parts of the great body of air which surrounds
the earth, ail in motion, swung by the revolving earth, heated at the
tropics, cooled at the poles, and thus turned into counter-enrrents and
again defiected by a thousand geographic features, so that the winds
sweep down valleys, eddy among mountain crags, or waft thé spray
from the crested billows of the sea, all in obédience to cosmic laws.
Thé facts discerned are many, the discriminations made are
nice, and
the classifications based on true homologies, and we have the science
of meteorology, which exhibits an orderly succession of events even in
the nckie winds.
~'Mm6m~ JMbom.–Thé P~e philosopher declares the sun to be a living
personage, and explains his passage across the heavens along an ap-
pointed way by giving an account of a fierce personal confiict between
Tœ-w~,the snn-god, and 2'<t-~c~s,one of the supreme gods of his my-
In that long ago, the time to which ail mythology
refers, the sun
roamed the earth at will. When he came too near with his fierce heat
thepeople were scorched, and when he hid away in his cave for a long
time, too idle to come forth, the night was long and the earth cold.
Once upon a time Ta:-wœ<s,the hare-god, was sitting with his family
the camp-fire in the solemn woods, anxionsly waiting for the return of
T~-M, the wayward sun-god. Wearied with long watching, the hare-god
fell asleep, and the sun-god came so near that he scorched the naked
shoulder of Ta-wdts. Foreseeing the vengeance which would be thus
provoked, he ned back to his cave beneath thé earth. :T~-M~s awoke
in gréât anger, and speedily determined to go and fight the
After a long journey of many adventnres the hare-god came to the brink

of the earth, and there watched long and patiently, till at last the sun-
god coming ont he shot an arrow at his face, but the fierce heat con-
sumed the arrow ere it had finished its intended course; then an-
other arrow was sped, but that was also consumed; and another, and
still another, till only one remained in his quiver, but this was the
magical arrow that had never failed its mark. T~-to~s, holding it in
his hand, lifted the barb to his eye and baptized it in a divine tear;
then the arrow was sped and struck the sun-god full in the face, and the
sun was shivered into a thousand fragments, which fell to thé earth,
causing a general conflagration. Then T~-M~, the hare-god, ned be-
fore the destruction he had wrought, and as he ned the burning earth
consnmed his feet, consamed his legs, eonsumed his body, consumed his
hands and his arms-all were consumed but the head alone, which
bowled across valleys and over mountains, fieeing destruction from the
burning earth until at last, swollen with heat, the eyes of the god burst
and the tears gushed forth in a fiood which spread over the earth and
extinguished the nré. The sun-god was now conquered, and he ap-
peared before a conncil of the gods to await sentence. In that long
couneil were established the days and the nights, the seasons and the
years, with the length thereof, and the sun was condemned to travel
across the firmament by the saine trail day after day till the end of
In this same philosophy we learn that in that ancient time a council
of the gods was held to consider the propriety of making a moon, and
at last the task was given to Whippoorwill, a god of the night, and a
frog yielded himself a willing sacrifice for this purpose, and the 'WMp-
poorwill, by incantations, and other magical means, transformed the
frog into the new moon. The truth of this origin of the moon is made
evident to our very senses; for do we not see thé frog riding the moon
at night, and thé moon is cold, because the frog from which it was made
was cold ?
The philosopher of Oraibi tells us that when the people ascended by
means of the magical tree which constituted the ladder from thé lower
world to this, they found the firmament, the ceiling of this world, low
down upon the earth-the noor.of this world. J~~o, one of their
gods, raised the firmament on his shoulders to where it is now seen.
Still the world was dark, as there was no sun, no moon, and no stars.
So the people murmured because of the darkness and the cold. Matoito
said, "Bring me seven maidens," and they brought him seven maid-
ens and he said, "Bring me seven basbets of cotton-bolls," and they
brought him seven baskets of cotton-bolls; and he taught the seven
maidens to weave a magical fabric from thé cotton, and when they had
finished it he held it aloft, and the breeze carried it away toward thé
firmament, and in thé twinkling of an eye it was transformed into a
beautifai full-orbed moon, and the same breeze caught the remnants of
noccolent cotton which the maidens had scattered during their work,

and carried them aloft, and they were transformed into bright stars.
But still it was cold and the people murmured again, and J~f~e~o said,
"Bring me seven buffalo robes," and they brought him seven buffalo
robes, and from thé densely matted hair of the robes he wove another
wonderful tabric, which the storm carried away into the sky, and it
was transformed into the full-orbed sun. Then Matcito appointed
times and seasons and ways for the heavenly bodies, and the gods of
the firmament have obeyed the injunctions of ~a~c~o from thé day of
their creation to thé present.
The Norse philosopher tells us that Night and Day, each, has a Rorse
and a car, and they drive successively one after the other around the
world in tweniy-four hours. Night rides first with her steed named
Dew-hair, and every morning as he ends his course he bedews the earth
with foam from his bit. The steed driven by Day is Shining-hair. AU
the sky and earth glisten with the light of his mane. Jarnved, the
gréât iron-wood forest lying to the east of Midgard,'is the abode of a
race of witches. One monster witch is the mother of many sons in the
form of wolves, two of which are Skol and Hate. Skol is thé wolf that
would devour the maiden Sun, and she daily flies from the maw of thé
terrible beast, and thé moon-man nies from the wolf Eate.
The philosopher of Samos tells us that the earth is surrounded by
hollow crystalline spheres set one within another, and ail revolving at
different rates from east to west about the earth, and that thé sun is set
in one of.these spheres and the moon in another.
Thé philosopher of civilization tells us that the sun is an incandescent
globe, one of the millions anoat in space. Abont this globe the planets
revolve, and the sun and planets and moons were formed from nebulous
matter by the gradual segregation of their particles controlled by the
laws of gravity, motion, and affinity.
The sun, traveling by an appointed way across the heavens with thé
never-ending succession of day and night, and the ever-recurring train
of seasons, is one of the subjects of every philosophy. Among all
peoples, in ail times, there is an explanation of these'phenomena, but
in the lowest stage, way down in savagery, how few the facts discerned,
how vague the discriminations made, how superfieial the resemblances
by which the phenomena are classified In this stage of culture, ail the
daily and monthly and yearly phenomena which corne as the direct re-
sult of thé movements of thé heavenly bodies are interpreted as the
doings of some one-some god acts. In civilization the philosopher
presents us the science of astronomy with all its accumulated facts of
magnitude, and weights, and orbits, and distances, and velocities-with
ail the nice discriminations of absolute, relative, and apparent'motions,
and ail these facts he is endeavoring to classify in homologic categories,
and the evolutions and revolutions of thé heavenly bodies are explained
as an orderly succession of events.
Rain.-The ~os~M philosopher believes thé domed firmament to bç

ice, and surely it is the very color of ice, and he believes further that a
monster serpent-god coils his huge back to the firmament and with his
scales abrades its'face and causes the ice-dust to fall upon thé earth.
In the winter-time it falls as snow, but in the summer-time it melts and
falls as rain, and the Shoshoni philosopher actually sees the serpent of
the storm in the rainbow of many colors.
The Oraibi philosopher who lives in a pueblo is acquainted with archi-
tecture, and so his world is seven-storied. There is a world below and five
worlds above this one..MMNMpa, the rain-god, who lives in thé world
immediately above, dips his great brush, made of feathers of the birds
of the heavens, into the lakes of the skies and sprinkles the earth with
refreshing rain for thé irrigation of the crops tilled by these curions In-
dians who live on thé cliffs of Arizona. In winter, ~<~noœ crushes the
ice of the lakes of thé 'heavens and scatters it over thé earth, and we
have a snow-fall.
The Hindoo philosopher says that thé lightning-bearded Indra breaks
the vessels that hold the waters of the skies with his thnnder-bolts, and
thé rains descend to irrigate the earth.
The philosopher of civilization expounds to us the methods by which
the waters are evaporated from the land and the surface of the sea, and
carried away by the winds, and gathered into clouds to be discharged
again upon the earth, keeping up forever that wonderful circulation of
water from thé heavens to the earth and from the earth to the heavens-
that orderly succession of events in which thé waters travel by river,
by sea, and by clond.
jB~M&oto.–In tS~o~omt, thé rainbowis a beautiful serpent that abrades
the firmament of ice to give us snow and rain. In Norse, the rainbow
is the bridge Bifrost spanning the space between heaven and earth.
In the Hiad, the rainbow is thé goddess Iris, the messenger of the Eing
of Olympus. In Hebrew, the rainbow is the witness to a covenant.
In science, the rainbow is an analysis of white light into its constituent
colors by the refraction of raindrops.
.MHM~ s~fs.–In P~e, falling stars are thé excrements of dirty little
star-gods. In science-well, I do not know what falling stars are in
science.' 1 think they are cinders.from the furnace where the worlds are
forged. You may call this mythologie or scientinc, as you please.
Migration of &tf<?s.–Thé Algonkian philosopher explains thé migra-
tion of birds by relating the myth of the combat between ~&5o-mo-M
and ~M~a~M, the prototype or progenitor of the water-hen, one of their
animal gods. A fierce battle raged between ~a-&&o-no-M and ~/MK~-
pis, but the latter could not be conquered. AU thé birds were driven
from the land but <S7M?MjMpM~ and then was it established that when-
ever in the future Winter-maker should corne with his cold winds, fierce
snows, and frozen waters, all the birds should leave for the south ex-
cept ~MMy~s and his friends. So the birds that spend their wintera

north are called by the Algonkian philosophers '~thô friends of /S'MMjM-

In contrast to this explanation of the Bight of birds may be placed
the explanation of the modern evolutionist, who says that the birds
migrate in quest of abundance of food and a genial climate, guided by
an instinct of migration, which is an accumulation of inherited memories.
j~M~'s~y of ~M~Ma~res.–Thé jE<M&<ï&~ philosopher accounts for thé
diversity of languages in this manner: ~-<co~-p<x -M<t-s~s, the grand-
mother goddess of thé sea, brought up mankind from beneath the waves
in a sack, which she delivered to the C~-tuf-~ brothers, the gréât wolf-
gods of his mythology, and told them to carry it from the shores of the
sea to the Eaibab Plateau, and then to open it but they were by no
means to open the package ere their arrivai, lest some gréât disaster
should befall. Thé curiosity of the younger C'<m-<Mt-<M) overcame him,
and he untied the sack, and the people swarmed out; but the elder C~M-
<n!-fM',the wiser god, ran back and closed the sack while yet not ail
the people had escaped, and they carried the sack, with its remaining
contents, to the plateau, and there opened it. Those that remained in
the sack found a beautifai land-a great plateau covered with mighty
forests, through which elk, deer, and antelope roamed in abundance,
and many mountain-sheep were found on the bordering crags ~)N),the
nuts of the edible pine, they found on the foot-hills, and us, thé feuit of
the yucca, in sunny glades; andniint, the meschal crowns, for theirfeasts;
and ~cM-<tf,the cactus-apple, from which to make their wine; reeds
grew about the lakes for their arrow-shafts the rocks were full of ffints
for their barbs and knives, and away down in thé canon they found a
pipe-stone quarry, and on the hills they found a~-a-p~, their tobacco.
0, it was a beautifui land that was given to these, the favorites of thé
gods! The decendents of these people are the present jE<n6~&Msof
northern Arizona. Those who escaped by thé way, through the wicked
curiosity of the younger Cm-<ïM- scattered over the country and
became Navajos, Jjfb/CM,Sioux, Co~N~~es, Spaniards, Americans–poor,
sorry fragments of people without thé original language of the gods, and
only able to talk in imperfect jargons.
The Hebrew philosopher tells us that on the plains of Shinar thé peo-
ple of the world were gathered to build a city and erect a tower, the sum-
mit of which should reach above the waves of any flood Jehovah might
send. But their tongues were confused as a punishment for their impiety.
The philosopher of science tells us that mankind was widely scattered
over the earth anterior to the development of articulate speech, that the
languages of which we are cognizant sprang from innumerable centers
as each little tribe developed its own language, and that in the study of
any language an orderly succession of events may be discovered in.
its evolution from a few simple holophrastic locutions to a complex lan-
guage with a multiplicity ofwords and an elaborate grammatic structure,
by the differentiation of the parts of speech and the intégration of the

'7 J. '7 T '7 1 .:1

A coM~&.–A. man coughs. In explanation the Me philosopher would
tell us that an M-mM~p~s–a; pygmy spirit of evil-had entered the poor
man~s stomach, and he would charge thé invaJid with having whistled
at night; for in their philosophy it is taught that if a man whistles at
night, when the pygmy spirits are abroad, one is sure to go through the
open door into the stomach, and the évidence of this disaster is found
in the cough which the M-mM-p~s causes. Then the evil spirit must be
driven out, and the medicine-man stretches his patient on the ground
and scarines him with thé claws of eagles from head to heel, and while
performing thé scarification a group of men and women stand about,
forming a chorus, and medicine-man and chorus perform a fugue in
gloomy ululation, for thèse wicked spirits will depart only by incantations
and scarifications.
In our folk-lore philosophy a cough is caused by a "cold," whatever
that may be-a vague entity-that must be treated first according to
the maxim "Feed a cold and starve a fever," and thé "cold" is driven
away by potations of bitter teas.
In our médical philosophy a cough may be thé result of a clogging of
the pores of the skin, and is relieved by clearing those fiues that carry
away thé waste products of vital combustion.
These illustrations are perhaps sufficient to exhibit thé principal char-
acteristics of the two methods of philosophy, and, though they cover
but narrow fields, it should be remembered that every philosophy deals
with thé whole cosmos. An explanation of all things is sought-not
alone thé gréât movements of the heavens, or the phenomena that startle
even thé nnthinking, but every particular whichis observed. Abstractly,
the plane of demarkation between the two methods of philosophy can
be sharply drawn, but practically we find them straugelymixed; myth-
ologie methods prevail in savagery and barbarism, and scientfic meth-
ods prevail in civilization. Mythologie philosophies antedate scientifie
philosophies. The thaumaturgie phases of mythology are the embry-
onie stages of philosophy, science being the fully developed form. With-
out mythology there could be no science, as without childhood there
could be no manhood, or without embryonie conditions there could be no
ultimate forms.


Mythologie philosophy is the subject with which we deal. Its method,

as stated in general terms, is this AU phenomena of the outer objective
world areinterpretedbycomparisonwiththose oftheinner subjective worid
Whatever happens, some one does it that some one has a will and
works as he wills. The basis of the philosophy is personality. The
persons who do the things which we observe in the phenomena of the
universe are the gods of mythology-the cosmos is a jp~m~eon. Under

this system, whatever may be the phenomenon observed, the philoso-

4-1, cn.ni~nm ml~.n.4~ 1. tl. 1 Il v .n

pher asks, Whodoes it ?and Why and thé answercomes, A god

with his design." The winds blow, and the interrogatory is answered,
the vessel of a foe." The actors in mythologie philosophy are gods.
In the character of these gods four stages of philosophy-may be dis-
covered. In thé lowest and earliest stage everything has life; every-
thing is endowed with personality, will, and design; animals are en-
dowedwith aRthe wonderful attributes ofmankind ail inanimate objects
are believedto be animate trees think and speak, stones have loves and
hâtes; hills and mountains, springs and rivers, and all the bright stars,
have life-everything discovered objectively by the senses is looked
upon subjectively by the philosopher and endowedwith ail the attributes
supposed to be inherent in himself. In this stage of philosophy every-
thing is a god. Let us call it 7Mca~o~eM~.
In the second stage men no longer attribute life indiscriminately to
inanimate things; but the same powers and attributes recognized by
subjective vision in man are attributed to the animals by which he is
surrounded. No line of demarkation is drawn between man and beast;
all are great beings endowed with wonderful attributes. Let us call this
'stage~oo~eM~,whenmenworshipbeasts. Ail the phenomenaof nature
are the doings of these animal gods ail the facts of nature, all the phe-
nomena of the known universe, ail the institutions of humanity known
to the philosophers of this stage, are accounted for in the mythologie
history of these zoomorphicgods.
In the third stage a wide gulf is placed between man and the lower
animals. The animal gods are dethroned, and thepowers and phenomena
of nature are personified and deified. Let us call this stage ~M~sm.
The gods are strictly anthropomorphic, having the form as well as the
.mental, moral, and social attributes ofmen. Thus we have a god of the
sun, a god of the moon, a god of the air, a god of dawn, and a deity of
the night.
In the fonrth stage, mental, moral, and social characteristics are per-
sonified and deified, Thus we have a god of war, a god of love, a god
of revelry, a god of plenty, and like personages who preside over the in-
stitutions and occupations of mankind. Let us call this jpsyc/M~eMm.
With the mental, moral, and social characteristics in thèse gods are asso-
ciated the powers of nature; and they differ from nature-gods chieny in
that they have more distinct psychic characteristies.
Psychotheism, by the processes of mental integration, developes in one
direction into monotheism, and in the other into pantheism. When the
powers of nature are held predominant in thé minds of the philosophers
through whose cogitations this évolution of theism is carried on, pan-
theism, as the highest form of psychotheism, is the final result; but
-whenthe moral qualities are held in highest regard in the mindsof thé
men in whomthis process of evolution is carried on, monotheism,or a god
1.1111LV1~V\A1V 1111YVNV1111. 31

vhose essential characteristics

whose essential characteristîcs are
are moral
moral qualities, the final
qualities, is the final prodnet.
The monotheistic god is not nature, but presides over and operates
through nature. Psychotheism has long been recognized. Ail of the
earlier literature of mankind treats 'largely of these gods, for it is an
interesting fact that in the history of any civilized people, thé évolution
of psychotheism is approximately synchronous with the invention of an
alphabet. In the earliest writings of thé Egyptians, the Hindoos, and
the Greeks, this stage is discovered, and Osiris, Indra, and Zeus are
characteristic representatives. As psychotheism and written language
appear together in the evolution of culture, this stage of theism is con-
sciously or unconsciolisly a part of the thème of ail written history.
The paleontologist, in studying the rocks of the hill and the eliffs of
the mountain, discovers, in inanimate stones, the life-forms of the ancient
earth. The geologist, in the study of the structure of valleys and
mountains, discovers groups of facts that lead him to a knowledge of
more ancient mountains and valleys and seas, of geographie features
long ago buried, and followed by a new land with new mountains and
valleys, and new seas. The philologist, in studying the earliest writings
of a people, not only discovers the thoughts purposely recorded in those
writings, but is'able to go back in the history of the people many gen-
erations, and discover with even greater certainty thé thoughts of the
more ancient people who made the words. Thus the writings of the
Greeks, the Hindoos, and the Egyptians, that give an account of their
psychic gods, also contain a description of an earlier theism unconsciously
recorded by thé writers themselves. Psychotheism prevailed when the
sentences were coined, physitheism when the words were coined. So the
philologist discovers physitheism in ail ancient literature. But the verity
of that stage of philosophy does not rest alone upon the evidence derived
from the study of fossil philosophies through the science of philology.
In the folk-lore of every civiilzed people having a psychotheistic phil-
osophy, an earlier philosophy with nature-gods is discovered.
The different stages of philosophy which I have attempted to charac-
terize have never been found in purity. We always observe different
methods of explanation existing side by side, and the type of a phi-
losophy is determined by the prevailing characteristics of its explanà- f
nation of phenomena. Fragments ofthe earlier are aiways found side by
side with the greater body ofthe laterphilosophy. Manhas never clothed
and the old and thé new are blended in the saine pattern, and thus we
have atavism in philosophy. So in the study of any philosophy which
has reached the psychotheistic âge, patches of the earlier philosophy are
always seen. Ancient nature-gods are found to be living and associat-
ing with the supreme psychio deities. Thus in anthropologie science
there are three ways by which to go back in the history of any civilized
people and learn of its barbarie physitheism. But of the verity of this
stage we have further evidence. When Christianity was carried north

from Central Europe, the champions of the new philosophy, and its con-
séquent religion, discovered, among those who dwelt by the glaciers of
the north, a barbarie philosophy whieh they have preserved to history
in the Eddas and Sagas, and Norse literature is full of a philosophy in a
transition state, from physitheism to psychotheism; and, mark! the
people discoveredin this transition state wereinventing an alphabet-
they were carving Runes. Then a pure physitheism was discovered in
thé Aztec barbarism of Mexico and elsewhere on the globe many people
were found in that stage of culture to which this philosophy properly
belongs. Thus the existence of physitheism as a stage of philosophy is
abundantly attested. Comparative mythologists are agreed in recog-
nizing these two stages. They mightnot agrée to throwail of the higher.
and later philosophies into one group, as I have done, but ail recognize
the plane of demarkation between the higher and the lower groups as I
hâve drawnit. Scholars, too, have comeessentiallyto an agreementthat
physitheism is earlier and older than psychotheism. Perhaps there may
be left a "doubting Thomas" who believes that the highest stage of
psychotheism-that is, monotheism-was the original basis for the phi-
losophy of the world, and that all other formsare degeneraciesfrom that
primitive and perfect state. If there be such a man left, to him what I
have to say about philosophy is blasphemy.
Again, ail students of comparative philosophy, or comparative my-
thology, or comparative religion, as you may please to approach this
subject from different points of view, recognize that there is something
else; that there are philosophies, or mythologies, or religions, not in-
cluded in thé two great groups. Ail that something else has been
vaguely calledj~c/MS~. I have divided it into two parts, ~c~sto~eM~
and ~oo~eMN~.The verity of zootheism as a stage of philosophy rests
on abundant evidence. In psychotheism it appears as ~e~Ks~ in obedi-
ence to a well-knownlaw of comparative theology, viz, that the gods of
a lower and superseded stage of culture oftentimes become the devils of
a higher stage. So in the very highest stages of psychotheism we find
beast-devils. In Norse mythology, we have Fenris the wolf, and Jor-
mungandur the serpent. Dragons appear in Greek mythology, the bull
is an Egyptian god, a serpent is found in the Zendavesta; and was
there not a scaly fellow in the garden of Eden So commonare these
beast-demons in the higher mythologies that they are used in every
literature as rhetorical figures. So we find, as a figure of speech, thé
great red dragon with seven heads and ten horns, 'with tail that with
one brush sweeps away a third of the stars of heaven. And where-
ever we find nature-worship we find it accompanied with beast-worship.
In the study of higher philosophies, having learned that lower phi-
losophies often exist side by side with them, we might legitimately con-
clude that a philosophy based upon animal gods had existed previous
to the development of physitheism; and philologie research leads to the
same conclusion. But we are not left to base this conclusion upon an

induction only, for in thé examination af savage philosophies we actually

discover zootheism in ail its proportions. Many of the Indians of North
America, and manyof South America, and many of the tribes of Africa,
are found to be zootheists. Their supreme gods are animals-tigers,
bears, wolves, serpents, birds. Having discovered this, with a vast ac-
cumulation of evidence, we are enabled to carry philosophy baok one
stage beyond physitheism, and we can confidently assert that ail thé
philosophies of civilization have corne up through thèse three stages.
And yet, there are fragments of philosophy discovered which are not
zootheistic,physitheistic,norpsychotheistic. Whatarethey'! Wemnd
running through ail three stages of higher philosophy that phenomena
are sometimes explained by regarding them as the acts of persons who
do not belong to any of thé classes of gods found in the higher stages.
We find fragments of philosophy everywhere which seem to assume
that ail inanimate nature is animate; that mountains and hills, and
rivers and springs, that trees and grasses, that stones, and all fragments
of things are endowed with life and with will, and act for a purpose.
These fragments of philosophy lead to the discovery of hecastotheism.
Philology also leads us back to that state when the animate and the in-
animate were confounded, for the holophrastic roots into whieh words
are finally resolved show us that ail inanimate things were represented
in language as actors. Such is the evidence on which we predicate the
existence of hecastotheism as a veritable stage of philosophy. Uniike
the three higher stages, it has no people extant on the face of the globe,
known to be in this stage of culture. The philosophies of many of the
lowest tribes of mankind are yet unknown, and hecastotheism may be
discovered; but at the present time ve are not warranted in saying that
any tribe entertains this philosophy as its highest wisdom.


The three stages of mythologie philosophy that are still extant in the
world must be more thoroughiy characterized, and the course of their
evolution indicated. But in order to do this clearly, certain outgrowths
from mythologie philosophy must be explained-certain théories and
practices that necessarily result from this philosophy, and that are in-
tricately woven into thé institutions of mankind.
Ancientism.The first I denominate ancientism. Yesterday was bet-
ter than to-day. Thé ancients were wiser that we. This belief in a
better day and a better people in the elder time is almost universal
among mankind. A belief so widely spread, so profoundly entertained,
must have for its origin some important facts in the constitution or his-
tory of mankind. Let us see what they are.
3 A B

In the history of every individual the sports and joys of childhood are
compared and contrasted with the toils and pains of old age. Greatly
protracted life, in savagery and barbarism, is not a boon to be craved.
In that stage of society where the days and the years go by with little
or no provision for a time otherthan that which is passing, the old must
go down to the grave throngh povert~' and suffering. In that stage of
culture to-morrow's bread is not certain, and to-day's bread is often
scarce. In civilization plenty and poverty live side by side; the palace
and the hovel are on the same landscapej the rich and poor elbow
each other on the same street; but in savagery plenty and poverty corne
with recurring days to thé same man, and the tribe is rich to-day and poor
to-morrow, and the days of want come in every man's history~ and when
they come the old suffer most, and the burden of old age is oppressive.
In youth activity is joy; in old age activity is pain. No wonder, then,
that old age loves youth, or that to-day loves yesterday, for the instinct
is bom of the inherited experiences of mankind.
But there is yet another and more potent reason for ancientism. 'That
tale is the most wonderfui that has been most repeated, for the breath
of speech is the fertilizer of story. Hence, thé older the story the greater
its thaumaturgies. Thus, yesterday is greater than to-day by natural
processes of human exaggeration. Again, that is held to be most cer-
tain, and hence most sacred, which has been most often affirmed. A
Brahman was carrying a goat to the altar. Three thieves would steal
it. So they placed themselves at intervals along the way by which thé
pious Brahman would travel. When the venerable man came to the
first thief he was accosted: "Brahman,whydoyoucarryadog?" Now,
a dog-is an unclean beast which no Brahman must touch. And the
Brahman, after looking at his goat, said: "Ton do err; this is a goat."
And when the old man reached the second thief, again he was accosted:
Brahman, why do you carry a, dog So the Brahman put his goat on
thé ground, and after narrowly scrutinizing it, he said: Snrely this is
a goat," and went on his way. When he came to the third thief he was
once more accosted: "Brahman, why do you carry a dog?" Then the
Brahman, having thrice heard that his goat was a dog, was convinced,
and throwing it down, he ned to the temple for ablution, and the thieves
had a feast.
The child learns not for himself, but is taught, and accepts as true
that which is told, and a propensity to believe the'affirmed is implanted
in his mind. Tn every society some are wise and some are foolish, and
the wise are revered, and their affirmations are accepted. Thus, the few
lead the multitude in knowledge, and the propensity to believe the
affirmed started in childhood is increased in manhood in thé great aver-
age of persons constituting society, and these propensities are inherited
from generation to generation, until we have a cumulation of effects.
The propagation of opinions by affirmation, the cultivation of the pro-
pensity to believe that which has been affirmed many times, let us call

f~nM~t~MH. If the worlds opinions were governed only by the

principles of mythologie philosophy, affirmatization would become so
powerfui that nothing would be believed but the anciently affirmed.
Men would come to no new knowledge. Society would stand still listen-
ing to the wisdom of the fathers. But the power of affirmatization is
steadily undermined by science.
And, still again, the institutions of society conform to its philosophy.
The explan ations of things always includes thé origin of human institu-
tions. So the welfare of society is based on philosophy, and thé vénérable
sayings which constitute philosophy are thus held as sacred. Soancient-
ism is developed from accumulated life-experiences by the growth of
story in repeated narration; by the steadily increasing power of affirm-
atization, and by respect for thé authority upon which the institutions
of society are based; ail accumulating as they corne down thé genera-
tions. Thatwe do thus inherit efFeets weIoiow, for has it not been affirmed
in the Book that thé fathers have eaten grapes, and the children's teeth
aresetonedge"~ As mencometo believe that the "long ago" was better
than the ~now~ and the dead were botter than the living, then philoso-
phy must necessarily include a theory of degeneracy, which is a part of
Theistic Society.-Again, thé actors in mythologie philosophy are per-
sonages, and we always find them organized in societies. The social
organization of mythology is always found to be essentially identical
with thé social organization of the people who entertain the philosophy.
The gods are husbands and wives, and parents and children, and the
gods have an organized government. This gives us theistic society, and
we cannot properly characterize a theism without taking its mythic so-
ciety into consideration.
~pM'~sm.–In the earliest stages of society of which we have practi-
cal knowledge by acquaintance with the people themselves, a belief in
thé existence of spirits prevails-a shade, an immaterial existence, which
is the duplicate of the material personage. The genesis of this belief
is complex. The workings of the human mind during periods of un-
consciousness lead to opinions that are enforced by many physical phe-
First, we have the activities of thé mind during sleep, when the man
seems to go oui from himself, to converse with his friends, to witness
strange scenes, and to have many wonderful expériences. Thus thé
man seems to have lived an eventful liië, when his body was, in fact,
quiescent and unconscious. Memories of scenes and activities in former
days, and the inherited memories of scenes witnessed and actions per-
formed by ancestors, are blended in strange confusion by broken and
inverted sequences. Nowand then the dream-scenes are enactedin real
li&, and the infrequent coïncidence or apparent verification makes deep
impression on the mind, while unfulnlled dreams are forgotten. Thus
the dreams of sleepers are attributed to their immaterial duplicates-
mijL.tiu~u~jL OF
uj; THE
j.joj~ NORTH
i\<jn.iji AMERICAN
.ajM~n.Lu.a-it INDIANS.

their spirits. In many diseases, also, the mind seems to wander, to see
sights and to hear sounds, and to have many wonderful experiences,
while the body itself is apparently unconscious. Sometimes, on restored
health, the person may recall these wonderful expériences, and during
their occurrence the subject talks to unseen persons, and seems to have
replies, and to act, to those who witness, in such a manner that a second
self-a spirit independent of the body-is suggested. When disease
amounts to long-continued insanity ail of these effects are greatly exag-
gerated, and make a deep impression upon all who witness the phenom-
ena. Thus the hallucinations of fever-racked brains, and mad minds,
are attributed to spirits.
The same conditions of apparent severance of mind and body wit-
nessed in dreams and hallucinations are often produced artificially in
the practice of ecs~~Mm. In the vicissitudes of savage life, while little
or no provision is made for the future, there are times when the savage
resorts to almost anything at hand as a means of subsistence, and thus
ail plants and ail parts of plants, seed, fruit, nowers,leaves, bark, roots-
anything in timesof extrême want-may be used as food. But expérience
soon teaches the various effects upon thé human system which are pro-
duced by the several vegetable substances with which -he meets, and
thus the effect of narcotics is early discovered, and the savage in the
practice of his religion oftentimes resorts to these native drugs for the
purpose of producing an ecstatic state under which divination may be
performed. The practice of ecstasism is universal in the lower stages
of culture. In times of great anxiety, every savage and barbarian seeks
to know of the future. Through ail the earlier generations of mankind,
ecstasism has been practiced, and civilized man has thus an inherited
appetite for narcotics, to which the enormous propensityto drunkenness
existing in ail nations bears witness. When thé great actor in his person-
ation of Rip Van Winkle hoids his goblet aloft and says, Here's to your
health and to your family's, and may they live long and prosper," he con-
neets the act of drinkingwithaprayer, and unconsciously demonstrates
the origin of the use of stimulants. It may be that when the jolly com-
panion has become a loathsome sot, and his mind is ablaze with the fire
of drink, and he sees uncouth beasts in horrid presence, that inherited
memories haunt him with visions of the beast-gods worshipped by his
ancestors at the very time when the appetite for stimulants was created.
But ecstasism is produced in other ways, and for this purpose the
savage and barbarian often resorts to fasting and bodily torture. In
many ways he produces the wonderful state, and the visions of ecstasy
are interpreted as the evidence of spirits.
Many physical phenomena serve to confirm this opinion. It is very
late in philosophy when shadows are referred to the interception of the
rays of the sun. In savagery and barbarism, shadows are supposed to
be emanations from or duplicates of the bodies causing the shadows.
And what savage understands the renection of the rays of the sun by


~.a. ~r" "a,t,a 0} mH"t. ~i~ ~n" a w",r..a.

which images are produced? They also are supposed to be emanations
or duplications of the object reflected. No savage or barbarian could
understand thatthe waves of the air are turned back, and sound is dupli-
cated in an écho. He knows not that there is an atmosphere, and to
him the echo is thé voice of an unseen personage-a spirit. There is
no theory more profoundlyimplanted in early mankind than that of spir-
TA~Mm~Mr~cs.–Thé gods of mythologie philosophies are created to
account for the wonders of nature. Necessarily they are a wonder-work-
ing folk, and, having been endowed with these magical powers in all the
histories given in mythic tales of their doings on the earth, we find them
performing most wonderfulfeats. They can transform themselves; they
can disappear and reappear; ail their senses are magical; some are en-
dowed with a multiplicity of eyes, others have a multiplicity of ears
in Norse mythology the watchman on the rainbow bridge could hear the
grass grow, and wool on the backs of sheep; arms can stretch out to
grasp the distance, tails can coil about mountains, and ail powers be-
come magical. But the most wonderful power with which the gods are
endowed is the power of will, for we find that they can think tbeir
arrows to the -hearts of their enemies mountains are overthrown by
thonght, and thonghts are projected into other minds. Such are the
thaumaturgies of mythologie philosophy.
JM~</MC~~s.–Early man having created through the development of
his philosophy a host of personages, these gods must have a history.
A part of that history, and the most important part to us as students
of philosophy, is created in the very act of creating thé gods themselves.
I mean that portion of their history which relates to the operations of
nature, for the gods were created to account for those things. But to
this is added much else of adventure. The gods love as men love, and
go in quest of mates. The gods hate as men hate, and fight in single
combat or engage in mythie battles and the history of these adven-
tures impelled by love and hate, and ail other passions and purposes
with which men are endowed, all woven into a complex tissue with their
doings in carrying out thé operations of nature, constitutes the web and
woof of mythology.
jEeK~OK.–Again, as human welfare is deeply involved in the opera-
tions of nature, man's chief interest is in the gods. In this interest
religion originates. Man, impelled by his own volition, guided by his
own purposes, aspires to a greater happiness, and endeavor follows en-
deavor, but at every step his progress is impeded his own powers fail
before the greater powers of nature; his powers are pygmies, naturels
powers are giants, and to him these giants are gods with wills and pur-
poses of their own, and he sees that man in his weakness can succeed
only by allying himself with the gods. Hence, impelled by this philos-
ophy, man must have communion with the gods, and in this communion
he must innuence them to work for himself. Hence, religion, which. bas

to do with the relations which exist between thé gods and man, is thé
legitimate offspring of mytholo~c philosophy.
Thus we see that out of mythologie philosophy, as branches of the
gréât tree itself, tbere grow ancientism, theistic society, spiritism, thau-
maturgies, mythic tales, and religion.



tshall nowgi~e.:a summary characterization of zootheisrn, then call

attention to :some'of thé relies of hecastotheism found therein, and pro-
eeed-.with a b.rief statement of the higher stages of theism. The appar-
ent -and easily accessible is studied first. In botany, the trees and the
conspicuous nowering plants of gardon, field, and plain were nrst known,
and then ail other plants were vaguely gronped as weeds but, since
thé most conspicuous phenogamous plants were first stndied, what vast
numbers of new orders, new genera, and new species have been discov-
ered, in the progress of research, to the. lowest cryptogams
In the study of ethnology we first recognized the more civilized races.
The Aryan, Hamites, Shemites, and Chinese, and the rest were the
weeds of hmnamty–thé barbarian and savage, sometimes called Tura-
nians. But, when we corne earefully to study thèse lower people, what
numbers of races are discovered In North America alone we have
more than seventy-nve–seventy-nve stocks of people speaidng seventy-
five stocks of language, and some single stocks embracing many distinct
languages and dialects. The languages of the Algonkian family are as
diverse as the Indo-European tongues. So are the languages of the
Dakotans, the Shoshonians, theTinnéans, and others; so that in North
America we have more than five hundred languages spoken to-day.
Each linguistic stock is found to have a philosophy of its own, and each
stock as many branches of philosophy as it has languages and dialects.
North America presents a magnificent field for the study of savage and
barbarie philosophies.
This vast region ofthoughthas been explored oniy by a few adven-
turoustravelers in the world of science. No thorough survey of any part
has been made. 'Yet the general outlines of North American philosophy
are known, but the exact positions, the details, are all yet to be filled
in-as the geography of the général outline of North America is known
by exploration, but the exact positions and details of topography are
yet to be filled in as the result of carefol survey. Myths of the Algon-
Irian stock are found in many a volume of Americana, the best of whieh
were recorded by the early missionaries who came from Europe, though
we find some of them, mixed with turbid spéculations, in the writings of
Schoolcraft. Many of the myths of the Indians of the south, in that

region stretching back from the gréât Gulf, are known some collected
by travelers, others by educated Indians.
Many of the myths of the Iroquois are known. The best of these are
in the writings of Morgan, America's greatest anthropologist. Mission-
aries, travelers, and linguists have given us a great store of the myths
of the Dakotan stock. Many myths of the Tinnéan also have been col-
lected. Petitot has recorded a nnmber of those found at the north,
and we have in manuscript some of the myths of a southern branch-
the Navajos. Perhaps the myths of the Shoshonians have been col-
lected more thoroughiy than those of any other stock. These are yet
unpublished, but the manusoripts are in the library of the Bureau of
Ethnology. Powers has recorded many of the myths of varions stocks
in Oalifornia, and the old Spanish -writings give us a faJr collection of
the Nahuatlan myths of Mexico, and Rink has presented an interesting
volume on the mythology of the Innuits; and, nnally, fragments- of
mythology have been collected from nearly all the tribes of North Amer-
ica, and they are scattered through thousands of volumes, so that the
literature is vast. The brief description which I shall give of zootheism
is founded on a study of the materials whieh 1 have thus indicated.
Ail these tribes are found in the higher stages of savagery, or the
lower stages of barbarism, and their mythologies are found to be
zootheistic among the lowest, physitheistic among the highest, and a
great number of tribes are found in a transition state; for zootheism is
found to be a characteristie of savagery, and physitheism of barbarism,
using thé terms as they have been defined by Morgan. The supreme
gods of this stage are animals. The savage is intimately associated
with animals. From them he obtains thé larger part of his elothing,
and much of his food, and he carefully studies their habits and nnds
many wonderfnl things. Their knowledge and skill and power appear
to him to be superior to his own. He sees the mountain-sheep neet
among the crags, the eagle soaring in the heavens, the humming-bird
poised over its blossom-cup bf nectar, thé serpents swift without legs, the
salmon scalingthe rapids, the spider weaving its gossamerweb, the ant
building a play-house mountain-in ail animal nature he sees things too
wonderful for him, and from admiration he grows to adoration, and the
animals become his gods.
Ancientism plays an important part in this zootheism. It is not the
animals of to-day whom the Indians worship, but their progenitors-
their prototypes. The wolf of to-day is a howling pest, but that wolf's
ancestor-the first of the line-was a god. The individuals of every
species are supposed to have descended from an ancient being-a pro-
genitor of thé race; and so they have a grizzly-bear god, an eagle-god,
a rattlesnake-god, a trout-god, a spider-god-a god for every species and
variety of animal.
By these animal gods ail things were established. The heavenly
bodies were created and their ways appointed, and when the powers and

phenomena of nature are personified the personages are beasts, and all
human institutions also were established by the ancient animal-gods.
The ancient animals of any philosophy of this stage are found to con-
stitute a clan or ~M–a body of relatives, or consanguinei, with grand-
fathers, fathers, sons, and brothers. In P~etheism, the ancient 2b-yo-<ïw,
the first rattlesnake is the grandfather, and ail the 'animal-gods are
assigned to their relationships. Grandfather To-cn?, the wise, was the
chief of the council, but (7~m-<!M-œ the ancient wolf, was the chief of the
There were many other clans and tribes of ancient gods with whom
these supreme gods had dealings, of which hereafter; and, finally, each
of these ancient gods became the progenitor of a new tribe, so that we
hâve a tribe of bears, a tribe of eagles, atribe of rattlesnakes, a tribe of
spiders, and many other tribes, as we have tribes of Utes, tribes of Sioux,
tribes of Navajos; and in that philosophy tribes of animals are consid-
ered to be coordinate with tribes of mon. AU of these gods have invisi-
ble duplicates-spirits-and they have often visited the earth. Ail of
the wonderful things seen in nature are donebythe animal-gods. That
elder life was a magie life; but the descendants of the gods are degen-
erate. Now and then as a medicine-man by practicing sorcery can per-
form great feats, so now and then there is a medicine-bear, a medicine-
wolf, or a medicine-snake that can work magie.
On winter nights the Indians gatheraboutthecamp-fire, and thenthe
doings of the gods are recounted in many a mythic taie. I have heard
the venèrable and impassioned orator on the camp-meeting stand re-
hearse the story of the crucifixion, and have seen the thousands gath-
ered there weep in contemplation of the story of divine suffering, and
heard their shouts roll down the forest aisles as they gave vent to their
joy at the contemplation of rédemption. But the scene was not a whit
more dramatic than another I have witnessed in an evergreen forest of
thé Rocky Mountain region, where a tribe was gathered under the gréât
pines, and the temple of light from the blazing fire was walled by the
darkness of midnight, and in the midst of thé temple stood the wise
old man, telling, in simple savage language, the story of 'Z~-M<~s,when
he conquered the sun and established the seasons and the days. In that
pre-Columbian time, before the advent of white men, ail the Indian
tribes of North America gathered on winter nights by the shores of the
seas where the tides beat in solemn rhythm, by the shores of the great
lakes where the waves dashed against frozen beaches, and bythe banks
of the rivers flowing ever in solemn mystery-each in its own temple of
illumined space-and listened to the story of its ownsupreme gods, the
ancients of time.
Religion, in this stage of theism, is sorcery. Incantation, dancing,
fasting, bodily torture, and ecstasism are practiced. Every tribe has its
potion or vegetable drug, by which the ecstatic state is produced, and
their venerable medicine-men see visions and dream dreams. No en-

terprise is undertaken without consulting the gods, and no evil im-

pendsbuttheyseek to propitiate the gods. Alldailyli&,totheminutest
particular, is religions. This stage of religion is characterized by fetich-
ism. Every Indian is provided with his charm or fetich, revealed to
him in some awfulhour of ecstasy produced by fasting, or feasting, or
drunkenness, and that fetich he carries with him to bring good luck, in
love or in combat, in the hnnt or on thé journey. He carries a fetich
suspended to his neck, he ties a fetich to his bow, he buries a fetich
under his tent, he places a fetich under his pillow of wild-cat skins, he
prays to hisfetich, he praises it, or chides it; if successful, his fetich
receives glory if he fail, his fetich is disgraced. These fetiches may be
fragments of bone or shell, the tips of thé tails of animals, thé claws of
birds or beasts, perhaps dried hearts of little warblers, shards of beetles,
leaves powdered and held in bags, or crystals from the rocks-anything
curions may become a fetich. Fetichism, then, is a religions means, not
a philosophie or mythologie state. Such are the supreme gods of the
savage, and snch the institutions winch belong to their theism. Butthey
have many other inferior gods. Monntains, hills, valleys, and great rocks
have their own special deities-invisible spirits-and lakes, rivers, and
springs are the homes of spirits. But ail these have animal forms when
in proper ~ef~o~œ. Yet some of the medicine-spirits can transibrm
themselves, and work magie as do medicine-men. The heavenly bodies
are either created personages or ancient men or animals translated to
the sky. And, last, we find that ancestors are worshipped as gods.
Among ail the tribes of North America with which we are acquainted
tatelarism prevails. Every tribe and every clan has its own protecting
god, and every individual has his my god. It is a curious fact that
every Indian seeks to conceal the knowledge of his my ~o~ from all
other persons, for he fears that, if his enemy should know of his tutelar
deity, he might by extraordinary magie sncceed in estranging him, and
be able to compass his destruction through his own god.
In this summary characterization of zootheism, I have necessarily
systematized my statements. This, of course, could not be done by the
savage himself. He could give you its particulars, but could not group
those particulars in any logical way. He does not recognize any sys-
tem, but talks indiscriminately, now of one, now of another god, and
with him the whole theory as a system is vague and shadowy, but its
particulars are vividly before his mind, and the certainty with which he
entertains his opinions leaves no room to doubt his sincerity.
But there is yet another phase of theism discovered. Sometimes a
particular mountain, or hill, or some great rock, some waterfall, some
lake, or some spring receives special worship, and is itself believed to
be a deity. This seems to be a relie of hecastotheism. Fetichism, aiso,
seems to have come from that lower grade, and ail the minor deities,
the spirits of mountains and hills and forest, seem to have been derived
from that same stage, but with this development, that the things them-
selves are not worshipped, but their essential spirits.

From zootheism, as described, to physitheism the way is long. Gradu-

ally, in the progress ofphilosophy, animal gods are dethroned and become
inferior gods or are forgotten; and gradually the gods of the firmament
-the sun, the moon, thé stars-are advanced to supremacy; the clouds,
the storms, thé winds, day and night, dawn and gloaming, thé
sky, the
earth, thé sen, and ail the various phases of nature perceived by the
barbarie mind, are personified and deified and exalted to a supremacy
coordinate with the firmament gods; and all the gods of the lower stage
that remain-animals, demons, and ail men-belong to inferior tribes.
The gods of the sky-the shining ones, those that soar on bright
those that are clothed in gorgeous colors, those that came from we know
not where, those that vanish to thé unknown-are the supreme gods.
We always find these gods organized in great tribes, with mighty chief-
tains who fight in great combats or lead their hosts in
battle, and return
with nmch booty. Such is the theism of ancient Mexico, such the theism
of the Northland, and sncb the theism discovered among thé ancient
From this stage to psychotheism the way is
long, for evolution is slow.
Gradnally men corne to differentiate more carefolly between good and
evil, and the ethic character of their .gods becomes the subject of con-
sideration, and thé good gods grow in virtue, and the bad gods grow in
vice. Their identity with physical objects and phenomena is gradually
lost. The different phases or conditions of thé same object or phenome-
non are severed, and each is personified. Thé bad gods are banished
to underground homes, or live in concealment, from which
they issue on
their expéditions of evil. Still, all powers exist in these
gods, and all
things were established by them. With the growth of their moral quali-
ties no physical powers are lost~ and the spirts of the physical bodies
and phenomena become demons, subordinate to the great gods who pre-
side over nature and human institutions.
We find, also, that these superior gods are organized in societies. 1
have said the Norse mythology was in a transition state from
ism to psychotheism. The Asas, or gods, lived in Asgard, a mythic
communal village, with its Thing or Council, the very counterpart of
the communal village of Iceland. Olympus was a Greek city.
Still further in the study of mythologie philosophy we see that more
and more supremacy falls into the hands of the
few, until monotheism
is established on the plan of the empire. Then ail of the inferior deities
whose characters are pure become ministering
angels, and the inferior
deities whose characters are evil become devils, and the differentiation
of good and evil is perfected in the gulf between heaven and hell. In
ail this time from zootheism to monotheism, ancientism becomes more
ancient, and the times and dynasties are multiplied. Spiritism is more
clearly defined, and spirits become etemal; mythologie tales are codi-
fied, and sacred books are written; divination for the result of amorous
intrigue has become the prophecy of immortality, and thaumaturgies is

formulated as the omnipresent, the omnipotent, the omniscient-the

Time has failed me to tell of thé evolution of idolatry from fetichism,
priestcraft from sorcery, and of their overthrow by the doctrines' that
were uttered by that voice on the Mount. Religion, that was fetichism
and ecstasism and sorcery, is now the yearning for something better,
something purer, and the means by which this highest state for human-
ity maybe reached, the ideal worship of thé highest monotheism, is "in
spirit and in trath.~ The steps are long from C~-tUt-as, the ancient of
wolves, by Zeus, the aneient of skies, to Jehovah, thé "Ancient of Days."


In every Indian tribe there isagreatbodyof story lore–taies purport-

ingto bethesayings anddoings, thehistory, of the gods. Everytribe has
one or more persons skillecl in the relation of these stories-preachers.
The long winter evenings are set apart for this purpose. Then the men
and women, the boys and girls, gather about thé camp-fire to listen to
the history of the ancients, to a chapter in the nnwritten bible of sav-
agery. Such a scene is of the deepest interest. A camp-nre of blazing
pine or sage bonghs illumines a group of dusky faces intent with ex-
pectation, and the old man begins his story, talking and acting; the
elders receiving his words with reverence, while the younger persons
are played upon by the actor until they shiver with fear or dance with
delight. An Indian is a great actor. The conditions of Indian life
train them in natara.1 sign language. Among the two hundred and fifty
or three hundred thousand Indians in the United States, there are scores
of languages, so that often a language is spoken by only a few hundred
or a few score of people and as a means of communication between
tribes speaking different languages, a sign language has grownup, so
that an Indian is able to talk all over-with the features of his face, his
hands and feet, the muscles of his body and thus a skillful preacher
talks and acts; and, inspired by a theme which treats of the gods, he
sways his savage audience at 'will. And ever as he tells his story he
points a moral-the mythology, theology, religion, history, and all human
duties are taught. This preaching is one of the most important insti-
tutions of savagery. The whole body of myths current in a tribe is the
sum total of their lore-their philosophy, their miraculous history, their
authority for their govemmental institutions, their social institutions,
their habits and customs. It is their unwritten bible.

THE GËV-t~B.BOTBT~ J)J.S'CP~ JM~T~EJ?~0~TtfP0~2'~yC~! TO THE


Once upon a time the Cm-SM-cn;brothers met to consult about the

destiny of the P-M-~s. At this meeting the younger said: Broth-
er, how shall these people obtain their food Let us devise some good
plan for them. 1 was thinking about it all night, but could not see what
wonid be best, and when the dawn came into thé sky I went to a
mountain and sat on its summit, and thought a long time; and now I
can tell you a good plan by which they can live. Listen to your yotin-
ger brother. Look at these pine trees; their mats are sweet; and there
is the us, very rich; and there is the apple of the cactus, full of juice;
on the plain you see the snnnower, bearing many seeds-they will be
good for the nation. Let them have ail these things for their food, and
when they have gathered a store they shall put them in the ground, or
hide them in the rocks, and when they return they shall find abundance,
and having taken of them as they may need, shall go on, and yet when
they return a second time there shall still be plenty; and though they
return many times, as long as they live the store shall never fail; and
thus they will be supplied with abundance of food withont toil." «N'ot
so," said thé elder brother, "for then will the people, idle and worthless,
and having no labor to perform, engage in quarrels, and fighting will
ensne, and they will destroy each other, and the people will be lost to
the earth; they must work for ail they reçoive." Then the younger
brother answered not, but went away sorrowing.
The next day he met the elder brother and accosted him thus "Broth-
er, your words were wise; let the P-~m-M-~work for their food. But
how shall they be furnished with honey-dew? I have thought ail night
about this, and when the dawn came into the sky I sat on the summit
of the mountain and did think, and n owI will tell you how to give them
honey-dew: Let it fall like a gréât snow upon the rocks, and the women
shall go early in the morning and gather ail they may desire, and they
shall bo glad." ~No," replied the elder brother, "it will not be good,
my little brother, for them to have much and find it without toil; for
they will deem it of no more value than dung, and what we give them
for their pleasure will only be wasted. In thé nightit shall fall in small
drops on the reeds, which they shall gather and beat with clubs, and
then will it taste very sweet, and having
put little they will prize it the
more." And the younger brother went away sorrowing, but returned
the next day and said: "My brother, your words are wise; let the
women gather thé honey-dew with much toil, by beating the reeds with
nails. Brother, when a man or a woman, or a boy or a girl, or a little
one dies, where shall he go~ I have thought all night about this, and

.1"47. a. ;i. t, r __L i,_ 1__ n

wiicu. nue UtttyuL
u<tui0liH;UMit) SK-y-LSUt)011Mie top 01 THOUtOU.BLTHUlBHd
did think. Let me tell you. what to do When a man dies, send him
back when the morning returns, and then will all his friends rejoice/
"Not so," said the elder; thé dead shall retum no more." The little
brother answered him not, but, bending his head in sorrow, went away.
One day the younger C~M- was walkingin the forest, and saw his
brother's son at play, and taking an arrow from his quiver slew the boy,
and when he returned he did not mention what he had done. The father
supposed that his boy was lost, and wandered aronnd in the woods for
many days, and at last found the dead child, and mourned his loss for
a long time.
One day the yonnger Cm-cut-as said tothe elder, You. made the law
that the dead should never return. I am glad that you were thé first to
suffer." Then the elder knew that the younger had MUed his child, and
he was very angry and sought to destroy him, and as his wrathinereased
theearth rocked, subterraneous groanings were heard, darkness came on,
fierce storms raged, lightning nashed,thunder reverberated through the
heavens, and the younger brother ned in great terror to his father, T~
vwots', for protection.


~-o-M?t(thé turtle dove) was gathering seeds in the valley, and her
little babe slept. Wearied with carrying it on her back, she laid it
under the ~-M~ (sage bush) in care of its sister, OJt~cM (the summer
yellow bird). Engaged in her labors, the mother wandered away to a
distance, when a ~so-a-~M~s(a witch) came and said to the little girl, "Is
that yonr brother~ and 0-M-~CManswered, "This is my sister," for she
had heard that witches preferred to steal boys, and did not care for
girls. Then the ts~Mo~s was angry and chided her, saying that it
was very naughty for girls to lie; and she put on a strange and hor-
rid appearance, so that 0-M-~CMwas stupefied with fright; then thé
<so-t0t~s ran away with the boy, carrying him to her home on a distant
mountain. Then she laid him down on the ground, and, taking hold of
his right foot, stretched the baby's leg until it was as long as that of a
man, and she did the same to thé other leg then his body was elon-
gated she stretched his arms, and, behold, the baby was as large as a
man. And the <sJ-a-'UM)t<s married him and had a husband, which she
had long desired; but, though he had the body of a man, he had the
heart of a babe, and knew no better than to marry a witch.
Now, when .T-o-MM returned and found not her babe nnder thé ~-M~)!
but learned from 0-M-~CMthat it had been stolen by a ~-a-wM~s, she
was very angry, and punished her daughter very severely. Then she
went in search of the babe for a long time, mourning as she went, and


_.1. -P_ r, _c_ -il '1- ~a,.

crying and still crying, refusing tcTbe comforted, though ail her friends
joined her in the search, and promised to revenge her wrongs.
Chief among her friends was her brother, Jï~c~-K~ (the eagle), who
traveled far and wide over all the land, until one day he heard a strange
noise, and coming near he sawthe ~sJ-Ms and ~~a. (the sage coek), her
husband, but he did not know that this large mai), was indeed the little
boy who had been stolen. Yet he returned and related to .P-o-M~what
he had seen, who said: "If that is indeed my boy, he will know my
voice." So the mother came near to where the ~so-wxc~ and P~
were living, and climbed into a cedar tree, and mourned and cried con-
tinnally. JEto~-?!~placed himself near by on another tree to observe
what effect the voice of the mother would have on C~ya, the ~o-wto~s'
hnsband. When he heard the cry of his mother, C~~a knew the voice,
and said to thé <so-(n'!o~s, 1 hear my mother, I hear my mother, 1
hear my mother," but shelaugted at him, and persuaded him to hide.
had taught C~~a.to hunt, and a short time before
Now, the )!so-a-~ïc~<s
he had killed a mountain sheep, which was lying in camp. Thé witch
· emptied the contents of the stomach, aud with her husband took refuge
within; for she said to herself, Snrely, jP-o-Mtwill never look in the
paunch of a mountain sheep for my husband.~ In this retreat they
were safe for a long time, so that they who were searching were sorely
puzzled at the strange disappearance. At last ~c~-MΠsaid, They are
hid somewhere in thé ground, maybe, or nnder the rocks; after a long
time they will be very hungry and will search for food; I will put some
in a tree so as to tempt them." So he killed a rabbit and put it on the
top of a tall pine, from which he trimmed thé branches and peeled the
bark, so that it would be very dinicult to climb; and he said, "When
these hnngry people corne ont they will try to climb that tree for food,
and it will take much time, and while the <so-wtp~s is thus engaged
we will carry C' away." So they watched some days, until the <so-a-
vwïts was very hungry, and her baby-hearted husband cried for food;
and she came out from their hiding place and sought for something to
eat. The odor of the meat placed on the tree came to her nostrils~ and
she saw where it was and tried to climb up, but fell back many times;
and while so doing ~t'Mtt, who had been sitting on a rock near by and
had seen from where she came, ran to the paunch which had been their
house, and taking the man carried him away and laid him down under
the very same ~-Ao-~jËcom which he had been stolen; and behold! he
was the same beautifui little babe that 2~-o-MM had lost.
And jE~c~-M~went off into the sky and brought back a storm, and
caused the wind to blow, and the rain to beat upon the ground, so that
his tracks were covered, and the ~so-a.uïoï~ could not follow him; but
she saw lying upon the ground near by some eagle feathers, and
knew well who it was that had deprived her of her husband, and she
said to herself, "Well, 1 know .E~-M is the brother of P-o-wi; he is a

great warrior and a terrible man; 1 will go to To-~<a (the rattlesnake),

my grandfather, who will protect me and kill my enemies."
2b-~o~-a. wasenjoying his midday sleep on a rock, andas the tsô-cc-v2vits
came near her grandfather awoke and called ont to her, "Go back, go
back; yoTi are not wanted here; go back But she came on begging
his protection; and while they were still parleying they heard jE~c~-mc:
coming, and ~)-~<<t said, "Hide, hide!" But ~he knew not where to
hide, and he opened his mouth and the ~so-M.'Ms crawled into his
stomach. This made 2~ very sick and he entreated her to crawl
out, but she refused, for she was in great fear. Then he tried to throw
her np, but could not, and he was sick nigh unto death. At last, in his
terrible retchings, he crawled ont of his own skin, and leftthe ~J-McKs
in it, and she, imprisoned there, rolled about and hid in the rocks.
When jE~o~-M came near he shouted, Where are yon, old ~so-ct-~M'~s
where are yoa, old ~so-cn~~s She repeated his words in mockery.
Ever since that day witches have lived in snakeskins, and hide among
the rocks, and take great delight in repeatingthe words of passers by.
The white man, who has lost the history of these ancient people, calls
these mocking cries of witches domiciliated in snake skins "echoes,"
but the Indians know the voices of thé old hags.
This is the origin of the echo.


TiNK~!M-M<ro-~c~mp, he who had a stone shirt, killed ~-7fo~, (the

crane,) and stole his wife, and seeing that she had a child, and thinking
it wonid be an incnmbrance to them on their travels, he ordered her to
kill it. But the mother, loving the babe, hid it nnder her dress, and
carried it away to its grandmother. And Stone Shirt carried his cap-
tnred bride to his own land.
In a few years the child grew to be a fine lad, nnder the care of his
grandmother, and was her companion wherever she went.
One day they were digging flag roots, on thé margin of the river, and
putting them in a heap on the bank. When they had been at work a
little while, the boy perceived that the roots came up with greater ease
than was cnstomary, and he asked the old woman the cause of this, but
she did not know; -and, as they continned their work, still the reeds
came up with less enbrt, at which their wonder increased, nntil the
grandmother said, Snrely, some strange thing is about to transpire."
Then the boy went to thé heap where they had been placing the roots,
and found that some one had taken them away, and he ran back, ex-
claiming, Grandmother, did yon take the roots away~ And she an-
swered, "No, my child; perhaps some ghost has taken them off; let us
dig no more; corne away."

But the boy was not satisfied as he greatly desired to know what all
this meant; so he searched about for a time, and at length found a man
sitting under a tree, whom he taunted with being a thief, and threw mud
and stones at him, until he broke the stranger's leg, who answered not
thé boy, nor resented the injuries he received, but remained silent and
sorrowful; and, when his leg was broken, he tied it up in'sticks, and
bathed it in the river, and sat down again under the tree, and beckoned
the boy to approach.
Whenthelad camenear.the strangertold hjmhehadsomethingof great
importance to reveal. My son," said he, did that old woman ever tell
you about your father and mother?" "No," answeredthe boy; "lhave
never heard of them." My son, do you see these bones scattered on the
ground? Whose bones are thèse?" "Howshouldlknow?" answered
the boy. It may be that some elk or deer has been killed hère." No,"
said the old man. Perhaps they are the bones of a bear;" but the
old man shook his head. So the boy mentioned many other animais,
but the stranger still shook his head, and finally said, Thèse are the
bones of your father; Stone Shirt killed him, and left him to rot here
on the ground, like a wolf." And the boy was filled with indignation
against the slayer of his father. Then the stranger asked, Is your
mother in yonder lodge~" and the boy replied, "No." "Does your
mother live on the banks of this river?" and the boy answered, "Idon't
know my mother 1 have never seen her; she is dead." My son," re-
plied the stranger, Stone Shirt, who killed your father, stole your
mother, and took her away to the shore of a distant lake, and there she
is his wife to-day.~ And the boy wept bitterly, and while the tears
filled his eyes so that he could not see, the stranger disappeared.
Then the boy was filled with wonder at what he Ëad seen and heard, and
malice grew in his heart against his father's enemy. BEereturned to
the old woman, and said, Grandmother, why have you lied to me about
my father and mother?" and she answered not, for she knew that a
ghost had told ail to the boy. And the boy fell uponthe ground weep-
ing and sobbing, until he fell into a deep sleep, when strange things
were told him.
His slumber continued three days and three nights, and when he
awoke he said to his grandmother, ~'1 am going awayto enlist ail nations
in my fight," and straightway he departed.
(Here the boy's travels are related with many circumstances concern-
ing the way he was received by the people, ail given in a series of con-
versations, very lengthy; so they will be omitted.)
Finally, he returned in advance of the people whom he had enlisted,
bringing with him C~M-cn~-<M, the wolf, and To-go'-a, the rattlesnake.
When the three had eaten food, the boysaid to the old woman: Grand-
mother, eut me in two." But she demurred, saying she did not wish to
kill one whom she loved so dearly. Out me in two," demanded the
boy, and he gave her a stone ax which he had bronght from a distant

country, and with a manner of great authority he again commanded her

to eut him in two. So she stood before him, and severed him in twain,
and fled in terror. And lo! each part took the form of an entire man,
and the onebeantifol boy appeared as two, and they were so much alike
no one could tell them apart.
When the people or natives whom the boy had enlisted came pouring
into the camp, C'<M~-<K) and To-go'-a were engaged in telling them of
the wonderful thing that had happened to the boy, and that now there
were two; and they ail held it to be an augury of a snccessfnl expédition
to the land of Stone Shirt. And they started on their journey.
Now the boy had been told in the dream of his three days' slumber of
a magical cnp, and he had brought it home with him from his journey
among the nations, and thé ~o~-Ms Wx~m-a~ carried it between them,
filled with water. C'Mt-<n~-cn7 walked on their right and To-go'-a on
their left, and the nations followed in the order in which they had been
enlisted. There was a vast number of them, so that when they were
stretched out in line it was one day's journey from the front to the rear
of the column.
When they had journeyed two days and were far out on the desert
all the people thirsted, for they found no water, and they feU downnpon
the sand groaning, and mnrmnring that they had been deceived, and
they cursed the One-Two.
But the <S'(/-MsWa~M-~s had been told in the wonderful dream of
the suffering which would be endured and that the water which they
carried in the cup was only to be used in dire necessity, and the brothers
said to each other: "Now the time has come for us to drink thé water."
And when one had quaffed of the magical bowl, he found it still fnll,
and he gave it to the other to drink, and still it was full; and the One-
Two gave it to the people, and one after another did they all drink, and
still the cnp was full to the brim.
But C'm-<M~-<~ was dead, and ail the people mourned, for he was a
great man. The brothers held the cup over him, and sprinkled him
with water, when he arose and said: Whydo you disturb me ? 1 did
have a vision of mountain brooks and meadows, of cane where honey-
dew was plenty." They gave him the cup, and he drank aiso; but
when he had finished there was none left. Refreshed and rejoicing
they proceeded on their journey.
The dext day, being without food, they were hungry, and all were
about to perish; and again they murmured at the brothers, and eursed
them. But the ~S<Ms W<z~4m-<Ms saw in the distance an antelope,
standing on an eminence in the plain, in bold relief against the sky;
and C'Mt-<n~-cn) knew it was the wonderfol antelope with many eyes,
whieh Stone Shirt kept for his watchman; and he proposed to go and
kill it, but To-~<a demnrred, and said It were botter that I shonid
go, for he will see yon and run away." But thé ~o~-Ms W~-Mm-œ~stold
C~M-œ~ to go and he started in a direction away to the left of where
4: A E
'l'ilK NORTH

the antelope was standing, that he might make a long détour abdut
some hills, and come upon him from the other side. 2~o~-s went a
little way from camp, and. called,to the brothers: '~Do you see me~"
and they answered they did not. Hunt for me and while they were
hunting for him, the rattlesnake said: "I can see you; you are doing"
-so and so, telling them what they were doing but they could not find
Then the rattlesnake came forth, declaring Nowyou know I can
see others, and that 1 cannot be seen when I so desire. (7tM-<M~-cM) can-
not kill that antelope, for he has many eyes~ and is the wonderful watch-
man of Stone Shirt; but I can kill him, for I can go where he is and
he cannot see me." So thé brothers were convinced, and permitted him
to go; and he went and killed the antelope. When C'Mt-< saw it
fall, he was very angry, for he was extremely proud of his fame as a
hnnter, and anxions to have thé honor of killing this famous antelope,
and he ran up with the intentlon of killing To-~o~-a/ but when he drew
near, and saw the antelope was fat, and woold make a rich feast for the
people, his anger was appeased. "What matters it," said he, "who
Idlls the game, when we can ail eat it~"
So all the people were fed in abundance, and they proceeded on their
The next day the people again suffered for water, and thé magical cup
was empty; but the /S'<&MSW~MM-~s, having been told in their dream
whatto do, transformed themselves into doves, and flew awayto a lake,
on the margin of which was the home of Stone Shirt.
Coming near to the shore, they saw two maidens bathing in the water;
and the birds stood and looked, for the maidens were very beantiful.
Then they new into some bushes, near by, to have a nearer view, and
were caught in a snare which-the girls had placed for intrusive birds.
The beautiful maidens came up, and, taking the birds ont of the snare,
admired them very much, for they had never seen such birds before.
They carried them to their father, Stone Shirt, who said: "My.daugh-
ters, I very much fear these are spies from my enemies, for such birds
do not live in our land"; and he was about to throw them into the fire,
when the maidens besought him, 'with tears, that he would not destroy
their beautiful birds; but he yielded to their entreaties with much mis-
giving. Then they took the birds to the shore of the Iake, and set them
When the birds were at liberty once more, they new around among
the bushes, until they found the magical cup which they had lost, and
taking it up, they carried it out into the middle of the Iake and settled
down upon the water, and the maidens supposed they were drowned.
The birds, when they had filled their cup, rose again, and went back
to the people in the desert, where they arrived just at the right time to
save them with the cup of water, from whieh each drank; and yet it
was fnll until the last was satisfied, and then not a drop remained.

The brothers reported that they had seen Stone Shirt and his daugh-
Thé next day they came near to thé'home of the enemy, and the
brothers, in proper person, went out to reconnoiter. Seeing a woman
gleaning seeds, they drew near, and knew it was their mother, whom
Stone Shirt had stolen from ~cct' the crane. They told her they were
her sons, but she denied it, and said she had never had but one son,
but the boys related to her their history, with the origin of the two from
one, and she was convinced. She tried to dissuade them from making.
war upon Stone Shirt, and told them that no arrow could possibly pen-
etrate his armor, and that he was a great warrior, and had no other de-
light than in killing his enemies, and that his daughters also were fur-
nished with magical bows and arrows, which they could shoot so fast
that the arrows would nll the air like a clond, and that it was not neces-
sary for them to take aim, for their missiles went where they willed;
they ~7MM~ the arrows to the hearts of their enemies and thus the
maidens could kill the whole of the people before a common arrow could
be shot by a common person. But the boys told her what the spirit had
said in the long dream, and had promised that Stone Shirt should be
killed. They told her to go down to the Iake at dawn, so as not to be
endangered by the battle.
During the night, thé <S'o~cMSWœM-~s transformed themselves into
mice, and proceeded to the home of Stone Shirt, and found the magical
bows and arrows that belonged to the maidens, and with their sharp
teeth they eut thé sinew on thé backs of the bows, and nibbled the bow-
strings, so that they were worthless, while To-~o~-a hid himself under a
rock near by.
When dawn came into the sky, ~m-pM~-M~o-~tOt-m~tMp, the Stone
Shirt man, arose and walked ont of his tent, exulting in his strength
and security, and sat down upon the rock under which To-~<a was hid-
ing and he, seeing his opportunity, sunk his fangs into the nesh of the
hero. Stone Shirt sprang high into the air, and called to his daughters
that they were betrayed, and that thé enemy was near; and they seized
their magical bows, and their quivers filled with magical arrows, and
hurried to his defense. At the same time, ail the nations who were sur-
rounding the camp rushed down to battle. But the beautiful maidens,
finding their weapons were destroyed, waved back their enemies, as if
they would parley; and, standing for a few moments over the body of
their slain father, sang thé death-song, and danced the death-dance,
whirling in giddy circles about the dead hero, and wailing with despair,
until they sank down and expired.
The conquerers buried the maidens by the shores of the'lake; but
~FM)K.-p!C!K~-fo-~M'mM)Mp was left to rot, and his bones to bleach on the
sands, as he had left /SM~.

2~]~0~' jB~S FIGHT WITH THE ~0~.

Ta-vwots', the little rabbit, was wont to lie with his back to the sun
when he slept. One day he thus slept in camp while his children played
around him. After a time they saw that his back was smoking, and
they cried out What is the matter with your back, father?" Startled
from his sleep, he demanded to know the cause of the uproar. Your
back is covered with sores and full of holes," they replied. Then Ta-
vwots' was very angry, for he knew that 'R)/ the sun, had burned
him; and he sat down by the fire for a long time in solemn mood, pon-
dering on the injury and insult he had received. At last rising to his
feet, he said, Mychildren must go and make war upon T~-w~ And
straightway he departed.
Now his camp was in the valley of thé Mo-a-pa.* On his journey he
came to a MU, and standing on its summit he saw in a valley to the east
a beautîfol stretch of verdure, and he greatly marveled at the sight
and desired to know what it was. On going down to the valley he
found a corn-field, something he had never before seen, and the ears
were ready for roasting. When he examined them, he saw that they
were covered with beantifnl hair, and he was much astonished. Then he
opened the husk and found within soft white grains of corn, which he
tasted. Then he knew that it was corn and good to eat. Plucking
his arms full he carried them away, roasted them on a fire, and ate until
he was filled.
Now, when he had donc au this, he reflected that he had been steal-
ing, and he was afraid, so he dug a hole in wMch to hide himself.
<7Mt-~M~ was the owner of this field, and when he walked through
and saw that his corn had been stolen, he was exceedingly wroth, and
said, I will slay this thief ~po~/ I will kill him, 1 will kill him." And
straightway he called his warriors to him and made search for the thief,
but could not find him, for he was hid in the ground. After a long time
they discovered the hole and tried to shoot Ta-vwots' as he was stand-
ing in the entrance, but he New their arrows back. This made Cm-
<M~-<~ people very angry and they shot many arrows, but 2~!p~s'~
breath as a warder.against them ail. Then, with one accord, they ran to
snatch him up with their hands, but, ail in confusion, they only caught
each others fists, for with agile steps Ta-vwots' dodged into his retreat.
Then they began to dig, and said they would drag him out. And they
labored with great energy, ail the time taunting him with shouts and
jeers. But ~co~ had a secret passage from the main chamber of
his retreat which opened by a hole above the rock overhanging the en-
trance where they were at work.
*A streamin Sontheasterc.Nevada.

When they had proceeded with this digging until they were
nnder ground, Ten~~co~, standing on the rock
above, hurled the magical
bail which he was accustomed to carry with
him, and striking the
ground above the diggers, it caved the earth in, and they were all
buried. "Aha," said he, "why do you wish to hinder me on
my way to
kill the Sun? A'-nier ~a-m~mp &!o~& (fighting is my eating
tool 1 say; that's so!), and he proceeded on his way musing. "I have
started out to kill; vengeance is my work; every one I meet will be an
enemy. It is well no one shall escape my wrath."
The next day he saw two men making arrow-heads of hot
rocks, and
drawing near he observed their work for a time from a position where
he could not be seen. Then stepping forth, he said: Let me help you";
and when the rocks were on thé fire again and were hot to redness he
said: "Hot rocks will not burn me." And they laughed at him.
be yon would have us believe that you are a ghost~ 1 am not a ghost
said he, "but I am a better manthan you are. Hold me on these hot
rocks, and if I do not burn yon must let me do the same to yon." To
this they readily agreed, and when they had tried to burn him on the
rocks, with his magie breath he kept them away at a distance so slight
they could not see but that the rocks did really tonch him. When they
perceived that he was not.burned they were greatly amazed and trem-
bled with fear. But having made the promise,that he should treat
them in like manner, they submitted themselvés to the
torture, and the
hot rocks burned them until with great cries they struggled to
get free,
but nnrelenting Ta-vwots' held them until the rocks had burned
their flesh into their entrails, and so they died.
"Aha," said Ta-vwots',
lie there until you can get up again. I am on my
way to kill the Sun.
A'-nier ~M/KM)Kp ~MMM&-o~jf<M'And sounding the war-whoop he
proceeded on his way. y
The next day he came to where two women were gathering berries in
baskets, and when he sat down they brought him some of the fruit and
placed it before him. Hesaw there were many leaves and thorns among
the berries, and he said, "Blow these leaves and thorns into ~7
my eyes,"
and they did so, hoping to blind him but with his magie breath he
them away, so that they did not hurt him.
Then the women averred that he was a ghost. "I amno
ghost said
he, "but a common person; do yon not know that leaves and thorns
cannot hurt the eye ? Let me show yon and they consented and were
made blind. Then Ta-vwots' slew them with his ~-WMH/-o-i~pt.
said he, yon are caught with your own chaff. 1 am on my way to kill
the Sun. This is good practice. I must learn how. J/-tM6f ~M/
MMN~p X;tp<M&<!f." And sounding the war-whoop he proceeded on his
The next day he saw some women standing on thé Enrricane
Clin', and
as he approached he heard them say to each other that they would roll
rocks down upon his head and kUl him as he passed and drawing near

he pretended to be eating something, and enjoying it with great gusto;

so they asked him what it was, and he said it was something very sweet,
and they begged that they might be allowed to taste of it also. 1 will
throw it up to you," said he; corne to the brink and catch it." 'When
they had done so, he threw it up so that they could not quite reach it,
and he threw it in this way many times, until, in their eagerness to se-
cure it, they all crowded too near the brink, fell, and were killed.
"Aha," said he, y ouwere killed by your own eagerness. 1 am on my
way to kill the Sun. -me/' ~a-MM~Mp 7caiw7c-ai'-gar." And sound-
ing the war-whoop he passed on.
The following day he saw two women fashioning waterjugs, which
are made of willow-ware like baskets and afterwards lined with pitch.
When afar off he could hear them converse, for he had a wonderful ear.
"Hère comes that bad Tai-~o~ said they; "how shall we destroy
hin). When he came near, he said, What was thatyou were saying
when I came up Oh, we were oniy saying, hère comes our grand-
son, said they. Isthat aU~ replied T~oo~, andiooking around,
he said, Let me get into your waterjug" and they allowed him to do
so. Nbwbraid the neck." This they did, making thé neek very smaIL;
then they laughed with great glee, for they supposedhe was entrapped.
But with his magie breath he burst the jug, and stood up before them;
and they exclaimed, "~ou. must be a ghost' but he answered, 1 am
no ghost. Do you not know that jugs were made to hold water, but
cannot hold men and women?-" At this they wondered greatly, and
said he was wise. Then he proposed to put them in jugs in the same
manner, in order to demonstrate to them the truth of what he had said;
and they consented. When he had made the necks of the jugs and
filled them with pitch, he said, "Nbw, jump out," but they could not.
It was now his turn to deride; so he rolled them about and laughed
greatly, while their half.stined screams rent thé air. When he had
sported with them in this way until he was tired, he killed them with
his magical bail. "Aha," said he, "you are bottled in your own jugs.
I am on my way to kill the Sun in good time 1 shall learn how. -A~-KM~
~a-MMmp 7j;!o~&-<t~ And soundingthe war-hoop he passed on.
The next day he came upon ~o~s, the bear, who was digging a
hole in which to hide, for he had heard of the fame of Ta-vwots', and
was afraid. -Whenthe great slayer came to jE~o~s he said, "Don't
fear, my great friend 1 am not the man from whom to hide. Could a
little fellow like me kiR so many people! And thé bear was assured.
"Let me help you dig," said Ta-v2cots', that we may hide together, for
I also am fleeing from thé great destroyer. So they made a den deep
in the ground, with its entrance concealed by a great rock. Now, Ta-
vwots' secretly made a private passage from the den out to the side of
the mountain, and when the work was completed the two went out to-
gether to the hill-top to watch for thé coming of the enemy. Soon Ta-
"This is a very commonterm of endearmentused by elderto younger persons.

wtco~ pretended that he saw him coming, and they ran in great haste
to the den. The little one outran the greater, and going into the den,
hâstened out again through his secret passage.
When Kwif-ats entered he looked about, and not seeing his little friend
he searched for himfor some time, and still not finding him, he supposed
that he must have passed him on thé way, and went out again to see if
he had stopped or been killed. By this time Ta-vwots' had perched
himself on the rock at the entrance of the den, and when the head of
the bear protruded through the hole below he hurled his ~-rM~-o-~ot
and killed him. "Aha," said Ta-vwots', "I greatlyfeared this renowned
warrior, but now he is dead in his own den. I am going to kill the Sun.
A~-tner ~7~K.~w~ 7.;M;<M7c-(t~ And sounding the war-whoop he
went on his way.
The next day he met .EM-m~-<c-_po~s, the tarantula. Now this knowing
personage had heard of thé fame of Ta~oo~, and determined to ontwit
him. He was possessed of a club with such properties that, although
it was a deadly weapon when used against others, it coold not be made
to hurt himself, thongh weilded by a powerful arm.
As Ta-vwots' camenear, .EM-t~po~ complainedofhaving a headache;
moaning and groaning, he said there was an M-)M~-p~s,or little evil spirit,
in his head, and he asked Ta-vwots' to take the club and beat it out.
Ta-vwots' obeyed, and struck with ail his power, and wondered that
I~M-m~po~s was not killed but he urged Ta-vwots' to strike harder.
At last Ta-'BMM~understood the nature of thé club, and guessed thé
wiles of jEM-a~pots, and raising the weapon as if to strike again, he
dexterously substituted his magie bail and slew him. "Aha," said he,
~'that is a blow of your own seeking, JEM-m~-a~o~s. I am on myway to
kill thé Sun now 1 know that I can do it. -me~ ~m~mp ?i;w<t~-
a~f." And sounding the war-whoop he went on his way.
Thé next day he came to a duf which is thé edge or boundary of the
world on the east, where careless persons have fallen into unknown
depths below. Now to come to the summit of this cliff it is necessary
to climb a mountain, and Ta-vwots' could see three gaps or notches in
the mountain, and he went up into the one on the left; and he demanded
to know of ail the trees which where standing by of what use they were.
Each one in turn praised its own qualities, the chief of which in every
case was its value as fuel.* T~o~ shook his head and went into the
center gap and had another conversation with thé trees, receiving the
same answer. Finally he went into the third gap-that on thé right.
After he had questioned ail thétrees and bushes, he came atlast to a little
one called yM~-KM~p,which rnodestlysaid it had no use, that it was not
even fit for fuel. "Good,~ said Ta-~o~, and under it he lay down to
SeveraltimesI have heardthis story, andinvariably the dia.lognest.eldby T<M)<cofs'
witli thé trees are long and tedious, though the trees evincesomeskill in their own

When the dawn came into the sky 'Rï-~wo~s~arose and stood on the
brink overhanging the abyss from which the Sun was about to rise. The
instant it appeared he hurled his~M-W~-o-~MM,and, striking it full in the
face, shattered it into innumerable fragments, and these fragments were
scattered over ail the world and kindled a great connagration. T~wwo~s~
ran and crept under the ~mMMtp to obtain protection. At last the fire
waxed very hot over ail the world, and soon Ta-vwots' began to suffer
and tried to run away, but as he ran his toes were burned off, and then
slowly, inch by inch, his legs, and then his body, so that he walked on
his hands, and thèse were burned, and he.walked on the stumps of his
arms, and these were burned, until there was nothing left but his head.
And now, having no other means of progression, his head rolled along
the ground until his eyes, which were much swollen, burst by striking
against a rock, and the tears gushed out in a great flood which spread
ont over all the land and extingnished the connagration.
The Uinta E~es add something more to this story, namely, that the
flood from his eyes bore ont new'seeds, which were scattered over ail the
world. The O~ename for seed is the same as for eye.
Those animals which are considered as the descendants of Ta-vwots'
are characterized by a brown patch back of the neck and shoulders,
which is attributed to the singeing received by him in the great fire.
The following apothegms are derived from this story:
"Ton are buried in the hole which you dug for yonrself."
When yon go to war every one you meet is an enemy; kill aIL"
"You were canght with your own chaff."
"Don't get so anxions that yon kill yourself."
"Ton are bottled in yonr ownjngs."
"He is dead in his own den."
"That is a blow of your own seeking."






In the social organization of the Wyandots four groups are recog-

nized-the family, thé gens, the phratry, and the tribe.


The family, as the term is here used, is nearly synonymous with the `
household. It is composed of thé persons who occnpy one lodge, or, in
their permanent wigwams, one section of a communal dwelling. These
permanent dwellings are constructed in an oblong form, of poles inter-
woven with bark. The fire is placed in line along the center, and is
usually built for two fàmilies, one occu.pying thé place on each side of
the fire.
The head of the family is a woman.


The gens'is an organized body of consanguineal kindred in the fe-

male line. Thé T~oman carries the gens," is the formulated statement
by which a Wyandot expresses the idea that descent is in the female
line. Each gens has the name of some animal, thé ancient of such ani-
mal being its tntelar god. Up to the time that thé tribe lefc OMo,
eleven gentes were recognized, as follows
Deer, Bear, Highland Turtle (striped), Highland Turtle (black), Mud
Turtle, Smooth Large Turtle, Sawk, Beaver, Wolf, Sea Snake, and
In speaking of an individual he is said to be a wolf, a bear, or a deer,
as the case may be, meaning thereby that he belongs to that gens but
in speaking of tbe body of people comprising a gens, they are said to
be relatives of the wolf, the bear, or thé deer, as the case may be.
There is a body of names belonging to each gens, so that each per-
son's name indicates the gens to which he belongs. These names are

derived from the characteristies, habits, attitudes, or mythologie stories

connected with the tatelar god.
The following schedule presents the name of a man and a woman in
each gens, as illustrating Tnis
this statement
Vnn-d~t. EngHah.
Man of Deer gens De-wa.-tî-ie LeanDeer.
Lean Deer.
Woinan of Deer gens A-ya-jin-ta, Spotted Fa,wn.
Man of Bear gens A-ta-e-tës Long Claws.
Woman of Bear gens Ta:~maj'da.-j!:a-6 Grunting for her Young.
Man of Striped TnrHe gens Ta,-li~-ao"-ta-ra-ta.-se Going Around the Lake.
Woman of Striped Tartle Tso-we-yuS-kyti Gone from the Water.
Man of Mnd Turtle gens Sharymi-tsu-wa.t' Hard SkaJI.
Woman of MudTurtle gens Ta,dSo-n-ras Finding Sand Beaoh.
Man of Smooth Large Tnr- H~-du-cn-f~i, Throwing Sand.
tle gens
Woman of Smooth Large Tsu-oaj-e~ Slow Walker.
Turtle gens
Man of Wolf gens Ha-r<u"-yû. One who goes about in the-
Dark a Prowler.
Woman of Wolf gens Ta~-di-no Alwa,ys Hungry.
Man of Snake gens Hu-ta-M-sa, Sitting in ourled Position.
Woman of Snake gens Di-jë-rons OnewhoBippIestheWa.ter.
Man of Porcupine gens Ha"-dû-tTi~ The one who puts np Qnills.
Woman of Poronpine gens Kg-ya-ruita-kwa. Good-Sighted.


There are four phratries in the tribe, the three gentes Bear, Deer,
and Striped Turtle constituting the first; the Highland Tnrtle, Black
Turtle, and Smooth Large Turtle the second; thé Hawk, Beaver, and
Wolf the third, and the Sea Snake and Porcupine the fourth.
This unit in their organization has a mythologie basis, and is chiefly
used for religions purposes, in thé preparation of medicines, and in fes-
tivals and games.
The eleven gentes, as four phratries, constitute the tribe.
Each gens is a body of consanguineal kindred in the female line, and
each gens is allied to other gentes by consanguineal kinship through
the male line, and by amnity through marriage.
To be a member of the tribe it is necessary to be a member of a gens;
to be a member of a gens it is necessary to belong to some :family; and
to belong to a family a person mnst have been born in the family so
that.his kinship is recognized,. or he must be adopted into a family and
become a son, brother, or some definite relative; and this artificial re-
lationship gives him the same standing as actual relationship in the
~mily, in the gens, in the phratry, and in the tribe.

Thus a tribe is a body of kindred.

Of the four groups thus described, the gens, the phratry, and the
tribe constitute the series of organic units the family, or household as
here described, is not a unit of the gens or phratry, as two gentes are
represented in each-the father mnst belong to one gens, and the mother
and her children to another.


Society is maintained by the establishment of government, for rights

must be recognized and duties performed.
In this tribe there is found a complete differentiation of the military
from thé civil government.

cm7, COTS~EyT.
The civil government inheres in a system of couneils and chiefs.
In each gens there is a council, composed of four women, called Yu-
tc<ît-~M-o~-M<t.These four women councillors select a chief of the gens
from its male members-that is, from their brothers and sons. This
gentile chief is the head ofthe gentile council.
Thé council of the tribe is composed of the aggregated gentile coun-
cils. The tribal council, therefore, is composed one-fifth of men and
four-nfbhs of women.
The sachem ofthe tribe, or tribal chief, is chosen by the chiefs of the
There is sometimes a grand council of the gens, composed of the coun-
cillors of the gens proper and ail the heads of households and leading
men-brothers and sons.
There is also sometimes a grand council of the tribe, composed of the
council of the tribe proper and the heads of households of the tribe, and
ail the leading men of the tribe.
These grand councils are convened for special purposes.

~~VDJ~S'T~mzzyGLCOCyc~~ojs~ ~j~D OBIEJ'S.

The four women couneillors of the gens are chosen by the heads of
households, themselves being women. There is no formal election, but
frequent discussion is had over the matter from time to time, in which
a sentiment grows up within the gens and throughout the tribe that, in
the event of the death of any councillor, a certain person will take her
In this manner there is usually one, two, or more potential couneillors
in each gens who are expected to attend ail the meetings of the council,
though they take no part in thé deliberations and have no vote.
'When a woman is installed as councillor a feast is prepared by the
gens to whieh she belongs, and to this feast all the members of the tribe
are invited. The woman is painted and dressed in her best attire and
the sachem of thé tribe places upon her head the gentile chaplet of
fëathers, and announcesina ibrmalmannertotheassembled guests that

the woman has been chosen a councillor. The ceremony is followed by

feasting and dancing, often continued late into the night.
The gentile chief is chosen by the council women after consultation
with the other women and men of thé gens. Often the gentile chief is
a potential chief through a period of probation. Dnring this time he
attends the meetings of the conncil, but takes no part in the delibera-
tions, and has no vote.
At his installation, the council women invest himwith an elaborately
ornamented tunic, place upon his head a chaplet ot feathers, and paint
the gentile totem on his face. The sachem of the tribe then announces
to the people that the man has been made chief of the gens, and admitted
to the council. This is also followed by a festival.
The sachem of the tribe is selected by the men belonging to the coun-
cil of the tribe. Formerly the sachemship inhered in the Bear gens, but
at present he is chosen from the Deer gens, from the fact, as the Wyan-
dots say, that death has carried away all the wise men of the Bear gens.
The chief of the Wolf gens is the herald and thé sheriff of the tribe.
He superintends the érection of the council-house and has the care of it.
He calls the council together in a formal manner when directed by the
sachem. He announces to the tribe ail the decisions of the council, and
exécutes the directions of thé council and of the sachem.
Gentile councils are held fcequently from day to day and from week
to week, and are called bythe chief whenever deemed necessary. When
matters before the council are considered of great importance, a grand
council ofthe gens may be called.
The tribal council is held regularly on the night of the full moon of
each lunation and at such other times as the sachem may détermine
but extra couneils are usually called by the sachem at the request of a
number of councilors.
Meetings of the gentile councils are very informai, but the meetings
of the tribal councils are c&nducted with due ceremony. When ail the
persons are assembled, thé chief of the Wolf gens calls them to order,
fills and lights a pipe, sends one puff of smoke to the'heavens and an-
other to the earth. Thé pipe is then handed to the sachem, who fills his
mouth with smoke, and, turning from left to right with the sun, slowly
puifs it out over the heads of the councilors, who are sitting in a circle.
He then hands the pipe to the man on his left, and it is smoked in turn
by each person until it has been passed around the cirele. The sachem
then explains the object for which the council is called. Each person in
the way and manner he chooses tells what he thinks should be donc in
the case. If a majority of the council is agreed as to action, thé sachem
does not speak, but may simply announce the decision. But in some
cases there may be protracted debate, which is carried on with gréât
délibération. In case of a tie, the sachem is expected to speak.
It is considered dishonorable for any man to reverse his decision after
having spoken.
Such are the organic elements of the Wyandot government.


It is the function of government to preserve rights and enforce the

performance of duties. Rights and duties are co-relative. Rights im-
ply duties, and duties imply rights. The right inhering in the party of
the first part imposes a duty on the party of the second part. The right
and its co-relative duty are inseparable parts of a relation that mnst be
maintained by government; and the relations which governments are
established to maintain may be treated under the general head of rights.
In Wyandot government these rights mày be classed as follows
First-Rights of marriage.
Second-Rights to names.
Third-Rights to personal adornments.
Fourth-Rights of order in encampments and migrations
Fifth-Rights of property.
Sixth-Rights of person.
Seventh–Bights of community.
Eighth–Bights of religion.
To maintain rights, rules ofconduct are established, not by formal
enactment~ but by regalated usage. Such custom-made laws may be
called régulations.

-M~BjB~C~ -B~~OZ~2TOJ!

Marriage between members of the same gens is forbidden, but eon-

sanguineal marriages between persons of different gentes are permitted.
For example, a man maynot marryhis mother's sister's daughter, as she
belongs to the same gens with himself; but he can marry his father's
sister's daughter, because she belongs to a different gens.
Husbands retain all their rights and privileges in their own
thongh they live with the gentes of their wives. Children, irrespective
of sex, belong to the gens of thé mother. Men and women must marry
within the tribe. A woman taken to wife from without the tribe must
first b.e adopted into some family of a gens other than that to which
the man belongs. That a woman may take for a husband a man without
the tribe he must also be adopted into the family of some gens other
than that of thé woman. What has been called by some
endogamy and exogamyare correlative parts of one regulation, and the
Wyandots, like ail other tribes of which we have any knowledge in
North America, are both endogamous and exogamous.
Polygamy is permitted, but thé wives must belong to different gentes.
The first wife remains the head of the household. Polyandry is
A man seeldng a wife consults her mother, sometimes
direct, and
sometimes through his own mother. The mother of the girl advises
with the women comicilors to obtain their consent, and the young

ple usually submit quietly to their decision. Sometimes the women

councilors consult with the men.
When a girl is betrothed, the man makes such presents to the mother
as he can. It is customary to consummate the marriage before the end
of the moon in which the betrothal is made. Bridegroom and bride
make promises of faithfulness to the parents and women councilors of
both parties. It is customary to give a marriage feast, in which the
gentes of both parties take part. For a short time at least, bride and
groom live with the bride's mother, or rather in the original household
bf the bride.
The time when they will set up housekeeping for themselves is usually
arranged before marriage.
In the event of the death of the mother, the children belong to her
sister or to her nearest female kin, the matter being settled by the conn-
cil women of the gens. As the children belong to the mother, on the
death of the father the mother and children are cared for byher nearest
male relative until subséquent marriage.


It has been previously explained that there is a body of names, thé

exclusive propertyofeach gens. Once a year, at the green-corn festival,
the council women of the gens select the names for the children born
during the previous year, and the chief of the gens proclaims these
names at thé festival. No person may change his name, but every per-
son, man or woman, by honorable or dishonorable conduct, or by re-
markable circumstance, may win a second name commemorative of
deed or circumstance, which is a Idnd of title.

-B~<?!72.~2T07~OF JMHS'O.ZMZ

Each clan has a distinctive method of painting the face, a distinctive

chaplet to be worn by'the gentile chief and council women when they
are inaugurated, and subsequently at festival occasions, and distinctive
ornaments for ail its members, to be used at festivals and religions cere-

jy ~~C~MPJi~Bjyr ~KDJMr<?~~fïTOJK5'.
The camp of the tribe is in an open circle or horse-shoe, and the gentes
camp in following order, beginning on the left and going around to the
Deer, Bear, Highland Turtle (striped); Highland Turtle (black), Mud
Turtle, Smooth Large Turtle, Hawk, Beaver, Wolf, Sea Snake, Porcu-
The order in which the households camp in the gentile group is
lated by the gentile councilors and adjusted from time to time in such a
manner that the oldest family is placed on the left, and the
on the right. In migrations and expeditions thé order of travel follows
the analogy of encampment. `


Within the area claimed by the tribe each gens occupies a smaller
tract for the purpose of cultivation. The right of the gens to cultivate
a particular tract is a matter settled in the council of the tribe, and thé
gens may abandon one tract for another only with the consent of the
tribe. The women councillors partition the gentile land among the
householders, and the household tracts are distinctly marked by them.
The ground is re-partitioned once in two years. The heads of house-
holds are responsible for the cultivation of the tract, and should this
duty be neglected the council of the gens calls the responsible parties to
Cultivation is communal that is, all of the able-bodied women of the
gens take part in the cultivation of eaeh household tract in the follow-
ing manner:
The head ofthe'household sends her brother or son into the forest or
to the stream to bring in -game or fish for a feast; then the able-bodied
women of the gens are invited to assist in the cultivation of the land,
and when this work is done a feast is given.
The wigwam or lodge and ail articles of the household belong to the
woman-the head of the household-and at her death are inherited by
her eldest daughter, or nearest of female kin. The matter is settled by
the council women. If the husband die his property is inherited byhis
brother or his sister's son, except such portion as may be buried with
him. His property consists of his clothing, hnnting and fishing imple-
ments, and such articles as are used personally by himself.
Usually a small canoe is the individual property of the man. Large
canoes are made by the male members of the gentes, and are the prop-
erty of the gentes.

Each individual has a right to freedom of person and security from

personal and bodily injury, unless adjudged guilty of crime by proper

Each gens has the right to the services of ail its women in the culti-
vation of the soil. Each gens has the right to the service of ail its male
members in avenging wrongs, and the tribe has the right to thé service
of ail its male members in time of war.


Each phratry has the right to certain religions ceremonies and the
preparation of certain medicines.
Each gens has thé exclusive right to worship its tutelar god, and each
individual has the exclusive right to the possession and use of a particu-
5 A
o A E


The violations of right are crimes. Some of the crimes recognizedbv

the Wyandots are as follows
1. Adultery. 4. Murder.
2. Theft.. 5. Treason.
3. Maiming.- 6. Witchcraft.
A maiden guilty of fornication may be punished by her mother or
female guardian, but if the crime is flagrant and repeated, so as to be-
come a matter of general gossip, and the mother fails to correct it, the
matter may be taken up by the conneil women of the gens. ¡
A woman guilty of adultery, for the first offense is punished by hav-
ing her hair cropped; for repeated offenses her left ear is cut off.

The punishment for theft is twofold restitution. When the prosecu-

tor and prosecuted belong to the same gens, the trial is before the conn-
cil of the gens, and from it there is no appeal. If the parties involved
are of different gentes, the prosecutor, through the head of his house-
hold, lays the matter before thé council of his own gens; by it the mat-
ter is laid before the gentile council of the accused in a formal manner.
Thereupon it becomës the duty of the council of thé accused to investi-
gate the facts for themselves, and to settle the matter with the conneil
of the plaintiff. Failure thus to do is followed by retaliation in the seiz-
ing of any property of the gens which may be found.

Maiming is compounded, and the method of procedure in prosecution

is essentially the same as for theft.


In the case of murder, if both parties are members of the same gens,
the matter is tried by the gentile council on complaint of the head of
the household, but there may be an appeal to the council of the tribe.
Where the parties belong to different gentes, complaint is formally
made by the injured party, throngh the chief of his gens, in the follow-
ing manner
A wooden tablet is prepared, upon which is inscribed the totem or
heraldic emblem of the injured man's gens, and a picture-writing set-
ting forth the offense follows.
The gentile chief appears before the chief of the conneil of the
offender, and formaUy states the offense, explaining the picture-writing,
which is then delivered.
A conneil of the offender's gens is thereupon called and a trial is held.
Tt is the duty of this council to examine the evidence for themselves and

to come to a conclusion without further presentation of the matter on

the part of the person aggrieved. Having decided thé matter among
themselves, they appear before the chief of the council of the aggrieved
party to offer compensation.
If the gens of the offender fail to settle the matter with the gens of
the aggrieved party, it is the duty of his nearest relative to avenge the
wrong. Either party may appeal to the council of the tribe. The ap-
peal must be made in due form, by the presentation of a tablet of accu-
Inquiry into the effect of a failure to observe prescribed formalities
developed an interesting fact. ln procedure against crime, failure in
formality is not considered a violation of the rights of the accused, but
proof of his innocence. It is considered supernatural evidence that the
charges are false. In trials for ail offensesforms of procedure are, there-
fore, likely to be earnestly questioned.
Treason consists in revealing the secrets of the medicinepréparations
or giving other information or assistance to enemies of the tribe, and is
punished by death. The trial is before the council of the tribe.

Witchcraft; is punished by death, stabbing, tomahawking, or burning.

Charges of witchcraft are investigated by the grand council of the tribe.
When the accused is adjudged guilty, he may appeal to supernatural
judgment. The test is by fire. Acircular fire is built on thé ground,
through which thé accused must ran from east and west and from north
to south. If no injury is received he is adjudged innocent; if he falls
into the fire he is adjudged guilty. Should a person accused or having
the general reputation of practicing witcheraft become deaf, blind, or
have sore eyes, earache, headache, or other diseases considered loath-
some, he is supposed to have failed in practicing his arts upon others,
and to have fallen a victimto them himself. Such cases are most likely
to be punished.
The institution of outlawry exists among the Wyandots in a peculiar
form. An outlaw is one who by his crimes has placed himself without
the protection of his clan. A mancan be declared an outlaw byhis own
clan, who thus publish to the tribe that they will not defendhim in case
he is injured by another. But usually outlawry is declared only after
trial before the tribal council.
The method of procedure is analogousto thatin case ofmurder. When
the person has been adjudged guilty and sentence of outlawry declared,
it is the duty of the chief'of the Wolf clan to make known the decision
of thé council. This he does by appearing before each clan inthe order

nfi~s encampment, and

of its Mnf.a,mT)mRT)t.
a.r)A danïa.rins'
declaring inin t~rma
terms the
thR crime
Grima of
of the
the outlaw
o)itla.w and
the sentence of outlawry, which may be either of two grades.
In the lowest grade it is declared that if the man shallthereafter con-
tinue in the commission of similar crimes, it will be lawful for any per-
son to kill him and if killed, rightfully or wrongfully, his clan will nôt
avenge his death.
Outlawry of thé highest degree makes it the duty of any member of
the tribe who may meet with the offender to MU him.
The management of military affairs inheres inthemilitarycounciland
chief. The military council is composed of ail the able-bodied men of
the tribe the military chief is chosen by the council from the Porcupine
gens. Each gentile chiëf is responsible for the military training of the
youth under his authority. There is usually one or more potential mili-
tary chiefs, who are the close companions and assistants of the chief in
time of war, and in case of the death of the chief, take his place in the
order of seniority.
Prisoners of war are adopted into the tribe or killed. To be adopted
into the tribe, it is necessary that the prisoner should be adopted into
some family. The warrior taking the prisoner has the first right to adopt
him, and his male or female relatives have the right in the order dftheir
kinship. If no one claims the prisoner for this purpose, he is caused to
run the gauntlet as a test of his courage.
If at his trial he behaves manfully, claimants are not wanting, but if
he behaves disgracefully he is put to death.
There is an interesting institution found among the Wyandots, as
among some other of our North American tribes, namely, that of fellow-
hood. Two young men agree to be perpétuai friends to each other, or
more than brothers. Each reveals to the other the secrets of his life,
and counsels with him on matters of importance, and defends him from
wrong and violence, and at his death is chief mourner.

The government of the Wyandots, with the social organization upon

which it is based, affords a typical example of tribal government through-
out North America. Within that area there are several hundred dis-
tinct governments. In so great a number there is great variety, and in
this variety we find different degrees of organization, the degrees of
organization being determined by the differentiation of the Dmctions of
the government and the corrélative specialization oforganic elements.
Muoh has yet to be done in the study of these governments before
saie generalizations may be made. But enough is known to warrant
the following statement
Tribal government in North America is based on kinship in that the
fundamental units of social organization are bodies of consanguineal

kindred either in the male or female line; these units being what has
been well denominated "gentes."
These "gentes" are organized into tribes by ties of relationship and
affinity, and this organization is of such a character that the man's
position in the tribe is fixed by bis Idnship. There is no place in a tribe
for any person whose Idnship is not &xed, and only those persons can
be adopted into the tribe who are adopted into some family with arti-
ficial kinship specified. The fabric of Indian society is a complex tissue
of kinship. The warp is made of streams of kinship blood, and the woof
of marriage ties.
With most tribes military and civil affairs are differentiated. The
fnnctions of civil government are in general differentiated only to this
extent, that executive functions are performed by chiefs and sachems,
but these chiefs and sachems are also members of thé council. The
council is legislature and court. Perhaps it were better to say that the
couneil is the court whose decisions are law, and that the legislative
body properly has not been developed.
Tn general, crimes are well defined. Procédure is formal, and forms
are held as of such importance that error therein is~ac~e evidence
that thé subject-matter formulated was false.
When one gens charges crime against a member of anether, it can of
its own motion proceed oniy to retaliation. To prevent retaliation, thé
gens of the offender must take thé necessary steps to disprove the crime,
or to compound or punish it. The charge once made is held as just and
true until it has been disproved, and in trial thé cause of the defendant
is first stated. The anger of the prosecuting gens must be placated.
In the tribal governments there are many institutions, customs, and
traditions which give evidence of a former condition in which society
was based rot upon kinship, but upon marriage.
From a survey of the facts it seems highly probably that Idnship
society, as it exists among the tribes of North America, has developed
from connubial society, which is discovered elsewhere on thé globe. In
fact, there are a few tribes that seem scarcely to have passed that inden-
nite boundary between the two social states. Philologic research leads
to the same conclusion.
Nowhere in North America have a people been discovered who have
passed beyond tribal society to national society based on property, i. e.,
that form of society which is characteristic of civilization. Some peoples
may not have reached kinship society; none have passed it.
Nations with civilized institutions, art with palaces, monotheism as
the worship of the Gréât Spirit, ail vanish fcom the priscan condition
of North America in thé light of anthropologie research. Tribes with
thé social institutions of kinship, art with its highest architectural de-
velopment exhibited in the structure of communal dwellings, and poly-
theism in thé worship of mythic animals and nature-gods remain.








BYJ. W.PowEU..


Investigations in this department are of great interest, and have at-

tracted to the field a host of workers; but a general review of the mass
of published matter exhibits the faet that the uses to which thé mate-
rial has been put have not always been wise.
In the monuments of antiquity found throughout North America, in
camp and village sites, graves, mounds, ruins, and scattered works of
art, the origin and development of art in savage and barbarie life may
be satisfactorily studied. Incidentally, too, hints of customs may be
discovered, but outside of this, the discoveries made have often been
illegitimately used, especially for the purpose of connecting the tribes
of North America with peoples or so-called races of antiquity in other
portions of the world. A brief review of some conclusions that must
be accepted in the present status of the science will exhibit the futility
of these attempts.
It is now an established fact that man was widely scattered bver thé
earth at least as early as the beginning of the quaternary period, and,
perhaps, in pliocene time.
If we accept the conclusion that there is but one species of man, as
species are now defined by biologists, we may reasonably conclude that
the species has been dispersed from some common center, as the ability
to successfully carry on the battle of life in all climes belongs only to a
highly developed being; but this original home has not yet been ascer-
tained with certainty, and when discovered, lines of migration there-
from cannot be mapped until the changes in the physical geography of
the earth from that early time to the present have been discovered, and
these must be settled upon purely géologie and paleontologic evidence.
The migrations of mantdnd from that original home cannot be intelli-
gently discussed until that home has been discovered, and, forther, until
the geology ofthe globe is so thoroughly knownthat the different phases
of its geography can be presented.
The dispersion of man must have been anterior to the development
of any but the rudest arts. Since that time the surface faceof
of thé
the earth

has undergone many and important changes. AUknown camp and vil-
lage sites, graves, mounds, and ruins belong to that portion of geologie
time known as the present epoch, and are entirely subsequent fb the
period of the original dispersion as shown by geologic evidence.
In the study of these antiquities, there has been much unnecessary
speculation in respect to the relation existing between the people to whose
existence they attest, and the tribes of Ihdians inhabiting the country
during the historic period.
It may be said that in the Pueblos discovered in the southwestern'
portion of the United States and farther south throngh Mexico and per-
haps into Central America tribes are known having a culture quite as
far advanced as any exhibited in the discovered ruins. In this
then, there is no need to search for an extra-limital origin through lost
tribes for any art there exhibited.
With regard to the mounds so widely scattered between the two
it may also be said that mound-building tribes were known in thé early
history of discovery of this continent, and that the vestiges of art dis-
covered do not excel in any respect the arts of the Indian tribes known
to history. There is, therefore, no reason for us to search for an extra-
limital origin tbrough lost tribes for the arts discovered in the mounds
of North America.
The tracing of the origin of these arts to the ancestors of known tribes
or stocks of tribes is more legitimate, but it has limitations which are
widely disregarded. The tribes whichhad attainedtothe highest culture
in thé southern portion of North America are now well known to
to several different stocks, and, if, for
example, an attempt is made to
connect the mound-builders with thé Pueblo
Indians, no result beyond
confusion can be reached until the particular stock of these village peoples
is designated.
Again, it is contained in the recorded history of the country that sev-
eral distinct stocks of thé present Indians were mound-builders and thé
wide extent and vast number of mounds discovered in the United States
should lead us to suspect, at least, that thé mound-builders of pre-historic
times belonged to many and diverse stocks. With the limitations thus
indicated the identification of mound-building peoples as distinct tribes
or stocks is a legitimate study, but when we consider the farther fact
now established, that arts extend beyond the boundaries of lingnistic
stocks, the most fundamental divisions we are yet able to make of the
peoples of the globe, we may more properly conclude that this field prom-
ises but a meager harvest; but the origin and development of arts and
industries is in itself a vast and profoundly interesting thème of study,
and when North American archseology is pursuedwith this end in view,
the results will be instructive.


The pictographs of North America were made on divers substances.

The bark of trees, tablets of wood, the skias of animais, and thé surfaces
of rocks were ail used for this purpose; but the great body of picture-
writing as preserved to us is found on rock surfaces, as these arethembst
From Dighton Rock to the clifFsthat overhang the Pacinc,theserecords
are found-on bowlders fashioned by the waves of the sea, scattered by
river floods, or polished by glacial ice; on stones buried in graves and
mounds on faces of rock that appear in ledges by the streams; on canon
walls and towering clins on monntain crags and thé ceilings of caves-
wherever smooth surfaces of rock are to be foundinNorth America, there
we may expect to find pictographs. So widely distributed and so vast
in number, it is well to know what purposes they may serve in anthro-
pologic science.
Many of these pictographs are simply pictures, rude etchings, or paint-
ings, delineatingnatural objects, especially animals, and illustrate simply
the beginning of pictorial art; others we know were intended to com-
memorate events ortorepresentotherideasentertainedbytheirauthors; ç
but to a large extent these were simply mnemonic-not conveying ideas
of themselves, but designed more thoroughly to retain in memory cer-
tain events or thoughts by persons yho were already cognizant of thé
same through current hearsay or tradition. If once the memory of the
thought to be preserved has passed from thé minds of men, the record
is powerless to restore its own subject-matter to the understanding.
Thé great body of picture-writings is thus described yet to some slight
extent pictographs are found with characters more-or less conventional,
and thé number of such is quite large in Mexico and Central America.
Yet even these conventional characters are used with others less con-
ventional in such a manner that perfect records were never made.
Hence it will be seen that it is illegitimate to use any pictographic
matter of a date anterior to the discovery of the continent by Columbus
for historié purposes but it has a legitimate use of profound interest,
as these pictographs exhibit the beginning of writtenlanguage and the
beginning of pictorial art, yet undifferentiated; and if the scholars of
America will collect and study thé vast body of this material scattered
everywhere-over the valleys and on the mountain sides-from it can
be written one of thé most interesting chapters in the early history of


When America was discovered by Europeans, it was inhabited by
great nnmbers of distinct tribes, diverse in languages, institutions, and
customs. This fact has never been fully recognized, and writers have
too often spoken of the North American Indians as a body, supposing
that statements made of one tribe would apply to all. This fandamental
error in the treatment of the subject has led to great confusion.
Again, the rapid progress in the settlement and occupation of thé
country has resulted in the graduai displacement of the Indian tribes,
so that very many have been removed from their ancient homes, some
of whom have been incorporated into other tribes, and some have been
absorbed into the body of civilized people.
The names by which tribes have been designated have rarely been
names used by themselves, and the same tribe has often been desig-
nated by different names in different periods of its history and by dif-
ferent names in thé same periôd of its history by colonies of people
having different géographie relations to them. Often, too, different
tribes have been designated by the same name. Without entering into
an explanation of the causes which have led to this condition of things,
it is simply necessary to assert that this has led to gréât confusion of
nomenclature. Therefore the student of Indian history must be con-
stàntly on his guard in accepting the statements of any author relating
to any tribe of Indians.
It will be seen that to follow any tribe of Indians through post-Colum-
bian times is a task of no little dimculty. Yet this portion of history
is of importance, and the scholars of America have a great work before
Three centuries of intimate contact with a civilized race has had no
small influence upon the pristine condition of these savage and barbarie
tribes. The 'most speedy and radical change was that effected in thé
arts, industrial and ornamental. Asteel knife was obviouslybetter than
a stoneknifa;nrearmsthanbows and arrows; and textile fabrics from
the looms of civilized men are at once seen to be more beautiful and
more usefui than the rude fabrics and undressed skins with which thé
tndians clothed themselves in that earlier day.
Customs and institutions changed less rapidly. Yet these have been
much modified. Imitation and vigorous propagandism have been more
or less efficient causes. Migrations and enforced removals placed tribes
under conditions of -strange environment where new customs and insti-
tutions were necessary, and in this condition civilization had a greater
influence, and the progress of occupation by white men within the ter-
ritory of the United States, at least, has reached snch a stage that sav-
agery and barbarism have no room for their existence, and even customs

and institutions must in a brief time be completely changed, and what

we are yet to learn of these people must be leamed now.
But in pursuing these studies thé greatest caution must be observed
in discriminating what is primitive from what has been acquired from
civilized man by the various processes of acculturation.


Workingnaturalists postulateevolution. Zoologicairesearchislargely

directed to thé discovery of the genetic relations of animals.. The evo-
lution of thé animal kingdom is along multifarious lines and by diverse
specializations. The particular line which connects man with the lowest
forms, through long successions of intermediate forms, is a problem of
great interest. This special investigation has to deal chiefly with rela-
tions of structure. From the many facts already recorded, it is proba-
ble that many detached portions- of this line can be drawn, and such a
construction, though in fact it may not be correct in ail its parts, yet
serves a valuable purpose in organizing and directing research.
The truth or error of such hypothetic genealogy in no way affects the
validity of the doctrines of evolution in the minds of scientimc men, but
on the other hand the value of the tentative theory is brought to final
judgment under the laws of evolution.
It would be vain to claim that the course of zoologie development is
fully understood, or even that ail of its most important factors are known.
So the discovery offacts and relations guided by the doctrines of evolu-
tion reacts upon these doctrines, verifying, modifying, and enlarging
them. Thus it is that while the doctrines lead the way to new fields of
discovery, the new discoveries lead again to new doctrines. Ihcreased
knowledgewidensphilosophy; wider philosophyincreases knowledge.
It is the test of true philosophy that it leads to the discovery of facts,
and facts themselves can only be known as such; that is, can only be
properly discerned and discriminated by being relegated to their places
in philosophy. The whole progress of science depends primarily upon
this relation between knowledge and philosophy.
In the earlier history ofmankind philosophy was the product of sub-
jective reasoning, giving mythologies and metaphysics. When it was
discovered that the whole structure of philosophy was without founda-
tion, a new order of procedure wasrecommended-the Baconian method.
Perception must precede reflection; observation must precede reason.
This also was a failure. Thé earlier gave spéculations the later give~
a mass of incoherent facts and falsehoods. The error in the earlier
philosophy was not in the order of procedure between perception and
reflection, but in thé method, it being subjective instead of objective.
The method of reasoning in soientifie philosophy is purely objective the
method of reasoning in mythology and metaphysics is subjective.
jtj~-u.u.j.~ito TO
j.u THE
jmj~ USE
uojCt OF

The difference between man and the animals most nearly related to
him in structure is great. The connecting forms are no longer extant.
This subject of research, therefore, belongs to the paleontologists rather
than the ethnologists. The biological facts are embraced in the geologi-
cal record, and this record up to the present time bas yielded but scant
materials to serve in its solution.
It is known that man, highly differentiated from lower animals in
morphologie characteristics, existed in early Quaternary and perhaps in
Pliocene times, and hère the discovered record ends.

In philology, North America presents the richest field in the
for here is found the greatest number of languages distributed
the greatest number of stocks. As the progress of research is neces-
sarily from the known to the unknown, eivilized languages were studied
by scholars before the languages of savage and barbarie tribes. Again,
the higher languages are written and are thus immediately accessible.
For such reasons, chief attention has been given to the most
developed languages. The problems presented to the philologist, in
the higher languages, cannot be properly solved without a
of the lower forms. The linguist studies a language that he may use it
as an instrument for the interchange of thought; the philologist studies
a language to use its data in the construction of a philosophy of lan-
guage. It is in this latter sense that the higher languages are unknown
until the lower languages are studied, and it is probable that more
light will be thrown upon the former by a study of the latter than by
more extended research in the higher.
The vast field of unwritten languages has been explored but not sur-
veyed. In a general way it is known that there are many such lan-
guages, and the geographic distribution of the tribes of men who speak
them is known, but scholars have just begun the study of the
That the knowledge of the simple and" uncompounded must precede
the knowledge of the complex and compounded, that the latter may be
rightly explained, is an axiom well recognized in biology, and it applies
equally well to philology. Hence any system of philology, as the term
is here used, made from a survey of the higher languages
will probably be a failure. ~WIlich of you by taking thought can add
one cubit unto his stature," and which of you by taking thought can
add the antecedent phenomena necessary to an explanation of the lan-
guage of Plato or of Spencer~
The study of astronomy, geology, physics, and
biology, is in the
hands of scientifie men; objective methods of research are
and metaphysic disquisitions find no place in the
accepted philosophies;
J-owELL.] LANGUA&E. 79

but to a large extent philology remains in the hands of the meta-

physicians, and subjective methods of thought are used in thé explana-
tion of thé phenomena observed. If philology is to be a science it
must have an objective philosophy composed of a homologic classifica-
tion and orderly arrangement of thé phenomena of the languages of
the globe.
Philologie research began with the definite purpose in view to dis-
cover in the diversities of language among the peoples of the earth a
common element from which they were ail supposed to have been de-
rived, an original speech, the parent of all languages. In this philolo-
gists had great hopes of success at one time, encouraged by thé discov-
ery of the relation between the diverse branches of the Aryan stock,
but in this very work methods of research were developed and doc-
trines estabhshed by which unexoected results were reached.
Instead of relegating the languages that had before been unclassified
to the Aryan family, new familles or stocks were discovered, and this
process has been carried on from year to year until scores or even hun-
dreds. of families are recognized, and until we may reasonably conclude
that there was no single primitive speech common to mankind, but that
man had multiplied and spread throughout the habitable earth anterior
to the development of organized languages; that is, languages have
sprung from innumerable sources after the dispersion of mankind.
The progress in language has not been by multiplication, whieh would
be but a progress in degradation under the now well-recognized laws of
evolution; but it has been in integration from a vast multiplicity toward
a unity. True, all evolution has not been in this direction. There has
often been degradation as exhibited in the multiplicity of languages
and dialects of the same stock, but evolution has in thé aggregate been
integration by progress towards unity of speech, and differentiation
(which must always be distinguished irom multiplication) by specializa-
tion of the grammatic process and the development of the parts of
When a people once homogeneous are separated geographically in
such a manner that thorough inter- communicationis no longer preserved,
ail of the agencies by which languages change act separately in the dis-
tinct communities and produce different changes therein, and dialects
are established. If the separation continues, such dialects become dis-
tinct languages in the sense that the people of one community are una-
ble to understand the people of another. But such a development of
languages is not differentiation in the sense in which this term is here
used, and often used in biology, but is analogous to multiplication as
understood in biology. The differentiation of an organ is its develop-
ment for a spécial purpose, i. e., the organic. specialization is concomi-
tant with functional specialization. When paws are differentiated into
hands and feet, with the differentiation of the organs, there is a con-
comitant differentiation in thé functions.

When one language becomes two, the same fonction is performed by

each, and is marked by the fondamental characteristic of multiplica-
tion, i. e., dégradation; for the people originally able to
with each other can no longer thus communicate; so that two languages
do not serve as valuable a purpose as one. And, further, neither of the
two languages has made the progress one would have made, for one
would have been developed sufficiently to serve ail the purposes of the
united peoples in thé larger area inhabited by them, and, c~~s~~&Ms,
the language spoken by many people scattered over a large area must
be superior to one spoken by a few people inhabiting a small area.
It would have been strange, indeed, had the primitive assumption in
philology been true, and the history of language exhibited universal
la the remarks on the ~Origin ofMan," the statement was made that
mankind was distributed throughout the habitable earth, in some geo-
logical period anterior to the present and anterior to the development
of other than the rudest arts. Hère, again, we reach thé conclusion that
man was distribnted throughout the earth anterior to the development
of organized speech.
In the presence of these two great facts, the difficulty oftracing genetic
relationship among homan races through arts, customs, institutions, and
traditions will appear, for ail of these must have been developed after
the dispersion of man'kind. Analogies and homologies in these phe-
nomena must be accounted for in some other way. Somatology proves
the unity of the human species that is, the evidence upon 'which this
conclusion is reached is morphologie; but in arts, customs, institutions,
and traditions abundant corroborative evidence is found. The indi-
viduals of the one species, though inhabiting diverse climes, speaking
diverse languages, and organized into diverse communities, have pro-
gressed in a broad wav by the same stages, have had the same arts, cus-
toms, institutions, and traditions in the same order, limited only by the
degree of progress to which the several tribes have attained, and modi-
fied only to a liinited extent by variations in environment.
If any ethnie classification of mankind is to be established more fun-
damental than that based upon language, it must be uponphysical
characteristics, and such must have been acquired bypro6)und differen-
tiation anterior to the development of languages, arts, customs, institu-
tions, and traditions. The classifications hitherto made on this basis are
unsatisfactory, and no one now receives wide acceptance. Perhaps
further research will clear up doubtful matters and give an acceptable
grouping or it may be that such research will result only in exhibiting
the futility of the effort.
The history of man, from the lowest tribal condition to the highest
national organization, has been a history of constant and multifarious
admixture of strains of blood; of admixture, absorption, and destruc-
tion of languages with general progress toward unity; of the diffusion
_r_ I~
of arts by various processes of acculturation; and of admixture aud re-
ciprocal diffusion of customs, institutions, and traditions. Arts, cus-
toms, institutions, and traditions extend beyond thé boundaries of lan-
guages and serve to obscure them, and the admixture of strains of blood
has obscured primitive ethnie divisions, if such existed.
If the physical classificationfails, the most fundamental grouping left
is that based on language but for the reasons already mentioned and
others of like character, the classificationof languages is not, to the full
extent, a classification of peoples.
It may be that the uuity of the human race is a fact so profound that
all attempts at a fundamental classificationto be used in ail thé depart-
ments of anthropology will fail, and that there will remain multifarious
groupings for thé multifarious purposes of the science; or, otherwise
expressed, that languages, arts, customs, institutions, and traditions
may be classified, and that thé human family will be considered as one

Here again America presents a rich field for the scientinc explorer.
It is now known that each linguistic stock has a distinct mythology, and
as in some of these stocks there are many languages differing to a greater
or less extent, so there are many like differing mythologies.
As in language, so in mythology, investigation has proceeded from
the known to the unknown-from the higher to the lower mythologies.
In each step of the progress of opinion on this subject a particular
phenomenon may be observed. As each lower status of mythology is
discovered it is assumed to be the nrst in origin, the primordial mythol-
ogy, and all lower but imperfectly understood mythologies are inter-
preted as degradations, from this assumed original belief; thus polythe-
ism was interpreted as a degeneracyfrom monotheism; nature worship,
from psychotheism; zoolotry, from ancestor worship; and, in order,
monotheismhas been held to be the original mythology, then polytheism,
then physitheism or nature worship, then ancestor worship.
With a large body of mythologists nature worship is now accepted as
thé primitive religion; and with another body, equally as respectable,
ancestor worshipis primordial. But nature worship and ancestor wor-
ship are concomitant parts of the same religion, and belong to a status
of culture highly advanced and characterized by the invention of con-
ventional pictographs. In North America we have scores or even hun-
dreds of systems of mythology, ail belonging to a lower state of culture.
Let us hope that American students will not fall into this line of error
by assuming that zootheism is the lowest stage, because this is the status
of mythology most widely spread on the continent.
Mythology J.Ù
.lU.JLrU.UJ.Ug~y is jJJ.«)!H)i.VO
primitive JJlUJ.USUjJli~ A J[U~t
philosophy. -t~- mythology-that
is, the body
66 A A EE

of myths current among any peopie ana oeuevea oy tnem–comprises a

system of explanations of ail the phenomena of the universe discerned
by them; but such explanations are al ways mixed with much extraneous
matter, chiefly incidents in the history of thé personages who were the
heroes of mythologie deeds.
Every mythology has for its basis a theology-a system of gods who
are the actors, and to whom are attributed the phenomena to be ex-
plained-for the fondamental postulate in mythology is "some one does
it," such being the essential characteristic of subjective reasoning. As
peoples pass from one stage of culture to another, the change is made
by developing a new sociology with all its institutions, by the develop-
ment of new arts, by evolution of language, and, in a degree no less, by
a change in philosophy; but the old philosophy is not supplanted. The
change is made by internal growth and external accretion.
Fragments of thé older are found in the newer. This older material
in the newer philosophy is often used for oinous purposes by rnany
scholars. One such. use Iwishto mention here. Thenomenelattu'ewhich
has survived from the earlier state is snpposed to be deeply and occultly
symbolic and the mythic narratives to be deeply and occultly allegorie.
In this way search is made for some profoundiymetaphysic cosmogony;
some ancient beginning of the mythology is sought in which mystery is
wisdom and wisdom is mystery.
Thé objective or scientific method of studying a mythology is to col-
lect and collate its phenomena simply as it is stated and understood by
the people to whom it belongs. In tracing back the threads of its his-
torical development the student should expect to find it more simple and
childiike in every stage of his progress.
It is vain to search for truth in mythologie philosophy, but it is im-
portant to search for veritable philosphies, that they may be properly
compared and that thé products of the human mind in its various stages
of culture may be known; important in the reconstruction of the history
of philosophy and important in furnishing necessary data to psychology.
'N'0labor can be more fruitless than the search in mythology for true
philosophy; and the efforts to build up from the terminology and narra-
tives of mythologies an occult symbolism and system of allegory is but
to croate a new and fictitious body of mythology.
There is a symbolism inherent in language and found in all philoso-
phy, true or false, and such symbolism was cnitivated as an occult art in
the early history of civilization when picture-writing developed into con-
ventional writing, and symbolism is an interesting subjectfor study, but
it has been made a beast of burden to carry packs of metaphysic non-


Hère again North America presents a wide and interesting field to

the investigator, for it has within its extent many distinct governments.
and these governments, so far as investigations hâve been
carried, are
found to belong to a type more primitive than any of the &udalities
from which the civilized nations of thé earth sprang, as shown by con-
currently recorded history.
Yet in this history many facts have been discovered suggesting that
feudalities themselves had an origin in something more primitive. In
thé study of the tribes of the world a multitude of sociologie institutions
and customs hâve been discovered, and in reviewing the history of feu-
dalities it is seen that many of their important elements are survivais
from tribal society.
So important are these discoveries that ail human history has to be
rewritten, thé whole philosophy of history reconstructed. Government
does not begin in thé ascendency of chieftains through prowess in war,
but in the slow specialization of executive functions from communal
associations based on kinship. Deliberative assemblies do not start in
councils gathered by chieftains, but councils precede chieftaincies. Law
does not begin in contract, but is the development of custom. Land
tenure does not begin in grants from the monarch or the feudal lord,
but a system of tenure in common by gentes or tribes is developed into
a system of tenure in severalty. Evolution in society has not been from
militancy to industrialism, but from organization based on kinship to
organization based on property, and alongside of the specializations of
the industries of peace the arts of war have been speciaiized.
So, one by one, the theories of metaphysical writers on sociology are
overthrown, and the facts of history are taking their place, and the
philosophy of history is being erected out of materials accumulating by
objective studios of mankind


Psychology has hitherto been chietiy in the hands of subjective phi-

losophers and is the last branch of anthropology to be treated by scien-
tinc methods. Bnt of late years sundry important labors have been
performed with the end in view to give this department of philosophy a
basis of objective faets; especially the organ of the mind has been
studied and the mental operations of animals have been compared with

those of men, and in various other ways the subject is receiving scien-
tific attention.
Thé new psychology in process of construction will have a threefold
basis A physical basis on phenomena presented by the organ of the
mind as shown in man and the lower animals; a linguistic basis as pre-
sented in the phenomena of language, which is the instrument of mind;
a functional basis as exhibited in operations of the mind.
The phenomena of thé third class may bearranged in three subclasses.
First, the operations of mind exhibited in individuals in va-rious stages
of growth, varions degrees of culture, and in varions conditions, normal
and abnormal; second, the operations of mind as exhibited in technol-
ogy, arts, and industries; third, the operations of mind as exhibited in
philosophy; and these are the explanations given of thé phenomena of
theumverse. On such a basis a scientificpshycologymust be erected.

As methods of study are discovered, a vast field opens to the American

scholar. Now, as at ail times in the history of civilization, there has
been no lack of interest in this subject, and no lack of speculative writ-
ers but there is a great want of trained observers and acute investi-
If we lay aside the mass of worthless matter which has been pnblished,
and consider only the material used by the most careful writers, we find
on every hand that conclusions are vitiated by a multitude of errors of
fact of a character the most simple. Yesterday 1 read an article on the
Growth of Sculpture," by Grant Allen, that vas charming; yet, there-
in I found this statement:
Sofar as 1 know, the Polynesiansand many otber savageshave not progressedbe-
yond-the full-facestage of humanportraiture abovedescribed. Next in imik comes
the drawing of a proBle;as we find it among the Eskimos and thé bushmen. Onr
own children soon attain to this level, whiohis one degreehigher than that of the
full face, as it impliesa spécialpoint of~iew, suppresseshalf the features, andis not
diagrammatioor symbolicalof ail the separate parts. Negroesand North American
Indians cannotunderstand profile; they ask what has becomeof theother eye.
Perhaps Mr. Allen derives his idea of the inability of the Indians to
understand profiles from a statement of Catlin, which I have seen used
for this and other purposes by different anthropologists until it seems
to have become a favorite J~c&
Turning to Catlin's Letters and Notes on ~te Manners, Customs, am~
Condition of ~e North Am~MMm Indians, (vol. 2, page 2) we find him
After 1had painted these,and mamymorewhom1have nottime at presentto name,
1 painted the portrait of a celobratedwarrior of the Sioux,by the name of Mah-to-
chee-ga(the Little Bear), who was Tinfortunatelyslain in a few momentsafter the
picture was done by one of his owntribe; and whiohwas very near costingme my
life, for having painted a sideviewof his face,leavingone-halfof it ontof the pictnre,

which ho"l
had 7 been
7,nn., d-ho
the oo"ncà
cause n-Ç +ho. n~ n~·
oftheanray; and snpposed hv+ha
by the T.V'hnlA.i:r111a
whole tribe t.n to n!1:VA
have hawn
intentionaUy left ont by me, as "good for nothing." This -tvasthe last pîoture that I
painted amongst the Sionx, and the last, undonbtediy, that 1 shall ever paint in that
place. So tremendous and so alarming was the excitement about it that my brushes
were instantly put away, ajnd I embarked thé next day on the steamer for the sources
of the Missouri, and was glad to get nnderweigh.

Subsequently, Mr. Catlin elaborates this incident into the "Story of

the Dog" (vol. 2, page 188 et seg).
Now, wbatsoever of truth or of fancy there may be in this story, it
cannot be used as evidence that the Indians could not understand or
interpret profile pietures, for Mr. Catlin himself gives several plates of
Indian pictographs exhibiting profile faces. In my cabinet of picto-

graphs 1 have hundreds of side views made by Indians of the same tribe
of which Mr. Catlin was speaking.
It should never be forgotten that accounts of travelers and other per-
sons who write for the sake of making good stories must be used -with
the utmost caution. Catlin is only one of a thousand such who cam be
used with safety only by persons so thoroughly acquainted with thé

subject that they are able to divide facts actually observed from creations
of fancy. But Mr. Catlin must not be held responsible for illogical de-
ductions even from his facts. I know not how Mr. Allen arrived at his
conclusion, but 1 do know that pictographs in profile are fonnd among
very many, if not all, thé tribes of North America.
Now, for another example. Peschel, in T7te Races of -3~[m (page 151),
Thetransatlantic history of Spain has no case comparable in iniquityto the act of the
Portugnese in Brazil, vho deposited the clothes of scarlet-fever tir smaU-pox patients
on the hunting gronnds of the natives, in order to spread the pestilence among them;
and ofthe North Americans, who used strychnine to poison thé wells which the Eed-
skins were in the habit ofvisiting in the deserts of Utah; of the wives of Anstralian
settlers, who, in times of famine, mixed arsenic with the meal which they gave to-
starving natives.
In a foot-note on the same page, Burton is given as authority for the
statement that the people of thé United States poisoned the wells of the
Referring to Burton, in The City of ~e Saints (page 474), we find
him saying:
The Ynta claim, like the Shoshonee, descent &om an ancientpeople thatimmigrated
into their present seats from the Northwest. During the last thirty years they have
considerably decreased, according to the mountaineers, and have been demoralized
mentally and physioally by the emigrants. Formerly they -were frien(Ily, now they
are often at war with the intrnders..As in Auatratia, arsenic and corrosive sublimate
in springs and provisions have diminished their number.
In the same volume he
Now, why did Burton make this statement~
describes thé MountainMeadow massacre, and gives thé story as related
by the actors therein. It is well known that the men who were engaged
in this affair tried to shield themselves by diligently publishing that it
was a massacre by jmdia.ns incensed at the travelers because they had
poisoned certain springs at which the Indians were wont to obtain their
~jA~j-i.j~j.jLv~~ j.TO THE
d-j~d~ USE
uaj~ OF
j~~t.mn.~jr~iu DATA.

supplies of water. When Mr. Burton was in Sait Lake City he, doubt-
less, heard these stories.
So thé falsehoods of a murderer, told to hide his crime, have gone
into history as facts characteristic of the pebple of the United States in
their treatment of thé Indians. In thé paragraph quoted from Burton
some other errors occur. The Utes and Shoshonis do not claimto have
"descended from an ancient people that immigrated into their present
seats from the Northwest. Most of these tribes, perhaps ail, hâve myths
of their creation in thé very regions now inhabited by them.
Ag'ain, these Indians have not been demoralized mentally or physic-
ally by the emigrants, but have made great progress toward civiliza-
The whole account of thé Utes and Shoshonis given in this portion of
thé book is so mixed with error as to be valueless, and bears intrinsic
evidence of having been derived from ignorant frontiersmen.
Turning now to the first volume of Spencer's Principles of Sociology
(page 149),we find him saying
Andthusprepared,we needfeelno surpriseonbeingtold that thé ZuniIndians
reqture'"mnoli facialcontortionandbodilygesticulation to mabetheirsentences
;"tlia,tthe languageof the Bnshmajineedsso manysigns to ebe
out its meaning,that "they areunintolligiblein the dark and that the Arapahos
"oan hardlyconverse with oneanofherin the dark."
When people of different languages meet, especially if they speak
languages of different stocks, a means of communication is rapidly es-
tablished between them, comppsed partly of signs and partly of oral
words,the latter taken from one or both of the languages, but curiously
modifiedso as hardly to be recognized. Such conventional languages
are usually called "jargons," and their existence is rather brief.
When people communicatewith each other in this manner, oral speech
is greatly assisted by sign-Ianguage, and it is true that darkness im-
pedes their communication. Thé great body of frontiersmen in America
who associate more or less with the Indians depend upon jargon meth-
ods of communicationwith them; and so we find that varions writers
and travelers describe Indian tongues by the characteristics of this
jargon speech. Mr. Spencer usually does.
Thé Zuni and the .Arapaho Indians have a language with a complex
grammar and copionsvocabulary well adapted to the expression of thé
thoughts incident to their customsand status of culture, and they have no
more difficultyin conveying their thoughts with their langnage by night
than Englishmen have in conversing without gaslight. An example
from each of three eminent authors has been taken to illustrate the
worthlessness of a vast body of anthropologie material to which even
the best writers resort.
Anthropology needs trained devotees with philosophie methods and
keen observation to study every tribe and nation of the globe almost
de Moco/and from materials thus collected a science maybe established.





Figurai.–Qmogozeon.ordead-b.onae. 94
3.–Pima.bnria.l- 98
3.–Towersofailence- 105
4.–Towersofailencu. 106
6.–Alas~nmummies- 135
6.–Bnria.iums.– 138
7.–IntUancenietery- 139
8.–&ra,vepeD. 141
9.–Gtra,vepen- 141
10.–Toikotmorema.tion. 145
11.–Eskimolodge-buria, 154
M.–Burialhonses- 154
M.–Innuitgra~ve. 156
14.–Inga.likgrave. 157
15.–Da.~ota.soa.fFold-buria.l- 158
16.–O~ering food to thé dead- 159
17.–Depositmgtheoorpse. 160
18.–Tree-buria.l. 161
19.–ChIppewa.soa~Fold-bnria.l. 162
30.–Soa.n&ca.tiona.tbnrial- 184
Sl.–A.Tistra.liamBcafFold-burial. 166
38.–Prepa,rmgthedead. 167
33.–Oa.noe-bm-ia,– 171
84.–Twa.na.ca.noe-bTU'ial- 172
35.–Postsforbnria.lca.noos, 173
36.–Tenton.soitB'old. 174
37.–House-bniiaJ. 175
38.–Houae-buria.1-– 175
39.–Oa.noe-buiia.1. 178
30.–MonriMng-cra.dIe- 181
31.–LannoMngthebtu'ia.l orad!e 182
33.–CMppewa.widow. 185
33.–Ghostgamble. 195
34.–Fignredplumstones- 196
?.–WiimingtIu'ow,N'o.l- 196
36.–WinniBgtIu-ow,No.3- 196
37.–Winmngthrow,N'o.3- 196
38.–Winnmgthrow,No.4- 196
39.–Winmngthro~No.5.– 196
40.–Wilmingthrov, No. 6. 196
41.–Ai]xiMa,i'ytIiiov,No.l. 196
43.–Auxîlia.rythrov, No.3. 196
43..–AuxiIia.ryt'!irow, No. 3. 196
44.–A.uxiIia,TytIirow, No. 4.– 196
45.–ATlxilia.rythrow, No. 5- 196
46.–BuBLalposts. 197
47.–GM.ve&'e. --uu 198





In view of the fact that thé present paper will doubtless reach many
readers who may not, in consequence of the limited edition, have seen
the preliminary volume on mortuary customs, it seems expédient to re-
produce in great part the prefatory remarks which served as an intro-
duction to that work; for the reasons then urged, for the immédiate
study of this subject, still exist, and as time flies on become more and
more important.
The primitive manners and customs of the North American Indians
are rapidly passing away under influences of civilization and other
disturbing elements. In view of this fact, it becomes thé duty of all
interested in preserving a record of these customs to labor assiduously,
while there is still time, to collect such data as may be obtainable.
This seems thé more important now, as within the last ten years an
almost universal interest has been awakened in ethnologie research,
and thé desire for more knowledge in this regard is constantly increas-
ing. A wise and liberal government, recognizing the need, has ably
seconded the efforts of those engaged in such studies by liberal grants
from thé public fonds nor is encouragement wanted from the hundreds
of scientinc societies throughout thé civilized globe. The public press,
too-the mouth-piece of the people-is ever on the alert to scatter broad-
cast such items of ethnologie information as its corps of well-trained
reporters can secure. To induce further laudable inquiry, and assist ail
those who may be willing to engage in the good work, is the object ofthis
further paper on the mortuary customs of North American Indians,
and it is hoped that many more laborers may through it be added to
thé extensive and honorable list of those who have already contributed.
It would appear that thé subject chosen should awaken great interest,
since the peculiar méthods followed by different nations and the gréât
importance attached to burial ceremonies have formed an almost inva-
riable part of ail works relating to the différent peoples of our globe;
in fact, no particular portion of ethnologie research has claimed more
attention. In view of these facts, it might seem almost a work of super-

erogation to continue a further examination of the subject, for nearly

every author in writing of our Indian tribes makes some mention of
burial observances; but these notices are scattered far and wide on the
sea of this spécial literature, and many of the accounts, unless supported
by corroborative evidence, may be considered as entirely unreliable.
To bring together and harmonize conflicting statements, and arrange
collectively what is known of the subject, has been the writer's task,
and an enormous mass of information has been acquired, the method of
securing which has been already described in the preceding volume and
nead not be repeated at this time. It has seemed nndesirable at present
to enter into any discussion regarding thé causes which may have led
to the adoption of any particular form of burial or coincident ceremonies,
the object of this paper being simply to furnish illustrative examples,
and request further contributions from observers for, notwithstanding
the large amount of material already at hand, much still remains to be
donc, and carefui study is needed before any attempt at a thorough
analysis of mortuary customs can be made. It is owing to these facts
and from the nature of the material gathered that the paper must be
considered more as a compilation than an original effort, the writer
having done little else than supply the thread to bind together the
accounts furnished.
It is proper to add that ail the material obtained will eventually be
embodied in a quarto volume, forming oné of the series of Contributions
to North American Ethnology prepared under the direction of Maj. J.
W. Powell, Director of the Bureau of Ethnology, Smithsonian Institu-
tion, from whom, since thé inception ofthe work, most constant encour-
agement and advice has been received, and to whom all American
ethnologists owe a debt of gratitude which can never be repaid.
Having thus called attention to the work, the classification of the
subject may be given, and examples furnished of the burial ceremonies
among different tribes, calling especial attention to similar or almost
analogous customs among the peoples of the Old World.
For our present purpose thé following provisional arrangement of
burials may be adopted, although further study may lead to some mod-

Ist. By INHMCA.TIONin pits, graves, or holes in the ground, stone
graves or cists, in mounds, beneath or in cabins, wigwams, houses or
lodges, or in caves.
2d. By BMBALMMBNT or a process of mummifying, thé remains being
afterwards placed in the earth, caves, mounds, boxes on scaffolds, or in
3d. By DEPOSITIONof remains in urns.
4th. "R"TTCt1ïDUA1""11';1
'DTTDTAT +1,,0.
-nlnnnit 1""1"111"Tn"
By SURFACE BUBIAL,the remains being placed in hollow trees or
logs, pens, or simply covered with earth, or bark, or rocks forming cairns.
5th. By OBEMATION, or partial burning, generally on thé surface of
the earth, occasionallybeneath, the resulting bones or ashes being placed
in pits in the ground, in boxes placed on scaffolds or trees, in urns,
sometimes scattered.
6th. By AEBIALSEPULTURE, the bodies being left in lodges, houses,
cabins, tents, deposited on scaffoldsor trees, in boxes or canoës, thé two
latter receptacles supported on scaffoldsor posts, or placed on the ground.
Occasionally baskets have been used to contain the remains of ehildren,
these being hung to trees.
7th. By AQUATicBUBiAL,beneath the water, or in canoës, which
were turned adrift.
Thèse heads might, perhaps, be further subclivided, but the above
seem suf&cientfor ail practical needs.
The use of the term &œ! throughout this paper is to be understood in
its literal significance, the word being derived from the Teutonic Anglo-
Saxon &~CK,"to conceal or hide away.
In giving descriptions of different burials and attendant ceremonies,
it has been deemed expedient to introduce entire accounts as furnished,
in order to preserve continuity of narrative, and in no case has thé re-
latons language been changed except to correct manifest -umintentiona-1
errors of spelling.

jpjr BCB~r.
The commonest mode of burial among North American Indiàns has
been that of interment in the ground, and this has taken place in a
number of different ways the following will, however, serve as good
examples of thé process
One of the simplest forms is thus noted by Schoolcraff;
TheMohawksofNM'Yorkmadea largeroundholein whichthe bodywasplaced
uprightor uponits haunches,after whichit was coveredwith timber,to support
théearth.~-Iiiohthey layover,andtherebykeptthe bodyfrombeingpressed. They
thenraisedthe eaj'thin a roundhill overit. Theyalwaysdressedthé corpsein all
its finery,andput wampumandotherthingsintothe gravewithit; a,md therelations
snfferednot grassnor anyweedto grownponthe grave,andfrequentlyvisitedit and
InJonesfis the following interesting accountfromLawson~ of the
burial customs ofthe Indians formerly inhabiting the Carolinas:
Amongtho Carolinatribes the burial of the deadwas accompanied with special
ceremonies, thé expenseandformalityattendantnponthe fnneralaccording-withthe
ranb of the doceased.ThecorpsewasËratplacedin a canehurdleand depositedin
*Hist.Ind.TribesofU. S.,1853,pt. 3,p. 193.
tAntiq.ofSoutliernIhdiana,1873,pp.108-110. t Hist.of Carolina,1714,p. 181.

an onthonso made for the purpose, where it was suffered to remain for a day and a
night, gnarded and moumed over by thé nearest relatives with disheveled hair. Those
who are to omoiato at the fnneral go into the town, and from the backs of thé first
young men they meet strip s)ioh blankets and matchcoats as they deem suitable for
their purpose. lu thèse thé dead body is wrapped and then covered with two or three
mats made of rushes or cane. The coffin is made of woven reeds or hollow canes tied
fast at both ends. When evorything is propared for the interment, the corpse is car-
ricd from the house in whieh it has been lying into the orchard of peach-trees and is
thero deposited in amother hnrdio. Seated upon mats are there congregated thé family
and tribe of the deceased and invited gnests. The medioine man, or conjurer, having
onjoined silence, then prononnces a funeral oration, during which he reconnts the
exploits of the deceased, his valor, sbiU, love of oonntry, property, and influence;
itlludes to thé void cansed. by his death, and counsels those who remain to snpply his
place by following in his footstops; pictnres thé happiness ho will enjoy in thé land
ofspiritsto which he has gone, and conoindes his address by an allusion to-tho promi-
nent traditions ofhis tribe.

Let us hère pause to remind the reader that this custom has prevailed
throughout the civilized world up to the present day-a custom, in thé
opinion ofma.ny, "more honored in the breach than in the observance."
At last [says Mr. La.wson], thé Corpso is brought away from that Hurdle to tho
Grave by four young Mon, attondod by the Relations, the King, old Men, and ail thé
Nation. When they corne to thé Sepulcre, ~vhioh is abont six foot deep and eight foot
long, having at each end (that is, at the Head and Foot) a Light-Wood or Pitch-Pine
Forb driven close down the sides of thé Grave firmly into thé Ground (these two Forks
are to contain a Eidgo-Polo, as you shall nnderstand presently), before they lay thé
Corps into the Grave, they cover thé bottom two or three time over with tho Baric of
Trees; then thoy let down the Corps (with two Belts that the Indians carrythoir Bur-
dehs withal) very loisnrelyupon the said Bar~N then they lay over a Pôle of thé same
Wood in thé two Forks, and having a great many Pieces of Pitch-Pine Logs abont
two Foot and a half long, they stick them in the sides of the Grave down each End
and near the Top thereof, where the other Ends lie in the Ridge-Pole, so thatthey are
deolining like the Roof of a Honse. These being very thiok plac'd, thoy cover them
[many times double] with Bark; then they throw thé Earth thereonthat came ont of
thé Grave and beat it down very Ërm. By this Means thé doad Body lies in a Vault,
nothing touohing him.
After a time the body is taken up, thé bones cleaned, and deposited in
an ossuary called thé Qniogozon.
Figure 1, after De Bry and Lafitau, represents what the early writers
called thé Quiogozon, or charnel-house, and allusions will be found to it
in other parts of this volume. Discrepancies in these accounts impair
greatly their value, for one author says that bones were deposited, another r
dried bodies.
It will be seen from thé following account, fitrnishecl by M. B. Kent,
relating to the Sacs and Foxes (07~-s~-&e-Mc&) of the Nehema Agency,
N'ebraska, that these Indians were carefu) in burying their dead to pre-
vent the earth coming in contact with the body, and this custom has
been followed by a number of different tribes, as will be seen by exem-
ples given fnrther on.
Ancient 6M)'M!.–Thé body was buried in a grave made abont 2~ &et deep, and was
laid always with the head towards the eaat, the burial taking place as soon after death
aspossible. Thegravewaspreparedbypnttingbarkinthebottomofitbeforetheoorpse
--=~~ ''ê

or DeadHouse.

was deposited, a.pla,nl: covering made and secured some distance above thé body.
The plank was made by splitting trees, nntil interconrse with the whites enabledthem
to obtain sawed lumber. The corpse was always enveloped in a blanket, and pre-
pared as for a, longjourney in life, no coffin being used.
JtMerK !{r:a!.–This tribo now usually bury in comnsj rude ones constructed by
themselves, still depositing thé body in the grave with the head towards the east.
AmeKt /<tKe)'a!co'emomes.–Every relative of tho deceased had to throw aome arti-
cle in thé grave, either food, clothing, or other material. There was no rule stating
the nature of what was to bo added to thé collection, simply a requirement that some-
thing must be deposited, if it were only a piece of soiled and faded calico. After the
corpse was lowered into the grave some brave addressed the dead, instructing him to
walk directly westward, that he would soon discover moccasin tracks, which he must
follow until he came to a great river, whioh is the river of death; when there he would
ûnd a pole across the river, which, if he has been honest, upright, and good, will be
straight, upon which he could readily cross to thé other side; but if his life had been
one of -wMkednessand sin, the polo would be very crooked, and in the attempt to cross
upon it he would be precipitated into thé turbulent stream and lost forever. The
brave also told him if he crossed thé river in safety the Great Father would receive
him, take out his old brains, give him new ones, and then ho would have reached the
happy hunting grounds, always be happy and have etemal life. After bnrial a feast
was always called, and a portion of the food of which each and every relative was
partaking was burnedto fnrnish subsistence to the spirit upon its journey.
~Mb<!e)'M cefMMMfs.–Provisions are rarely put into thé grave, and no por-
tion of what is prepared for the feast subsequent to burial is burned, although the
feast is continued. AU the address delivered by thé brave over thé corpse after being
deposited in tho grave is omited. Aprominent feature of ail ceremonies, eitherfuneral
or religions, consists of feasting accompanied with music and dancing.
AtOteKt ?):OK)'H!Hy o&sa'attoes.–Thé female relations allowed their hair to hang ·
entirely unrestrained, clothed themselves in the most nnpresentable attire, the ]atter
of whiohthé males also do. Men blacked the whole face for a period of tendays after a
deathin the family, whilethe women blaoked oniytheoheeks; thefacesofthe children
were Nacked for throe months; they were also required to fast for thé same length of
time, the fasting to consist of eating but one meal per day, to be made entirely of
hominy, and partaken of about sunset. It was believed that this fasting would en-
able thé child to dream of coming ovents and prophesy what was to happen in the
future. The extent and oorreotness of prophétie vision depended npon how faithfully
thé or(leal of fasting hadbeen observed.
.Mbt!e)'Kmom'HtH~o6se)'sa:)tce'–Many of thèse of the past are continued, such as
wearing the hair unrestraineJ, wearing uncouth apparel, blackin g faces, and fasting
of children, and they are adhered to with as much tenacity as many of thé professing
Christians belonging to tho evangelical churches adhere to their practices, which con-
stitute mere forms, thé intrinsic value of which can very reasonably be called in
Thé Creeks and Seminoles of Florida, according to Schoolcraff; made
thé graves of their dead as follows
When one of the family dies, the relatives bury thé corpse about four feet deep in
a round hole dug directly under the cabin or rock wherever ho died. The corpse is
placed in the hole in a sitting posture, with a blanket wrapped about it, and thé legs
bent under and tied together. If a.warrior, he is painted, and his pipe, ornaments, and
warlike appendages are deposited with him. The grave is then covered with canes
tied to a hoop round the top of the hole, then a Brm layer of day, snSicient to support
the weight of a. man. The relations howl londiy and moum publicly for four day. If
the deceased has been a man of eminent character, the family immediately remove

"Hist. Ind. Tribes ofU. S., 1855,pt. 5, p. 270.


remove from thA

diatoly frn-
iH!t."lv the hnnan
house in which 'hp.
in mhireh he ia
is hnriarl
buried aaad
and ~wrnnt
erect n,
a naw
new nna_ with a.a bo-
one, with hn_

liefthat where thé bones of their dead are deposited thé place is always attended by
goblins and chimeras dire.
Dr. W.
0. Boteler, physician to the Otoe Indian Agency, Gage
County, Nebraska, in a personal communication to the writer, furnishes
a most interesting acconnt of the burial ceremonies of this tribe, in
which it may be seen that graves are prepared in a manner similar to
those already mentioned:
The Otoe and Missouri tribes of Indians are now located in southern Gage County,
Nebraska, on a reservation of 43,000 acres, unsurpassed in beauty of location, nat-
ural resources, and adaptability for prosperous agriculture. This pastoral people,
thongh in the midst of civilization, have departed but little from the rude practice
and customs of a nomadic life, and here may be seen and stuclied those interesting
dramas as vividly and satisfactorily as upon the remote frontier.
During my resiclence among this people on different occasions, I have had thé op-
portnnity of witnessing the Indian bnria.Is and many quaint ceremonies pertaining
When it is found that thé vital spark ia wavering in an Otoe subject, thé pre-
paration of the burial costume is immediately begun. The near relatives of the
dying Indian surround the humble bedside, and by lond lamentations and much weep-.
ing manifest a grief which is truly commensurate with thé intensity of Indian devo-
tion and attachment.
While thus expressing before thé near departed their grief at thé sad separation im-
pending, the Indian women, or friendly braves, lose no time in equipping him or her
with the most ornate clothes and ornaments that are available or in immediate pos-
session. It is thus that the departed Otoe is enrobed in death, in articles of his own
sélection and by arrangements of his own taste and dictated by his own tongue. It
is eustomary for thé dying Indian to dictate, ere his departure, thé propriety or im-
propriety of thé accustomed sacrifices. In some cases there is a double and in others
no sacrifice at ail. Thé Indian women then prepare to ont away their hair; it is ac-
complished with soissors, cutting close to the scalp at the side and behind.
The preparation of thé dead for burial is condnoted with great solemnity and care.
Bead-work the most ornate, expensive blankets and ribbons comprise the fmieral
shroud. The dead, being thus enrobed, is placed inarecumbent posture at thé most
conspicuous part of the lodge and viewed in rotation by the mourning relatives
previonsly sutnmoned by a courier, ail preserving uniformity in thé piercing screams
which would seem to have been learned by rote.
An apparent service is then oondnoted. Thea.gedmenofthetnbe.a.rrangedinaoir-
cle, chant a peculiar funeral dirge around one of their number, keeping time upon a
drum or some rude cooking-utensil.
At irregular intervals an aged relative will arise and dance excitedly aronnd thé
central person, vociferating, and with wild gesture, tomahawk inhand, imprecate the
evil spirit, which he drives to the landwhere the sungoes down. The evil spirit being
thus effectually banished, the mourning gradually subsides, blending into succeeding
scenes of feasting and refreshment. Thé bnrial feast is in every respect equal in rich-
ness toits accompanying ceremonies. All whoassemble aresupplied with cookedveni-
son, hog, buffalo, or beef, regular waiters distributing alike hot cakes soaked in grease
and oonëe or water, as the case may be.
Frequently during this stage of the oeremony the most aged Indian present will sit
in the central circle, and in a continuons and doleful tone narrate the acts of valor in
thé life of the departed, enjoining fortitude and bravery upon all sitting around as an
essential qualification for admittance to the land where the Great Spirit reigns. When
the burial feast is well-nigh completed, it is onstoma.ry for thé aurviving friends to

present thé berea.ved -cJfamily 'nrith nsefnl articles of domestic

~w, needs, .u
such as calico
toit, Bannel eloth, robes, and not unfreqnently ponies or horses. After thé conclu-
sion of the ceremonies at thé lodge, thé body is carefully placed in a wagon and, with
an escort of all friends, relatives, and acquaintances, conveyed to the grave previously
prepared by some near relation or friend. When a, wagonis used, the immédiate rela-
tives occnpy it with the corpse, which is propped in a semi-sitting posture before
the use of wagons among the Otoes, it was necessary to bind the body of the deceased
upon a horse and then conveyhimto his last resting place among his inends. Inpast
days when buNalo were more available, and a tribal hunt was more frequently in-
dulged in, it is said that those dying on the way were bound upon horses and thus
frequently carried several hundred miles for interment at thé bnrial places of their
At thé graveyardof thé Indians the ceremony partakes of a double nature; upon
thé one hand it is sanguinary amd cruel, and npon the other blended with the deepest
grief and most heartfelt sorcow. Before the interment of the dead the chattels of
the deceased are unioaded from the wagons or nnpacked from the backs of ponies and
carefully arranged in: thé vault-like tomb. The bottom, which is wider than the top
(graves here being dug like an ihverted fnnnel), is spread with straw or grass matting,
woven generally by the Inclian women of the tribe or some near neighbor. The sides
are then carefully hung with handsome shawls or blankets, andtrunks, with domestiec
articles, pottery, &o., of less importance, are piled around in abnndance. The sacri-
fices are next inaugurated. A pony, first designated by the dying Indian, is led aside
and strangled by men hanging to either end of a rope. Sometimes, but not always,
a dog is likewise strangled, the heads of both animais being an.bseonemtly.laid npon thé
Indian's grave. The body, which is now often placed in a plain coffin, is loweredinto
the grave, and if a oof8n is nsed the friends take their parting look at the deceased.
before closing it at thé grave. After lowering, a saddle and bridle, blankets, dishes,
&c., are placed upon it, the monrning ceases, and the Indians prepare to close thé
grave. It should be remembered, among the Otoe and Missouri Indiàns dirt is not
nlled in upon the body, but simply rounded up from the surface npon stout logs that
are aoonrately fitted over the opening of the grave. After thé burying is completed,
a distribution of the property of thé deceased takes place, the near relatives receiv-
ing everything, from the merest trifle to the tent and horses, leaving the immediate
family, wife and chiidren or father out-door pensioners.
Althongh the same generosiiiy is not observed towards the whites assisting in fu-
neral rites, it is nniversally practiced as regards Indians, and poverty's lot is borne by
the survivors with a fortitude and resignation which in ihem amounts to duty, and
marks a higher grade of intrinsic worth than pervades whites of like advantages and
conditions. We are told in the Old Testament Seriptures, "four days and four nights
should the nms b~u-n," &o. In fuInUment of this sacred injunotion, we find the mid-
night vigil carefully kept by these Indians four -days and four nights at thé graves of
their departed. A small nre is Jdndied for the pnrpose near the grave at snnset,
where the nearest relatives convene and maintain a continuons lamentation till the
morning dawn. There was an ancient tradition that at the expiration of this time
thé Indian arose, and monnting his spirit pony, galloped off to the happy hunt-
ing-gronnd beyond.
Eappily, with the advancement of Christianity these superstitions have faded, and
the living sacrifices are partially continued only from a belief that by parting with
their most cherished and valuable goods they ptopitiate the Great Spirit for thé sins
committed during the life of the deceased. This, though at first revolting, we find
was the practice of our own forefathers, offering up as bumt offerings the lamb or
the ox; hence we cannot censure this people, bnt, from a comparison of conditions,
credit them with a more strict observance of our Holy Book than pride and sednctive
ons permit ofus.
7 A E

From a. careful review of the ffhole of their attendant ceremonies a.remarkable aim-
ilarity can be marked. Thé arrangement of thé corpse preparatory to interment, thé
funeral feast, thé local service bythe aged fathers, are ail observances that have been
The Pimasof Arizona, actuated by apparently thé same motives that
led the more eastern tribes to endeavor to prevent contact of earth with
the corpse, adopted a plan which has been described by Capt. F. B.
Grossman,* and thé accomitis corroborated by M. Alphonse Pinartt
andBanoroft.t 1
The Pimas tie the bodies-of their dead with ropes, passing thé latter around. their
neck and under the kneea, amd then drawing them tight nntil the body is doubled up
and foroed into a sitting position. They dig thé graves from four to Eve feet deep and
perfectly round (about two feet in diameter), and them hollow ont to one side of the
bottom of this grave a sort of vault large enough to contain the body. Here the body
is deposited, the grave is filled np level with thé ground, and poles, trees, or pieces of
timber placed nponthe grave to protect the remains from coyotes.

Fic. 2.-Pimabnrial.

Burials usually take place at night without much ceremony. Thé mourners chant
dnring the burial, but signa of grief are rare. The bodies of their dead are buried, if
possible, immediately after death has taken place and tlie graves are generally pre-
paredbefore tbe patients die. Sometimes sick persons(forwiLom thé graves had aiready
been dug) xecover. In such cases thé graves are left open until the persons for whom
they are intended die. Open graves of this kind can be seen in several of their burial
grounds. Places of burial are selected some distance from the village, and, if possi-
ble, in a grove of mesquite trees.
Immediately after the remains have been bnried, the house and personal effects of
the deceased are burned, and his horses and cattle killed, thé meat being cookedas a

*Rep. Smithaonian Institution, 1871, p. 407.

fVoy. dans l'Arizona, in Bull. Soc. de Géographie, 1877.
tNat. Races Pacif. States 1874, vol. 1, p. 555.

.+r ~+i, -1- 1.

repast for the monrnera. The nearest relatives of the deceased as a sign of their sor-
row remain within their village for weeks, and sometimes
months the men ont off
about six inches of their long hair, while thé women oit their hair
quite short.
The cnstom of destroying aU the proporty of the hnsband when he dies
ishes the widow and children and prevents inerease of stock. The women of the
well aware that they will be poor should their husbands and that then
die, they will
have to provide for their children by their own
exertions, do not care to have many
children, and infanticide, both before and afterbirth, prevails to a great extent. This
is not considered a crime, and oldwomen of the tribe practice it.
again after a year's mourning for her first hnsband; but having children no man will
take her for a wife and thna borden himself with her ohiidren. Widows
generally cnl-
tivate a small piece of gronnd, and friends and relatives (men) plow the
gronnd for

Fig2,dra,wnfrom Oapta.mG-rossman's description bymyfriend Dr.

W. J. Eoffman, -wHl convey a good idea of this mode of burial.
Stephen Powers describes a similar mode of grave preparation.among
the Ynki of California:
The YnM bury their dead in a sitting posture. They dig a hole six feet
deep some-
time3, and at the bottom of it "coyote" nnder, making a little recess inwhioh the
corpse is deposited.
The Comanches of Indian Territory (JVëm, ~ce, or
us, ~eop~e), according
to Dr. Fordyce Grinnell, of the Wichita Agenoy, Indian
Territory, go to
the opposite extrême, so far as the protection of thé dead from the sur-
rounding earth is concerned. The accoant as received is given entire,
as much to illustrate this point as others of interest.
When a OomajMho is dying, while thé death-rattle may yet be
faintly heard in the
throat, and the natural warmth has not departedfrom the body, the loieea are strongly
bant upon the ohest, and the legs flexed upon the thighs. The arms are also B.exed
upon each side of thé chest, and thé head béni: forward upon the bnees. A lariat, or
rope, is now used to nrmiy bind thé limbs and body in this position. A blanket is
then wrapped around thé body, and this again tightly corded, so that thé
ance when ready for bnrial is that of an almost ronnd and compact body, very unlike
the composed pall of his Wichita or Caddo brother. The body is then taken and
placed in a saddie npon a pony, in a sitting posture a sqna'iv usnally riding behind,
thongh sometimes one on either side of the horse, holds the body in position until the
place of burial is reached, when the corpse is literally tumbled into thé excavation
selected for thé purpose. The deceased is oniy accompanied by two or three
or enongh to perform the little labor bestowed npon the burial. The body is taken
due west of thf lodge or village of the bereaved, and usually one of the deep washes
or heads of canons in whioh the Comanche country abounds is selected, and thé
body thrown in, withont spécial reference to position. With this are deposited thé
bows and arrows; these, however, are first broken. The saddle is also placed in thé
grave, together with many of thé personal valuables of thé departed. The body is
then covered over with sticks and earth, and sometimes stones are
placed over the
ca-MMtKes.–The best pony owned by the deceased ia brought to the grave
and killed, that the departed may appear well mounted and caparisoned among his
fellows in the other world. Formerly, if the deceased were a chief or man of oon-
aeqnenoe and had large herds of ponies, many were Idlled, sometimes amonnting to
200 or 300 head in nnmber.
The Comanches illustrate thé importance of providing a good pony for the convoy

Cont. to N. A. Ethnol., 1877, vol. iii, p. 133.


of thé deceased to thé happy-grounds by the following story, which is current among
both Comanches and Wichitas
"A few years since, an old Comanche died who had no relatives and who was quite
kind of a pony would serve to
poor. Some of the tribe concluded that almost any
at his grave an old, ill-con-
transport him to the next world. They therefore killed
of this friendless one,
ditioned, lop-eared horse. But a few weeks after the burial
lo and behold he returned, riding this same old worn-ont horse, weary and hungry.
and asked for some-
He first appeaiedat the Wichita camps, wherehe was well known,
thing to eat, but his strange appearance, withsunken eyes a,nd2io]low cheeks,
consternation 9,11who saw him, and they fied from his presence. Finally one bolder
than the rest placed a piece of meat on the end of a lodge-pole and extended it to him.
He soon appeared at his own camp, creating, if possible, even more dismay than
Comanches leaving
among thé Wichitas, amd this resulted in both Wichitas and
their villages and moving emm<MM to a place on Rush Creek, not far distant from the
present site of Fort Sill.
"When the tronbled spirit from the sunsetting world was questioned why he thus
oameto the
appeared among the inhabitants of earth, he made reply that whon he
enter npon such an
gates of paradise the keepers would on no acconnt permit him to
ill-oonditioned beast as that wMch bore him, and thus in sadness he returned to
haunt the homes of those whose stinginess and greed permitted him no botter equip-
ment. Since this no Comanche has been permitted to depart with thé sun to his
chambers in the west withont a steed which in appearance should do honor alike to
thé rider and his ûiends."
The body is buried at the sunsetting side of the camp, that the spirit may accom-
starts on its journey the fol-
pany thé setting sun to the world beyond. The spirit
thé journey is not
lowing night after death has taken place; if this ooonr at night,
began until the next night.
Mourning o!'se)'usncM.–AIlthé effects of the deceased, the tents, blankets, olothes,
which have been baried
treasures, and whatever of value, aside from the articles
with the body, are burned, so that the family is left in poverty. This practice haa
extended even to the burning of wagons and harness since aome of the civilized
habits have been adopted. It is believed that tliese ascend to heaven in the smoke, and
will thus be of service to the owner in the other world. Immediately upon the death
ofamemberofthehousehold, therelatives begin a peculiar wailing, and the immediate
members of thé family take off their cnstomary apparel and clothe themselves in
of the body, nntil
rags and ont themselves across the arms, breast, and other portions
sometimes a fond wife or mother faints from loss of blood. This scarification is usually
accomplished with a knife, or, as in earlier days, with a flint. Hired monrners
employed at times who are in no way related to the family, but who are accomplished
in the art of crying for thé dead. These are invariably women. Those nearly related
to thé departed, out-oSthe long looks from the entire head, while those more distantly
case of the
related, or special friends, eut the hair only from one side of the head. In
death of a chief, the young warriors also cut thé hair, usually from the left side of
the head.
After the first few days of continued grief, the mourning is conducted more espec-
ially at sunrise and sunset, as thé Comanches venerate thé snn; and the monrning at
thèse seasons is kept up, if the death ooonrred in summer, nntil the leaves fall, or, if
in the winter, nntil they reappear.
It is a matter of some interest to note that the preparation of the
is almost identical with
corpse and the grave a.mong the Comanches
thé burial customs of some of the African tribes, and. the baling of the
body with ropes or cords is a wide and common usage of savage peoples.
The hiring of mourners is also a practice whieh has been very preva-
lent from remotest periods of time.


The foUowmg interesting account of burial among the Pueblo In-

dians of San Geronimo de Taos, New Mexico, furnished by Judge An-
thony Joseph, will show in a manner how civilized customs have be-
come engrafted upon those of a more barbarie nature. It should be re-
membered that the Pueblo people are next to the Cherokees, Choctaws,
and others in thé Indian Territory, the most civilized of our tribes.
According to Judge Joseph, these people call themselves Wee-~MM&s.

Thèse are commonly known to thé whites as Ftfos. The manner of burial by these
Indians, both ancient and modern, as far as 1 can ascertain-from information ob-
tained from thé most intelligent of thé tribe, is that the body of the dead is and bas
been always buried in the gronnd in a horizontal position with the nat bottom of the
grave. The grave is generally dug out of the ground in thé usnal and ordinary man-
ner, being about 6 feet deep, 7 feet long, and about 2 feet -tvide. It is generally
finished after receiving its occupant by being leveled with the hard gronnd around
it, never leaving, as is cnstomary with the whites, a monnd to mark the spot. This
tribe of Pueblo Indians never cremated their dead, as they do not Ioiow, even by tradi-
tion, that it was ever donc or attempted. There are no ntensils or implements placed
in the grave, but there are a gréât many Inclian ornaments, snoh as beada of ail colora,.
sea-shells, hawb-bells, round looking-glasses, and a profusion of ribbons of ail imagin-
able colors; then they paint the body with red vermilion and white chalk, giving it a
mostfantaatioaswellasindioronsappearanoe. They aiso place a variety of foodinthe
grave as awise provision for its long jonmeyto thé happyhnnting-grotindbeyond the
The funeral ceremonies of this tribe are very peculiar. Firat, after death, thé body
is laid ont on a fanoybnNalo robe spread ont on the gronnd, then they dress the body
in the best possible manner in their style of dress if a male, they put on lus beaded
leggins and embroidered saco, and his fancy danoing-mocoasins, and his largo brass or
shell ear-rings; if a female, they put on her-best manta or dress, tied aronnd the
waistwitha silk sash, put on her feet her fancy danoing-moccasins; her fos<a'!0around
her neck, her brass or shell ear-rings inher ears, and with her tressed blackhair tiecl up
withredtape or ribbon, this complètes her wardrobefor her long andhappyohase. When
they get through dressing the body, they place about a dozen lighted candles aronnd
it, and keep them buming oontinually nntil the body is bnried. As soon as thé can-
dies are lightecl, the veloris, orwake, commences; thé bodylies in state for abouttwenty-
fonr honrs, and in that time ail the friends, relatives, and neighbors of the deceased
or "tM/'ttmM"visit the wake, chant, sing, and pray for the soni of the same, and tell
one another of thé good deeds and traits of valor and courage manifested by thé de-
ceased dnring his earthly career, and at intervals in their praying, singing, &o.,
some near relative of the deceased will step up to the corpse and every person in the
room commences to cry bitterly and express alond words of endearment to the deceased
and of condolence to the family of thé same in their nntimely bereavement.
At about midnight supper is announced, and every person in attendance marches
ont into another room and partakes of a frugal Indian meal, generally composed of
wild game; ChiM colorado or red-pepper tortillas, and gnayaves, with a good supply
of mnsh and milk, which completes the festive board of the velons or wake. When
the deceased is in good circnmstanoes, the crowd in attendance is treated every little
while during the wake to alcoholic refreshments. Thia feast and feasting is kept
up nntil the Catholic priest arrives to perform the fanerai rites.

When the priest arrives, tlie corpse is done np or rather baled up in a large andwell-
tanned bun'alo robe, and tied around tight with a rope or lasso made for the
then six or eight men act as pall-bearers, conduoting the body to the place of
burial, which is in front of their ohuroh or chapel. The priest conducts the funeral
ceremonies in the ordinary and usual way of mortuary proceedings observed by the
Catholic cburch all over the world. While the grave-diggers are Biling up the
the friends, relatives, neighbors, and, in fact, all persons that attend the
funeral, give
vent to their sad feelings by making the whole pueblo howl; after the tremendous
uproar subsides, they disband and leave the body to rest until Gabriel Nows his trum-
pet. When thé ceremonies are performed with aJl thé pomp of the Catholic church,
the priest receives afair compensation for his services otherwise he officiates for
the yearly rents that all thé Indiana of the pueblo pay him, whioh amount in thé snm
total to abont $2,000per annum.
Thèse Pneblo Indians are very striot in their mourning
observance, whioh last for
one year after the demise of the deceased. While in mourning for the
dead, the
mourners do not participate in the na.tiona.lfestivities of thé tribe, which are occasions
of state with them, but they retire into a state ôf sublime quiétude which mabes
more civilized people sadto observe; but when thé term of
mourning ceases, at the
end of the year, they have high mass said for the benefit of the soul of the
after this they again appear upon the arena of their wild
sports a.nd continue to be
gay and happy until the next mortal is called from this terrestrial sphere to the happy
hunting-ground, which is their pictured celestial paradise. The above cited faets,
which. are thé most interesting points connected with thé burial customs of the Indians
of the pueblo San Geronimo de Taos, are not in the least
exaggera.ted, but are the ab-
solute facts, which I have witnessed myself in many instances for a
period of more
tha,n twenty years that 1 have resided but a short distance from
saldpueMo, and,
being a close observer of their peculiar burial customs, am able to give you this true
and undisguised information relative to yonr circular on "buria.1 customs.
Another example of the care which is taken to prevent thé earth com-
ing in contact with the corpse may be found in the account of the burial
of the Wichita Indians of Indian Territory, fnrnished by Dr. Fordyce
Grinnell, whose name has already been mentioned in connection with
the Comanche customs. The Wichitas call themselves -E~ZM-~s, or
those of thé tattooed eyelids.
When a Wichita (lies the town-crier goes up and down throngh the
village and
annonnoos thé faot. Preparations are immediately made. for the
burial, aud thé body
is taken without dela,y to thé grave prepared for its reception. If thé
grave is some
distance from thé village, the body is carried thither on the ba.ok of a
pony, bein"
first wrapped in blankets and then laidprone across the saddle, one person
walling on
either side to support it. The grave is dug from three to four feet deep and ofaumcMnt
lengf.h for the extended body. Eirst blankets and buffalo-robes are laid in the bottom
of thé grave, then the body, being taken from the horse and
unwrapped, is dressed
in its best apparel and with ornaments is placed upon a couch of blankets and
with thé head towards the west and the feet to thé east; thé valuibles
to thé deceased are placed with the body in the grave. With thé man are belonging
his bows and arrows or gun, and with the woman her
cooking ntensils and other
implements of her toil. Over the body sticks are placed six or eight inches deep
and grass over these, so that when the earth is nlled in, it need not come in contact
with thé body or its trappings. After thé grave is nlled with
earth, a pen of poles is
built around it, or, as is frequently the case, stakes are driven so that
they cross
each other &Gmeither side about midway over thé thus
grave, forming a complète
protection from thé invasion of wild animals. After all this is done, the grass of
other debris is carefully aoraped from abont the grave for several
feet, so that the
gronnd is left smooth and clean. It ia seldom thé case that thé relatives accompany

the romains to the grave, but they more often employ others to bury the body for
them, usually women. Mourning is similar in this tribe as iu others, and it consista
in cutting off the hair, fasting, &c. Horses are also ldlled at the grave.
The Caddoes, Ascena, or Timber Indians, as they call themselves,
follow nearly the same mode of bnrial as the Wichitas. but one custom
prevailing is worthy of mention:
If a Caddo is killed in battle, the body is never buried, but is left to be devoured
by beasts or birds of prey, and the condition of such individuals in the other world
is considered to be far better than that of persons dying a natnral death.
In a work by Bruhier* the following remarks, freely translated by
the writer, may be found, which note a custom having great similarity
to the exposure of bodies to wild beasts mentioned above:
The ancient Persians threw out thé bodies of their dead on thé roads, and if they were
promptly devoured by wild beasts it was esteemed a great honor, a miafortnne if not.
Sometimes they interred, always wrapping the dead in a wax cloth to prevent odor.
M. Pierre Muret,t from whose book Bruhier probably obtained his

information, gives at considerable length an account of this peculiar

method of treating thé dead among the Persians, as follows:
It is a matter of aatoniahment, considering the Persians have ever had the renown
of being one of the most civilized Nations in thé world, that notwithstanding they
should have nsed such barbarons customs abont the Dead as are set down in the
Writings of some Hiatorianrs; and the rather because at this day there are atill to be
seen among them those remains of Antiquity, -tvhio'h.do fully satisfie Tis,that their
Tombs have been very magnificent. And yet nevertheless, if we will give credit to
J'f'ocqptMS and ~~at/Kas, thé Fer~ttHSwere never wont to bury their Dead Bodies, ao far
were they from bestowing any Funeral Honours npon them But, as thèse Anthors tell
us, they exposed them stark naked in thé openfields, which is the greatest shame our
Laws do allot to the most infamous Criminals, by laying them open to the view of all
upon the highways Yea, in their opinion it was a great unhappiness, if either Birds
or Beasts did not devour their Carcases and they commonly made an estimate of the
Felicity of these poor Bodies, according as they were sooner or later made a prey of.
Concerning these, they resolved that they must needs have been very bad indeed,
since even thé beasts themselves ivould not touch them; which caused an extream
sorrow to their Relations, they taking it for an ill boding to their Family, and an in-
fallible présage of some gréât misfbrtnne hanging over their heads; for they persuaded
themselves, that the Souls 'whioh inhabited those Bodies being dragg'd into Hell,
would not fail to corne and trouble them; and that being aiwaysaccompanled~vith thé
Devils, their Tormentors, they would certainly give them a great deal of distnrbance.
And on thé contrary, when these Corpses were presently devoured, their joy was
very great, they enlarged themselves in praises of thé Deceased every one esteeming
them undoubtedly happy, and came to congratulate their relations on that account
For as they bolieved assurediy, that they were entered into the jEh/s:<mFields, so they
were persuaded, that they would procure the same bliss for aU those of their family.
They also took a great delight to see Skeletons and Bones scatered up and down in
the fields, whereas we can scarcely endure to see those of Horses and Dogs used so.
And thèse remains of Humane Bodies, (the sight whereof gives us so mnch horror,
that we presently bury them out of our sight, whenever we find them elsewhere than
in Chamel-houses or Church-yards) were the occasion of their greatest joy; because
they concluded from thence the happiness of those that had been devoured, wishing
after their Death to meet with thé Ulœ good luck.
'L'inoertitnde des Signes de la Mort, 1749, t. 1, p. 439.
t Rites of Funeral, Ancient and Modem, 1683, p. 45.
The same ~"+~
author ~+.,+" .mz.,wv,r ,v"+"n +s",
the "nn"+: +s.~+
states, and Bruhier corroborates assertion, that
the Parthians, Medes, Iberians, Caspians, and a few others, had such a
horror and aversion of the corruption and decomposition of the dead,
and of their being eaten by worms, that they threw ont the bodies into
the open fields to be devoured by wild beasts, a part of their belief being
that persons so devonred would not be entirely extinct, but enjoy at
least a partial sort of life in their living sepulchers. It is quite prob-
able that for these and other reasons the Bactrians and Hircanians
trained dogs for this special purpose, called Canes sepM~fΠwbich
received the greatest care and attention, for it was deemed proper that
the souls of the deceased should have strong and lusty frames to dwellin.
The Buddhists of Bhotan are said to expose the bodies of their dead
on top of high rocks.
According to Tegg, whose work is quoted frequently, in the London
Times of January 28,1876, Mr. Monier Williams wiites from Calcutta re-
gardingthe "Towers of Silence," so called, oftheParsees, who, it is well
known, are thé descendants of thé ancient Persians expelled from Persia
by the Mohammedan conquerors, and settled at Surat about 1,100 years
since. This gentleman's narrative is freely made use of to show how
the custom of the exposure of the dead to birds of prey has continued
up to the present time.
The Dakhmas, or Parsee towers of silence, are erected in a garden on the highest
point of MalabarHill, a beautifnl, risinggronnd on one sideof Black Bay, notedfor
the bungalowsand compoundsofthe Enropean and wealthierinhabitants of Bombay
scattered in every directionoverits surface.
Thé garden is approachedby a well-constructed,pn.va.teroad, aU aecessto which,
except to Parsees,is barred by strong iron gates.
The garden is described as being very beautiful, and he says
NoEnglish.nobleman'sgarden.conidbe better kept, and no pen coulddo justice to
the gloriesof its floweringshru.bs,cypresses,and palms. It seemedthé veryideal,not
only of a place of sacredsilence,but of peacefnlrest.
The towers are nve in number, built of hardest black granite, abont
40 feet in diameter and 25 in height, and constracted so solidly as almost
to resist absolutely the ravages of time. The oldest and smallest of the
towers was constructed about 300 years since, when thé Parsees first
settled in Bombay, and is used only for a certain family. The next old-
est was erected in 1756, and the three others during the next century.
A sixth tower of square shape stands alone, and is only used for criminals.
The writer proceeds as follows
Thoughwholly destitute of ornamentand even of the simplestmoldings,thé para-
pet of each tower possessesan extraordinary coping, which instantly attracts and
fascinatesthe gaze. It is a coping formed,not of dead stone,but of living vnltures.
Thèsebirds, on the occasionof my visit, had settled themselves side by sidein per-
fect orderand in a completecirclearoundthe para.petsof thé towers,'with their heada
pointinginwards, and so lazily did they sit there, and so motionlesswas their whole
mien, that, except for their color,they might have been carved out of the stone-
n~iH ~il1~1~1~1111111~IN I~IH~
Fi&. ofSilence
Towers (interior).

No one is allowed to enter the towers except the nor

is any one permitted within thirty feet of the immediate precincts. A
model was shown Mr. Williams, and from it he drew up this description:

Imagine a round column or massive cylinder, 12 or 14 feet high and at least 40 feet
in diameter, built throughout of solid atone except in the conter, where a well, 5 or 6
feet across, leads down to an excavation under the masonry, containing four drains
at right angles to eaoh other, terminated by holes nUed with charcoal. Round the
upper surface of this solid circular cylinder, and completely hiding the interior from
view, is a atone parapet, 10 or 12 feet in height. This it is which, when viewed from
the outside, appears to form one piece with the solid stone-work, and being, like it,
covered with chunam, gives the whole the appearance of a low tower. The Tipper
surface of the solid stone column is divided into 72 compartments, or open receptacles,
radiating like the spokes of a wheel from the central well, and arranged in three con-
centric rings, separated from each other by narrow ridges of atone, which are grooved
to act as channels for conveying all moisture from thé receptacles into the well and
into the lower drains. It should be noted that the numbor 3 is emblemat-ical of
Zoroaster's three precepts, and thé number 78" ofthe chapters ofhis Yasna, a por-
tion of the Zend-Avesta.
Each circle of open stone coffins is divided from the next by a, pathway, so that
there are three circular pathways, the last encircling the central well, and these three
pathways are crossed by another pathway condncting from thé solitary door which
admits thé corpse-bearers from the exterior. In the ontermost circle of the stono
coffins are placed thé bodies of ma.les, in the middie those of the females, and in thé
inner and smallest circle nearest the well those of children.
While I was engaged with the secretary in examioing the model, a sudden stir
among the vultures made us raise our heads. At least a hundred. birds collected
round one of the towers began to show symptoms of excitement, while others swooped
down from neighboring trees. The cause of this sudden abandonment of their pre-
vious apathy soon revealed itself. A funeral was seen to be approaching. However
distant the house of a deceased person, and whether he be rich or poor, high or low
in rank, his body is always carried to the towers by the official corpse-bearers, called
jyasasaMr, who form a distinct class, the monrners walldng behind.
Before they remove the body from thé house where thé relatives are
funeral prayers are recited, and thé corpse is exposed to the gaze of a dog,
by the Parsees as a sacred animal. This latter ceremony is called sa~M.
Then the body, swathed in a white sheet, is placed in a curved metal trough, open
at both ends, and thé corpse-bearers, dressedin pure white garments, proceed with it
towards thé towers. They are followed by the mourners at a distance of at least 30
feet, in pairs, also dressed in white, and each couple joined by holding a white hand-
kerohiefbetween them. The particular fanerai 1 witnessed was that of a ohild. When
thé two corpse-bearers reaehed the path leading by a steep incline to the door of the
tower, the mourners, about eight in number, turned back and entered one of thé
prayer-houses. "There," saidthe secretary, "they repeat certain gathas, and pray
that thé spirit of the deceased maybe safely transported,
on the fonrth day arter death,
to its final resting-place."
The tower selected for the present funeral was one in which other members of thé
same family had before been laid. Thé two bearers speedily unlocked the
door, rev-
erently conveyed the body of the child into the interior, and, unseen by any one, laid
it uncovered in one of the open stone receptacles neareat the central well. In two
minutes they reappeared with the empty hier and white cloth, and scarcelyhad they
closed the door when a dozen vultures swooped down upon the body and were
followed by others. In Eve minutes more we sawthe satiated birds nybaol: andiazily
settle down again upon the parapet. They had left nothing behind but a akeleton.
Meanwhile,the bearers were seen to entera building shaped like ahigh barrel. There

as the secretary informed me, they changed their clothes and washed themselves.
Shortly afterwards we saw them corne out and deposit their cast-off funeral garments
in a.stone receptacle near at hand. No a a thread leavesthe garden, lest it should oarry
defilement into tlie city. Perfectly newgarments are snpplied at each fnneral. In a
fortnight, or, at most, fonr weeks, the same bearers retnrn, and, with gloved hands
and implements resembling tongs, place thé dry skeleton in the central well. There
thé bones find their last resting-place, and there the dnat of wholegenerations of Par-
sees commîngling is left undistnrbed for centuries.
The revolting sight of the gorged vultures mademe turn myback on the towers with
ill-oonoealed abhorrence. 1 asked the secretary how it was possible to become recon-
cileclto snoh usage. His reply was nearly in the following words Our prophet
Zoroaster, who lived 6,000 years ago, tanght ns to regard the elements as symbols of
the Deity. Earth, fire, water, he said, ought never, under any cironmata.nces, to be
defiled by contact with pntrefymg flesh. Naked, he sadd, came we into the world and
nabed we onght to leave it. But the decaying particles of onr bodies shonid be dissi-
pated as rapidly as possible and in such a way that neither Mother Earth nor the
beings she supports should be contaminated in the slightest degree. In fact, our
prophet was the greatest of health officers, and, following his sanitary laws, we
bnild onr towers on the tops of the hills, above all human habitations. We spare no
expense in constrncting them ofthe hardest materials, and we expose onr putrescent
bodies in openstone receptacles, restingonfonrteenfeetofsolid granite, notnecessarily
to be consumed by vnitnrea, but to be dissipated in the speediest possible manner and
without the possibility of polluting the earth or contaminating a single being dwelling
thereon. God, indeed, sends the vultures, and, as a matter of fact, these birds do their
appointed workninoh more expeditiously than millions of insects would do ifwe com-
mitted onr bodies to the ground. In a sanitary point of view, nothing oan be more
perfect than onr plan. Even the rain-water whioh washes onr sbeletons is condncted
by channels into pnrifying charcoal. Here in these five towers rest the bones of all
the Parsees that have lived in Bombay for the last two hundred years. We form a
united body in life and we are united in death."
It would appear that the reasons given for this peculiar mode of dis-
posing of the dead by the Parsee secretary are quite at variance with
the ideas advanced by Muret regarding the ancient Persians, and to
which allusion bas already been made. It might be supposed that
somewhat similar motives to those governing the Parsees actuated those
of the North American Indians who deposit their dead on scaffolds and
trees, but the theory becomes untenable when it is recollected that great
care is taken to preserve the dead from the ravages of camivorous birds,
thé corpse being carefully enveloped in skins and firmly tied up with
ropes or thongs.
Figures 3 and 4 are representations of the Parsee towers of silence,
drawn by Mr. Holmes, mainly from thé description given.
George Gibbs* gives the following account of burial among the Kla-
math and Trinity Indians of the Nbrthwest coast, the information hav-
ing been originally furnished him by James G-. Swan.
Thé graves, which are in the immediate vicinity of their honses, exhibit very con-
siderable taste and a landable care. The dead are inclosed in rude coffinsformed by
placing four boards around the body, and coveredwith earth to some depth; a heavy
plank, often supported by upright head andfoot stones, is laid npon the top, or stones
are bnilt np into a wall abont a foot above the ground, and the top Bagged with

Schooloraft Hist. Ind. Tribes of the United States, 1853, Pt. 3, p. 140.

others. The graves of the chiefs are snrronnded by neat woodon palings, each pale
omamented with a feather from the tail of the bald eagle. Baskets are usnally staked
down by thé aide, according to the wealth or popularity of the individual, and some-
times other articles for ornament or nae are suspended over them. Thé funeral céré-
monies occupy three days, during whioh the soul of thé deceased is in danger from
or the devil. To preserve it from this peril, a fire !s kept np at the grave,
and the friends of thé deceased howl around it to scare away the demon. Should they
not be snccessful in this thé soul is carried down the river, subjeet, however, to re-
demption by .MMM-tfMMon payment of a big knife. After thé expiration of three
days it is ail well with them.
The question may well be asked, is the big knife a sop to Cerberus
To Dr. Charles E. McChesney, acting assistant surgeon, United States
Army, one of the most conscientious and ca-refai of observers, the writer
is indebted for the following interesting acconnt of the mortuary cus-
toms of the


A large proportion of thèse Indians being members of the Presbytérien church (the
missionaries of which ehnroh have labored among them for more than forty years
past), thé dead of their families are bnried after the customs of that chnrch, and this
influence is felt to a gréât extent among those Indians who are not strict churchmem-
bers, so that they are dropping one by one thé traditiona.1 customs of their tribe, and
bnt fow can now be foundwho bury their dead in accordance with their customs of
twenty or more yeàrs ago. The dead of those Indians whostill adhere to their modem
burial customs are buried in the ways inclicated below.
?<!?'<)!–After death they paint a warrior red across the mouth, or they paint a hand
in black color, with thé thumb on one side of the month and the fingers separated on the
other cheek, thé rest of the face being painted red. (This latter is only done as a markof
respect to a speoially brave man. ) Spears, clubs, and thé medicine-bag of the deceased
when alive are buried with thé body, the medicine-bag being placed on the bare skin
over the région of the heart. There is not now, nor has there been, among these Indi-
ans any spécial préparation ofthe-grave. Thé body of a warrior is generallywrapped
in a blanket or piece of cloth (and frequently in addition is placed in a box) and
bnried in the grave prepared for the purpose, always, as the majority of these Indians
inform me, with the head towards the south. (I have, however, seen many
graves in
whichthe head ofthe occupant had been placed to thé east. It may be that these "raves
were those of Indians who belonged to the ohmoh; and a few Indians inform me that
the head is sometimes placed towards the ~ce~,according to the ooonpant's belief when
alive as to the direction from whioh his guiding medicine came, and 1 am
inclined to give credence to this latter as sometimes ocourring.) In all
bnrials, when
thé person has died a natural death, or had not been murdered, and whether
woman, or child, the body is plaoed in thé grave with the face ttp. In cases, however,
when a man or woman haa been murdered by one of their owntribe, thebodywas, and
is always, placed in the grave with the face (fo!0)t,head to tho
sott~, and a piece of
fat (bacon or pork) placed in thé mouth. This pièce of fat is placed in thé
mouth, as
these Indians say, to prevent the spirit of the murdered person driving or scaring the
game from that section of country. Those Indians who state that their dead are al-
ways buried with the head towards thé south say they do so in order that thé spirit
of the deceased may go to the sonth, the land from which thèse Indians believe
originally came.
Womenand cMMt-eK.–Be&re death the face of thé person expected to die is often
painted in a red color. When this is not done before death it is done afterwa.rds the
VVA71V1114J OF
A.JJ'.L~.I.¡.L\.Jp..L" INDIANS.

body being then bnried in a grave prepared for its reception, ami in the manner de-
soribed for a warrior, cooking-ntensils taking the place of the warrior's weapons. In
cases of boys and girls a kettle of cooked food is sometimes placed at the head of the
grave after the body is covered. Now, if the dead body be that of a boy, all the boys
ofabout his age go up and eat of thé food, and in cases of girls ail the girls do like-
wise. This, however, has never obtained as a oustom, but is sometimes done in cases
of warriors and women also.
Cremation has never been practiced by these Indians. It is now, and always has
been, a cnstom among theca. to remove a look of hair from the top or scalp look of a
warrior, or from thé left side ofthe head of a woman, which ia carefully preserved by
some near relative of the deceased, wrapped in pieces of calico and muslin, and hnng
in thé lodge of the deceased and is considered the ghost of thé dead person. To the
bnndie is attached a tin onp or other vessel, and in this is placed some food for thé
spirit of the dead person. Whenever a stranger happens in at meal time, this food,
however, is not allowed to go to waste; if not consumed by thé atranger to whom it
is offered, some of the occupants of the lodge eat it. They seem to take some pains to
please the ghost of the deceased, thinking thereby they will have good Inok in their
family so long as they continue to do so. It is a cnstom with the men when they
smoke to offer thé pipe to the ghost, at the same time asking it to confer some favor on
them, or aid them in their work or in hunting, &c.
There is a feast held over this bnndle containing thé ghost of the deceased, given
by the friends of thé dead man. This feast may be at any time, and is not at any
particular time, occurring, however, generally as often as once a year, unless, at the
time of the first feast, thé friends designate a particular time, such, for instance, as
when the leaves fall, or when the grass comes again. This bnnd1e ia never per-
mitted to leave the lodge of the friends of thé dead person, except to be bnried in thé
grave of one of them. Muoh of the property of the deceased person is buried with thé
body, a portion being plaoed nnder the body and a portion over it. Horses are some-
times killed on the grave of a warrior, but this cnstom is gradually ceasing, in conse-
quence of the value of their ponies. These animals are therefore now generally given
away by the person before death, or after death disposed of by the near relatives.
Many years ago it was cnstomary to kill one or more ponies at the grave. In cases of
more than ordinary weaLth for an Indian, mnch of his personal property is now, and
has ever been, reserved from burial with thé body, and forms the basis for a gambling
party, which will be described hereafter. No food is ever buried in the grave, but
some is occasionally placed at the headof it; in which case it is consumed by the
friends of the dead person. Such is the method that was in vogue with these Indians
twenty years ago, and which is still adhered to, with more or less exaotness, by the
majority ofthem, the exceptions being those who are strict charch members and those
very few families who adhere to their aneient eustoms.
Before the year 1860it was a custom, for as long back as the oldest members of these
tribes can remember, and with the usual tribal traditions handed down from genera-
tion to génération, in regard to this as well as to other things, for these Indians to
bury in a tree or on a platform, and in those days an Indian was oniy bnried in the
gronnd as a mark of disrespect in consequence of the person having been murdered,
in whioh case thé body would be buried in the gronnd, face down, head toward the
south and with a piece of fat in the mouth. Thé platform npon which
the body was deposited was constructed of four crotohed posts firmly set in the
gronnd, and connected near the top by cross-pieces, upon which was placed boards,
when obtainable, and small sticks of wood, sometimes hewn so as to give a firm rest-
ing-place for the body. This platform had an elevation of from six to eight or more
feet, and never contained but one body, althongh frequently having suBicient surface
to accommodate two or three. In burying in thé crotch of a tree and on platforms,
the head of the dead person was always placed towards the south the body was
wrapped in blankets or pieces of cloth securely tied, and many of the personal effects
vi1141J11uV1·11JA7-A7lVVtl. 109

of thé deceased were buried with it as in thé case of a warrior, his bows and arrows,
war-clubs, &c., would be placed alongside of the body, the Indians saying he would
need such things in the next world.
1 am informed by many of them that it was a habit, before their outbreak, for some
to carry the body of a nearrelative whomtheyheldingreat respect with them on their
moves, for a greater or lesser time, often as long as two or three years before burial.
This, however, never obtained generally among them, and some of them seem to know
nothing abont it. It has of late years been entirely dropped, except when a person
dies awayfrom home, it being then customary for thé friends to briug the body home
for burial.
JMMtfHM:~ cereMtOMes.–Thémourning ceremonies before the year 1860were as follows:
Afcer the death of a warrior the whole camp or tribe would be assembled in a cirole, and
after the widow had cut herself on the aims, legs, and body with a piece of flint, and re-
moved the hair from her head, she would go aronnd the ring any number of times she
chose, but each time was considered as an oath that she would not marry for a year, so
that she could not marry for as many years as times she went around the circle. The
widow would ail this time keep up a crying and wailing. Upon the completion of this
the friends of the deoeased vonid take the body to the platform or tree where it was to
remain, keeping np ail tins timetheir wailing and crying. After depositing the body,
they would stand under it and continue exhibiting their grief, thé squaws byliacking
their arms and legs with flint and cutting off the hair from their head. The men would
sharpen sticks and run them throngh the slon of their arms and legs, both men and
women keeping up their crying generally for the remainder of the day, and thé near
relatives of thé deceased for several days thereafter. As soon as able, the warrior
friends of the deceased would go to a near tribe of their enemies and Idll one or more
of them if possible, return with their scalps, and exhibit them to the deoaased person's
relatives, after which their mourning ceased, their friends considering his death as
properly avenged; this, however,was manyyears ago, when their enemies were within
reasonable striking distance, snch, for instance, as the Chippewas and the Arickarees,
Gros Ventres and Mandan Indians. In cases of womenand children, thé squaws would
eut off their hair, hao'k their persons with flint, and sharpen sticks and run. them
through the sidn of the arms and legs, crying as for a warrior.
It was an occasional occurrence twenty or more years ago for a squaw when she
lost a favorite child to commit suicide by hanging herself with a lariat over thé limb
of a tree. This could not haveprevailed to any great extent, however, although tbe
old men recite several instances of its occurrence, and a very few examples within
recent years. Such was their oustom before the Minnesota ontbreak, since which time
it has gradually died out, and at the present time these ancient oustoms are adhered
to by but a single family, known as thé seven brothers, who appear to retain all thé an-
cient oustoms of their tribe. At the présent time, as a mouming observance, the
squaws haok themselves on their legs with knives, eut off their hair, and cry a.nd
wail around the grave of the dead person, and the men in addition paint their faces,
but no longer torture themselves by means of sticks passed through the skin of the
arms and legs. This cutting and painting is sometimes done before and sometimes
after the burial of the body. 1 also observe that many of the women of these tribes
are adopting so much of the oustoms of the whites as prescribes the wearing of black
for certain periods. During the period of mourning thèse Indians never wash their
face, or comb their hair, or laugh. These customs are observed with varying degrce
of strictness, but not in manyinstances with that exaotness which characterized thèse
Indians before the advent ofthe white man among them. There is not no\r any per-
manent muti]ation of the person practiced as a mourning ceremony by them. That
mutilation of a finger by removing one or more joints, so generally observed among
the Minnetarree Indians at the Fort Berthold, Dak., Agency, is not here seen,
although the old men of these tribes inform me that it was an ancient custom among
munru&m CUSTOMS u~i
~ui&-Ljj..ajnj!ijtjnj.a.F< INDIANS.

their women, on thé occasion of the burial of a husband, to ont off a portion of a
finger and have it suspended in the tree above his body. 1 hâve, however, yet to see
an example of this having been done by any of thé Indians now living, and the
custom mnst have fallen into disuse more than seventy years ago.
In regard to thé period of monming, would say that thero does not now appear to
be, and, so far as 1 can leam, never was, any figed period of mourning, but it would
seem that, liko some of the whites, they monrn when the subject is brought to their
minds by some remark or other occurrence. It is not unusual at the present time to
hear a man or womancry and exclaim, "0,inypoor hnsband!" "0,mypoorwife!" Il
or "0, my poor ohUd!" as the case may be, and, upon inquiring, learn that the
event happened several years before. 1 have elsewhere mentioned that in some cases
much ofthe personal property of the deceased was and is reserved from burial with
the body, and forma thé basis of a gambling party. 1 shall conclude my remarks
upon the bnrial customs, &c., of these Indians by an account of this, which they des-
ignate as the "ghost's gamble."
The account of the game will be fonnd in another part of this paper.
As illustrative of the preparation of the dead Indian warrior for the
tomb, a translation of Schiller's beantifai burial song is here given. It
is believed to be by Bulwer, and for it the writer is indebted to the
kindness of Mr. Benjamin Drew, of Washington, D. 0.


See on his mat, as if of yore,
How lifelike sits he here;
With the same aspect that he wore
When life to him was dear.
But where the right arm's strength, and vhere
The breath he used to breathe
To thé Great Spirit aloft in ah-,
· Thepeaoe-pipe'slustywleatli'! d
That wont the deer pursue
Along the waves ofrippling grass,
Or fields that ahone with dew?`~
Are these thé limber, bounding feet
That swept thé winter snows? r
What atartied deer was half so meet,
Their speed outstripped the roe's.
These hands that once the sturdy bow
Could supple from its pride,
How stark and helpless hang they now
Adown thé stiffened side!
Yet weal to him! at peaee he. strays
Where never fall the snows,
Where o'er the meado~v springs the maize
That mortal never sows
Where birds are blithe in every brake,
Where forests teem -tvith deer,
Where glide the fish through every lake,
One chase from year to year 1
With spirits now he feasts above
All left ns, to revere
The deeds we cherish with our love,
The rest we bury hère.

Here +«hA
bring the Mf+..
last gifts; 1.l
lond ~l
and 0'1-11
Waildeath-dirgeof the brave
What pleased him most in life may still
Give pleasure in the grave.
\Ve lay the axe beneath his head
He swung when strength was strong,
Thé bear on whioh his hunger fed-
The way from earth is long!
And hère, new-sharpened, place the knife
Which severed from thé clay,
From whioh the axe had spoiled the life,
The conquered scalp away.
The paints that deck the dead bestow,
Aye, place them in his hand,
That red the kingly shade may glow
Amid thé apirit land.

The position in which the body is placed, as mentioned by Dr. Mc.

Chesney, face upwards, while of common occurrence among most tribes
of Indians, is not invariable as a rôle, for the writer discovered at :),
cemetery belonging to an ancient pueblo in the valley of the
near Abiquiu, N. Mex., a number of bodies, all of which had been buried
face downward. The accon-nt originally appeared in Field and Forest,
1877, vol. iii, No. 1, p. 9.
On each aide of the town were noticed two small arroyas or water-washed
within 30 feet of the walls, and a caretnl examination of these revealed thé objects of
our search. At the bottom of the arroyas, which have certainly formed
to the occupation of the village, we fonnd portions of human remaims, and
up the walls of the ditch soon had the pleasure of discovering several skeletons in
sthf. The first fonnd was.in the eastern arroya, and the grave in depth was
nearly 8
feet below the surface of thé mesa. The body had been placed in the grave face down-
ward, the head pointing to the south. Twofeet above the skeleton were two shining
black earthen vases, containing small bits of charcoal, the bones of mammals, birds,
and partially consumed- corn, and above these "ollas" thé earth to the surface was
filled with pieces of charcoal. Doubtless the remains found in thé vases served at a
funeral feast prior to the inhumation. We examined very carefullythis grave,
to find some ntensils, ornaments, or weapons, but none rewarded our search. In ail of
the graves examined the bodies were found in similar positions and under similar cir-
onmsta.noes in both arroyas, several of thé skeletons being those of children.
No information could be obtained as to the probable age of these interments, the pres-
ent Indians considering them as dating fromthe time when their ancestors with Moc-
tezuma came from thé north.
The Coyotero Apaches, according to Dr. W. J. SoËman,~ in disposing
of their dead, seem to be actuated by the desire to spare themselves any
needless trouble, and prepare the defunct and the grave in this manner
The Coyoteros, upon thé death of a member of the tribe, partially wrap up thé
corpse and deposit it into the cavity left by thé removal of a small rock or the stump
of a tree. After the body has been crammed into the smallest possible space thé rock
or stump is again rolled into its former position, when a number of stones are
around thé base to keep ont the coyotes. Thé nearest of Un usually mourn for thé
period of one month, during that time giving utterance at intervals to the most dis-
mal lamentations, whioh are apparently sincere. During the day this obligation is
*U. S. Geol. Snrv. of Terr. 1876, p. 473.

frequently neglected or forgotten, but when the monrner is reminded of his duty he
renews his howling with évident interest. This custom of mourning for the period of
thirty days corresponds to that formerly observed by the Natchez.
Somewhat similar to this rude mode of sépulture is that described in
the life of Moses Van Campen*, which relates to the Indians formerly
inhabiting Pennsylvania
Directly after, the Indians proceeded to bury those who had fallen in battle, which
they did by rolling an old log from its place and laying the body in the hollow thus
made, and then heaping upon it a little earth.
As a somewhat curions, if not exceptional, interment, the following
Mr. Frank-
account, relating to the Indians of New York, is furnished, by
· lin B. Hough, who bas extracted it from an unpnblished journal of the
agents of a French company kept in 1794=


Saw Indian grs,ves on the plateau of Independence Bock. The Indians plant a
stake on the right side of thé head of the deceased aud bury them in a bark canoe.
Their children corne every year to bring provisions to thé place where their fathers
are bnrîed. One of the graves had fallen in, and we observed in the soil some sticks
for stretching skins, the remains of a canoe, &c., and the two atraps for carrying it,
and near the place wherethe head lay werethé traces of a fire whioh they had kindled
for the aoni of the deceased to come and warm itself by and to partake of the food
deposited near it.
These were probably the Massasauga Indians, them inhabiting thé north shore of
Lake Ontario, but who were rather intrnders here, thé country being claimed by thé
It is not to be denied that the use of canoes for coffins bas occasionlly
been remarked, for the writer in 1875 removed from thé graves at Santa
in a redwood
Barbara, California, an entire skeleton whieh was discovered
canoe, but it is thought that the individual may have been a noted fish-
erman, particularly as the implements of his vocation-nets, nsh-spears,
&c.-were near him, and this burial was only an exemplification of the
well-rooted belief common to ail Indians, tbat thé spirit in the next world.
makes use of the same articles as were employed in this one. It should
be added that of the many hundreds of skeletons uncovered at Santa
Barbara the one mentioned presented the only example of thé kind.
Among the Indians of the Mosquito coast, in Central America, canoe
burial in the ground, according to Bancroft, was common, and is thus
The corpse is wrapped in cloth and placed in one-half of a pitpan whioh has been
eut in two. Friends assemble for thé funeral and drown their grief in m~Ma, thé
Tvomengiving vent to their sorrow by dashing themselves on thé ground until covered
with blood, and inflicting other tortures, occasionally even committing suicide. As
it is supposedthat the evil spirit seeka to obtain possession of the body, musicians are
called in to Ml it to sleep while preparations are made for its removal. All at once
four naked men, who hâve disguised themselves with paint so as not to be reoognized
and punished by ~<7M, rush ont from a neighboring but, and, seizing a rope at-

"Life and adventures of Moses Van Campen, 1841, p. 252.

i.)~urfn GRAVES
)jrtt~.YJ!fù OR
UiSJLN. J.i0 113

tached to the canoë, drag it into the woods, followed by thé music and the crowd.
Hère the pitpan is lowered into the grave with bow, arrow, spear, paddie, and other
implements to serve thé departed in the land beyond then thé other half of the boat
is placed over the body. A rude hut is oonatruoted over the grave, serving as a ré-
ceptacle for thé choice food, ddnk, and other articles placed there from time to time
by relatives.


These are of considerable interest, not only from their somewhat rare
occurrence, except in certain localities, but from the manifest care taken
by the survivors to provide for the dead what they considered a suita-
ble resting-place. In their construction they resemble somewhat, in the
care that is taken
to prevent the earth touching the corpse, the class of
graves previonsly described.
A number of cists have been found in Tennessee, and are thus de-
scribed by Moses Fis~e
There are many burying-grounds in West Tennessee ~vith regniar graves. They dug
them 12 or 18 inches deep, placed slabs at the bottom, ends and sides, forming a kind
of stone oonin, and, after laying in the body, covered it over with earth.
It may be added that, in 1873, thé writer assisted at the opening of a
number of graves of men of the reindeer period, near Solutré, in
and they were almost identical in construction with those described by
Mr. Fiske, with the exception that thé latter were deeper; this, how-
ever, may be accounted for if it is considered how great a deposition of
earth may have taken place during the many centuries whîch have
elapsed since the burlal. Many of the graves explored by the writer in
1875, at Santa Barbara, resembled somewhat cist graves, the bottom
and sides of the pit being lined with large nat
stones, but 'there were
none directly over thé skeletons.
The next account is by Maj. J. W. Powell, thé result of his own ob-
servation in Tennessee
Thé burial places, or cemeteries, are exceedingly abundant thronghont thé State.
Often hundreds of graves may be found on a single hillside. Thé same people some-
times bury in scattered graves and in mounds-the mounds being eomposed of a large
number of cist graves. The graves are increased by additions fromtime to time.
The additions are sometimes placed above and sometimes at the sides of thé others.
In the first burials there is a tendency to a concentric system 'with the feet towards
thé conter, but subsequent burials are more irregular, so that the System is finally
abandoned before thé place is desired for cemetery pnrposes.
Some other peculiarities are of interest. A larger number of interments exhibitthe
fact that the bodies were placed there before the decay of thé flesh, and in many in-
stances collections of bones are buried. Sometimes these bones are placed in some
order about the crania, and sometimes in irregular piles, as if thé collection of bones
had been emptied from a sack. With men, pipes, stone hammers, knives, arrowheads,
&c., were usually found; with women,pottery, rude beads,shells,&o.; ~vithchiidren,
toys of pottery, beads, curious pebbles, &c.
Sometimes, in the subsequent hurlais, the side slab of a previons burial was used
as w
w~ a Z.~mc.~ uiac
portion ofmthe secondvaou.m
ocwuu cist. All m uuvwo~~
of the w~ covered with slabs.
cists were
Trans. Amer.Antiq.Soc.,
Antiq. 18S vol. i, p. 302.
~_·_ e_u.L__ _i _r ~.t_
Dr. Jones has given an exceedingly interesting account of the stone
graves of Tennessee, in his volume published by the Smithsonian Insti-

tution, to which valuable work the reader is referred for a more detailed
account of this mode of burial.
G. K. Gilbert, of the United States Geological Survey, informs the
writer that in 1878 he had a conversation with an old Moquis chief
as to their manner of bnrial, which is as follows The body is placed in
a receptacle or cist of stone slabs orwood, in a sitting posture, thehands
near the knees, and clasping a stick (articles are buried with the dead),
and it is snpposed that the soul nnds its way ont of thé grave byclimb-
ing up the stick, which is allowed to project above the ground after the
grave is filled in.
The Indians of Illinois, on the Saline River, according to George
Escoll Sellers,t inclosed their dead in cists, the description of which is as
Above this bluff, where thé spur rises at an angle of about 30°, it ha.s been terraced
and the terrace as well as the crown of thé spur have been used as a cemotery; por-
tions of the terraces are still perfect; all the burials appear to have been made in
rude stone cists, that vary insize from 18 inches by 3 feet to 2 feet by 4 feet, andfrom
18 inches to 2 feet deep. They are made of thin-bedded sandstone slabs, generally
roughly shaped, but some of them have been edged and squared with considerable
care, particularly the covering slabs. Thé slope below the terraces was thickly
strowed with these slabs, washedout as thé terraces have worn away, and whioh have
sinee been carried on' for door-steps and hearth-stones. 1 have opened many of these
cists; they nearly ail contain fragments of human bones far gone in decay, but I
hâve never succeeded in securing a perfect skull even the clay vessels that were
interred with the dead have disintegrated, the portions remaining being almost as soft
and fragile as thé bones. Some of thé cists that 1 explored wero paved with valves
of fresh-water shells, but most generally with the fragments of thé great salt-pans,
whioh in every case are so far gone in decay as to have lost the outside markings.
This seems oonclusively to couple the tenants of these ancient graves with the makers
andnsers of these salt-pans. The great number of graves and the quantity of slabs that
have been washed out prove either a dense population or a long occupancy, or both.
W. J. Owsley, of Fort Hall, Idaho, furnishes the writer with a des-
cription of the cist graves of Kentucky, which differ somewhat from
other accounts, inasmuch as the graves appeared to be isolated.
1 remember that when a. school-boy in Eentncky, some twenty-nve years ago, of
seeing what was called "Indian graves," and those that 1 examinedwere close to
small streams of water, and were buried in a sitting or squatting posture and inclosed
by rough, &at stones, and were then buried from 1 to 4 feet from thé surface. Those
graves which 1 examined, ~vhioh examination was not very minute, seemed to be iso-
lated, no two being fonnd in the same locality. When thé burials took place 1 could
hardiy conjecture, but it must have been, from appearances, from fifty to one hundred
years. The bones that 1 took out on first appearance seemed tolerably perfect, but
on short exposure to thé atmosphere crnmbled, and 1 was unable to save a specimen.
No implements or relies were observed in those examined by me, but 1 have heard of
others who have fonnd such. In that State, Eentucky, there are a number of places

*Antiquities of Tennessee. Smith. Inst. Cont. to Knowledge. No. 259, 1876. Pp. 1,.
8, 37, 52, 55, 82.
tPop. Se. Month., Sept., 1877,p. 577.
Msow.j MOUND BURIAL. 115

where thé Indians burned their dead and left mounds of earth over tlie graves, but 1
have not examined them myself. <

According to Bancroft; the Dorachos, an isthmian tribe of Central

America, also followed the cist form of burial.
In Veragua thé Dorachos had two kinds of tombs, one for the principal
men, con-
structed with flat stones laid together with muoh care, and in which were placed
costly jars and urns filled with food and wine for thé dead. Those for the plebians
were merely trenches, in whioh were deposited some gourds of maize and
wine, and
the place filled with stones. In some parts of Panama, and Darien oniy thé chiefs and
lords received funeral rites. Among the common people a person
feeliug his end
approaching either went himself or was led to the woods by his wife, family, or friends,
who, supplying him with some cake or ears of corn and a gonrd of water, then left him
to die alone or to be assisted by wild beasts. Others, TTithmore respect for their
buried them in sepulchers made with niches, where they placed maize and mne and
renewed the samo annaally. With some, a mother dying while sneHing her infant,
the living child was placed at her breast and bnried with her, in order that in her
future state she might continue to nourish it with her milk.


In view of the fact that the subject of mound-burial is so extensive,

and that in ail probability a volume by a member of the Bureau of Eth'
nology may shortly be published, it is not deemed advisable to devote
any considerable space to it in this paper, but a few interesting examples
may be noted to serve as indications to future observers.
The first to which attention is directed is interesting as resembling
cist-burial combined with déposition in mounds. The communication is
from Prof. F. W. Putnam, curator of the Peabody Museum of Archœ-
ology, Cambridge, made to the Boston Society of Natural History, and
is published in volume XX of its proceedings, October 15, 1878
He then stated that it would be of interest to the members, in connection
with thé discovery of dolmens in Japan, as described by Professor Morse, to know that
within twenty-fonr hours there had been received at the Peabody Museum a smaU
collection of articles taken from rude dolmens (or chambered barrows, as they would
be called in England), recently opened by Mr. E. Curtiss, who is now engaged, under
his direction, in coloration for the Peabody Museum.
These chambered mounds are situatedin the eastem part of Clay County, Missouri,
and form a large gronp on both sides of the Missouri River. Thé chambers
are, in
thé three opened by Mr. Cnrtiss, about 8 feet square, and from 4~ to 5 feet high, each
chamber having a passage-way several feet in length and 2 in width, leading from
thé southern side and opening on thé edge of thé monnd formed by
covering thé
chamber and passage-way with earth. The walls of the chambered
passages were
abont 2 feet thick, vertical, and well made of stones, which were evenly laid without
clay or mortar of any kind. The top of one of the chambers had a covering of large,
Bat rocks, but the others seemto have been closed over withwood. The chambers were
filled with clay whioh had been burnt, and appeared as if it had fallen in from above.
The inside walls of the chambers also showed signs of fire. Under thé burnt
elay, in
each chamber, were found the remains of several human skeletons, all of which had
been burnt to such an extent as to leave but small fragments of the
bones, which
were mixed with thé ashes and charcoal. Mr. Curtiss thought that in one chamber
*Na.t. Races of the Pacific States, 1874, vol. i, p. 780.

he found the romains of 5 skeletons and in another 13. With these skeletons there
were a few flint implements and minute fragments of vessela of clay.
A large mound near the chambered monnds was also opened, but in this no cham-
bers werefound. Neither had the bodies been bumt. This monnd proved remarka-
bly rich in large flint implements, and also contained vell-made pottery and a pecu-
liar "gorget" ofied stone. Thé connection ofthepeoplewho placed the ashes of
their dead in thé stone chambers with those who buried their dead in thé earth
mounds is, of course, yet to be determined.
It is quite possible, indeed probable, that thèse chambers were used
for secondary burials, the bodies having first been cremated.
In the volumeof the proceedings already quoted, the sa,me investigator
gives an account of other chambered mounds which are, like thé prece-
ding, very interesting, thé more so as adults only were inhumed therein,
children having beenburied beneath the dwelling-Roors
Mi'. F. W. Putnam occupied thé lest of the evening with an account of his explora-
tions of thé ancient mounds and bm-iaJ places in thé CnmberJand Valley, Tennessee.
The excavations had bëen carried on by himself, assisted by Mr. Edwin Curtiss, for
overtwo years, for tho benofit of thé Peabody Museum at Cambridge. Duriug this time
many mounds of various kinds had been thoroughly explored, and several thousand of
thé singular stone graves ofthe mound builders of Tennessee had been carefully opened.
Mr. Patnam's remarks were illustrated by drawings of several hundred objects
obtained from the graves and mounds, particularly to show tho gréât varlety of articles
of pottery and several large and many unique forms of implementsofohîppedBint. He
aJsoexhibitedandexptainedindetailama.pofa.walIedtownofthisoIdnation. This
town was situated on the Lindsleyestate, in a bend of Spring Creek. Tho earth em-
bankment, with its accompanying ditoh, encirclecl an area of abont 13 acres. With-
in this inclosure there vas one large mound with a flat top, 15 feet high, 130 feet long,
amd 90 feet tvide, tvhioh was found not to be a bnrial monnd. Another monnd near
tho large one, about 50 feet in diameter, and only afew feet high, contained 60 human
skeletons, each in a carefully-made stone grave, thé graves being arranged in two
rows, forming tho four sides of a square, and in threo layers. Tho most im-
portant discoveryhemade within the inclosure was that of nnding thé remains of the
houses of the people who lived in this old town. Of them abont 70 were tracecl out
and located on thé map by Professer Buchanan, of Lebanon, who made the survey
for Mr. Putnam. Under thc floors of harcl elay, which was in places much burnt, Mr.
Pntnam found the graves of children. As only the bodies of adults had been placed
in the one mound devoted to burial, and as nearly every site of a house he explored
had from one to four graves of chiidren under the clay floor, he was oonvinoed that it
was a rogular custom to bury the children in that way. He also found that the chil-
dren had nndoubtedly been treatecl with affection, as in their small graves were fonnd
many of the best pieces of pottery he obtained, and also quantities of shell-beads,
several large pearls, and many other objects -whioh were probably the playthings of
the little ones while living.*
This cist mode of burial is by no means uncommon in Tennessee, as
it is frequently mentioned by writers on North American archeeology.
The examples which follow are specially characteristic, some of them
serving to add strength to the theory that mounds were for the most
part used for secondary burial, although intrusions were doubtless com-

*Adetailedaccountof this exploration, with manyillustrations, will be found in

the Eleventh Aminal Report of thé Peabody Museum, Cambridge, 1878.

Ca.lebAtwa.ter *gives this description of the


Near thé center of thé round fort was a tumulus of earth about 10 feot
in height and several rods in diameter at ita base. Onits eastern side, and extending
6 rods from it, was a semiciroular pavement composed of pebbles such as are now
found in the bed of the Seioto River, from whence they appear to have beenbrought.
The summit of this tumulus was nearly 30 feet in diameter, and there was a raised
way to it, leading from the east, like a modem turnpike. Thé summit was level.
The outline of the semioircular pavement and the walk is still discemible. The
earth composing this mound vas entirely removed several years since. Thé writer
was present at its removal and carefully examined the contents. It contained-
Ist. Two human skeletons, lying on what had been thé original surface of the earth.
2d. A great quantity of arrow-heads, some of which were so large as to induce a
belief that they were nsed as spear-heads.
3d. Thé handie either of a small sword or a large knife, made of an elk's horn.
Around the end where thé blade had been inserted was a ferule of silver, which,
though black, was not much injured by time. Though thé handie showed the hole
where the blade had been inserted, yet no iron was found, but an oxyde remained of
similar shape and size.
4th. Charcoal and wood ashes on which these articles lay, which were surrounded
by several bricks very well burnt. The skeleton appeared to have been bnrned in a
large and very hot fire, which had almost consnmed the bones of the deceased. This
skeleton was deposited a little to thé south of the center of the tumulus and abont
20 feet to the north of it was another, with whioh were-
5th. Alarge mirronr abont 3 feet in breadth and 1~ inohes in thickness. This mirrour
was of isinglass (mica memBnNMCM), and on it-
6th. A plate of iron which had become an oxyde, but before it was distnrbed by
the spade resembled a plate of cast iron. The mirrour answered the purpose very
well for which it was intended. This skeleton had also been burned like thé former,
aud lay on oharcoal and a considerable quantity of wood ashes. A part of thé mir-
rour is in my possession, as well as a piece of brick taken from thé spot at the time.
The Imife or sword handie was sent to Mr. Peal's Museum, at Philadelphia.
To thé southwest of this tumulus, about 40 rods from it, is another, more than 90
feet in height, whioh is shown on the plate representing these works. It stands on a
large hill, which appears to be artificial. This must have been the common cemetery,
as it contains an immense number of human skeletons of all sizes and ages. The
skeletons are laid horizontally, with their heads generally towards the center and the
feet towards the outside of thé tllmulus. A considerable part of this work still stands
nninjnred, except bytime. In it; have been found, besides these skeletons, stone axes
and knives, and several ornaments, with holes through them, by means of whioh, with
a cord passing through these perforations, they could be worn by their owners. On
the south side of this tumulus, and not far from it, was a semiciroular fosse, which,
when 1 first saw it, was 6 feet deep. On opening it was discovered at the bottom a
great quantity of human bones, which 1 am inclined to believe were thé remains of
those who had been slain in some great and destructive battle first, because they bo-
longed to persons who had attained their full size, whereas in the mound adjoining
were found thé skeletons of_persons of ail ages and, seoondiy, they were here in thé
utmost confusion, as if buried in a hurry. May we not conjecture that they belonged
to the people who resided in thé town, and who were victorious in thé engagement? '1
Otherwise they would not have been thus honorably bnried in the common cemetery.
CMnMot7temoMm~.–Its perpendicular height was about 15 feet, and the diameter of
its base abont 60feet. It was composed of sand and contained human bones belonging

Trans. Amer. Antiq. Soc., 1820, vol. i, p. 174 et se~.


to skeletons whioh were buried in different parts of it. It was not until this pile of earth
was removed and thé original surface exposed to view that a probable conjecture of its
original design couldbeformed. About 20feet square of the surface had been leveled
and covered with bark. On the center of this lay a human skeleton, over whioh had
been spread a mat mannfactured either from weeds or bark. On thé breast lay what
Lad been a piece of copper, in the form of a cross, which had now become verdigris.
On the breast also lay a stone ornament with two perforations, one near each end,
throngh whioh passed a string, by means of whiehit was suspendedaround the wear-
er's neo'k. On this string, whioh was made of sinews, and verymuoh injured by time,
were placed a great many beads made of ivory or bone, for 1 cannot certainly say
which. <'
J~bMK~of 8tone.-Two such mounds have been described already in the county of
Perry. Others have been found in varions parts of the country. There is one at least
in the vicinity of Licking River, mot many miles from Newark. There is another on a
branch of Hargus's Creek, a few miles to the northeast of Circleville. There 'were sev-
eral not very far &omthé town of Chillicothe. If these mounds were sometimes used as
cemeteries ofdistinguished persons, they were also used as monuments with a view of
perpetuating the leooUeotion of some great transaction or event. In the former not
more generally than one or two skeletons are fbnnd in the latter none. These mounds
are like those of earth, in form of a cône, composed of small stones on whioh no marks
of tools were visible. In them some of the most interesting articles are found, such as
urns, ornaments of copper, heads of spears, &c., of the same metal, as well as medals
of copper and pickaxesof horneblende; < wor&softhis class, comparedwith
those of earth, are few, and they are none of them as large as thé mounds at Grave
Creek, in the town of Ciroleville, whioh belong to the first class. 1 saw one of these
stone tumuli which had been piled on thé surface of the earth on thé spot where
three skeletons had been buried in stone conms, beneath the surface. It was situated
on the western edge of the hill on which the "walled town" stood, on Paint Cree'k.
The graves appear to have been dug to about the depth of ours in the present times.
After the bottom and sides were lined with thin flat stones, the corpses were placed
in thèse graves in' an eastern and western direction, and large Bat stones were laid
over the graves; then thé earth whioh had been dng out of the graves was thrown
over them. A huge pile of atones was placed over the whole. It is qnite probable,
however, that this was a work of our present race of Ihdians; Such graves are more
common in Eentnokythan Ohio. No article, except the skeletons, was found in these
graves; and the skeletons resembled very much the present race of Indians.
The mounds of Sterling County, Dlinois, are described by W. C. Hol-
brook* as follows:
1 recently made an examination of a few of the many Indian mounds fonnd on Rock
River, about two miles above Sterling, Ill. Thé first one opened was an oval mound
abont 20 feet long, 12 feet wide, and 7 feet high. In the interior of this 1 fbnnd a
<!o!MeK or quadrilateral wall about 10feet long, 4 feet high, and 4~ feet wide. It had
been built of lime-rock from a quarryneat by, and was covered with large flat stones.
No mortar or cément had been used. The whole structure rested on the surface of thé
natural soil, the interior of which had been scooped out to enlarge thé chamber. In-
side of the dolmen 1 fonnd the partly decayed remains of eight human skeletons, two
very large teeth of an nnknown animal, two fossils, one of which is not found in this
place, and a plummet. One of the long bones had been splintered; the fragments had
united, but there remained large morbid growths of bone (exostosis) in several places.
One of the sknils presented a circular opening abont the size of a silver dime. This
perforation had been made during life, for thé edges had commenced to cioatrize. 1

*American Naturalist, 1877, xi, No. 11, p. 688.


later examined three circular monnds, but in them 1 found no dolmens. Thé first
mound contained three adult huma.n skeletons, a few fragments of the skeloton of a
ohild,theIowermaxiIlaLryofwhichindioatedittobea,bontsixyearaold. 1 also found
claws of some carnivorous animal. The surface of the soil had been scooped ont and
the bodies laid in the excavation and covered with about a foot of earth; fires had
then been made upon the grave and the monnd afterwards completed. The bones had
not been charred. No charooaiwas found among the bones, but occurred in abundance
in a stratum about one foot above them. Two other mounds, examined at thé same
time, contain no remains.
Of two other mounds, opened later, the first was circular, about 4 feet high, and 15
feet in diameter at the base, and was situated onan elevated point of land close to thé
bank of the river. From the top of this monnd one might view the country for many
miles in almost any direction. On its summit was an oval altar 6 feet long and 4~
wide. It was composed of flat pieces of limestone, which had been bnrned red, somo
portions having been almost converted into lime. On and about this altar 1 found
abundanoe of charcoal. At the sides of the altar were fragments of human bones, some
ofvhioh had been charred. It was covered by a natural growth of vegetable mold
and aod, the thioknesa of which wasabout 10 inches. Large treea had once grown in
this vegetable mold, bnt their etumps were sa decayed 1 could mot tell with certainty
to what species they belonged. Another large monnd was opened which contained
The next account relates to the grave-mounds near Pensacola, Fia.,
and was originally published by Dr. George M. Sternberg, surgeon
United States Army
Before visiting the monnd 1 was informed that the Indians were buried in it in an
upright position, each one with a clay pot on his head. This idea wa.abased upon
some superficial explorations -which had been made from time to time by curiosity
hnnters. Their excavations had, indeed, brought to light pots containing fragments
of skulls, but not buriedinthe position they imagined. Very extensive explorations,
made at different times by myself, have shownthat only fragments of skulls and of the
long bones ofthe body are to be found in the mound, andthat these are commonly as-
sociated with earthen pots, sometimes whole, but more frequently broken fragments
only. In some instances portions of the sbull wereplaced in a pot, and thé long bonea
were deposited in its immediate vicinity. Again, the pots would contain only sand,
and fragments of bones wouldbe found nearthem. The most succesafnl mnd" Imade
was a whole nest ofpots, to the number of half a dozen, all in a good state of preser-
vation, and buried with a fragment of skull, which 1 take, from its small size, to have
been that of a female. Whether this female was thus distinguished above ail others
buried in the mound by the nnmber of pots deposited with her remains because of her
aldll in the manufacture of such ware, or by reason of the unusual wealth of her sor-
rowing huaband, must remain a matter of conjecture. 1 found, altogether, fragmenta
of skulls and thigh-bones belonging to at least fifty individuals, but in no instance did
I find anything like a complète skeleton. There were no vertebrœ, no ribs, no pelvie
bones, and none of thé small bones of the hands and &et. Two or three skulls, nearly
perfect, were fonnd, but they were ao fragile that it was impossible to preserve them.
In the majority of instances, only fragments of the frontal and parietal bones were
fonnd, buried inpotaor in fragments of pots too small to have ever contained a complete
skull. The conclusion was irrésistible that this was not a burial-place for the 6o(!:esof
deceased Indians, but that the bones had been gathered from some other locality for
burial in this mound, or that cremation was practicedbefore burial, and thé fragments
of bone not consumedby fire were gathered and deposited in the mound. That the
btter supposition is the correct one 1 deem probable from the fact that in digging in

Froc. Am. Ass. Adv. of Science, 1875, p. 288.


the monnd evidences of fire are found in nnmerous places, but without
any regalarity
as to depth and position. These evidences consist in strata of from one to four inches
in thickness, in which the sand is of a dark color and has mixed with it numerous
small fragments of charcoal.
My theory is that thé mound was built by graduai accretion in the following man-
ner That when a death occurred a funeral pyre was erected on the
mound, upon
which the body was placed. That after the body was consumed,
any fragments of
bones remaining were gathered, placed in il pot, and buried, and that thé ashes and
cinders were covered by a layer of sand brought from the immediate vicinity for that
purpose. This view is further snpported by the fact that only the shafts ofthe long
bones are fonnd, the expanded extremities, whioh would be most
easily consumed,
having disappeared; also, by thé fact that no bones of ohiidren were found. Their
bones being smaller, and containing a less proportion of earthy matter, would be en-
tirely consumed.
At the Santa Rosa mound the method of burial vas different. Here I found the
sheletons complète, and obtained nine well-preserved skuUs. The bodies
were not, apparently, deposited upon any regnla,r System, and 1 found no objects of
interest associated with the remains. Itmaybethatthiswas due to the fact that the
skeletons found were those of warriors who had fallen in battle in which they had sus-
tained defeat. This view is snpported by the fact that they were ail males, and that
two of the akulls bore marks of ante-mortem injuries whioh must have been of a fatal

Writing of the Choctaws, Bartram,* in alluding to the ossuary, or

bone-honse, mentions that so soon as this is filled a general inhumation
takes place, in this manner
Then the respective coffinsare borne by the nearest relatives of the deceased to the
place of interment, where they are ail piled one upon another in the form of a pyra-
mid, and the conical hill of earth heaped above.
The funeral ceremonies are concluded with the solemnization of a festival called
the feast of the dead.

FlorianŒa.nqtie, of Cincinnati, Ohio, furnishes an account of a some-

what curious mound-burial which had taken place in the Miami Val-
ley of Ohio
A mound vas opened in this locality, some years ago, containing a central
in a sitting posture, and over thirty skeletons buried around it in a
circle, also in
a sitting posture, but leaning against one another, tipped over towards the
facing inwards. 1 did not see this opened, but have seen the mounds and many
ornaments, awls, &c., said to have been found near the central body. The parties
informing me are trustworthy.
As an example of interment, unique, so far as known, and interesting
as being sMt ~KefM, the following description by Dr. J. Mason Spain-
hour, of Lenoir, N. 0., of an excavation made by him March 11,1871, on
the farm of B. V. Michaux, esq., near John's
River, in Burke County,
N. C., is given. Thé anthor bears the reputation of an observer of un-
donbted integrity, whose facts as given may not be doubted

In a conversation witli Mr. Michaux on Indian cnriosities, he informed me that
there was an Indian mound on his farm whioh was folmerly of considerable
Bartram's Travels, 1791,p. 513.

but had gradually been plowed down; that several mounds in the neighborhood had
been excavated, and nothing of interest found in them. 1 asked permission to ex-
amine this mound, which was granted, and upon investigation the following factss
were revealed:
Upon reacbing thé place, 1 sharpened a stick 4 or 5 feet in length and ran it down
in the earth at several places, and nna.Uy struck a rock about 18 inches below the
surface, which, on digging down, was found to be smooth on top, lying horizontally
upon solid earth, about 18 inches above the bottom of thé grave, 18 inches in length,
and 16 inches in width, and from 2 to 3 inches in thickness, with thé corners rounded.
Not finding anything under this rock, 1 then made an excavation in thé sonth of the
grave, and soon struck another rock, which, upon examination, proved to be in front
of the remains of a hnman skeleton in a sitting posture. Thé bones of the fingers of
the right hand were resting on this rock, and on the rock near the hand was a small
stone abont 5 inches long, resembling a tomahawk or Indian hatchet. Upon a fnrther
examination many of the bones were found, though in a very decomposed condition,
and upon exposure to the air aoon crumbled to pieces. The heads of the bones, a con-
siderable portion of the skull, maxillary bones, teeth, neck bones, and thé vertebra,
were in their proper places, though the weight of the earth above them had driven
them down, yet the entire frame was so perfect that it was an easy matter to trace
ail the bones; thé bones of thé cranium were slightly inclined toward thé east.
Around the neck were found coarse beads that seemed to be of some hard substance
and resembled chalk. A small lump of red paint about thé size of an egg was found
near the right side of this skeleton. Thé sutures of the cranium indicated the subject
to have been 25 or 28 years of age, and its top rested about 12 inches below the mark
of thé plow.
1 made a further excavation toward the west of this grave and found another skele-
ton, similar to the first, in a sitting posture, facing the east. A rock was on the right,
on whioh thé bones of the right hand were resting, and on this rock was a tomahawk
which had been abont 7 inohea in length, but was broken into two pieces, and was
much botter finished than the first. Beads were also around thé neck of this one, but
were much smaller and of finer qnalitythan thoae on the neck of the Brst. Themate-
rial, however, seems to be thé same. A much larger amount of paint was found by
the side of this than thé first. The bones indicated a person of large frame, who,
1 think, was about 50 years of age. Everything abont this one had the appearance of
superiority over the first. The top of the skull was about 6 inches below the mark of
the plane.
1 continued the examination, and, after diligent searoh, foundnothing at thé north
aide of the grave; but, on reaching the east, found another skeleton, in the same
posture as thé others, facing the west. On the right side ofthis was a rock on which
thé bones of thé right hand were resting, and on the rock was also a tomakawk, whioh
had been abont 8 inches in length, but was broken into three pieces, and was composed
of mueli better material, and hetter finished than the others. Beads were also found
on the neck of this, but much smaller and finer than those of the others. A larger
amount of paint than both of thé others was found near this one. The top of the
cranium had been moved by the plow. Thé bones indicated a person of 40 years of
There was no appearance of hair discovered; besides, thé smaller bones were almost
entirely deoomposed,-a.nd would crumble when taken from their bed in the earth.
These two circumstances, coupled with thé fact that thé farm on whioh this grave
was found was the first aettled in that part of the country, the date of the first deed
made from Lord Granville to John Perkins running back about 150 years (thé land
still belonging to the descendants of the same family that first occupied it), would
prove beyond doubt that it ia a very old grave.
Thé grave was situated due east and west, in aize about 9 by 6 feet, thé line boing
distinctly marked by the difference in the color of the soil. It was dug in rich, black

loam, and filled around the bodies with white or yellow sand, which 1 suppose was
carried from thé river-bank, 200 yards distant. The skeletona approximated the walls
of thé grave, and oontigaous to them was a dark-colored earth, a,nd so decidedly dif-
ferent was this from ail surrounding it, both in quality and odor, that the lime of the
bodies could be readily traced. The odor of this decomposed earth, which had been
flesh, was aimilar to clotted blood, and would adhère in lumps when compressed in
the hand.
This was not the grave of the Indian warriors in those we find pots made of earth
or stone, and all thé implements of war, for thé warrior had an idea that after he arose
from thé dead he would need, in the hunting-grounds beyond," his bow and arrow,
war-hatchet, and acalping-Ioliië.
Thé facts set forth will doubtless convhioe every Mason who will carefully read the
account of this remarkable burial that the American Indians were in poseasion of at
least some of the mysteries of our order, and that it was evidently thé grave of Masons,
and the three highest oËioera in a Masonie lodge. Thé grave was situated due east
andwest; an altar waserected in the conter; the aonth, west, and east were occu-
pied–N;e mo)'&Mas mot; implements of amthority were near each body. The din'erence
in thé quality of the beads, the tomahawks in one, two, and three pieces, and the dif-
ference in distance that the bodies were placed from the surface, indicate beyond doubt
that these three persons had been buried by Masons, 'and those, too, that understood
what they were doing.
WilLsome learned Mason nnravel this mystery and inform the Masonic world how
the Indians obtained so much Masonic information? `t
The tomahawks, maxillary bones, some of the teeth, beads, and other bones, have
been forwarded to thé Smithsonian Institution at Wàshington, D. 0., to be placed
among the archives of that institution for exhibition, at which place they may be seen.
Should Dr. Spamhour's inferences be incorrect, there is still a remark-
able coincidence of circumstances patent to every Mason.
In support of this gentleman's views, attention is called to the descrip-
tion of the iMaMp~M–a. ceremony of initiation for woold-be medicine
men-in Schoolcraft's History of the Indian Tribes of the United States,
1855, p. é38, relating to the Sioux and Chippewas. In this account are
found certain forms and resemblances which have led some to believe
that the Indians possessed a knowledge of Masonry.


While there is a certain degree of similitude between the above-noted

methods and the one to be mentioned subsequently–M~e burial-they
differ, inasmuch as the latter are examples of surface or aerial burial,
and must consequently fall under another caption. Thé narratives which
are now to be given afford a clear idea of the former kinds of burial.

Barfram* relates the following regarding the Muscogulges of the

The Muscogulges bury their deceased in the earth; they dig a four-foot, square,
deep pit under the cabin, or couch which thé deceased laid on in his house, lining tho
grave with cypress bark, when they place the corpse in a sitting posture, as if it wero
alive, depositing with him his gun, tomahawk, pipe, and such other matters as ho
"Bartram'a Travels, 1791,p. 515.
1 for in 1.
Lad. thé greatest value his lifetime. His eldest wife, or the qneen dowager, has
the second choice of his possessions, and thé remaining effects are divided
among his
other wives and children.

According to Bernard Roman,* the ''Amoral customs of the Chick-

asaws did not differ materially from those of the Muscogulges. They
interred the dead as soon as the breath left the
body, and beneath the
couch in which the deceased expired."
The Navajos of New Mexico and Arizona, a tribe living a consider-
able distance from the Chickasaws, follow somewhat similar cnstoms, as
related by Dr. John Menard, formerly a physician to their agency:
The Navajo custom is to leave thé body where it dies, closing up the house
or hogan
or covering the'body with stones or brush. In case thé body is removed, it is taken
to a cleft in the rocks and thrown in, and stones piled over. The person touching or
carrying thé body first takes off ail his clothes and afterwards washes his body with
water before putting them on or mingling with the living. When a body is removed
from a house or hogan, the hogan is burned down, and the place in every case aban-
doned, as thé belief is that the~devil comes to the place of death and remains where
a dead body is. Wild animais frequently (indeed, generally) get the
bodies, and it is
a very easy matter pick up slmlls and bones aronnd old camping grounds, orwhere
thé dead are laid. In case it is not desirable to abandon a place, thé sick person is
left ont in some lone spot protected by brush, where they are either abandoned to
their fate or food bronght to them until they die. This is donc only when all hope is
gone. 1 have found bodies thus left so well inclosed with brnsh that -wild animais
were unable to get at them; and one so left to die was revived by a cnp of coËoofrom
our house and is still living and well.

Lieut. George E. Ford, Third United States in a personal

communication to the writer, corroborates the account given by Dr.
Menard, as follows
This tribe, numbering about 8,000 souls, occupy a reservation in thé extrême north-
western corner of New Mexico and Nbrtheastern Arizona. The funeral ceremonies of
the Navajos are of thé most simple character. They ascribe the death of an indi-
vidnal to the direct action of CMt: or the devil, and believe that he remains in the
vicinity of the dead. For this reason, as soon as a member of the tribe dies a shallow
grave is dng within the hogan or dwelling by one of the near male relatives, and into
this thé corpse is nnoeremoniousiy tnmbledbythe relatives, who have previonsly pro-
teoted themselves from the evil influence bysmearmgtheir nabed bodies withtar from
the pinon tree. After thé body bas thus been disposed of, the hogan (composed of
logs and branches of trees covered with earth) is pulled down over it and thé place
deserted. Should the deceased have no near relatives or was of no importance in the
tribe, the formality of digging a grave is dispensed with, thé hogan being simply lev-
eled over the body. This carelessness does not appear to arise from want of natnral
afFectionfor thé dead, but fear ofthe evil innnence of Chinclenpon the surviving rela-
tives causes them to avoid doing anything that might gain for them his ill-will. A
Navajo would freeze sooner than make a fire of the logs of a fallen hogan, even thongh
from all appearances it may have been years in that condition. There are no mourn-
ing observances other than smearing the forehead and under the eyes with tar, which
is allowed to remain until worn off, and then not renewed. Thé deceased is apparently
forgotten, as his name is never spoken by the snrvivors for fear of giving offense to
*A Concise Nat. Hist. of East and West Florida, 1775.

J. L. Bnrchard, agent to the Round Valley Indians of California,

furnishes an account of burial somewhat resembling that of the Navajos:
When I first came here the Indians would dig a round hole in the ground, draw up
the Iniees ofthe deceased Indian, and wrap the body into as small a bulk as possible
in blankets, tie them firmly with cords, place them in thé grave, throw in beads, bas-
kets, clothing, everything owned by thé deceased, and often donating much extra
all gathered around the grave wailing most pitifully, tearing their faces with their
nails till thé blood would run down their cheeks, pnll out their hair, and such other
heathenish conduct. Thèse burials were generallymade under their thatoh honses or
very near thereto. The house where one died vas always tom down, removed, re-
built, or abandoned. The wailing, talks, &c., vere in their own jargon; none eise
could understand, and they seeminglyknew but little of its meaning (if therewas any
meaning in it); it aimply seemed to be the promptings of grief, without sn&oient in-
telligence to direct any ceremony; each seemed to act out his own impulse.
The next account, taken frôm M. Butel de Dumont,* relating to the
Paskagoulas and Billoxis of Louisiana, may be considered as an example
of burial in houses, although thé author of the work was pleased to con-
sider thé receptacles as temples.
Les Paskagoulas et les Billoxis n'enterent point leur Chef, lorsqu'il est décédé mais-
ils font sécher son cadavre au feu et à la ftunée de façon qu'ils en font un vrai sque-
lette. Après l'avoir réduit en cet état, ils le portent au Temple (car ils en ont un ainsi
que les Natchez), et le mettent à la place de son prédécesseur, qu'ils tirent de l'endroit
qu'il occupoit, pour le porter avec les corps de leurs autres Chefs dans le fond du Temple
où.ils Sonttous rangés de suite dressés sur leurs pieds comme des statues. A l'égard du
dernier mort, il est exposé à.l'entrée de ce Temple sur une espèce d'autel on de table
faite de cannes, et couverte d'une natte très-fine travaillée forte proprement en quar-
reaux rouges et jaunes avec lapeau de ces mêmes cannes. Le cadavre du Chef est ex-
posé au milieu de cette table droit sur ses pieds, soutenu par derrière par une longue
perche peinte en ronge dont le bout passe au-dessus de sa tête, et à. laquelle il est at-
taché par le milieu du corps avec une liane. D'une main il tient un casse-tête ou une
petite hache, de l'autre une pipe et au-dessus de sa tête est attaché au bout de la
perche qui le soutient, le Calumet le plus fameux de tous ceux qui lui ont été présentés
pendant sa vie. Du reste cette table n'est guères élevée de terre que d'un demi-pied;
mais elle a au moins six pieds de large et dix de longueur.
C'est sur cette table qu'on vient tous les jours servir à manger à. ce Chef mort en
mettant devant lui des plats de sagamité, du bled grolé ou boucané, &o. C'est-là,
aussi qu'au commencement de toutes les récoltes ses Sujets vont lui oNrir les premiers
de tous les fruits qu'ils peuvent reoueillier. Tout ce qui lui est présenté de la sorte
reste sur cette table; et comme la porte de ce Temple est toujours ouverte, qu'il n'y a
personne préposé pour y veiller, que par conséquent y entre qui veut, et que d'ailleurs
il est éloigné du Village d'un grand quart de lieue, il arrive que ce sont ordinairement
des Etrangers, Chasseurs ou Sauvages, qui profitent de ces mets et de ces fruits, ou
qu'ils sont consommés par les animaux. Mais cela est égal à ces sauvages; et moins
il en reste lorsqu'ils retournent le lendemain, plus ils sont dans la joie, disant que
leur Chef a bioB.mangé, et que par conséquent il sst content deux quoiqu'il les ait
abandonnés. Pour leur ouvrir les yeux sur l'extravagance de cette pratique, on a
beau leur représenter ce qu'ils ne peuvent s'empêcher de voir eux-mêmes, que ce n'est
point ce mort qui mange; ils répondent que si ce n'est pas lui, c'est toujours lui au
moins qui offre à qui il lui plaît ce qui a été mis sur la table; qu'âpres tout c'étoit la
la pratique de leur père, de leur mère, do leurs parens; qu'ils n'ont pas plus d'esprit
qu'eux, et qu'ils ne sauroient mieux faire que de suivre leur example.
C'est aussi devant cette table, que pendant quelques mois la veuve du Chef, ses en-
fans, ses plus proches parons, viennent de tems en tems lui rendre visite et lui faire <
*Mem. Hist. sur la Louisiane, 1753, vol. i, pp. 241-243.

leur harangue, comme s'il étoit en état de les entendre. Les uns lui demandent pour-
quoi il s'est laissé mourir avant eux ? d'autres lui disent que s'il est mort ce n'est point
leur faute; que c'est lui même qui s'est tué par telle débauche ou par tel effort; enfin
s'il y a eu quelque défaut dans son gouvernement, on prend ce tems-Ià pour le lui re-
procher. Cependant ils finissent toujours leur harangue, en lui disant de n'être pas
fâché contre eux, de bien manger, et qu'ils auront toujours bien soin de lui.
Another example of burial in houses may be found in vol. vi of the
publications of the Hakluyt Society, 18é9, p. 89, taken from Strachey's
Virginia. It is given more as a curious narrative of an .early writer on
American ethnology than for any intrinsic value it may possess as a
trnthful relation of actual events. It relates to the Indians of Virginia
Within the chauncell of the temple, by thé Okens, are the cenotaphies or the mon-
uments of their kings, whose'bodyes, ao aoon as they be dead, they embowell, and,
seraping the flesh from off the bones, they dry thé same upon hurdells into ashes,
whioh they put into little potts (like thé aunoyent urnes) thé annathomy of thé
bones they bind together or case up in leather, hanging braceletts, or chaines of cop-
per, beads, pearle, or snch like, as they nsed to wear about most of their joints and
neck, and so repose the body upon a little scaffold (as upon a tomb), laying by the
dead bodies' feet all his riches in severa.11basketts, his apook, and pipe, and any one
toy, whioh in his life he held most deare in his fancy; their inwards they stnif -with
pearla, copper, beada, and such trash, sowod in a skynne, 'whioh they overlapp againe
very carefully in whit shynnes one or two, and the bodyes thus dressed lastly they
rowle in matts, as for wynding sheets, and so lay them ôrderly one by one, as they
dye in their turnes, npon an arche standing (as aforesaid) for thé tomb, and thes are
all thé ceremonies we yet can learne that they give unto their dead. We heare of no
sweet oyles or oyntments that they use to dresse or chest their dead bodies with; albeit
they want not of the pretions rozzin running out of the great cedar, wherewith in the
old time they used to embalme dead bodies, washing them in the oyle and licoure
thereof. Only to the priests thé care of these temples and holy interments are com-
mitted, and these temples are to them as solitary Asaeteria colledged or ministers to
exercise themselves in contemplation, for they are seldome out of them, and therefore
often lye in them and maynteyne contynuall fier in the same, upon a hearth somewhat
'neere the east end.
For their ordinary buriaUs they digg a deepe hole in the earth with sharpe stakes,
and the corps being lapped in s'kymis and matts with their jewells, they laye uppon
sticks in the ground, and soe cover them with earth; the buryall ended, the women
(being painted ail their faces with black coale and oyle) do sitttwenty-fonr howers in
their howaes, mourning and lamenting by turnes, with such yelling and howling as
may expresse their gréât passions.
While this description brings the snbject under thé head before given
–honse burial-at the same time it might also afford an example of
embalmment or mummifying.
Figure 1 may be referred to as a probable representation of the temple
or charnel-house described.
Themodes of burial described in the foregoing acconnts are not to be
considered rare; for among certain tribes in Africa similar practices
prevailed. For instance, the Bari of Central Africa, according to the
Rev. J. G. Wood,* bury their dead within the inclosure of the home-
stead, Rx a pole in the ground, and fasten to it certain emblems. The
Apingi, according to thé same author, permit the corpse to remain in
its dwelling imtil it falls to pieces. The bones are then collected and
Unoivilized Races of the Worid, 1870, vol i, p. 464.

deposited on the gronnd a short distance from the viUage. The La-
tookas bury within thé inclosure of a man's honse, althongh thé bones
are snbseqnently removed, placed in an earthen jar, and deposited ont-
side the village. The Kaffirs bnry their head-men within the cattle
inclosure, the graves of thé common people being made ontside, and the
Bechnanas follow the same general plan.
The following description of Damara bnrial, from the work quoted
above (p. 314), is added as containing an account of certain details which
resemble somewhat those followed by North American Indians. In thé
narrative it will be seen that house bnrial was followed only if specially
desired by the expiring persou
When a Damara chief dies, he is buried in rather a, peonliar fashion. As soon as
life is extinot–somo say oven before tlie last breath is drawn-the bystanders break
the spime by a, blow from a large stome. They then unwimd the long rope that encir-
oles the loms, and. lash the body together in a sitting posture, the head being bent
over the knees. Ox-hides are then tied over it, and it is bnried with its face to the
north, as already described when treating of the Bechuanas. Cattle are then
slaughtered in honor of the dead chief, and over the grave a post is erected, to which
the skulls and hair are attached as a trophy. Thé bow, arrows, assagai, and clubs of
the deceased are hnng on the same post. Large stones are pressed into the soil above
and aronnd the grave, and a large pile of thorns is also heaped over it, in order to
keep off the hyenas, who would be sure to dig up and devonr thé body before thé
following day. Thé grave of a Damara chief is represented on page 302. Nbw and
then a chief ordera that his body shall be loft in his own house, in which case it is laid
on an elevated platform, and a strong fence of thorns and stages built round the hnt.
The funeral ceremonies being completed, the new ohief forsakes the place and takes
the whole of the people nnder his command. Ho remains at a distance for several
years, dnring which time he wears the sign of monrning, i. e., a dark-colored conical
cap, and round the neck a thong, to the ends of which are hnng two small pieces of
ostrich-shell. When the aeason of mourning is over, thé tribe return, headed by the
chief, who goes to thé grave of his father, kneela over it, and whispers that he has
returned, together with the cattle' and wives whioh his father gave him. He then
asks for his pajrent's aid in ail his nndertakings,-and from that moment takes the
place whioh his father filled before him. Cattle are then slanghtered, and a feast
held to the memory of the dead chief and in honor of thé living one, and each person
present partakes of the meat, which is distributed by the chief himself. Thé deceased
chief symbolioally partages of thé banquet. A couple of twigs ont from the tree of
thé particular eanda to whioh the deceased belonged are considered as his representa-
tive, and with this emblem each piece of meat is touched before the gnests consume it.
Inlike manner, the first pail of milk that is drawn is taken to thé grave and poured.
over it.

(M~jE ~OB~~C.

N'attirai or artificial holes in thé gronnd, caverns, and fissures in rocks

have been used as places of deposit for the dead since the earliest pe-
riods oftime, and are used up to the present day by not only the Ameri-
can Indians, bnt by peoples noted for their mental élévation and civili-
zation, our cemeteries fornishing nnmerons specimens of artificial or
partly artificial caves. As to the motives which have actuated this

mode of burial, a discussion wouldbe out of place at this time, except

as may incidentally relate to our own Indians, who, so far as can be
ascertained, simply adoptcaves as readyand convenient resting places
for their deceased relatives and friends.
In almost every State in thé Unionburial caves havebeen discovered,
but as there is more or less of identity between them, a few illustrations
will serve the purpose of calling the attention of observers to the subject.
While in the Territory of Utah, in 1872,the writer discovered a nat-
ural cave not far from the House Range of mountains, the entrance to
which resembled the shaft of a mine. In this thé Gosi-UteIndians had
deposited their dead, surrounded with different articles, untilit was quite
filled up; at least it so appeared from the cnrsory examination made,
limited time preventing a careful exploration. In the fall of the same
year another cave was heard of, from an Indian guide, near the Nevada
border, in the same Territory, and an attempt made to explore it, which
failed for reasons to be snbsequently given. This Indian, a Gosi-Ute,
who was questioned regarding the funeral ceremonies of his tribe,
informed the writer that not far from the very spot where the party
were encamped, was a large cave in which he had himself assisted
in placing dead members of his tribe. He described it in detail and
drew a rough diagram of its position and appearance within. He was
asked if an entrance conidbe effected, and replied that he thought
not, as some years previons his people had stopped np thé narrow
entrance to prevent gamefrom seeking a refuge in its vast vaults, for
he asserted.that it was so large and extended so far under ground that
no man knew its full extent. In consideration, however, of a very
liberal bribe, after many refusals, he agreed to act as guide. A rough
ride of over an hour and thé desired spot was reached. It was found
to be almost upon the apex of a small mountain apparently of volcanic
origin, for thé hole which was pointed out appeared to have been the
vent of the crater. This entrance was irregularly circular in form and
descended at an angle. As thé Indian had stated, it was completely
stopped np with large stones and roots of sage brush, and it was only
after six hours of uninterrnpted, faithful labor that the attempt to ex-
plore was abandoned. The guide was asked if many bodies were therein,
and replied Heaps,heaps," moving the hands upwards as far they could
be stretched. There is no reason to doubt the accuracy of thé informa-
tion received, as it was voluntarily imparted.
In a communication received from Dr. A. J. McDonald, physician to
the Los Pinos Indian Agency, Colorado, a description is given of crevice
or rock-fissure burial, which follows
Assoonas dea.tlita,'besplacethe eventis at onceannouncedby tlie medicine-man,
andwithoutlossof tunethe squawsare busily engagedin preparingthé corpsefor
thé grave. Thisdoesnottake long whateverarticlesof clothingmayhave beenon
thé bodyat thetimeof death are not removed.Thedeadmarn'slimbsarestraight-
enedont,hisweaponsof war laid by his side,andhis robesand blanketswrapped
securelyand snuglyaroundhim,and noweverythingis readyfor burial. It is the

oustom to seoure, if possible, for the purpose of wrapping np the corpse, the robes and
blankets in whioh the Indian died. At the same time that the body is being fitted
for interment, the squaws having immediate care of it, together with aU the other
squawsin the neighborhood, keep up a continued chant or dirge, the dismal cadence
of which may, when thé congregation of women is large, be heard for quite a long
distance. The death song is not a mere inartioulate howl of distress it embraces ex-
pressions eulogiatio in cbaracter, but whether or not any particular formula of words
is adopted on such occasion is a question whichi am unable, with the materials atmy
disposai, to determine with any degree of certa,inty.
The next duty falling to the lot ofthe sqnaws is that of placing the dead man on a
horse and conduoting thé remains to the spot chosen for bnrial. This is in the cleft
of a rock, and, so far as oan be ascertained, it has always been customary among the
Utes to select sepulchers of this character. From descriptions given by Mr. Harris,
who has several times been fortunate enongh to discover remains, it would appear
that no superstitions ideas are held by this tribe with respect to the position in which
the body is placed, the space accommodation of the sepulcherprobablyregulating this
matter; and from the same source 1 learn that it is not usual to find the remains of
more than one Indian deposited in one grave. After the body has been received into
the cleft, it is well covered with pieces of rock, to protect it against thé ravages of
wild animata. Thé chant ceases, the squaws disperse, and the bnrial ceremonies are
at an end. Thé men dnring ail this time have not been idle, though they have in no
way participated in the préparation of thé body, have not joined thé squaws in chant-
ing praises to the memory of the dead, and havenot even as mere spectators attended
the funeral, yet they havehadtheir dnties to perform. In conformity with a long-estab-
liahed custom, all thé personal property of the deceased is immediately destroyed.
His horses and his cattle are shot, and his wigwam, furniture, &c., bnrned. The per-
formance ofthis part of the ceremonies is assigned to the men; a dnty qnite in accord
with their taste and inclinations. Occasionally the destruction of horses and other
property is of considérable magnitude, but usually this is not the case, owing to a
practice existing with them of distributing their property among their children while
they are of a very tender âge, retaining to themselves only what is necessary to meet
every-day requirements.
The widow "goes into mourning" bysmearingherfaoewitha.snbstancooomposedof
pitch and charcoal. The application is made but once, and is allowed to remain on
until it wearsoff. Thisistheonlymonmingobservance ofwhichIhaveanyTojowledge.
The ceremonies observed on the death of a female are the same as those in the case
of a male, except that no destruction of property takes place, and of course no weapons
are deposited with the cotpse. Should a youth die while under the superintendence
of white men, the Indians will not as a rule have anything to do with the interment
ofthe body. In a case ofthe kind whioh occurred at this agency some time ago, the
squaws prepared the body in the usual manner; the men of the tribe selected a spot
for thé burial, andthe employés at the agency, after digging a grave anddepositing the
corpse therein, filled it up according to thé fashionof civilized people, and then atthe
request of the Indians rolled large fragments of rocks on top. Great anxiety was ex-
hibited by the Indians to have the employés perform the service as expeditiously as
Within thé past year Oura.y, the Ute chief living at the Los Pinos
agency, died and was buried, so far as could be ascertained, in a rock
fissure or cave 7 or 8 miles from the agency.
An interesting cave in Calaveras County, California, which had been
used for bnrial purposes, is thus described by Prof. J. D. Whitney:*
The following is an account of the cave from whioh the skulls, now in the Smi~hao-
nian collection, were taken It is near the Stanislans River, in Calaveras County, on

*Eep. Smithsonian Inst., 1867,p. 406.


a nameless creek, about two miles from Abbey's Ferry, on the road to Vallicito, at
the house of Mr. Robinson. There were two or three persons with me, who had been
to thé place before and knew that the sknila in question were taken from it. Their
visit was some ten years ago, and since that the condition of things in thé cave has
greatly changed. Owing to some altération in the road, ntining operations, or some
other cause whioh 1 could mot ascertain, there has accumulatecl on the formerly clean
stalagmitio moorof the cave a thickness of some 20 feet of surface earth that com-
pletely conoeals the bottom, and whioh could not be removed withont considerable
expense. This cave is abont 27 feet deep at the month and 40 to 50 feet at the end,
and perhaps 30 feet in diameter. It is the general opinion of those who have noticed
this cave and saw it years ago that it was a burying-place of thé present Indians.
Dr. Jones said he found remains of bows and arrows and charcoal vith the BknUahe
obtained, and which were destroyed at the time the village of Murphy's was burned.
Ail the people spoke of thé abnils as lying on the surface and not as buried in thé
Thé next description of cave burial, by W. H. Dali*, is so remarkable
that it seems worthy of admittance to this paper. It relates probably to
thé Innuits of Alaska.
Thé earliest rema-ins of man found in Alaska np to the time of writing 1 refer to
this epoch [Echinus layer of Dall]. There are some crania found by us in the lower-
most part ofthe Amaknak cave and a cranium obtained atAda,Kh, near thé anchorage
in the Bay of Islands. These were deposited in a remarkable manner, precisely simi-
lar to that adopted by most of the continental Innnit, bnt equally different from thé
modern Aleut fashion. At the Amaknak cave we fonnd what at first appeared to be
a wooden inclosure, bnt whioh proved to be made of the very much decayed snpra-
maxillary bones of some large cetacean. These were arranged so as to form a rnde
rectangular inclosure covered over with similar pieces of bone. This was somewhat
less than 4 feet long, 2 feet wide, and 18 inches deep. Thé bottom was formed of flat
pieces of stone. Three such were fonnd close together, covered with and nlled by an
accumulation of nhe vegetable and organio mold. In each was the remains of a skel-
eton in the last stages of decay. It had evidently been tied up in the Innnit fashion
to get it into its narrow honse, but ail thé bones, with the exception of thé sknU,
were reduced to a soft paste, or even entirely gone. At Adakh a fancy prompted me
to dig into a small knollnear the ancient shell-heap, and hère we found, in a precisely
similar sarcophagus, the remains of a skeleton, of whioh also only the craninm re-
tained sufficient consistency to admit of préservation. This inclosure, however, was
filled with a dense peaty mass not rednced to mold, the resnH?of centuries of sphag-
nons growth, which had reached a thickness of nearly 2 feet above thé remains.
When we reflect upon the well-known slowness of this kind of growth in these north-
em regions, attested by nnmerons Arotio travelers, the antiqnity of the remains
becomes evident.
It seems beyond doubt that in the majority of cases, especially as re-
gards the caves of the Western States and Territories, the interments
were primary ones, and this is likewise true of many of the caverns of
Ohio, Indiana, and Eentncir~ for in thé three States mentioned many
mnmmies have been found, but it is also likely that such receptacles
were largely used as places of secondary deposits. The many fragment-
ary skeletons and loose bones found seem to strengthen this view.

9 A E Contrib. to N. A. Ethnol., 1877, vol. 1, p. 62.



Following and in connection with cave burial, thé subject of mummi-

fying or embalming the dead may be taken up, as most specimensof thé
kind have generally been found in such repositories.
It might be both interesting and instructive to search out and discuss
thé causes which have led many nations or tribes to adopt certain pro-
cesses with a view to prevent that retarn to dust wMch ail Hesh must
sooneror later expérience,but the necessarily limited scope of this work
precludes more than a brief mention of certain theories advanced by
writers of note, and whieh relate to thé ancient Egyptians. Possibly at
the time thé Indians of Americasought to preserve their dead from de-
composition,some such ideas may have animated them, but on this point
no definite information has been procured. In the final volume an
effort will be made to trace out thé origin of mummincatîbn among the
Indians and aborigines of this continent.
The Egyptians embalmed, according to Cassien, because during the
time of the annual inundation no interments could take place, but it is
more than likely that this hypothesis is entirely fanciful. It is said by
others they believed that so long as the body was preserved from cor-
ruption the soûl remained in it, Herodotus states that it was'to pre-
vent bodies from becoming -a prey to animal voracity. They did not
inter them," says he, ~for fear of their being eaten by worms; nor did
they burn, considering fire as a ferocious beast, devouring everything
whieh it touched." According to Diodorus of Sicily, embalmment origi-
nated in nlial piety and respect; De Maillet, however, in his tenth letter
on Egypt, attributes it entirely to a religions belief, insisted upon by
the wise men and priests, who taught their disciples that after a certain
number of cycles, of perhaps thirty or forty thousand years, the entire
universe became as it was at birth, and the souls of the dead returned
into the same bodies in which they had lived, provided that the body
remained free from corruption, and that sacrifices were freely ofFered
as oblations to thé manes of the deceased. Considering the great care
taken to preserve the dead, and' the ponderously solid nature of the
Egyptian tombs, it is not surprising that this theory has obtained many
believers. M. Gannal believes embalmment to have been suggested by
thé affectionate sentiments of our nature-a desire to preserveas long as
possible the mortal remains of loved ones; but MM. Volney and Pariset
think it was intended to obviate, in hot climates especially, danger from
pestilence, being primarily a cheap and simple process, elegance and
luxury coming later; and the Count de Caylus states the idea of em-
balmment was derived from the finding of desiccated bodies wMchthé
burning sands of Egypt had hardened and preserved. Many other sup-
positions have arisen, but it is thought the few given above are suffi-
cieht to serve as an introduction to embalmmentin North America.

From the statements of thé older writers on North American Indians,

was resorted certain tribes of
it appears that mnmmiiying to,among
of distinction,
Virginia, the Carolinas, and Florida, especially for people
the process in Virginia for the kings, according to Beverly,* being as
The JTtt~MtM are religions in preserving the Corpses of their Kings and Bulera after
off the Skin
Death, whioh they order in thé following manner First, they neatly flay
asentireas theyoan,slitting it only in the Back; then they pick ail the Flesh off
from the Bones as demi as possible, leaving thé Sinews fastned to the Bones, that
the Bones in the Sun, and put
they may preserve the Joints together; then they dry
them into the Skin again, whioh in the mean time has been kept from drying or
nll up the Vaon-
ahrinking when the Bones are placed right in the Skin, they nicely
the Skin again, and thé
ities, with a very fine white Sand. After this they aew np
caie to keep thé Skin
Body looks as if thé Flesh had not been removed. They take
from shrinking, by the help of a little Oil or Grease, which saves it also from Corrap-
tion. The Skin being thus prepar'd, they lay it in an apartment for that purpose,
is spread with Mats, for the
upon a large Shelf raia'd above the Floor. This Shelf
it from thé Dust. The
Corpse to rest easy on, and skreened -with thé same, to keep
Flesh they lay npon Enrdies in the Sun to dry, and when it is thoroughly dried, it is
aewednpinaBasket, andsetattheFeetoftheCorpse,towhiohitbelongs. Inthisplace
also they set up a Q~occos, or Idol, which they believe will be a Guard to the Corpse.
Here Night and Day one or thé other of thé Priests must give his Attendance, to take
care of the dead Bodies. So great an Honom-and Vénération have these ignorant
and unpolisht People for their Princes even after they are dead..
It should be added that, in the writer's opinion, this account and others
like it are somewhat apocryphal, and it has been copied and recopied
score of times.
According to Pinkerton.t who took the account fro mSmith's Virginia,
thé Werowance of Virginia preserved their dead as follows
In their Temples they have his [their chief God, the Devil's] image enill favonrediy
of copper, and beads, and covered
carved, and then painted and adomed with chaînes
with a skin, in such manner as the deformitie may well suit with such a God. By him
is commonly the sepulchre of their Rings. Their bodies are first bowelled, then dried
thé most of their ioynts and necke
upon hurdles till they be very dry, and so about
as they vse to wear.
they hang bracelets, or chaînes of copper, pearle, and such like,
Their inwards they stuffe with copper beads, hatohets, and such trash. Then lappe
them in mats for their winding-
they them very carefully in white akins, and so rowle
sheets. And in the Tombe, which is au arch made of mats, they lay them orderly.
What remaineth of this kind of wealth their Kings have, they set at their feet
baskets. These temples and bodies are kept by their Priests.
For their ordinary burials, they dig a deepe hole in the earth with sharpe stakes,
and the corpse being lapped in skins and mats with their jewels they.la~y them vpon
stickes in the ground, andso cover them with earth. The buriale ended, the women
doe sit twenty-foure houres in
being painted all their faces with blacke cole and oyle
the honses monrning and lamenting by turnes with such yelling and howling as may
expresse their great passions.
there are three great houses
Upon the top of certain red aandyhiUs in the woods
filled withimages of their Kings and devils and thé tombes of their predecessors.
Those honses are near sixty feet in length, bnilt harbonrwise after their building.
This place they count ao holey as that but the priests and Kings dare come into them y
nor the savages dare not go up the river in boates by it, but that they solemnly
*BSst.of Virginia, 1722, p. 185.
t Collection of Voyages, 1812, vol. xiii, p. 39.

some piece of copper, white beads, or pooones intothe riverforfeare their Okee should
be offended and revenged of them.
They think that their Werowamces and priests which they also esteeme quiyough-
cosnghs, when they are deade doe goe beyond the mountains towards the setting of
the sun, and ever remain there in form of their Obee, with their
hedes paynted rede
with oyle and pocones, finely trimmed with feathers, and shall havé
beads, hatchets,
copper, and tobacco, doing nothing but dance and sing with all their predecessors.
But the common people they suppose shall not live after
deth, but rot in their graves
like dede dogges.

This is substantially the same account as has been given on a former

page, the verbiage differing slightly, and the remark regardingtruthful-
ness will apply to it as well as to the other.
Figure 1 may again be referred to as an example of the dead-house~
The Congaree or Santee Indians of South
Caroliiia., according to Law-
son, nsed a process of partial embalmment, as will be seen from the
subjoined extract from Schoolcraft;* but instead of laying away the
remains in caves, placed them in boxes snpported above thé ground by
crotched sticks.
The manner of their interment is thus: A mole or pyramid of earth
is raised, the
mould. thereof being worked very smooth and even, sometimes higher or lower accord-
ing to the dignity of the person whose monument it is. On thé top thereof ia an
umbrella,, made ridgeways, like the roof of a honse. This is supported by nine stakes
or small poats, the grave being about 6 to 8 feet in length and 4 feet in
breadth, about
which is hnng gourds, feathers, and other such like trophies, placed there
by the dead
man's relations in respect to him in the grave. The other parts of the funeral rites are
thus As soon as thé party is dead they lay the corpse apon a pièce of barbin thé
seasoning or embalming it with a smaU root beaten to powder, whioh looks as red
as vermillion; the same is mixed with bear's oil to beautify the hair. After the car-
cass has laid a day or two in the sun they remove it and lay it upon crotches eut on
purpose for the support thereof from the earth; then they anoint it ail over with thé
a&rementionedingreaientsofthepowderofthisrootandbea.r'soil. Whenitissodone
they cover it over very exactly with the bark or pine of thé oypress tree to prevent any
rain to fall uponit, sweeping thé gronnd very olean all about it. Someof his nearest
of kin brings aU the temporal estate he was possessed of at his
death, as gnns, bows
and arrows, beada, feathers, matoh-coat, &o. This relation is the
chief mourner, being
clad in moss, with a stick in his hand, keeping a mournful
dittyforthree or four days,
his face being black with the smoke of pitch-pine mixed withbear'a oil. An thé while
he tells the dead man's relations and the rest of the spectators who that dead
was, and of the great feats performed in his lifetime, ail that he speaks tending to thé
praise ofthe defunct. As soon as the flesh grows mellow and will cleave from the
bone they get it off and burn it, making the bones very c]ean, then anoint them with
the ingredients aforesaid, wrapping np the sMI (very carefully) in a cloth
woven of opossum's hair. The bones they oarefully preserve in a, wooden
box, every
year oiling and cleansing them. By thèse means they préserve them for many ages,
that you may see an ludian in possession of the bones of his
grandfather or some of
his relations oflongerantiqnity. They have other sorts oftombs, aswhenanihdian
is slain in that very place they make a heap of stones (or sticks where stones are not
to be found); to this memorial every Indian that passes by adds a stone to
the heap in respect to the deceased hero. Thé Indians make a roof of
light wood or

BEst.Ind. Tribes United States, 1854, Part IV, pp. 155 et


pitch-pine over the graves of the more distinguished, covering it with bark and
with earth, leaving the body thus in a snbterranean vanit until the nesh quits thé
bones. The bones are then taken up, cleaned, jointed, clad in white-dressed deer-
skins, and laid away in the Quiogozon,whieh is the royal tomb or burial-place of their
Jdnga and war-captains, being a more magniiicent cabin reared at the public expense.
This Qniogozon is an object of vénération, in which the writer says he has known the
Tdng, old men, and conjurers to apend several days with their idols and dead Idngs,
and into which he could never gain admittance.
Another class of mmnmies are those which have been found in the
saltpetre and other caves ofT~entncky, and it is still a matter of doubt
with archseologists whether any special pains were taken to preserve-
thèse bodies, many believing that the impregnation of the soil with cer-
tain minerais would account for the condition in which the specimens
were fonnd. Charles Wilkins* thus describes one

Àn exsiccated body of a female was foundat the depth of about

10 feot from the surface of the cave bedded in clay atrongly impregnated with nitre,
with a
placed in a sitting posture, incased in broad stones standing on their edges,
nat atone covering the whole. It was enveloped in coarse clothes, the
whole wrapped in deer-skins, the hair of whieh was shaved off in the manner in which
the Indians prepare them for market. Enclosed in the stone coffin were the working
utensils, beada, feathers, and other ornaments of dress whioh belonged to her.
The next description is by Dr. Samuel L. MitcMU.t

AuG. 24TE, 1815.

DEÀR SiR 1 offer yon some observations on a curions piece of American antiqnity
nowilf New York. Itisahumanbodytfonndinoneofthelimeatoneoavemsoi'Een-
tucky. It is a perfect exsiccation aU the nuids are dried np. The skin, bones, and
other Bon parts are in a state of entire preservation. 1 think it enough to have puz-
zled Bryant and ail the archasologists.
This was found in exploring a ca.loa.reonacave in the neighborhood of Glasgow for
These recesses, thongh under ground, are yet dry enongh to attract and retain thé
nitrick acid. It combines with lime and potash; and probably the earthy matter of
thèse excavations contains a good proportion of caloareona carbonate. Amidst thèse
drying and antiseptick ingredients, it may be concoived that putrefaction would be
stayed, and the solids preserved from decay. The onter envelope of the body is a
deer-skin, probably dried in thé nanal way, and perhaps softened before its application
byrabbing The next covering is a deer'a sTdn, whose hair had been ont away by
a sharp instrument resembling a hatter's knife. Thé remnant of the hair and the
gashes in thé sidn nearly resemble a sheared pelt of beaver. The next wrapper is
clath made oftwine donbled and twisted. But thethread does not appear to have
been formed by the wheel, nor the web by thé loom. The warp and filling seem to
have been crossed and knotted by an operation like that of thé fabricks of the north-
west coast, and of the Sandwich Islands. Such a botanist as the lamented Muhlen-
burgh could determine the plant whioh furnished the fibrous material.

*Trans. Amer. Antiq. Soc., 1820, vol. 1, p. 360.

tLetter to Samnel M. Burnside, in Trans. and Coll. Amer. Antiq. Soc., 1820, vol. 1,
p. 318.
.tAmnmmy ofthis kind, of a person ofmatnre âge, discovered in Kentno'ky, is now
in thé cabinet of thé American Antiqnarian Society. It is a female. Several human
bodies were fonnd enwrapped carefully in sidns and cloths. They were inhumed be-
~w~ 4uauavavual ..L..I,

The innermost tégument is a mantle of cloth, like

the preceding, butftmiished with
large brownfeathers, arranged and fashioned with great art, Boas to be capable of
guarding the living wearer from wet and cold. Thé plumage is distinct and entire,
and the whole bears a near similitude to the feathery cloa&s now worn
by the nations
of the northwestern coast of America. A Wilson might tell from what bird
were derived.
The body is in a squatting posture, with the right arm
recliniug forward, and its
hand encircling the right leg. The left arm ha~s
down, with its hand inclinedpartly
nnder the seat. The individual, who was a male, did not probably exoeed thé
age of
fom-teen at his death. There is near thé occiput a deep and extensive fracture of the
sknil, which probably killed him. The sMn has sustained little injury; it is of a
dusky colour, bnt the natural hue cannot be decided with exactness, from its present
appearance. The scalp, with small exceptions, is covered with sorrel or fbxey hair.
The teeth are white and sonnd. The hands and
feet, in their shrivelled state, are
slender and delicate. All this is worthy the investigation of onr aonte and
cious colleague, Dr. Holmes.
There is nothing bituminous or aromatie in or about the
body, like the Egyptian
mummies, nor are there bandages around any part. Exoept thé several wrappers, the
body is totally na,ked. There is no sign of a sntnre or incision abont the belly whence
it seems that the viscera were not removed.
It may now be expeoted that I should offer soma opinion as to thé
antiqnity aud
race of this singular exsiccation.
Firat, then, 1 am satisËed that it does not belong to that class of white men of
whiehwe are members.
2dly. Nor do Ibelieve that it ought to be referred''to the bands of Spanish adven-
turers, who, between thé years 1500 and 1600, rambled up the Mississippi, and along
its tribntary streams. But on this head 1 should like to know the
opinion of my
learned and sa.ga.sioua friend, Noah Webster.
3dly. I am eqn&Uyobliged to reject the opinion that it belonged to any of the tribes
of aborigines, now or lately inhabiting Kentucky.
4thly. Thé mantle ofthefeathered work, and the mantle of twistedthreads, so nearly
resemblethefabricksof thé indiginesof'Wa.kash and thePaoinckIsIands,thatIreiër this
individualto that era oftime, and that generation of men, whichprecededtheIndia,na of
the Green River, and of the place where these relicks were found. This conclusion is
strengthened bythe consideration that snohmannfaetnres are notpreparedby the actual
andreaident red men of thepresent day. If the Abbe
Clavigero had had this case before
him, he would have thought of the people who constructed those ancient forts and
mounds, whose exact history no man living can give. But 1 forbear to enlarge; my
intention being merely to manifest my respect to the
society for having enroUed me
among its members, and to invite the attention of its Antiquarians to further inquiry
on a subject ofsnoh curiosity.
With respect, 1 remain yours,
It would appear, from recent researches on the Northwest coast, that
the natives of that region embalmed their dead with much
care, as may
be seen from the work recently published
by W. H. DaU* the de-
scription of the mummies being as follows
We found the dead disposed ofinvariousways; first, by interment in their com-
partments of the communal dwelling, as ah-eady desoribod second, by boing laid on
a rude platform of drift-wood or atones in some convenient rock shelter. These
on straw and moss, covered by matting, and rarely have either
implements, weapons.
or carvings associated with them. 'We found only three or four specimens in aU in

"Cont. to N. A. Ethnol., 1877, vol. i, p. 89.


these places, of which we examined a great number. This was apparently thé more
ancient form of disposing of the dead, and one which more recentlywas still pursued
in thé case of poor or nnpopular individuals.
and up to
Lastly, in comparatively modern times, probably within a few centuries,
the historic period (1740), another mode was adopted for the wealthy, popnlar, or more
distingnished class. Thé bodies were eviscerated, cleansed from fattymatters in run-
of fur and fine
ning water, dried, and usually placed in suitable cases in wrappings
and the
grass matting. The body was usually doubled up into the smallest compass,
as not to
mummy case, especially in the case of children; was usually suspended (so
touch thé ground) in some convenient rock shelter. Sometimes, however, thé pre-
were placed
pared body was placed in a lifelike position, dressed and armed. Thèy
as if engaged in some congenial occupation, snob as hunting, fishing, sewing, &c.
With them were also placed effigies of the animais they were pursuing, while the hun-
ter was dressed in his wooden armor and provided with an enormous mask ail orna-
mented with feathers, and a conntless variety of wooden pendants, colored in gay
patterns. AU the carvings were of wood, the weapons even were ouly fac-similes
wood of the original articles. Among the articles represented were drums, rattles,
of rods or
dishes, weapons, effigies of men, birds, nsh, and animais, wooden armor
scales of wood, and remarkable masks, so arranged that the wearer when erect could
only see the ground at his feet. Thèse were worn at their religions dances from an
idea that a spirit whioh was supposed to animate a temporary idol was fatal to who-
ever might look upon it while so occupied. An extension of the same idea led to the
mash-ing of those who had gone into the land of spirits.
The practice of preserving the bodies of those belonging to the whaling class-a
custom peculiar to the Kadiak Innuit-has erroneously been confounded with the one
now described. The latter tncinded women as well as men, and ail those whom thé
living desiredparticularlyto honor. The whalers, however, onlypreserved thé bodies
of males, and they were not associated with the paraphernalia of those 1 have de-
scribed. Indeed, the observations 1 have been able to make show the bodies of thé
whalers to have been preserved with stone weapons and actual utensils instead of
effigies, and with the meanest apparel, and no carvings of consequence. These
shell heaps bear no
tails, and those of many other oustoms and usages of which the
testimony do not come within my line.

Figure 5, copied froni Dall, represents the Alaskan mummies.

Martin to Billings' Expedition,* speaks of the
Sauer, secretary
Aleutian Islanders embalming their dead, as follows
the bodies
They pay respect, however, to the memory of thé dead, for they embalm
of the men with dried moss and grass; bury them in their best attire, in a sitting post-
the tomb with
ure, in a strong box, with their darts and instruments; and decorate
varions coloured mats, embroidery, and paintings. With women, indeed, they use less
for some
ceremony. A mother will keep a dead child thus embalmed in their but
or when
months, constantly wiping it dry and they bury it when it begins to smell,
they get reconciled to parting with it.
thèse same people, a writer in thé San Francisco Bulletin
gives this account:
The schooner William Sutton, belonging to the Alaska Commercial Company, has
arrived from the seal islands of the company with thé mummified remains of Indians
who lived on an island north of Ounalaska one hundred and fifty years ago. This
contribution to science was secured by Captain Henning, an agent of thé company
who bas long resided at Ounalaska. în his tranactions with the Indians he learned

Billings' Exped., 1802, p. 161.

that tradition
that tradition a,mon~ fth~ ALeuts
among the Alf~nfa aHRicm~f!T~an'Q.T~~Io~)Q~G~m~
assigned Kagamale, the island in ~~aa~~v. ~n +~~
as the ~nn~
resting-place of a great chief, known as Karkhayahouchak. Last year the captain
was in the neighborhood of Kagamale in quest of sea-otter and other furs, and he bore
up for the island, with the intention of testing the tmth of thé tradition he had heard.
He had more diBioulty in entering the cave than in finding it, his schooner having to
beat on and offshore for three days. Finallyhe succeededin anëcting alanding, and
clambering np the rocks he fonnd himself in the presence of the dead chief, his family
and relatives.
The cave smelt strongly of hot sulphurous vapors. With great care the mummies
were removed, and all the little trinkets and ornaments scattered aronnd were also
taken away.
In ail there are eloven packages of bodies. Only two or three have as yet been
opened. The body of thé ehief is inclosed in a large basket-Iike structure, aboutfour
feet in height. Ontside the wrappings are nnely wrought sea-grass matting, exquis-
itely close in texture, and skina. At the bottom is a broad hoop or basket of thinly
ont wood, and adjoining the conter portions are pieces of body armor composed of
reeds bound together. Thé body is covered with the fine sTan of the sea-otter, aiways
a mark of distinction in thé interments of the AIeuta, and. round the whole
are stretched thé meshes of a fish-net, made of thé sinews of the sea lion; also those
of a bird-net. There are evidently some bulk-y arfiiolesimolosedwith the'ehief's body,
and the whole package dinera very much from thé others, which more resemble, in
their brown-grass matting, consignments of crnde sugar from the Sandwich Islands
than the remains of human beings. The bodies of a pappoose and of a very little
child, whioh probably died at birth or soon after it, have sea-otter skins aroundthem.
One of the feet of the latter projects, with a toe-nail visible. The
remaining mum-
mies are of adults.
One of the packages bas been opened, anditreveals a man's body intolérable preser-
vation, but with a large portion of the face decomposed. This and the other bodies
-tveredoubled up at death by severing some of thé muscles at the hip and
knee joints
and bending thelimbs downwardhorizontally upon the trunk. Perhaps the most
pecnliar package, next to that of the chief, is one whioh incloses in a single matting,
with sea-lion skins, the bodies of aman and woman. The collection also embraces a
couple of skulls, male and female, which have still the hair attached to the scalp.
The hair has changed its color to a brownishred. The relies obtained with the bodies
inolude a few wooden vessels scooped out smoothly; a piece of dark,
greenish, flat
stone, harder than the emerald, which thé Indians use to tan skins; a scalp-look ofjet-
black hair; a small rnde figure, which may have been a very
ugly doll or an idol; two
or three tiny carvings in ivory of the sea-lion, very neatly
executed; a comb, a neck-
let made ofbird's cYawainserted into one another, and several specimens of little
and a cap plaited ont of sea-grass and almost water-tight.

In C&ry's translation of Herodotus (1853, p. 180) the following passage

occurs which purports to describe the manner in wtdch the Macrobrian
Ethiopians preserved their dead. It is added, simply as a matter of
curions interest, nothing more, for no remains so preserved have ever
been discovered.
After this, they visited last of all their aepulohres, whioh are said to be
from crystal in the following manner. When they have dried the
body, either as the
Egyptians do, or in some other way, theyplaster it ail over withgypsum, andpaint it,
making it as much as possible resemble real life they then put round it a hollow
column made of crystal, which they dig up in abundance, and is
easily wrought. The
body being in the middle of the coinmn is plainly seen, nor does it emit an nnpleas-
ant smell, nor is it in any way offensive, and it is all visible as thé
body itself. The
neareat relations keep the column in their houses for a year,
offering to it thé first-
YjutRow.] URN-BURIAL. 137

fruits of aJl, and performing sacrifices after that time they carry it ont and place it
somewhere near the city.
NOTE.–Thé Egyptian mummies could only be seen'in front, the back being covered
as the column of glass
by a box or eomn the Ethiopian bodies couldbe seen ail round,
was transparent.
With the toiegotug examples as illustration, the matter of embalm-
ment may be for the present dismissed, with the advice to observers
that particular care should be taken, in case mummies are discovered,
to ascertain whether the bodies have been submitted to a regular pre-
servative process, or owe their protection to ingredients in the soil of
their graves or to desiccation in arid districts.


To close the subject of subterranean burial proper, the following ac-

count of nm-burial m Foster may be added:

Um-buna.l appears to have been practiced to some extent by the monnd-builders,
on thé Wateree River,
particularly in some of the Sonthern States. In thé mounds
one above the other,
near.Camden, S. C., according to Dr. BIanding, ranges of vases,
vase is
filled with humanremains, were fonnd. Sometimes when the mouth of the
amaU the akull is placed with thé face downward in ihe opening, constitnting a sort
of cover. Entire cemeteries have beenfound in whichnm-burialaloneseemsto have
since in Saint
been practiced. Such a one was accidentally discovered not many years
Catherine's Island, on the coast of Georgia. Professor SwaUowinformsmethatfrom
a mound at New Madrid, Mo.he obtained a hnman sbull inclosed in an earthenjar,
It must therefore have
the-lips of-nrhich were too small to admit of its extraction.
been molded on the head after death.
A similar mode of burial was practiced by the Chaldeans, where the funeral jars
often contain a human cranium.much too expanded to admit of the possibility of ita
over the corpse,
passing out of it, so that either the clay must have been modeled
and then baM, or the neck of the jar must have been added subsequently to tho
other rites of interment.t

It is with regret that the writer feels obliged to differ from the distin-
for notwith-
guished author of the work quoted regarding urn-burial,
of the Central and Southern
standing that it bas been employed by some
American tribes, it is not believed to have been cnstomary, but <o a very
Km~e~! extent, in North America, except as a secondary interment. He
must admit that he himself has found bones in urns or ollas in thé graves
of New Mexico and California, but under circumstances that would
seem to indicate a deposition long subsequent to death. In the graves

of the ancient peoples of California a number of ollas were found in

that as the bones were dug
long-used burying places, and it is probable
were simply tossed into pots,
up time and again for new burials they
-which were convenient receptacles, or it may have been that bodies

Pre-historio Races, M73, p. 199.

t Rawlinson's Herodotus, Booki, chap. 198, note.
were nlln,arnr7
allowed fnto ,.n"
repose ~r.L., .w..
in the earth .1 -1- 1 n
long enough for thé fleshy parts to
decay, and the bones were then collected, placed in urns, and reinterred.
Dr. E. Foreman, of the Smithsouian
Institution, furnishes the following
account of urns used for burial
1 wouldcall your attention to an earthenware burial-nrn and
cover, Nos.87976and
27977, N ational Museum, but very recently receivedfrom Mr. William McKinley,of
Milledgeville, G a. It was exhnmedon his plantation, ten miles belowihat city, on
thé bottom lands of the OooneeRiver, now covered with almost
impassible cane-
brakes, ta.U grasses,and briers. We had a few months ago fromthé same sourceone
of tlie covers,of which the ornamentationwas different but more entire. A
of a similar coverbas been received also from Chattanooga,Tenn. Mr.
ascribesthé use of these ums and covers to the Muscogees,a branch of thé Creek
Thèse urns are made of baked clay, and are shaped somewhat like
the ordinary steatite ollas found in the California coast
graves, but the
bottoms instead of being round run down to a
sharp apex; on thé top
was a cover, the upper part of which also terminated in an
apex, and
around the border, near where it rested on the
edge of the vessel, are
indented scroll ornamentations.
The burial-urns of NewMexico are thus described
by B. A. Barber:*
BnriaI-Tims comprisevesaels or ollas without handles, for cremation,
usually being from10to 15inches in height, with broad, open mouths, and madeof
coameclay, with a laminated exterior(partially or entirelyornamented).
the indentations extend simplyaround the neck or rim, the lower
portion beingplain.
So far as is known, up to the present time no buriàl-ums have been
found in North America resembling those discovered in
Nicaragua by
Dr. J. C. Bransford, U. S. N., but it is quite within the
range of possi-
bility that future researches in regions not far distant from that which
he explored may reveal similar treasures. Figure 6 represents di&erent
forms of burial-urns. b, and e, after Foster, are from Laporte, Ind.
f, after Foster, is from Greenup County, Kentucky; is from Milledge-
ville, Ga., in Smithsonian collection, No. 27976; and c is one of the pe-
culiar shoe-shaped urns brought.from Ometepec
Island, Lake Nicaragua,
by Surgeon J. C. Bransford, U. S. N.

This mode of interment was practiced to only a limited
extent, so far
as can be discovered, and it is quite probable that in most cases it was
employed as a temporary expedient when the survivors were pressed.
for time. The Seminoles of Florida are said to have buried in hollow
trees, the bodies being placed in an upright position, occasîonally thé
dead being crammed into a hollow log lying on the
ground. Witit some
of the Eastern tribes a log was split in half and hollowed ont sum-

*Amer.Naturalist, 1876,vol. x, p. 455et se~.

FiG. 6.-Burial Ui-na.

ciently large to contain the corpse; it was then lashed together~vith

withes and permitted to remain where it was originally placed. In
some cases a pen was built over and aronnd it. This statement is cor-
roborated by R. S. Robertson, of Fort Wayne, Ind., who states, in a com-
munication received in 1877, that the Miamis practiced surface burial in
two different ways:
Ist. Thé surface burial in hollow logs. These have been fonnd in heavy
forests. Sometimes a tree has been split and the two halves hollowed out to reçoive
thé body, when it was either élosed with withes or confined to tho ground with
crossed stakes and sometimes a hollow tree is used by closing the ends.
2d. Surface burial where the body vas covered by a small pen of logs laid up as we
build a cabin, but drawing in every course nntil they meet in a single log at the top.

The writer has recently received from Prof. C. Engelhardt, of Copen-

of Borum-~shœi.
hagen, Denmark, a brochure describing the oak coffins
From an engraving in this volume it would appear that the manner
employed by thé ancient Danes of hollowing out logs for conms has its
analogy among the North American Indians.
Romantically conceived, and carried out to thé fullest possible extent
in accordance with the ante mortem wishes of the dead, were the obse-
quies of Blackbird, the great chief of the Omahas. The account is

given by George Catlin:*

He requested them to take his body down the river to this his favorite haunt,
and on the pinnacle of this towering bluff to bnry him on the back of his favorite
war-horse, which was to be buried alive nnder him, from whence he could see, as he
said, "thé Frenchmen passing up and down the river in their boats." He owned,
amongst many horses, a noble whitesteed, that was led to the top of the grass-covered
hill, and with great pomp and ceremony, in the presence of the whole nation and
several of the fur-traders and the Indian agent, he was placed astride of his horse's
back, with his bow in his hand, and his shield and quiver slung, with his pipe and
his medicine bag, with his supply of dried meat, and his tobaooo-pou.ch replenished
to last him through thé journey to the beautifnl hunting grounds of the shades of his
fathers, with his flint, his steel, and his tinder to light his pipe by the way; the
scalps he had taken from his enemies* heads could be trophies for nobody else, and
were hung to the bridle of his horse. He was in full dress, and ful1y equipped, and
on his head waved to thé last moment his beantifui head-dress of the war-eagles'
plumes. In this plight, and the last funeral honors having been performed by thé
medioine-men,- every warrior of his band painted the palm and fingers of his right
hand with vermillion, which was stamped and perfectly impressed on the milk-white
aides of his devoted horse. This all done, turfs were bronght and placed aronnd the
leet and legs of the horse, and gradually laid up to its sides, and at last over thé back
and head of thé unsuspecting animal, and last of all over thé head andoven the eagle
plumes ofits valiant rider, where all together hâve smouldered and remained nndis-
turhed to the present day.

Figure 7, after Schoolcraft, represents an Indian burial-ground on a

high bluff of the Missouri River.
According to the Bev. J. G. Wood,t the Obongo, an A&'ican tribe,

*Manners, Customs, &c., of North AmericanIndians, 1844, vol. ii, p. 5.

tUncivilized Races ofthe World, 1870, vol. i, p. 483.

buried their dead in a manner similar to that which has been stated of
the Seminoles:
When an Obongo dies it ia usual to take the body to a hollow tree in the forest and
drop it into the hollow, which is afterwards filled to the top with earth, leaves, and
M. de la Potherie* gives an account of surface burial as practiced by
the Iroquois of New York
Quand ce malade est mort, on le met sur son séant, on oint ses cheveux et tout son
corps d'huile d'animaux, on lui applique du vermillon sur le visage on lui met toutes
sortes de beaux plumages de la rassade de la porcelaine et on le pare des plus beaux
habits que l'on ~penttrouver, pendant que les parens et ces vieilles continuent toujours
à.pleurer. Cette cérémonie finie, les alliez apportent plusieurs présens. Les uns sont
pour essuyer les larmes et les autres pour servir des matelas au défunt, on en destine
certains pour couvrir la fosse, de peur, disent-ils, que la plague ne l'incommode, on y
étend fort proprement des peaux d'ours et de chevreuils qui lui servent do lit, et on lui
metsesajustemensavecun sac de farine debled d'Inde, de la viande, sacuilliere, et géné-
ralement tout ce qu'il faut a un homme qui vent faire un long voyage, avec tous les
présens qui lui ont été faits à sa mort, et s'il a été guerrier on lui donne ses armes pour
s'en servir au pais des morts. L'on couvre ensuite ce cadavre d'écorce d'arbres, sur
lesquelles on jette de la terre et quantité de pierres, et on l'entoure de pierres pour em-
pêcher que les animaux ne le déterrent. Ces sortes de fnnérailles ne se font que dans
leur village. Lorsqu'ils meurent en campagne on les met dans un cercueil d'eeorce,
entre les branches des arbres où on les élève sur quatre pilliers.
On observe ces mêmes funérailles aux femmes et aux filles. Tous ceux qui ont as-
siste aux obsèques profitent de toute la dépouille du défunt et s'il n'avoit rien, les
parens y supléent. Ainsi ils ne pleurent pas en vain. Le deuil consiste à ne se point
couper ni graisser les cheveux et de se tenir négligé sans aucune parure, couverts de
méchantes bardes. Le père et la mère portent le deuil de leur fils. Si le père meurt
les garçons le portent, et les filles de leur mère.
Dr. P. Gregg, of Rock Island, minois, has been kind enongh to for-
ward to the writer an interesting work by J. W. Spencer,t containing
annotations by himself. He gives the following account of surface and
partial surface bnrial occnrring among thé Sacs and Foxes formerly in-
habiting Illinois:
Black Hawk was placed upon the ground in a sitting posture, his hands grasping
his cane. They usually made a shallow hole in the ground, setting the body in up to
the waist, so the most of the body was above ground. The part above ground was
then covered by a buffalo robe, and a trench about eight feet square was then dug
about the grave. In this trench they set picketing about eight feet high, which se-
cnred the grave against wild animais. When 1 first came here there were quite a.
number of these high picketings still standing where their ohiefs had been buried, and
the body of a chief was disposed of in this vay while 1 lived near their viUage. The
common mode of burial was to dig a shallow grave, wrap the body in a blanket,
place it in the grave, and EUit nearly full of dirt; then take split sticks about three
feet long and stand them in the grave so that their tops would corne together in the
form of a roof; then they filled in more earth so as to hold the sticks in place. 1 saw
a father and mother start ont alone to bury their child about a year old; they carried
it by tieing it up in a blanket and putting a long stick through thé blanket, eaoh
taking an end of the stick.

Hist. de l'Amérique Septentrionale, 1753, tome ii, p. 43.

t Pioneer Life, 1873.

FIG. 8.–Grave Pen.

Fie. 9.-Grave Pen.


1 have also seen the dead bodies placed in trees. This is done by digging a trongh
ont of a log, placing the bodyinit, and covering it. 1 have seen several bodies in one
tree. 1 think whenthey are disposed of in this wayitis by special leqnest, as 1 knew
of an Indian woman who lived with a white family who desired her body placed in a.
tree, whioh was accordingly done.* Donbtiess there was some peculiar superstition
attaohed to this mode, thongh 1 do not remember to have heard what it -was.

Judge H. Welchf states that "thé Sauks, Foxes, and Pottawatomies

buried by setting thé body on the ground and building a pen around it
of sticks or logs. I think thé bodies lay heads to thé east." And C. 0.

Baldwin, of Cleveland, Ohio, sends a more detailed account, as follows

Iwassometimesince in Seneca County and there met Judge Welch. In
1824he went with his father-in-law, Jndge Gibson, to Fort Wayne. On the way they
passed the grave of an Ottawa or Pottawatomie chief. Thé body lay on the ground
covered with notched poles. It had been there but a few days and the worms were
crawling around the body. My special interest in the case vas the accusation of
witohoraft! against a young squaw who was executed for killing him by her arts. In
the Summit County mounds there were only parts of skeletons with oharcoal and
ashes, showing they had been burned.
W. A. Brice~ mentions a curions variety of surface burial not hereto-
fore met with
And oftenhad been seen, years ago, swinging from the bough of a tree, or in a ham-
mook stretched between two trees, the infant of the Indianmother; or a fewlittle log
inclosures, where the bodies of adults sat upright, with ail their former apparel
wrapped about them, and their trinkets, tomahawks, &c., by their side, could be seen
at any time for many years by the few pale-faces visiting or sojouming here.
A method of interment so closely allied to surface burial that it may
be considered under that head is the one employed by some of the Ojib-
ways and Swampy Orees of Canada. A small cavity is scooped out, the
body deposited therein, covered with a little dirt, the mound thus formed
being covered either with split planks, poles, or birch bark.
Prof. Henry Youle Hind, who was in charge of the Cauadian Red River
exploring expédition of 1858, has been good enough to forward to the
Bureau ofEthnologytwo photographs representing this variety of grave,
which he found 15 or 20 miles from the present town of Winnipeg, and

they are represented in the woodcuts, Figures 8 and 9.

1 saw the body of this woman in thé tree. It was undonbtediy am exceptional
case. When 1 came here (Rock Island) the bluffs on the peninsula between Mississippi
and Rock River (three miles distant) were thickly stndded with Indian grave mounds,
showing conclusively that subterranean was the usual mode of bnrial. In ma'king
in great
roads, streets, and digging foundations, skulls, bones, trinkets, beads, &o.,
nnmbers, were exhumed, proving that manythings (according to the weaith or station
of survivors) were deposited in the graves. In 1836 1 witnessed the burial of two
chiefs in the manner stated.-P. GBEG&.
tTract No. 50, West. Reserve and North. Ohio BHst. Soc. (1879?), p. 107.
tBSst. ofFt. Wayne, 1868, p. 284.


The next mode of interment to be considered is that of cairn or rock

burial, which bas prevailed and is still common to a considerable extent
among the tribes living in the Bocky Mountains and the Sierra N'évadas.
In the summer of 1872 the writer visited one of these rock cemeteries
in Middle TItah, which had been used for a period not exceeding fifteen
or twenty years. It was situated at the bottom of a rock slide, npon
the side of an almost inaccessible mountain, in a position so carefully
chosen for concealment that it would have been almost impossible to
find it without a guide. Several of the graves were opened, and found
to have been constructed in tbe following manner: A number of bowl-
ders had been removed from the bed of the slide until a sufficient cav-
ity had been obtained; this was lined with skins, the corpse placed
therein, with weapons, ornaments, &c., and covered over with saplings
of the mountain aspen on the top of these the removed bowlders were
piled, forming a huge cairn, which appeared large enough to have
marked the last resting place of an elephant. In theimmediate vicinity
of the graves were scattered the osseous remains of a number of horses
which had been sacrificed, no doubt, during the funeral ceremonies. In
one of the graves, said to contain the body of a chief, in addition to a
number of articles usefui and ornamental, were found parts of the skel-
eton of a boy, and tradition states that a captive boy was buried alive
at this place.
From Dr. 0. G. Given, physician to the Eiowa and Comanche Agency,
Indian Territory, the following description of burial ceremonies was re-
ceived. According to this gentleman the Eiowas call themselves Kaw-
a-tc~, the Gomanches JVe~N!,and thé Apaches Tœ/t-~ee.
They bury in the ground or in crevices of rocks. They donot seemto have any
particular rule with regard to the position. Sometimesprone,sometimessnpme,but
always decumbent,. They select a place where the grave is easily prepared, whioh
they do with such implementsas they chance to have, viz, a squaw-axe,or hoe. If
they are traveling, the grave is often veryhastilyprepared and not mu.ohtime is spent
in finishing. 1 was present at the burial of Black Hawk, an Apache chief, sometwo
years ago, and took thé body in my light wagon np the side of a mountainto the
place of burial. They fonnda crevicein the rocks about fonr feet wide and three
feet deep. By filling in looserocks at either end they made a very nice tomb. The
body was then put.in face downwards,short sticks were put across,resting onprojec-
tions ofrock at the sides, brushwasthrownonthisjamdnatrooksiaidoverthewhole
The body of thé deceasedis dressedin the best clothing,together with all the orna-
mentsmost admiredby the personwhen living. Thé faceis painted with any colored
paint they may'have, mostlyred and yellow, as 1 have observed. The body is then
wrapped in skins,blankets, or domestic,with the handa laid acrossthe breast, andthe
legs placednpon the thighs. Theyput into the grave their guns, bows and arrows,
tobaeco,and if they have it a blanket,moccasins,and trinkets of variouskinds. One

~r morehorsesare killed over or near the grave. Two horsesand a rnniewere MUed
near BIaoT:Hawk's grave. They wereled up near and shot in the head. At the death
of a Comanchechief, someyears ago, 1 am told about seventy horseswere killed, and
a greater numberthan that were saidto have beenkilled at the death of a prominenb
IQowachief a few years since.
The mourningis principally doneby the relatives and immediatefriends, although
any one of their owntribe, or oneof another tribe, whochancesto be passing,-willstop
and moanwith the relatives. Their mourning consistsin a wierd wail, which to be
describedmust be heard, and onceheard is never forgotten,together with the scar-
ifying of their faces,arms, and legs with some sharp instrument, the cutting off of
the hair, and oftentimesthe outting offof a joint of a finger, nsua.Uythe little finger
(Comanchesdo not ont off-fingers). The length of timeand intensity of their mourn-
ing depends upon the relation and position of thé deceased-in the tribe. 1 have
'knowninstances where,if they shouldbe passing along where any of their friends
had died, even a year after their death, they wouldmourn.
Thé Shoshones, of Nevada, generally concealed their dead beneath
heaps of rocks, according to H. Butterfield, of Tyho, Nye County, Ne-
vada, although occasionally they either burn or bury them. He gives as
reasons for rock borial lst, to prevent coyotes eating the corpses; 2d,
because they have no tools for deep excavations and 3d, natural indo-
lence of the Indians–indisposition to work any more than can be helped.
The Pi-Utes, of Oregon, bnry in cairns; the Blackfeet do the same, as
did also the Acaxers and Yaquis, of Mexico, and the Esquimaux; in tact,
a number of examples might be quoted. In foreign lands the custoni
prevailed among certain African tribes, and it is said that the ancient
Balearic Islanders covered their dead with a heap of stones, but this
ceremony was preceded by an operation which consisted in cutting the
body in small pieces and collecting in a pot.


Next should be noted this mode of disposing of the dead, a common

custom to a considerable extent among North American tribes, especially
those living on the western slope of the Bocky Mountains, although we
have undoubted evidence that it was also practiced among the more
eastern ones. This rite may be considered as peculiarly interesting from
its great antiquity, for Tegg* informs us that it reached as far back as
the Theban war, in the account of which mention is made of the burning
of Menœacus and Archemorus, who were contemporary with Jair, eighth
judge of Israel. It was common in the interior of Asia and among thé
ancient Greeks and Romans, and has also prevailed among the Hindoos
up to thé present time. In fact, it is now rapidly becoming a custom
among civilized people.
While there is a certain degree of similarity between the performance

*TheLast Aot, 1876.


of this rite among the people spoken of and the Indians of North Amer-
ica, yet, did space admit, a discussion might profitably be entered upon
regarding the details of it among the ancients and the origin of the cer-
emony. As it is, simple narrations of cremation in this country, with
discursive notes and an account of its origin among the Nishinams of
California, by Stephen Powers,* seem to be all that is required at this
The moon and the coyote wrought together in creating ail things that exist. The
moon was good, but the coyote was bad. In making men and women the moon
~vished to so fashion their souls that when they died they should return to the earth
after two or three days, as he himself does when he dies. Bnt the coyote was evil
disposed, and said this should not be; but that when men died thoir friends should
bum their bodies, and once a year make a great mourning for them; and the coyote
prevailed. So, presontly when a deer died, they burned his body, as the coyote had
decreed, and after a year they made a great mourning for him. Bnt the moon cre-
ated the rattlesnake and caused it to bite the coyote's son, so that he died. Now,
thongh thé coyote had been willing to burn the deer'a relations, he refused to bum
his ownson. Then the moon said unto him, "This is your own rule. You would
have it so, and now your son shall be bnrned like the others." So he was bnrned, and
after a year the coyote monrned for him. Thus the law was established over the co-
yote also, and, as he had dominion over men, it prevailed over men likewise.
This story is ntterly worthless for itself, but it has its value in that it shows there
was a time when the California Indians did not practice crémation, which is also es-
tablished by other traditions. It hints at the additional fact that the Nishinams to
this day set great store by the moon; consider it their benefactor in a hundred ways,
and observe its changes for a hundred purposes.
Another myth regarding cremation is given by Adam Johnston, in

Sohoolcraft;,t and relates to the Bonaks, or root-diggers

The first Indiaus that lived were coyotes. When one of their number died the body
became fall of little animais or spirits, as they thonght them. After crawling over
the body for a time they took all manner of shapes, some that of the deer, others the
elk, antelope, &c. It was discovered, however, that great numbers were taMng
wings, and for a while they sadied about in the air, but eventnally they would ny off
to the moon. The old coyotes or Indians, fearing the earth might become depopn-
lated in this way, concluded to stop it at once, and ordered that when 'one of their
people died the body must be burnt. Ever after they continued to bnm the bodies of
deceased persons.

Ross Cox gives an account of the process as performed by the Toiko-

tinsofOregon:~ t
The ceremonies attending the dead are very singular, and quite peonJiar to this
tribe. The body of the deceased is kept nine days laid out in his lodge, and on the
tenth it is buried. For this pnrpose a rising ground is selected, on which are laid a
nnmber of sticks, abont 7 feet long, of cypress, neatly split, and in thé interstices is
plaoeda quantityofgnmmyvood. Dnrmgtheseopera.tionsinvitationsaredispatohed
to the natives of thé neighboring villages requesting their attendance at thé coremony.
When the preparations are perfeoted t'he corpse is placed on thé pile, which is imme-
diately ignited, and during the process of burning, the bystanders appear to be in a

Cont. to N. A. Ethnol., 1877, vol. iii, p, 341.

tHist. Indian Tribes of the United States, 1854, part IV, p. 224.
tAdventnies on the Colnmbia River, 1831, vol. ii, p. 387.

high state of ofmerriment.

merriment. If a stranger happen to be présent
present thev
they invariablv
invariably nInD~ar
him; but if that pleasure be denied them, they never separate withont quarreling
among themselves. Whatever propertythe deceased possessed is placèd about the
corpse; and if he happened to be a person of consequence, his friends generally pnr-
chase a capote, a shirt, a pair of trousers, &c., which articles are also laid around the
'pile. If the doctor who attended him has escaped uninjured, he ia obliged to be
present at the ceremony, and for the last time tries his skill in restoring the defunct
to animation. Failing in this, he throws on the body a piece of
leather, or some other
article, as a present, which in some measnre appeases the resentment of his relatives,
and preserves the unfortunate quack from
being maltreated. During the nine days
the oorpse is laid ont, the widow ofthe deceased is
obliged to sleep along side it from
snnset to snnrise; and from this oustom there is no relaxation even
during the hottest
days of summer While the doctor is performing Ma last operations she must lie on
the pile, and after the fire is applied to it she cannot stir until the doctor orders her
to be removed, which, however, is never done nntil her
body is completely covered
with blisters. Aftér being placed on her legs, she is
obliged to pass her hands gently
through tbe flame and coUect some of the liquid fat which issues from the
with wMoh she is permitted to wet her face and body! When the friends of thé
deceased observe thé sinews of the legs and arms beginning to contract
they compel
the unfortunate widow to go again on thé pile, and
by dint of hard pressing to
straighten those members.
If during her hnsband's lifetime she has been known to have committed
any act of
inndelity or omitted administering to him savory food or neglected his clothing, &c.,
she is now mada to suffer severely for such lapses of dnty by his
relations, who fre-
quentlyning her in the funeral pile, &omwhioh sheis dragged by her friends; and
thus between alternate scorching and cooling she is
dragged backwards and forwards
nntil she falls into a state of insensibility.
After the process of burning the corpse has
terminated, thé widow coliects thé larger
bones, which she rolls np in an envelope of birch bark, and which she is
obliged for
some years afterwards to carry on her back. She is now considered and treated
as a
slave; ail the laborious duties of cooking, collecting fnel, &o., devolve on her. She
must obey the orders of allthewomen,
andevenof thechildrenbelonging to
and thé slightest mistake or disobedience subjects her to the infliction of a thevillage,
heavy pnn-
ishment. The ashes of her husband are oaj-e&lly collected and
deposited in a grave,
whioh it is her duty to keep free from
weeds and should any snob appear, she is
obliged to root them out with herfinger8. During this operation her hnsbamd's rela-
tives stand by and beat her in a cruel manner until the task is
completed or she falls
a victim to their brntality.. Thé wretched
widows, to avoid this complicated cruelty,
frequently commit suicide. Should she, however, linger on for three or four years,
the friends of her husband agrée to relie veher from her
pajnfnl monrning. This is a
ceremony ofmnch consequence, and the preparations for it occnpy a considerable
time, generally fromsix to eight months. The hunters prooeed to the varions districts
in which deer and beaver abound, and after
collecting large quantities of meat and fur
return to the village. The skins are immediately bartered for
gnns, ammunition,
clothing, trinkets, &c. Invitations are then sent to the inhabitants of the various
iriendiy villages, and when they have all aasembledthe feast commences, andpresents
are distribnted to eaoh visitor. The object of their
meeting is then explained, and
the woman is brought forward, still carrying on her back thé bones ofher late hus-
band, which are now -removed and placed in a covered box, vhieh is nailed or other-
wise ~astened to aposttwelvefeethigh. Eercondnctas a faithiul~idowianext Mghiy
eulogized, and the ceremony of her manumission is completed by one man powdering
on her head the down of birds and another ponring on it the contents of a bladder of
oil! She is then at liberty to marry again or lead a life of
single Nessedness but
&w of them, 1 believe, wish to encounter the risk attending a second widowhood
10 A E

Thé men are condemned to a similar ordeal, bnt they do not bear it with eqnal
fortitude, and numbers ny to distant quarters to avoid the brutal treatment whioh
custom haa established as a kind of religous rite.

Figure 10 is an idéal sketch of thé cremation according to the descrip-

tion given.
Perhaps a short review of some of the peculiar and salient points of this
narrative may be permitted.
It is stated that the corpse is kept nine days after death-certainly
a long period of time, when it is remembered that Indians as a ruie
endeavor to dispose of their dead as soon as possible. This may be
accounted for on the supposition that it is to give the friends and rela-
tives an opportunity of assembling, verifying the death, and of making
proper preparations for the ceremony. With regard to the verification
of the dead person, William Sheldon* gives an account of a similar
custom which was common among the Caraibs of Jamaica, and which
seems to throw some light upon the unusual rétention of deceased per-
sons by the tribe in question, although it must be admitted that this is
mere hypothesis:
They had some very extraordinary customs respecting deceased persons. When
one ofthem died, it was necessary that ail his relations should see him and examine
the body in order to ascertain that he died a natural death. They aoted so rigidly on
this principle, that if one relative remained who had not seen thé body all the others
could not convince that one that the death was natui al. In such a case the absent
relative considered himself as bound in honor to consider all the other relatives as
having been accessories to the death of the kinsman, and did not rest until he had
killed one of them to revenge the death of the deceased. If a Caraib died in Marti-
nico or Guadaloupe and his relations lived in St. Vincents, it was necessary to summon
them to see the body, and several months sometimes elapsed before it could be finally
interred. When a Caraib died he was immediately painted ail over with roMCMt, and
had his mustachioa and the black streaks in his face made with a black paint, which
was different from that used in their lifetime. AHnd of grave was then dug in the
carbet where he died, about 4 feet square and 6 or 7 feet deep. The body was let down
in it, when sand was thrown in, whichreached to the loiees, and the body was placed
in it in a sitting posture, resembling that in which they crouched round thefire orthe
table when alive, with the elbows on the knees and thé palms of the hands against
thecheeks. No part of the body tonched. the outside of the grave, whioh was covered
with wood and mats until all the relations had examined it. When the customary
examinations and inspections were ended the hole was filled, and the bodies after-
wards remained undisturbed. The hair of the deceased was kept tied behind. In this
way bodies have remained several months withont any symptoms of decay or produc-
ing any disagreeable smell. The )'o:MOM not only preserved them from the sun, air,
and insects during their lifetime, but probably had the same effect after death. The
arma of the Caraibs were placed by them when they were covered over for inspection,
and they were finally buried whh them..
Again, we are told that during the burning the bystanders are very

merry. This hilarity is similar to that shown by the Japanese at a

are over
funeral, who rejoice that the troubles and worries of the world
for the fortunate dead. The plundering of strangers présent, it may be
also took place among the Indians of the Carolinas. As
Trans. Am. Antiq. Soc., 1820, vol. i, p. 377.

already mentioned on a preceding page, the crnel manner in which the

widow is treated seems to be a modification of the BHndoo suttee, but, if
the acconnt be true, it would appear that death
might be preferable to
such torments.
It is interesting to note that in Corsica, as late as
1743, if a husband
died, women threw themselves upon the widow and beat her severely.
Bruhier quaintly remarks that this custom obliged women to take
care of their husbands.
George Gibbs, in Schoolcraft,* states that among the Indians of Clear
Lake, California, thé body is consumed upon a scaffold built over a
hole, into which the ashes are thrown and covered."
According to Stephen Powers, t cremation was common
among the
Se-nélofCali&rnia. He thus relates it:

Thé dead are mostly burned. Mr. Willard described to me a scene of incremation
that he once witnessed, wMoh was frightful for its exhibitions of fanatie
frenzy and
infatnation. The corpse was that of a wealthy chieftain, and as he
lay npon the
fnneral pyre they placed in his month two gold
twenties, and other smaller coins in
his ears and hands, on his breast, &c., besides aU his
finery, his feather niantles,
plumes, clothing, shell money, his fancy bows, painted arrows, &c. When the torch
was applied they set np a mournful ululation,
chanting and dancing about him,
gradually working themselves into a wild and ecstatio raving, which seemed almost
a demoniacal possession, leaping, howling, lacerating their flesh.
Many seemed to
lose all self-control. The younger Engliah-speaTdng Indians
generally lend themselves
charily to such superstitious work, especially if American spectators are présent,
but even they were carried away by the old contagions
frenzy of their race. One
stripped off a broadcloth coat, quite new and fine, and ran frantically yelling and
cast it upon the blazing pile. Another mshed np, and was about to throw on a
of California blankets, when a white man, to test his
sincerity, offered him $16 for
them, jingling thé bright coins before his eyes, but the savage (for snch he had be-
come again for thé moment), otherwise so
avaricious, hurled him awaywith a yell
of exécration and ran and threw his offering into the flames.
Squaws, even more
frenzied, wildly nnng npon the pyre ail they had in the world-their dearest orna-
ments, their gaudiest dresses, their strings of gûttering shells. Sereaming, wailing,
tearing their hair, beating their breasts in their mad and insensate infatnation, some
of them would have cast themselves bodily into the flaming rnins and
perished with
the chief had they not been restrained by their companions. Then the
bright, swift
flames, with their hot tongues, licked this "oold obstruction" into chemic change,
and thé once "delightedspirif'of the savage was borne np. <
It seems as if the savage shared in Shakspeare's shudder at the
thought of rotting
in the dismai grave, for it is the one passion of his
superstition to think of the soul,
of his departed freind set free and pnri&ed by the swift
pnrging heat of the flames
not dragged down to be clogged and bonnd in the mouldering
body, but borne np
in the soft, warm chariots of the smoke toward the beantifnl
snn, to bask in his
warmth and light, and thento fly away to the Happy Western Land. What wonder
if the Indian shrinks with unspeakable hcTror&om the thonght
of buryingMs~-ie?:~
SON!–of pressing and ramming down with pitiless clods that
inner something whioh
once took snohdelight in the sweet light of the sun
'Whatwonderifittakes yearsto
persuadohimtodootherwiseandfoRowonrcnstom! Whatwonder ii'eventhenhedoes
it with sadfears and misgivings! Whynotlethimkeephiscnstom!
Hiat. Indian Tribes of the United States, 1853, part iii, p. 112.
t Cont~ib.to N. A. Ethnol., 1877, vol. iii, p. 169.

landscapes and balmy olimate of California and India inoremationis as natural to the
savage as it is for himto love the beauty of the enn. Let thé vile Esquimaux and thé
frozen Siberian bury their dead if they will it matters little, the earth is the same
above as below; or to them the bosom of the earthmay seem even the better; but in
California do not blamethe savage if he recoils at the thought of going underground!
This soft pale halo of the lilac hills-ah, let him console himaelf if he will with the
belief that his lost Étend enjoys it still! Thé narrator concluded by saying that they
"Theblankets," saidhewithanneCalifomian i
scorn of such absurd insensibilityto a goodbargain, "the blanketsthat the American
offered him $16 for were not worth half the money."
After death the Se-nél hold that bad Indians return into coyotes. Others fall off
a bridge whioh ail souls must traverse, or are hooked off by a raging bull at thé
fnrther end, while the good escape across. Like the Yokaia and the Eonkan, they
believe it necessary to nourish the spirits of the departed for the space of a year.
This is generally done by a sqnaw, who takes pinole in her blanket, repairs to the
aeene of the incremation, or to places hallowed by the memory of the dead, where
she scatters it over thé ground, meamtune rocking her body violently to and fro in a
dance and chanting the following chorons

This refrain ia repeated over and over indefinitely, but the words have no mean
ing whatever.
Henry Gillman* has published an interesting account of the explor-
ation of a mound near Waldo, Fia., in which he found abundant evi-
dence that cremation had existed among the former Indian population.
It is as follows:
In opening a burial-mound at Cade's Pond, a small body of water situated abont two
miles northeastward of Santa Fe Lake, Fia., the writer found two instances of crema-
tion, in each of whioh the sknil of thé subject, which was nnoonsmned, was nsed as
the depository of his ashes. Thé mound contained besides a large number of human
burials, the bones being much decayed. With them were deposited a great nnmber of
vessels of pottery, many of whioh are painted in brilliant colora, chieny red, yellow,
and brown, and some of them ornamented with indented patterns, displaying not a
little skill in the ceramic art, though they are rednced to fragments. The first ofthe
skulls referred tô was exhumed at a depth of 3~ feet. It rested on its apex (base
uppermost), and vas filled with fragments of half incinerated hnman bones, mingled
with dark-colored dust, and the sand whioh invariably sifts into crania under such
circumstances. Immediately beneath the skull lay the greater part of a humantibia,
presenting the peculiar compression knownas aplatyonemiam to the degree of affording
a latitudinal index of .512; while beneath and surrounding it lay the fragments of a
large number of hnman bones, probably constituting an entire individnal. In the
second instance of this peculiar mode in cremation, the cranium was discovered on
nearlythe opposite side of themonnd, at a depth of 2feet,and, like the former, resting
on its apex. It wasBUedwitha blackmass-theresiduumofburnthuman bonesmin-
gled with sand. At three feet to the eaatward lay the shaft of a nattoned tibia, whioh
presents the longitudinal index of .527. Both the skulls were free from ail action of
fire, and thongh snbsequently crnmbling to pièces on their removal, the writer had
opportnnity to observe their strong resemblance to the small, orthocephalic crania
whioh he had exhumed from mounds in Michigan. The same resemblance was per-
ceptible in the other craninm belonging to this monnd. The small, narrow, retreating
frontal, prominent parietal protuberances, rather protubérant occipital,
· whioh was
*Amer. Naturalist, November, 1878. p. 753.

not in the least compressed, the well-defined supraciliary ridges, and tlie superior
border of the orbits, presenting a quadrilatéral outline, were also particularlynoticed.
The lower facial bones, ineluding the maxillaries, were wanting. On consulting such
works as are accessible to Mm.the writerfinds no mention of any similar relics havmg
been discovered inmounds inFloridaorelsewhere. For further particulars reference
may be had to a paper on the subject read before the Saint Louis meeting of the Amer-
can Association, August, 1878.

The discoveries made by Mr. Gillmanwould seem to indicate that the

people whose bones he excavated resorted to a process of partial crema-
tion, some examples of which will be given on another page. The use
of crania as receptacles is certainly remarkable, if not unique.
The fact is well-known to archseologists that whenever cremation was
practiced by Indians it was customary as a rule to throw into the bjazing
pyre all sorts of articles supposed to beusefultothedead,butno instance
is known of such a wholesale destruction of property as occurred when
the Indians of Southern Utah burned their dead, for Dr. E. Foreman
relates, in the American Naturalist for July, 1876, the account of the
exploration of a mound in that Territory, which proves that at the death
of a person not only were the remains destroyed by fire, but ail arti-
cles of personal property, even the very habitation which had served
as a home. After the process was completed, whatremained unburned
was covered with earth and a mound formed.
A. S. Tiffany* describeswhathecallsacremation-furnace, discovered
within seven miles of Davenport, Iowa.

Moundseven miles below the city, aprojectingpointknownasEaglePoint.

The surface was of the usual black soil to the depth of from 6 to 8 inches. Next was
found a burnt indurated clay, resembling in color andtexture a medium-burned briefc,
and abont 30 inches in depth. Immediately beneath this clay was a bed of "charred
human remains 6 to 18 inches thick. This rested upon the unchanged and nndis-
turbed loess of the bluffs, which formed the floor of the pit. Imbedded in thisfloor of
unburned clay were a few very much decomposed, but unburned, human bones. No
implements of any kind were discovered. The furnace appears to hâve been con-
structed by excavating the pit and placing at the bottom of it the bodies or skeletons
which had possibly been collected from scaffolds, and placing the fuel among and
above the bodies, with a covering of poles or split timbers extending over and resting
upon the earth, with the clay covering above, which latter we now find resting upon
the charred remains. The ends of the timber covering, where they were protected by
the earth above and below, were reduced to charcoal, parallel pieces of which were
found at right angles to the length of the mound. No charcoal was found among or
nearthe remains, the combustion there having been complete. The porous and softer
portions of the bones were reduced to pulverized bone-black. Mr. Stevens also ex-
amined the furnace. The mound had probably not been opened after the burning.

This account is doubtless true, but the inferences may be incorrect.

Many more accounts of cremation among different tribes might be
given to show how prevalent was the custom, butthe above are thought
to be sufficiently distinctive to serve as examples.
'Proc. Dav. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1867-^76,p. 64.


Allied somewhat to cremation is a peculiar mode of burial which is

supposed to have taken place among the Cherokees, or some other tribe
of North Oarolina, and which is thus described by J. W. Poster
Up to 1819 the Cherokees held possession of this région, when, in pnrsuanoe of a
treaty, they vacated a portion of the lands lying in the valley ofthe Little Tennessee
River. In 1821Mr. McDowell commenced farming. Dnring the first season's opera-
tions the plowshare, in passing over a certain portion of a.field, prodnced a hollow
rumbling sonnd, and in exploring for the cause the first object met with was a shal-
low layer of charcoa4 beneath which was a slab of bnrnt clay about 7 feet in length
and 4 feet broad, which, in the attempt to remove, broke into several fragments.
Nothing beneath this slab was found, bnt on examining its under side, to his great
surprise there was the mould of a naked human figure. Three of these burned-clay
sepulehers were thus raisedandexaminedduring thefirst year of his occnpanoy, since
which time none have been found until recently. During the past season
(1872) the plow brought up another fragment of one of these moulds, revealing the
impress of a plump human arm.
Col. C. W. Jenkes, the superintendent of the Corundummines, -which have recently
been opened in that vicinity, advises me.thus:
"We have Indians aU about us, with traditions extending backfor 500 years. In this
time they have buried their dead nnder huge piles of stones. We have at one point
thexemains of 600warriorsnnder onepile, but agrave has just been opened ofthe fol-
lowing construction: A pit was dug, into which the corpse was placed, face upward;
thon over it was moulded acovering of mortar, fittingthe form and features. On this
was built a hot fire, which formed an entire shield of pottery for the corpse. The
breaking up of one such tomb gives a perfect cast of the form of the occupant."
Colonel Jenkes, fully impressed with the value of these archœological discoveries,
detailed a man to superintend the exhumation, who proceeded to remove the earth
fromthe mould, which he reachedthrough a layer ofcharcoal, and thenwith a trowel
excavated beneath it. The clay wasnot thoroughly baked, and no impression of the
corpse was left, except of the forehead and that portion of the limbs between the
ankles and the knees, and even these portions of the mould crumbled. The body had
been placed east and west, the head tow«rd the east. "I had hoped," continues Mr.
McDowell, "that the cast in the clay would be as perfeet as one I found 51 years ago,
a fragment of whichIpresentedto Colonel Jenkes, with the impression of a part ofthe
arm on one side and on the other ôf the fingers, that had pressed down the soft clay
upon the body interred beneath." The mound-builders ofthe Ohio valley, as has been
shown, oftdu placed a layer of clay over the dead, but not in immediate contact, upon
which they bnilded nres and the evidences that cremation was often resorted to in
their disposition are too abundant tobe gainsaid.
This statement is corroborated by Mr. Wilcox t
Mr.Wilcoxalso statedthatwhen recentlyin North Carolina his attention was called
to an unusal method of burial by an ancient race of Indians in that vicinity. In
npmerous instances bnrial places were discovered where the bodies had been placed
with the face up and covered with a coating of plastic clay about an inch thick. -A
pile of wood was then placed on top and fired, whieh consumed the body and baked
the clay, which retained the impression of the body. This was then lightly covered
with earth.
*Pre-historic Eaces, 1873. p. 149.
tProc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Nov. 1874,p. 168,
YAlt~1~1H1i15I1'.lna W v1v i. 151v

It is thought no doubt can attach to the statements given, but the

cases are remarkable as being the only instances of the Idnd met with
in the extensive range of reading preparatory to a study of the subject
of burial, although it must be observed that Bruhier states that the
ancient Ethiopians covered the corpses of their dead with plaster (pro-
bably nrad), but they did not bum these curious coffins.
has been prac-
Another method, embracing both burial and cremation,
ticed by the Pitt River or Achomawi Indians of California, who

Bury the body in the gronnd in a standing position, the shoulders nearly evenwith
the gronnd. The grave is prepared by digging a hole of sufficient depth and circum-
ference to admit the body, the head being eut off. In the grave are placed the bows
and arrows, bead-work, trappings, &c., belonging to the deceased; quantities of
also. The
food, consisting of dried fish, roots, herbs, &c., were placed with the body
of fagots was
grave was then filled np, covering the headless body; then a bundle
the tribe, and on these
brought and placed on the grave by the different members of
to ashes after this
fagots the head was placed, the pile flred, and the head consumed
was done the female relatives of the deceased, who had appeared as mourners with
their faces blackened with a preparation resembling tar or paint, dipped their fingers
in the ashes of the cremated head and made three marks on their right chèek. This
constituted the mourning garb, the period of whieh lasted nntil this black substance
wore off from the face. In addition to this mourning, the bloodfemale relatives of the
deceased (who, by the way, appeared to be a man of distinction) had their hair
cropped short. I noticed while the headwasburning that the old women of the
sat on the gronnd, forming a large circle, inside of which another circle of young girls
were formed standing and swaying their bodies to and fro and singing a mournful
ditty.- This was the only bnrial of a male that I witnessed. The cnstom of burying
females is very different, their bodies being wrapped or bnndled up in skins and laid
away in caves, with their valuables, and in some cases food being placed with them
in their months. Occasionally money is left to pay for food in the spirit land.

This account is furnished by Gen. Charles H. TompMns, deputy

quartermaster-general, United States Army, who witnessed the burial
above related, and is the more interesting as it seems to be the only
wéll-authenticated case on record, although E. A. Barber* has described
what may possibly hâve* been a case of cremation like the one above
A véry singular case of aboriginal burial was brought to mynotice recently by Mr.
William Klingbeil, of Philadelphia. On the NewJersey bank of the Delaware River,
a short distance below Gloucester City, the skeleton of a man was found buried in a
the stream. A few
standing position, in a high, red, sandy-clay bluff overlooking
inches below the surface the neck bones were found, and below these the remainder
of the skeleton, with the exception of the bones of the hands and feet. The skull
were those of an
being wanting, it could not be determined whether the remains
Indian or of a white man, but in either case the sépulture was peculiarly aboriginal.
A careful exhumation and critical examination by Mr. KLingheil disclosed the fact that
around the lower extremities of the body had been placed a number of large stones,
which revealed traces of fire, in conjunetion with charred wood, and the bones of the
feet had undoubtedly been consumed. This fact makes it appear reasonably certain
that tho subject had been executed, probably as a prisoner of war. A pit had been
he had been
dug, in which he was placed erect, and a fire kindled aroundhim. Then
buried alive, or, at least, if he did not survive the flery ordeal, his body was imbedded
*Amer. Naturalist, Sept., 1878, p. 629.

in the earth, with the exception of his head, which was left protruding above the
surface. As no trace of the craninm could be fonnd, it seems probable that the head
had either been bnmed or severed from the body and removed, or else left a prey to
ravenous birds. The skeleton, which would bavemeasured fully six feet in height,
was undoubtedly that of a man.

Blaelring the face, as is mentioned in the first account, is a custom

known to have existed among many tribes throughout the world, but in
some cases different earths and pigments are used as signs
of mourning.
The natives of Guinea smear a chalky substance over their bodies as an
outward expression of grief, and it is well known that the ancient Israel-
ites threw ashes on their heads and garments. Placing food with the
corpse or in its mouth, and money in the hand, finds its analogue in the
custom of the ancient Romans, who, some time before
interment, placed
a pièce of money in the corpse's
mouth, which was thonght to be Gharon's
fare for wafting the departed soul over the Infernal River. Besides
this, the corpse's mouth was furnished with a certain cake, composed of
flour, honey, &c. This was designed to appease the fury of Cerbems,
the infernal doorkeeper, and to procure a safe and quiet entrance. These
examples are curious coincidences, if nothing more.



Our attention should next be turned

to sépulture above the ground,
including lodge, house, box, scaffold, tree, and canoe burial, and the first
example which may be given is that of burial in lodges, which is by no
means common. The description which follows is by Stansbury,* and
relates to the Sioux
I put on my moccasins, and, displaying my wet shirt like a
flag to the wind, we
proceeded to the lodges which had attraeted our curiosity. There were five of them
pitched npon the open prairie, and in themwe found the bodies of nine Sioux laid ont
npon the ground, wrapped in their robes of buffalo-skin, -wlth their saddles, spears,
camp-kettles, and all their accoutrements piled np aronnd them. Some lodges con-
tained three, others only one body, aIl of which wero more or less in a state of decom-
position. A short distance apart from these was one lodge which, thongh small,
seemed of rather superior pretensions, and was evidently pitched with great care. It
contained the body of a young Indian girl of sixteen or eighteen years, with a conn-
tenance presenting quite an agreeable expression: she was richly dressed in ·
of fine scarlet cloth elaborately ornamented; a new pair of moccasins,beautifully em-
broidered with porcupine quills, was on her feet, and her body was wrapped in two
superb bnffalo-robes worked in like manner; she had evidentlybeen dead but a day
or two, and to our surprise a portion of the npper part of her person was bare, expos-
ing the face and a part of the breast, as if the robes in which she was wrapped had by
some means been disarranged, whereas ail the other bodies were closely covered up.

Explorations of the Valley 'of the Great Salt Lake of Utah, 1852, p. 43.

It was, at the time, thé opinion of our monntaineers, that these Indians must lave
fallen in an enconnter with a party of Crows; bnt I subsequently learned that they
had ail died ofthe cholera, and that this young girl, being considered past recovery,
had been arranged by herfriends in the habiliments of the dead, inclosed in the lodge
alive, and abandoned to her fate, ao fearfnlly alarmed wero thé Indians bythis to
them novel and terrible disease.
It might, perhaps, be said that this form of burial was
and due to the dread of again using the lodges which had served as the
homes of those affiicted with the cholera, butit is thought snch was not
the case, as the writer has notes of the same kind of burial among the
same tribe and of others, notably the Crows, the body of one of their
chiefs (Long Horse) being disposed of as follows
The lodge poles inclose an oblong circle some 18 by 22 feet at the base, converging
to a point at least 30 feet high, coveredwith buffalo-hides dressedwithont hair except
a part of the tail switeh, which floats outside like, and mingledwith human scalps.
The different skins are neatly fitted and sewed together with sinew, and ail painted
in seven alternate horizontal stripes of brown andyellow, decoratedwith various life-
like war scenes. Over the small entrance is a large bright cross, the npright being a
large stnffed white wolf-skin npon his war lance, and the cross-bar of bright scarlet
flannel, containing the qniver of bowand arrows, whichnearly allwarriors still carry,
even when armed with repeating rifles. As the cross is not à pagan but a Christian
(which Long Horse was not either by profession or practice) emblem, it was probably
placed there by the influence of some of his white friends. I entered, finding Long
Horse bnried Indian fashion, in fnll war dress, paint and feathers, in a rude coffin,
upon a platform about breast high, decorated with weapons, scalps, and ornaments.
A large opening and wind-flap at the top favored ventilation, and thongh he had lain
there in an open coffin a full month, some of whieh was hot weather, there was but
little eflitivia; in fact, I have seldom found muchin a burial-teepee, and when this
mode of burial is thus performed it is less répulsive than natural to suppose.

This account is furnished by Col. P. W. Norris, superintendent of

Yellowstone National Park, he having been an eye-witness of what he
relates in 1876 and although the account has been questioned, it is ad-
mitted for the reason that this gentleman persists, after a reperusal of
his article, that the facts are correct.
General Stewart Van Vliet, U. S. A., informs the writer that among
the Sioux of Wyoming and Nebraska when a person of conséquence
dies a small scaffold is erected inside his lodge and the body wrapped in
skins deposited therein. Different utensils and weapons are placed by
his side, and in front a horse is slaughtered; the lodge is then closed up.
Dr. W. J. Hoffman writes as follows regarding the burial lodges of
the Shoshones of Nevada:
The Shoshones of the npper portion of Nevada are not known to have at any time
practiced cremation. In Independenee Valley, under adesertedanddemolishedtoicfceKp
or "brush tent," I found the dried-up corpse of a boy, about twelve years of age.
The body had been here for at least six weets, according to information received,
and presented a shriveled and. hideous appearance. The dryness of the atmosphère'
prevented decomposition. The Indians in this region usually leave the body when
life terminates, merely throwing over it anch rubbish as may be at hand, or the re-
mains of their primitive shelter tents, which are mostly composed of small branches,
leaves, grass, &c.

The Shosnones living on indépendance ureeK and on the eastern bants ot the
Owyhee River, upper portion of Nevada, did not bury their dead at the time of my
visit in 1871. Whenever the person died, his lodge (usually constructed of poles and
branches of SaMx)was demolished and placed in one confused mass over his remains,
when the band removed a short distance. When the illness is not too great, or death
sudden, the sick person is removed to a favorable place, some distance fromtheir tem-
porary camping ground, so as to avoidthe necessity of their own removal. Coyotes, ra-
vens, and other carnivora soon remove all the flesh, so that there remains nothing
but the bones, and even thèse are scattered by the wolves. The Indians at Tuscarora,
Nevada, statedthat when itwas possible, andthat they should by chance meet the bony
remains of any Shoshone, they would bury it, bnt in what manner I failed to discover,
as they were very reticent, and avoided giving any information regarding the dead.
One cornse was found totally dried and ehrivelled, owing to the dryness of the atmos-
phere in this région.

Capt. F. W. Beechey* describes a curions mode of burial among the

Esquimaux on the west coast of Alaska, which appears to be somewhat
similar to lodge-burial. Figure 11, after his illustration, affords a good
idea of these burial receptacles.
Near us there was a burying-ground, which, in addition to what we had already
observed at Cape Espenburg, fnrnished several examples of the manner in which this
tribe of natives dispose of their dead. In some instances a platform was eonstructed
of drift-wood, raised about two feet and a quarter from thé ground, upon which the
body was placed, with its head to the westward, and a double tent of drift-wood
erected over it; the inner one with spars about seven feot long, and the outer one with
some that were three times that length. They were placed close together, and at first
no doubt sufficiently so to prevent the depredations of foxes and wolves but they had
yielded at' last; and all the bodies, and even the hides that covered them, had suffered
by these rapacious animals.
In these tents of the dead there were no coffins or planks, as at Cape Espenburg;
the bodies were dressed in a frock made of eider-duck skins, with one of deer-skin
over it, and were covered with a sea-horse hide, such as the natives use for their
laidars. Suspended to the poles, and on the ground near them, were several Esqui-
maux implements, consisting of wooden trays, paddles, and a tamborine, which, we
were informed as well as signs could convey the meaning of the natives, were placed
there for the use of the deceased, who, in the next world (pointing to the western
sky) ate, drank, and sang songs. Having no interpreter, this was ail the information
Icouldobtain; but the cnstom of placing such instruments around the receptacles
of the dead is not unusual, and in ail probability the Esquimaux may believe that
the soul has enjoyments in the next world similar to those which constitute their hap-
piness in this.

The Blackfeet, Cheyennes, and Navajos also bury in lodges, and the
Indians of Bellingham Bay, according to Dr. J. F. Hammond, U. S. A.,
place their dead in carved wooden sarcophagi, inclosing these with a
rectangular tent of some white material. Some of the tribes of the
northwest coast bury in houses similar to those shown in Figure 12.
Bancroftf states that certain of the Indians of Costa Rica, when a
death occurred, deposited the body in a small hut constructed of plaited
palm reeds. In this it is preserved for three years, food being supplied,

"Narrative of a Voyage to the Pacific, 1831, vol. i, p. 332.

rNat. Races of Pac. States, 1874, vol. i, p. 780.
yaiîbow.J BOX-BURIAL

and on each anniversary of the death it is redressed and attended to amid

certain ceremonies. The writer has been recently informed that a simi-
lar custom prevailed in Demerara. No authentic accounts are known
of analogous modes of burial among the peoples of the Old World, al-
though quite frequently the dead were interred beneath the floors of
their houses, a custom which has been followed by the Mosquito Indians
of Central America and one or two of our own tribes.


Under this head may be placed those examples fnrnished by certain

tribes on the northwest coast who used as receptacles for the dead won-
derfolly carved, large wooden chests, these being supported upon a low
platform or resting on the ground. In shape they resemble a small
house with an angular roof, and each one has an opening through which
food may be passed to the corpse.
Some of the tribes formerly living in New York used boxes much re-
sembling those spoken of, and the Creeks, Choctaws, and Cherokees
did the same.
Capt. J. H. Gageby, United States Army, furnishes the following re-
lating to the Creeks in Indian Territory
are buried on the surface, in a box or a substitute madeof branches of trees,
covered with small branches, leaves, and earth. I have seen several of their graves,
which after a few weeks had become uncovered and the remains exposed to view. I
saw in one Creet grave (a child's) a small sum of silver; in another (adult male) some
implements ofwarfare, boTVand arrows. They are ail interred with the feet of the
corpse to the east. In the mourning ceremonies of the Creeks the nearer relatives
smeared their hair and faces with a composition made of grease and wood-ashes, and
would remain in that condition for several days, and probably a month.

Josiah Priest* gives an acconnt of the burial repositories of a tribe

of Pacific coast Indians living on the Talomeco River, Oregon. The
writer believes it to be entirely unreliable and gives it place as an ex-
ample of credulity shown by many writers and readers
The corpses of the Caciques were so well embalmed that there was no bad smell;
they were deposited in large wooden coffins, -well constructed, and placed upon benches
two feet from the ground. In smaller coffins, and in baskets, the Spaniards found the
clothes of the deceased men and women, and so many pearls that they distributed
them among the officers and soldiers by handisfulls.
la Bancroft t may be found the following account of the burial boxes
of the Esquimaux:
The EsMmos do not as a rule bury their dead, but double the body up and place it
on the side in a plank box, which is elevated three or four feet from the ground and
supported by four posts. The grave-box is often covered with painted figures of
*Ain. Antiq. and Discov., 1838, p. 286.
tNat. Races of Pac. States, 1874, vol. i, p. 69.


birds, fishes, and animals. Sometimes it is wrapped in skins placed upon an elevated
frame, and covered with planks or trunks of trees so as to protect it from wild beasts.
Upon the frame, or in the grave-box, are deposited the arms, olothing, and sometimes
the domestic utensils of the deceased. Fréquent mention is made by travelers of
burial places where the bodies lie exposedmth their heads placed towards the north.
Frederic Whymper* describes the burial boxes of the Kalosh of that
Their grave-boxes or tombs are interesting. They contain only the ashes of the
dead. These people invariably burn. the deceased. On one of the boxes I saw a
number of faces painted, long tresses of humanhair depending therefrom. Each head
represented a victim of the (happily) deceased one's ferocity. In his day he vas
donbtless more esteemed than if he had never harmed a fly. Ail their graves are
much ornamented with carved and painted faces and other devices.
W. H. Dall,t t well known as one of the most experienced and carefnl
of American ethnologie observers, describes the burial boxes of the
Innuits of Unalaldik, Innuits of Yuka, and Ingaliks of Ulukuk as fol-
lows. Figs. 13 and 14 are after his illustrations in the volume noted.


FIG.13. – ÏQnuit


The usual fashion is to place the body, doubled up on its side, in a box of plank
hewed ont of spruce logs, and about four feet long; this is elevated several feet above
the ground on four posts, which project above the eoflin or box. The sides are often
painted, with red chalk, in figures of fax animals, birds, and fishes. According to the

*Travels in Alaska, 1869,p. 100.

tAlaska and its Resources, 1870, pp. 19, 132, 145.
yaekow.] BOX-BURIAL-INNUIT. 157

wealth of the dead man, a number of articles which belonged to him are attached to
the coffin of strewed around it; some of them have kyaks, bows and arrows, hunting
implements, snow-shoes, or even kettles, around thé grave or fastened to it; and almost
invariablythe woodendish, or "kantâg," from which the deceased was accustomedto
eat, is hnng on one of the posts.


The dead are enclosed above ground in a box in the manner previously described.
The annexed sketch shows the form of the sarcophagus, which, in this case, is orna-
mented with anow-shoes, a reel for seal-lines, a fishing-rod, and a wooden dish or kan-
tâg. The latter is found with every grave, and usually ono is placed in the box with
the body. Sometimes a part of the property of the dead person is placed in the coffin
or about it; occasionally the whole is thus disposed of. Generally the fors, provis-
ions, and clothing (except such as has been worn) are divided among the nearer rela-
tives of the dead, or remain in possession of his family if he has one such clothing,
honsehold utensils, and weapons as the deceased had in daily use are almost invaria-
bly enclosed in his coffin. If there are many deaths about the same time, or an epi-
demie occurs, everything belonging to the dead is destroyed. The house in which a
death occurs is always deserted and usually destroyed. In order to avoid this, it is
not nncommon to take the sick person out of the house and put him in a tent to die.

` z= =-=._ _Ï=: ~r -``- _=_

!FlG.14. – Ingalikgrave.

A woman's coffin may be known by the kettles and other feminine utensils about it.
There is no distinction between the sexes in method of burial. On the outside of the
coffin figures are usually drawn in red ochre. Figures of fur animals usually indicate
that the dead person was a good trapper; if seal or deer skin, his proficiency as a
hunter; representation of parkies that he waswealthy; the manner of his death is
also occasionally indicated. For four days after a death the women in the village do
no sewing; for five days the men do not eut wood with an axe. The relatives of the
dead must not seek birds' eggs on the overhanging cliffs for a year, or their feet will
slip from under them and they will be dashed to pieces. No mouming is worn or in-
dicated, except by cutting the hair. Women sit and watch the body, chanting a

mournful refrain, until it is interred. They seldom suspect that others have bronght
the death about by shamanism, as the Indians almost invariably do.
At the end of a year from the death, a festival is given, presents are made to those
who assisted in making the coffin, and the period of monrning is over. Their grief
seldom seems deep, but they indulge for a long time in wailing for the dèad at inter-
vals. I have seen several women who refused to take a second hnsband, and had re-
mained single, in spite of repeated offers, for many years.


As we drew near, we heard a low, wailing chant, and Mikala, one of my men, in-
formed me that it was women lamenting for the dead. On landing, I saw several
Indians hewing ont the box in which the dead are placed. The body lay on
its side in a deer-skin the heels were lashed to the small of the back, and the head
bent forward on the chest, so that his coffin needed to be only about four feet long.


We may now pass to what may be called aerial sépulture proper, the
most common examples of whieh are tree and scaffold burial, quite ex-
tensively practiced even at the present time. From what can be learned,
the choice of this mode dépends greatly on the facilities present where
timber âbonnds, trees being used; if absent, scaffolds being employed.
From William J. Oleveland, of the Spotted Tail Agency, Nebraska,
hasbeenreceivedamostinfcerestingaecountof the mortuary customs of
the Brulé or Teton Sioux, who belong to the Lakotah alliance. They
are called Sîcaugu, in the Indian tongue Seedhaugas, or the "burned
thigh" people. The narrative is given in its entirety, not only on ac-
count of its careful attention to details, but from its known truthfulness
of description. It relates to tree and scaffold burial.


Though some few of this tribe now lay their dead in rude boxes, either burvingthem
when implements for digging can be had, or, when they have no means of making a
grave, placing tbem on top of the ground on some hill or other slight elevation, yet
this is done in imitation of the whites, and their general cnstom, as a people, probably
does not differ in any essential way from that of their*forefathers for many genera-
tions in the past. In disposing of the dead, they wrap the body tightly in blankets ·
or robes (sometimes both), wind it ail over with thongs made of the hide of someani-
mal, and place it, reclii • agon the back at full length, either in the branches of some
tree or on a scaffold mai.o for the pnrpose. These scaffolds are abont eight feet high,
and made by planting four forked sticks firmlv in the ground, one at each corner, and
then placing others across on top, so as to form a floor, on which the body is securely
fastened. Sometimes more than one body is placed on the same scaffold, thonghgen-
erally a separate one is made for each occasion. These Indians being in all things
most superstitions, attach a kind of sacredness to these scaffolds and all the materials
used on or about the dead. This superstition is in itself sufficient to prevent any of
their own people from disturbing the dead, and for one of another nation to in any
wise meddle with them is considered an offense not too severely punished by death..

'.f7:IM'~r 1

The same feeling also prevents them from ever

using old scaffolds or any ofthe wood
which has been nsed about them, even for firewood,
though thenecessitymaybevery
great, for fear some evil consequences will follow. It is also the custom, though. not
universally followed, when bodies have been for two years on the scaffolds to take
them down and bury them under ground.
All the work about winding up the dead, building the
scaffold, and placing the dead
uponit is done by women only, who, afterhavingnnished their labor, return and bring
the men, to show them where the body is
placed, that they may be able to find it in
future. Valuables of all kinds, such as weapons,
ornaments, pipes, &c. – in short,
whatever the deceased valued most highly while living, andlocks ofhaircutfromthe
heads of the mourners at his death, are always bound up with the
body. In case the
dead was a man of importance, or if the family could afford it, even
though he were
not, one or several horses (generally, in the former case, those which the departed
thonght most of) are shot and placed under the scaffold. The idea in this is that the
spirit of the horse will accompany and be of use to his spirit in the "happy hunting
grounds," or, as thesepeople express it, "the spirit land."
When an Indian dies, and in some cases even before death
occurs, the friends and
relatives assemble at the lodge and begin crying over the departed or
departing one.
This consists in uttering the most heartrending, almost hideous wails and lamenta-
tions, in which all join until exhausted. Then the mourning ceases for a time until
some one starts it again, when all join in as before and keep it up nntil unable to
longer. This is kept up nntil the body is removed. This crying is done almost
wholly by women, who gather in large numbers on such occasions, and among them a
few who are professional mourners. These are generally old women and
go whenever
a person is expected to die, to take the leading part in the
lamentations, knowing
that they will be well paid at the distribution of goods which follows. As soon as
death takes place, the body is dressed by the women in the best garments and blankets
obtainable, new ones if they can be afforded. The crowd gathered near continue
wailing piteonsly, and from time to time ont locks of hair from their own heads with
knives, and throw them on the dead body. Those who wish to show their grief most
strongly, cnt themselves in varions places, generally in the legs and arma, with their
knives or pieces of flint, more commonly the latter,
causing the blood to flow freely
over their persons. This custom is followed to a less degree by the men.
A body is seldom kept longer than one day as, besides the desire to
get the dead ont
of sight, the fear that the disease which caused the death will commnnicate itself to
others of the family causes them to hasten the disposition of it as soon as they are
certain that death has actually taken place.
Until the body is laid away the mourners eat nothing. After that is
done, con-
nected with which there seems to be no particular
ceremony, the few women who
attend to it return to the lodge and a distribution is made
among them and others,
not only of the remaining property of the deceased, but of ail the
possessions, even to
the lodge itself of the family to which he belonged. This custom in some cases has
been carried so far as to leave the rest of the family not
only absolutely destitute but
actually naked. After continuing in this condition for a time, they
gradually reach
the common level again by receiving gifts from varions sources.
The received cnstom requires of women, near relatives of the
dead, a strict observ-
ance of the ten days following the death, as follows They are to rise at a
very early
hour and work unnsually hard ail day, joining in no
feast, dance, game, or other
diversion, eat but little, and retire late, that they may be deprived of the usual
amount of sleep as of food. During this they never paint
themselves, but at varions
times go to the top of some hill and bewail the dead in loud cries and lamentations
for hours together. After the ten days have expired they
paint themselves again
and engage in the usual amusements of thé people as before. The men are
to mourn and fast for one day and then go on the war-path against some other
or on some long journey alone. If he prefers, he can mourn and fast for two or more

days and remain at home. The custom of placing food at the scaffold also prevails to
some extent. If but little is placed there it is understood to be for the spirit of the
dead, and no one is allowed to touch it. If much is provided, it is done with the
intention that those of the same sex and age as the deceased shall meet there and con-
sume it. If the dead be a little girl, the young girls meet and eat what is provided;
if it be a man, then men assemble for "the samepurposo. The relatives never mention
the name of the dead. >
Still another cnstom, though at the present day by no means generally followed,
is still observed to some extent among them. This is called wanagce yuhapec, or
keeping the ghost." A little of the hair from the head of the deceased being pre-
served is bonnd up in calico and articles of value until the roll is about two feet long
andteninches or more in diameter, when it is placed ina case made ofhidehandsomely
ornamentedwith varions designs mdifférent colored paints. Whenthefamilyispoor,
however, they may subsfcitate for this case blue or scarlet blanket or cloth. The roll
is then swung lengthwise between two supports made of sticks, placed thus x in front
of a lodge which has been set apart for the pnrpose. In this lodge are gathered pres-
ents of ail Mnds, which are given ont when a sufficient quantity is obtained. It is
often year andsometimes several years before this distribution is made. During all
this time the roll containing the hair of the deceased is leffcundisturbed in front of
the lodge. The gifts as they are bronght in are piled in the back part of the lodge,
and are not to be touched nntil given out. No one but men and boys are admitted to
the lodge nnless it be a wife of the deceased, who may go in if necessary very early
in tho morning. The men sit inside, as they choose, to smoke, eat, and converse. As
they smoke they empty the ashesfroni their pipes in thé conter of the lodge, and they,
too, are left undistnrbeâ nntil after the distribution. When they eat, a portion is
always placed first under the roll outside for the spirit of the deceased. No one is
allowed to take this unless a large quantity is so placed, in which case it may bo
eaten by any persons actually in need of food, even though strangers to the dead.
When the proper time cornes the friends of the deceased and ail to whom présents are
to be given are called together to the lodge and the things are given out by the man
in charge. Generally this is some near relative of the departed. The roll is now nn-
done and small locks of the hair distributed with the other presents, whioh ends the
Sometimes this "keeping the ghost" is done several times, and it is then lookod
upon as a repetition of the burial or putting away of the dead. Dnring all the time
before the distribution of the hair, the lodge, as well as the roll, is looked npon as in
a manner sacred, but after that ceremony it becomes common again and may be used
for any ordinary purppse. No relative or near friend of the dead wishes to retain
anything in his possession that be'onged to him while living, or to see, hear, or own
anything which will remind him of the departed. Indeed, the leading idea in ail
their bnrial customs in the laying away withthe dead their most valuable possessions,
the giving to others what is left of his and the family property, the refusai to men-
tion hisname, &c., is to put out of mindas soon and as effectual as possible the mem-
ory of the departed.
From what has been said, however, it will be seen that they believe each person to
have a spirit which continues to live after the death of the body. They have no idea
of a future life in the body, but believe that after death their spirits will meet and
recognize the spirits of their departed friends in the spirit land. They deem it essen-
tial to their happiness here, however, to destroy as far as practicable their recollection
of the dead. Theyfrequently speak of death as a sleep, and of the dead as asleep or
having gone to sleep at such a time. These customs are gradnally losing their hold
upon them, and are much less generally and strictly observed than formerly.
Figure 15 furnishes a good example of scaffold burial. Figure 16,
offering of food and drink to the dead. Figure 17, depositing the dead
upon the scaffold.



A. Delano,* mentions as follows an example of tree-burial which he

noticed in Nebraska.

During the afternoon we passed a Sioux burying-ground, if I may be

allowed to use an Irishism. In ahackberry tree, elevated about
twenty feet from the
ground, a kind of rack was made of broken tent poles, and the body (for there was
but one) was placed upon it, wrapped in his blanket, and a tanned buffalo
skin, with
his tin cup, moccasins, and various things whichhe had used
inlife, were placëdupon
his body, for his use in the land of spirits.

Figure 18 represents tree-burial, from a sketch drawn by my friend

Dr. Washington Matthe.ws, United States Army.
John Young, Inclian agent at the Blackfeet
Agency, Montana, sends
the following account of tree-burial among this tribe
Their manner of burial has always been (nntil recently) to inclose the dead
in robes or blankets, the best owned by the departed, closely sewed
up, and then, if
a male or chief, fastenin the branches of a tree so high as to be beyond the reach of
wolves, and then leffcto slowly waste in the dry winds. If the body was that of a
squaw or child, it was thrown into the underbrush or jungle, where it soon became
the prey of the wild animals. The weapons, pipes, &c, of men were
inclosed, and
the small toys of childrèn with them. The ceremonies were
equally barbarous, the
relatives cutting off, according to the depth of their grief, one or more
joints of the
fingers, divesting themselves of clothing even in the coldest weather, and fllling the air
with their lamentations. All the sewing up and burial process was conducted
by the
squaws, as the men would not touch nor remain in proximity to a dead body.
The following account of scaffold burial among the Gros Ventres and
Mandans of Dakota is furnished by E. H. Alden, United States Indian
agent at Fort Berthold
The Gros Ventres and Mandans never bury in the
ground, but always on a scaffold
made of four posts about eight feet high, on which the box is
placed, or, if no box is
used, the body wrapped in red or blue cloth if able, or, if not, a blanket or cheapest
white cloth, the tools and weapons being placed
directly under the body, and there
they remain forever, no Indian ever daring to touch one of them. It would be bad
medicine to tonch the dead or anything so placed
belonging to him. Should the body
by any means fall to the gronnd, it is never touched or replaced on the scaffold. As
soon as one dies ho is immediately bnried, sometimes within an
hour, and the friends
begin howling and wailing as the process of interment goes on, and continue monrn
ing day and night around the grave, without food sometimes three or four days. Those
.who mourn are always paid for it in some way by the other friends of the
and those who mourn the longest are paid the most. They also show their
grief and
affection for the dead by a fearful cutting of their own bodies, sometimes
only in part,
and sometimes all over their whole flesh, and this sometimes continues for weeks!
Their hair, which is worn in long braids, is also ont off to show their
mourning. They
seem prend of their mutilations. Ayoung man who had just buried his mother came
in boasting of, and showing his mangled legs.

According to Thomas L. MeKenney,f thé Chippewas of Fond du

Wis., buried on scaffolds, inclosing-the corpse in a box. The narrative
is as follows
One mode of burying the doad among the Chippewas is to place the coffin or box
containing their remains on two cross-pieces, nailed or tied with wattap to four poles.

*Life on thé Plains.

*Liie Plains, 1854.t>.
1854, 68. t'i'nm- +ntT,BT.ni-oc.isot « ons
11 A E

The poles are about ten feet high. They plant near these posts the wild hop or some
other kind of running vine, which spreads over and covers the coffin. I saw one of
thèse on the island, and as I have described it. It was the coffin of a child about four
yearsold. It was near the lodge of the sick girl. I hâve a sketch ofit. Iaskedthe
chiefwhy his people disposed of their dead in that way. He answered they did not
like to put them ont of their sight so soon by putting them under ground. Upon a
platform they could see the box that contained their remains, and that was a comfort
to them.
Figure 19 is copied from MeKenney's picture of this form of burial.
Keating* thus describes burial scaffolds
On these scaffolds, which are from eight to ten feet high, corpses were deposited in
a box made from part of a broken canoe. Some hair was suspended, which we at first
mistook for a scalp, but our guide informed us that thèse were lochs of hair torn from
their heads by the relatives to testify their grief. In the center, between the four
posts whieh supported the scaffolu, a stake was planted in the ground; it was about
six feet high, and bore an imitation of human figures, five of whieh had a design of a
petticoat, indicating them to be females; the rest, amounting to seven, were naked
and wero intended for maie figures; of the latter four were headless, showing that
they had been slain; the three other male figures were unmutilated, but held a staff
in their hand, which, as our guide informed us, designated that they were slaves.
The post, which is an usual accompaniment to the scaffold that supports a warrior's
remains, does not represent the achievements of the deceased; but those of tho war-
riors that assemblcd near his remains danced the dance of the post, and related their
martial exploits. A number of small bones of animais were observed in the vicinity,
which were probably left there after a feast celebrated in honor of the dead.
The boxes inwhichthe corpses were placed are so short that a man could not lie in
them extended at full length, but in a country where boxes and boards are scarce this
is overlooked. After the corpses have remained a certain time exposed, they are taken
down and buried. Our guide, Renville, related to us that he had been a witness to
an interesting, thougli painful, circumstance that occurred here. An Indian who re-
sided on the Mississippi, hearing that his son had died atthis spot, came up in a canoë
to take charge of the remains and convey them down the river to his place of abode,
but on his arrivai ho found that the corpse had already made such progress toward
decomposition as rendered it impossible for it to be removed. He then undertook,
with a few friends, to clean off the bones. All the flesh was seraped off and thrown
into the stream, the bones were carefully collected into his canoe, and subsequently
carried down to his residence.

Interesting and valuable from the extrême attention paicl to détails

is the following account of a burial case discovered by Dr. George M.
Sternberg, United States Army, and furnished by Dr. George A. Otis,
United States Army, Army Médical Muséum, Washington, D. C. It re-
lates to the Ulieyennes of gansas
The case was found, Brevet-Major Sternberg states, on the banks of Walnut Creek,
Kansas, elevated about eight feet from the ground by four notched poles, which were
iirmly planted in the ground. The unusual care manifestedin the preparation of the
case induced Dr. Sternberg to infer that some important chief was inclosed in it. Be-
lioving that articles of interest were inclosed witli the body, and that their value
would be enhanced if they were received at the Museum as left by the Indians, Dr.
Sternberg determined to send the case nnopened.
I had the case opened this morning and an inventory made of the contents. The
case consisted of a cradle of interlaced branches of white willow, about six feet long,

Long's Exped. to the St. Petert River, 1824, p.,332.


three feet broad, and three feet high, with a flooring of buffalo thongs
arranged as a
net-work. This cradle was securely fastened by strips of buffalo-hide to four
poles of
ironwood and cottonwood, about twelve feet inlength. These pôles doubtless rested
upon the forked extremities of the vertical poles described by Dr. Stomberg. Thé
cradle was wrapped in two buffalo robes of large size and well
preserved. On remov-
ing thèse an aperture eighteen inches square was found at the middle of the right sido
of the cradle or basket. Within appeared other buffalo robes folded about the re-
mains, and secured by gaudy-colored sashes. Five robes were successively removed,
making seven in ail. Then we came to a series of new blankets folded about the
remains. There were five in all-two scarlet, two blue, and one white. These
removed, the next wrappings consisted of a striped white and gray sack, and of a
United States Infantry overcoat, like the other coverings nearly new. We had now
corne apparently upon the immediate envelopes of the remains, which it was now
evident mustbethoseof a child. Thèse consisted of three robes, with hoods very
richly ornamented with bead-work. These robes or cloaks were of buffalo-calf skin
abont four feet in length, elaborately decorated with bead-work in stripes. The outor
was covered with rows of blue and white bead-work, the second was
green and yel-
low, and the third blue and red. All were fnrther adorned by spherical brass bells
attached ail about the borders by strings of beads.
The remains with their wrappings lay upon a matting similar to that used
by tho
Navajo and other Indians of the southern plains, and upon a pillow of dirty rags, in
which were folded a bag of red paint, bits of antelope skin, bunches of
straps, buckles,
&c. The three bead-work hooded cloaks were now
removed, and then wo success-
ively nnwrapped gray a woolen double shawl, five yards of blue cassimere, six yards
of red calico, and six yards of brown calico, and finally disclosed the remains of a
child, probably about a year old, in an advanced stage of decomposition. The cada-
ver had a beaver-cap ornamented with disks of copper
containing tho bones of the
cranium, which had fallen apart. About the neck were long wampum necklaees,
with Dentalium, Unionidœ, and Auriculœ, interspersed with beads. There were also'
strings of the pieces of ïïaliotis from the Gulf of California, so valued by thé Indians
on this side of the Eocky Mountains. The body had been
elaborately dressed for
burial, the costume consisting of a red-flannel cloak, a red tunic, and irock-leggins
adorned with bead-work, yarn stockings of red and black worsted, and deer-skin bead-
work moccasins. With the remains were numerous trinkets, a porcelain
image, a
China vase, strings of beads, several toys, a pair of mittens, a fur collar, a
pouch of
the skin of l'utorins vison, &c.
Another extremely interesting account of scaffold-burial, furnished by
Dr. L. S. Turner, United States Army, Fort
Peck, Mont., and relating
to the Sioux, is here given entire, as it refers to certain cnrious monrn-
ing observances which have prevailed to a great extent over the entire
The Dakotas bury their dead in the tops of .trees when limbs can be found sufii-
ciently horizontal to support scaffolding on which to lay the body, butas such growth
is not common in Dakota, the more general practice is to lay them upon scaffolds from
seven to ten feet high and out of the reach of carniverous animals, as the wolf. Thèse
scaifolds are constructed upon four posts set into the ground sometHng after themanner
of tho rude drawing which I inclose. Like ail labors of a domestic kind, the
tion for burial is left to the women, usually the old women. The work begins as soon
as life is extinct. The face, neck, and hands are thickly painted with
vermilion, or
a species of red earth found in various portions of the Territory when the vermilion
of tho traders cannot be had. The clothes and personal trinkets of the deceased orna-
meut thé body. When blankets are available, it is then wrapped in
one, ail parts of
the body being completoly enveloped. Around this a dressed skin of buffalo is then
secnrely wrapped, with thé flesh side ont, and the whole securely bound with thongs

of skins, eitherrawordressed; andforomament, when available, a bright-red blanket

envelopes ail other coverings, and renders the general scene more picturesque nntil
dimmed by time and the éléments. As soon as the scaffold is ready, the body is borne
by the women, followed by tho female relatives, to the place of final deposit, and
is accom-
prone in its secure wrappings upon this airy bed of death. This ceremony
hear in order to
panied with lamentations so wild and weird that one must see and
appreciate. If the deceased be a brave, it is customary to place upon or beneath
scaffold a few buffalo-heads winch time has rendered dry and inoffensive; and if he
has been brave in war some of his implements of battle are placed on the seaffold
or securely tied to its timbers. If the deceased has been a chief, or a soldier related
to his chief, it is not uncommon to slay his favorite pony and place the body beneath
the scaffold, under the superstition, 1 suppose, that the horse goes with the man. As
illustrating the propensity to provide the dead with the things used while living, 1
use of
may mention that some years ago I loaned to an old man a delft urinal for the
his son, a young man who was slowly dying of a wasting disease. I made him prom-
ise faithfully that he would return it as soon as his son was done using it. Not long
afterwards the urinal graced.the scaffold which held the rémains of the dead warrior,
and as it has not to this day been retnrned I presume the young man is not done
using it.
The mourning customs of the Dakotas, though few of them appear to be ofuniversal
observance, cover considérable ground. Thehair, never eut under other circnmstance3,
is cropped off even with the neck, and the top of the head and forehead, and some-
times nearly the whole body, are smeared with a species of white earth resembling
chalk, moistened with water. The lodge, teepee, and ail the familypossessions except
the few shabby articles of apparel worn by the mourners, are given away and the
family left. destitate. Thus far the custom is universal or nearly so. The wives,
mother, and sisters of a deceased man, on the first, second, or third day after the
fnneral, frequently throw off their moccasins and leggins and gash their legs with
their bnteher-knives, and march through the camp and to the place of burial with
bare and bleeding extremities, while they chant or wail their dismal songs of mourn-
ing. The men likewise often gash themselves in many places, and usually seek the
solitude of the higher point on the distant prairie, where they remain fasting, smok-
who had lost
ing, and wailing out their lamentations for two or three days. A chief
a brother once came to me after three or four days of mourning in solitude almost ex-
haustedfromhunger and bodily anguish. Hehadgashedthe outersideofhothlower
extremities at intervals of a few inches all tho way irom the ankles to the top of the
hips. His wounds had inflamed from exposure, and were suppurating freely. He as-
sured me that he had not slept for several days or nights. I dressed his wounds with
a soothing ointment, and gave him a full dose of an effective anodyne, after which
he slept long and refreshingly, and awoke to express his gratitude and shake my hand
in a very cordial and sincère manner. When these harsher inflictions are not resorted
to, the mourners usually repair daily for a few days to the place ofburial, toward the
hour of sunset, and chant their grief until it is apparently assuaged by its own expres-
sion. This is rarely kept upfor more than four or five days, but is occasionallyresorted
to, at intervals, for weeks, or even months, according to the mood of the bereft. I have
seen few things in life so touching as the spectacle of an old father going daily to the
grave of his child, while the shadows are lengthening, and ponring out his grief in
wails that would move a démon, until his fignre melts with the gray twilight, when,
silent and solemn, he returns to his desolate family. The weird effect of this observ-
ance is sometimes heightened, when the deceased was a grown-up son, by the old man
kindling a little fire near the head of the scaffold, and varying his lamentations with
smoking in silence. Theforegoingis drawn from my memory ofpersonal observances
during a period of morethan six years' constant intercourse with several subdivisions
of the Dakota Indians. There may be much which memory has failed to recall upon
a brief considération.

Figure 20 represents scarification as a form of grief-expression for the

Perhaps a brief review of Dr. Turner's narrative may not be deemed
inappropriate here.
Supplying food to the dead is a custom which is known to be of great
antiquity in some instances, as among the ancient Romans, it appears
to have been a sacrificial offering, for it usually accompanied cremation,
and was not confined to food alone, for spices, perfumes, oil, &c., were
thrown upon the burning pile. In addition to this, articles supposed or
known to have beén agreeable to the deceased were also consumed. The
Jews did the same, and in our own time the Chinese, Caribs, and many
of the tribes of North American Indians followed these customs. The
cutting of hair as a mourning observance is of very great antiquity, and
Tegg relates that among the ancients whole cities and countries were
shaved (sic) when a great man died. The Persians not only shaved
themselves on snch occasions, but extended the same process to their
domestic animals, and Alexander, at the death of Hephaestin, not only
eut off the manes of his horses and mules, but took down the battle-
ments from the city walls, that even towns might seem in mourning and
look bald. Scarifying and mutilating the bodyhas prevailed from a re-
mote period of time, having possibly replaced, in the process of evolu-
tion, to a certain extent, the more barbarous practice of absolute per-
sonal sacrifice. In later days, among our Indians, human sacrifices
hâve taken place to only a limited extent, but formerly many victims
were immolated, for at the funerals of the chiefs of the Florida and
Carolina Indians all the male relatives and wives were slain, for the
reason, according to Gallatin, that the hereditary dignity of Chief or
Great Sun descended, as usual, by the female line, and he, as well as all
other members of his clan, whether male or female, could marry only
persons of an inferior clan. To this day mutilation of the person among
some tribes of Indians is usual. The sacrifice of the favorite horse or
horses is byno means peculiar to our Indians, for it was common among
the Romans, and possibly even among the men of the Reindeer period,
for at Solutré, in France, the writer saw horses' bones exhumed from the
graves examinecl in 1873. The writer has frequently conversed with
Indians upon this subject, and they have invariably informed him that
when horses were slain great care was taken to select thepoorest of the
Tree-burial was not uncommon among the nations of antiquity, for
the Colchiens enveloped their dead in sacks of skin and hung them to
trees; the ancient Tartars and Scythians did the same. With regard
to the use of scaffolds and trees as places of deposit for the dead, it
seems somewhat curious that the tribes who formerly occupied the
eastern portion of our continent were not in the habit of burying in this
way, which, from the abundance of timber, would have been a much
easier method than the ones in vogue, while the western tribes, living

in sparsely-wooded localities, preferred the other. If we consider that

the Indians were desirous of preserving their dead as long as
the fact of their dead being placed in trees and scaffolds would lead to
the supposition that those living on the plains were well aware of the
desiccating property of the dry air of that arid region. This desiccation
would pass for a kind of mummification.
The particular part of the mourning ceremonies, whieh consisted in
loud cries and lamentations, may have had in early periods of time a
greater significance than that of a mere expression of grief or woe, and
on this point BruMer* seems quite positive, his interprétation being
that such cries were intended to prevent premature burial. He gives
some interesting examples, which may be admitted here:
The Caribslament loudly, their wailings being interspersedwith comical remaria
and questionsto the dead as to why he preferred to leave this world, having every-
thing to makelife comfortable. They place the corpse on a little seat in a ditch or
grave fonror five feet deep,and for ten days they bring food,requestingthe corpseto
eat. Finally, being convincedthat the dead will neither eat nor return to life, they
throw the foodon the head-ofthe corpseand fill up the grave.
When one died among the Romans, the nearest relatives embraced the
body, closed the eyes and mouth, and when one was about to die re-
ceived the last words and sighs, and then loudly called the name of the
dead, finally bidding an eternal adieu. This ceremony of calling the
deceased by name was known as the conclamation, and was a custom
anterior even to the foundation of Rome. One dying away from home
was immediately removed thither, in order that this might be performed
with greater propriety. In Picardy, as late as 1743, the relatives threw
themselves on the corpse and with loud cries called it by name, and up to
1855 the Moravians of Pennsylvania, at the death of one of their num-
ber, performed mournful musical airs on brass instruments from the
village church steeple and again at the grave.! This custom, however,
was probably a remnant of the ancient funeral observances, and not to
prevent premature burial, or, perhaps, was intended to scare away bad
W. L. Hardistyf gives a curious example of log-burial in
trees, relat-
ing to tne Loucheux of British America
They inclosethe body in a neatly-hollowedpiece of wood, and secureit to two or
moretrees, about six feetfromthe ground. Alog about eight feet longis first splitin
two, and each of the parts carefully hollowedout to the reqnired size. The body is
tlien inclosedand the two pieces well lashed together, preparatory to beingfinally
secured,as before stated, to the trees.
The American Indians are by no means thé only savages employing
scaffolds as places of deposit for the dead, for Wbod§ gives a number of
examples of this mode of burial.
*L'incertitude des signes dé la Mort, 1742,tome i, p. 475,et seq.
tThe writer is infonnedbyMr. John Henry Bonerthat thiscustom still prevailsnot
only in Pennsylvania,but at the Moraviansettlement of Salem,N. C.
tEep. SmithsonianInst., 1866,p. 319.
§ UhcivilizedRacesof the World, 1874,v. ii, p. 774,et aeg.

In some parts of Anstralia the natives, instead of consuming the body fire, or hid-
ing it in caves or in graves, make it a pecnliarly conspicuons object. Should a tree
grow favorably for their purpose, they will employ it as the final resting place for the
dead body. Lying in its canoe coffin, and so covered over with leaves and grass that
its shape is qnite disgnised, the "bodyis lifted into a convenient fork of the tree and
lashed to the boughs by native ropes. No further care is taken of it, and if in
process of time it shonld be blown ont of the tree, no one will take the tronble of re-
placing it.
Shonld no tree be growing in the selected spot, an artificial platform is made for the
body, by flxing the ends of stont branches in the ground and connecting them at their
tops by smaller horizontal branches. Such are the élirions tombs which are repre-
sented in the illustration. These strange tombs are mostly placed among
the reedSj so that nothing can be more mournful than the sound of the wind as it
shakes the reeds below the branch in winch the corpse is lying. Theobjectofthis
aerial tomb is évident enough, namely, to protect the corpse from the dingo, or native
dog. That the ravens and other carrion-eating birds should make a banquet npon
the body of the dead man does not seem to trouble the survivors in the least, and it
often happens that the traveler is told by the croak of the disturbed ravens that the
body of a dead Anstralian is lying in the branches over his head.
The aerial tombs are mostly erected for the bodies of old men who have died a natural
death; but when a yonng warrior has fallen in battle the body is treated in a very
different manner. A moderately high platform is erected, and upon this is seated thé
body of the dead warrior with the face toward the rising sun. The legs are crossed
and the arms kept extended by means of sticks. The fat is then removed, and after •
being mised with red ochre is rnbbed over the body, which has previously been care-
fully denuded of hair, as is done in-the ceremony of initiation. The legs and arms
are covered with zebra-like stripes of red, white, and yellow, and the weapons of the
deadman are laid across his lap.
The body being thus arranged, fires are lighted under the platform, and kept np
for ten days or more, during the whole of which time the friends and monrners re-
main by the body, and are not permitted to speak. Sentinels relieve each other at
appointed intervals, their dnty being to see that the :fires are not suffered to go ont,
and to keep the flies away by waving leafy bonghs or bunches of emn feathers. When
a body has been treated in this manner it becomes hard and mummy-like, and the
strongest point is that the wild dogs will not touch it after it has been so long smoked.
It remains sitting on the platform for two months or so, and is then taken down and
buried, with the exception of the skull, which is made into a drinking-cup for the
nearest relative.

This mode of mummifying resembles somewhat that already described

as the process by which the Virginia kings were preserved from decom-
Figs. 21 and 22 represent the Australian burials described, and are
after the original engravings in Wood's work. The one representing
scaflbld-burial resembles greatly the scaft'olds of our own Indians.
With regard to the use of scaffolds as places of deposit for the dead,
the following theories by Dr. "W. Gardner, United States Army, are given

If we corne to inquire why the American aborigines placed the dead bodies of their
relatives and friends in trees, or npon scaffolds resembling trees, instead of burying
them in the ground, or burning them and preserving their ashes in urns, I think we
can answer the inqniry by recollecting that most if not ail the tribes of American In-
dians, as well as other nations of a higher civilization, believed that the human soul,
spirit, or immortal part was of the form and nature of a bird, and as thèse are essen-

tially arboreal in their habits, it is quite in keeping to suppose thatthe soul-Mrâ would
have readier access to its former home or dwelling-place if it was placed upon a tree
or scaffold than if it was buried in the earth moreover, from this lofty eyrie the soûls
of the dead could rest secure from the attacks of wolves or other profane beasts, and
guard like sentinels the homes and hunting-grounds of their loved ones.
This statement is given because of a corroborative note in the writer's

possession, but he is not prepared to admit it as correct without further


Under this heading may be placed the burials which consisted in first
depositing the bodies on scaffolds, where they were allowed to remain
for a variable length of time, after which the bones were cleaned and
deposited either in the earth or in special structures, called by writers
"bone-houses." Eoman* relates the following concerning the Choc-
The following treatment of the dead is very atrange. As soon as the de-
ceased is departed, a stage is erected (as in the annexed plate is represented) and the
corpse is laid on it and covered with a bear-skin; if he be a man of note, it is deco-
rated, and the poles painted red with vermillion and bear's oil; if a child, it is put
npon stakes set across at this stage the relations corne and weep, asMng many ques-
tions of the corpse, such as, why he left them ? did not his wife serve him well was
he not contented with his eMldren. ? had he not corn enough ? did not his land produce
sufficient of everything? was he afraid of his enemies? &c, and this accompanied by
loud howlings; the women will be there constantly, and sometimes, with the cor-
rupted air and heat of the sun, faint so as to oblige the bystanders to carry them home
the men will also corne and mourn in the same manner, but in the night or at other
unseasonable times when they are least likely to be discovered.
The stage is fenced ronnd with poles; it remains thus a certain time, but not a fixed
space this is sometimes extended to three or four months, but seldom more than half
that time. Acertain set of venerable old Gentlemen, who wear very long nails as a
distinguishing badge on the thumb, fore, and middle finger of -each hand, constantly
travel through the nation (when i was there i was told there were but five of this
respectable order) that one of them may acquaint those concerned, of the expiration
of this period, which is according to their own fancy; the day being come, the friends o
and relations assemble near the stage, a fire is made, and the respectable operator,
after the body is taken down, with his nails tears the remaining flesh off the bones,
and throws it mth the entrails into the fire, where it is consumed; then he scrapes
the bones and bums the scrapings likewise the head being painted red with vermil-
lion is with the rest of the bones put into a neatly made chest (which for a Chief is also
made red) and deposited in the loft of a hnt built for that purpose, and called. bone
house; each town has one of thèse after remaining hère one year or thereabouts, if
he be a man of any note, they take the chest down, and in an assembly of relations
and friends they weep once more over him, refresh the colour of the head, paint the
box, and then deposit him to lasting oblivion.
An enemy and one who commits suicide is buried under the earth as one to be di-
rectly forgotten and unworthy the above ceremonial obsequies and mourning.

Hist. of Florida, 1775,p. 88.


T.n n"~+~~
Jones* quotes one of +1,la.+.n
the older writers,
as follows, regarding the
Natchez tribe

Among the Natchez the dead were either inhumed or placed in tombs. Thèse tombs
were located within or very near their temples. They rested npon four forked sticks
fixedfast intheground, and were raised some three feet above the earth. About eight
feet long and a foot and a half wide, they were prepared for the reception of a single
corpse. After the body was placed upon it, a basket-work of twigs waswovenaround
and covered with mud, an opening being left at the head, through which food was
presented to the deceased. When the flesh had ail rotted away, the bones were taken
out, placed in a box made of canes, and then deposited in the temple. The common
dead were mourned and lamented for a period of three days. Those who fell in battle
were honored with a more protracted and grievous lamentation.

Bartramt gives a somewhat different account from Roman of burial

among the Ohoctaws of Carolina
The Chactaws pay their last duties and respect to the deceased in a very different
manner. As soon as a person is dead, they erect a scaffold 18 or 20 feet high in a
grove adjacent to the town, where they lay the corps, lightly covered with a mantle;
here it is suffered to remain, visited and protected by the friends and relations, until
the flesh becomes putrid, so as easily to part from the bones; then undertakers, who
make it their business, carefnlly strip the flesh from the bones, wash and cleanse them,
and when dry and pnrified by the air, having provided a curionsly-wrought chest or
coffin, fabricatedofbonesand splints, theyplace all the bones therein, whichis doposited
in the bone-honse, a building erected for that purpose in every town; and when this
honse is full a general solemn fnneral takes place when the nearest kindred or friends
of the deceased, on a day appointed, repair to the bone-house, take up the respective
coffins, and, following one another in order of seniority, the nearest relations and con-
nections attending their respective corps, and the multitude following after them, all
as one family, with united voice of alternate allelujah and lamentation, slowly pro-
ceeding on to the place of general interment, when they place the coffins in order,
forming pyramid;|: and, lastly, cover ail over with earth, which raises a conical
hill or mount when they retnrn to town in order of solemn procession, concluding
the day with a festival, which is called the feast of the dead.

Morgan also alludes to this mode of burial:

The body of the deceased was exposed upon a bark scaffolding erected upon poles or
secured upon the limbs of trees, where is was left to waste to a skeleton. After this
had been effected by the process of decomposition in the open air, the bones were
removed either to the former house of the deceased, or to a small bark-house by its
side, prepared for their reception. In this manner the skeletons of the whole family
were preserved from generation to generation by the filial or parental affection of the
living. After the lapse of a number of years, or in a season of public insecurity, or on
tho eve of abandoning a settlement, it was cnstomary to collect thèse skeletons from
the whole community around and consign them to a common resting-place.
To this custom, which is not confined to the Iroquois, is donbtless to be ascribed
the burrows and bone-mounds which have been found in snch numbers in varions

*Anti nanties of the Southern Indians, 1873, p. 105.

t Bartram's Travels, 1791, p. 516.
t "Some ingenious men whom I have conversed with have given it as their opinion
that ail those pyramidal artificial hills, usually called Indian
monnds, were raised on
this occasion, and are generally sepnlchers. However, I am of different
§ League of the Iroquois, 1851, p. 173.
vuaW Vlrla OF
isum.mviu~ INDIANS.

1 r_a
parts of the country. On opening these mounds the skeletons are usually found
arranged in horizontal layers, a conical pyramid, those in each layerradiating from a
common center. In other cases they are found placed promisenously.
Dr. D. G. Brinton* likewise gives an account of the interment of col-
lected bones
East of the Mississippi nearly every nation was accustomed at stated periods-
usually once in eight or ten years-to colleot and clean the osseous remains of those
of its number who had died in the intervening time, and inter them in one common
sepulcher, lined with choice furs, and marked with a monnd ofwood, stone, or eartn.
Such is the origin of those immense tumuli filed with the mortal remains of nations
and générations, which the antiquary, withirreverent cnriosity, so frequently chances
upon in all portions of our territory. Thronghout Central America the same usage
obtained in varions localities, as early writers and existing monuments abundantly
testify. Instead of interring the bones, were they those of some distingnished chief-
tain, theywere deposited in the temples or the council-honses, nsnallyin small chests
of canes or splints. Such were the charnel-houses which the historians of. De Soto's
expédition so often mention, and these are thé "arts" Adair and other authors who
have sought to trace the decent of the Indians from the Jews have likened to that
which the ancient Israelites bore with them in their migration.
A widow among the Tahkalis was obliged to carry the bones of her_ deceased hus-
band wherever she went for four years, preserving them in such a casket, handsomely
decorated with feathers(Rich. Arc. Exp., p. 260). "The Caribs ofthe mainlandadopted
the eustom for ail, without exception. About a year after death the bones were
cleaned, bleached, painted, wrapped. in odorous balsams, placed in a wicker basket,
and. kept suspended from the door of their dwelling (Grumilla Hist. del Orinoco I.,
pn. 199, 202, 204). When the quantity of thèse heirlooms became burdensome they
were removed to some inaccessible cavern and stowed away with reverential care.
George Oatlint describes what he calls tlie "Golgothas" of the Man-
There are several of these golgothas, or circles of twenty or thirty feet in diameter,
and in the center of each ring or circle is little mound of three feet high, on which
uniformly rest two buffalo skulls (a male and female), and in the center of the little
monnd is erected "a medicine pole," of abouttwenty feet high, snpporting many cnri-
ons articles of mystery and superstition, which they suppose have the power of guard-
ing and protecting this sacred arrangement.
Here, then, to this strange place do these people again resort to evince their fnrther
affections for the dead, not in groans and lamentations, however, for several years
have curçd the anguish, but fond affection and endearments are here renewed, and
conversations are hère held and cherished with the dead. Each one of these skulls
is placed upon a huncn of wild sage, which has been pulled and placed nnderit.
The wife knows, by some mark or resemblance, the sknll of her husband or her child
which lies in this group, and there seldom passes a day that she does not visit it with a
dish of the best-cooked food that her wigwam. affords, which she sets before the sknll
at night, and returns for the dish in the morning. As soon as it is discovered that thé
sage on which the skullrests is beginning to decay, the woman cuts a fresh bunch and
places the skull carefully upon it, removing that which was under it.
Independent of the above-named duties, which draw the women to this spot, they
visit it from inclination, and linger upon it to hold converse and company with the
dead. There is scarcely an hour in a pleasant day but more or less of these women
may be seen sitting or lying by the skull of their child or husband, talking to itin
the most pleasant and endearing language that they can use (as they were wont to
do in former days), and seemingly getting an answer back.

"Myths of the New World, 1868, p. 255.

tHist. N. A. Indians, 1844, i, p. 90,
Fis. 23. – Canoë Burial.
"– ~"M VÂaj>l\Jjr.i
nnn.iH – TWANAS.
ii x W.OJNAO. X ( 171

From thèse accounts it may be seen that the peculiar customs which
have been described by the authors cited were not confined to any special
tribe or area of country, although they do not appear to have prevailed
among the Indians of the northwest coast, so far as known.


Thenextmodeof burial to be remarked is that of deposit in canoes,

either supporte(l on posts, on the ground, or swung from trees, and is
common only to the tribes inhabiting the northwest coast.
Thefirst example given relates to the Chinooks of Washington Terri-
tory, and may be found in Swan.*
In this instance old Cartumhays, and old STahar, a celebrated doctor, were the chief
mourners, probably from being the smartest scamps among the relatives. Their dntyY
was to prepare the canoe for the reception of the body. One oftholargest and beat thé
deceasedhad owned was thenhauledinto the woods, at somedistance backofthelodge,
after having been first thoroughly washed and scrubbed. Two large square holes
were then ont in the bottom, at the bow and stern, for the twofolcl purpose of render-
ing the canoe unût for further use, and therefore less likely to excite thé cupidity of
the whites (who are but too apt to help themselves to these depositories for the
and also to allow any rain to pass off readily.
Whenthe canoe was ready, the corpse, wrapped in blankets, was
brought out, and
laid in it on mats previously spread. All the -wearing.apparel was next
put in beside
the body, together with hertrinkets, beads, little
baskets, and varioua trifles she had
prized. More blankets were then covered over the body, and mats smoothed over all.
Next, a small canoë, which fitted into the large one, was placed, bottom up, over the
corpse, and-the whole then covered with mats. The canoe was thenraised up and •
placed on two parallel bars, elevated four or-five feet from the ground, and supported
by being inserted through holes moftiaed at the top of four stout posts previously
firmly planted in the earth. Around these holes were thenhung blankets, and all the
cooking utensils of the deceased, pots, kettles, and pans, each with a hole punched'
through it, and ail her crockery-ware, every piece of which was first cracked or
broken, to render it useless and then, when all was done, they left her to remain for
oneyear, when the bones would be buried in a box in the earth directly under the
canoë; but that,'with all its appendages, would never be molested, but left to go to
graduai decay.
They regard these canoes precisely as we regard coffins, and would no more think
of using one than we would of using our own
graveyard relies andit is, in their vie w,
as much of a desecration for a white man to mecldle or interfere with these, to
sacred mementoes, as it would be to us to have an Indian open the
graves of our rela-
tives. Many thoughtless white men have done this, and animosities have been thus
Figure 23 represents this mode ofburial.
From a number of other examples, the following, to the
Twanas, and furnished by the Rev. M. Eells, missionary to the Skoko-
mish Agency, Washington Territory, is selected
The deeeased was a woman about thirty or thirty-five years of age, dead of con-
sumption. She died in the morning, and in the afternoon I went to thé house to at-
Northwest Coast, 1857, p. 185.

tend the fumerai. She had then been placed in a Hudson's Bay Company's box for a
coffin, which was about 3£ feet long, If wide, and 1-J-high. She was very poor when
she died, owing to her disease, or she could not have been put in this box. A fire was
burning near by, where a large number of her things had been cdnsnmed, and the
rest were in three boxes near the coffin. Her mother sang the mourning song, some-
times with others, and often saying: Mydaughter, my daughter, why didyon die?"
and similar words. The burial did not take place until the next day, and I was in-
vited to go. It was an aerial burlal, in a canoe. The canoe was about 25 feet long
The posts, of old Indian hewed boards, were about a foot wide. Holea were ont in
these, in which boards were placed, on which thé canoe rested. One thing 1 noticed
while this vas done which was new to me, but the significance of which I did not

learn. As fast as the h oies were eut in the
posts, green leaves were gathered and placed
over the holes until the pdsts -were put in the
ground. The coffin-box and the three others
containing her thingswere placedin the canoe
and a roof of boards made over the central
part, which was entirely covered with white
cloth. The head part and the foot part of
her bedsteadwere thennailed onto the posts,
whieh front the water, and a dress Dailed on
-t- |-j|runff
aTiiii each of these. After pronouncing the bene-
Eco. 2t.– TwanaCanoe-Bnrial.
_u. ~y.,hill
diction, all left thé y~ and went to the
u. beach
1_ _C>1.1_ J.1
except father, mother, and H-I
brother, who remained ten or fifteon minutes, pound-
ing on the canoe and mourning. They then came down and made a present to those
persons who were there-a gun to one, a blanket to each of two or three others, and
a dollar and a half to each of the rest, including myself, there being about fifteen
persons present. Three or four of them then made short speeches, and we came home.
The reason why she was buried thus is said to be because she is a prominent woman
in the tribe. In about nine months it is expected that there wUl be a "jpot-latcJi,"or
distribution of money near this place, and as each tribe shall come they will send a

delegation of two or three men, who will carry a present and leave it at the grave
soonafterthat shall b done she will be* buriedin the ground. Shortlyafterherdeath
both lier father and mother eut off their haie as a sign of their grief.
Figure 24 is from a sketch Mndly furnished by Mr. Eells, and repre-
sents the burial mentioned in his narrative.
The Clallams and Twanas, an allied tribe, have not always followed
canoe-bnrial, as may ba seen from the following account, also written by
Mr. Eells, who gives the reasons why the original mode of disposing of
the dead was abandoned. It is extremely interesting, and characterized
by painstaking attention to détail
I divide this subject into five periods, varying according to time, though they are
somewhat intermingled.
(a) There areplaces where skulls and skeletons hava been plowedup or still remain
in tke ground and near together, in such a way as to give good ground for the belief
which is held by white residents in the region, that formerly persons were buried in
the ground and in irregular cometeries. I know of such places in Duce Waillops
among the Twanas, and at Dungeness and Port Angeles, among the Clallams. Thèse
graves were made so long ago that the Indians of the present day profess to hâve no
knowledge as to who is buried in them, except that they believe, undoubtedly, that
they are the graves of their ancestors. I do not know that any care has ever been
exercised by any one in exhuming thèse skeletons so as to learn any partieulars about
them. It is possible, however, that these persons were buried according to, the (5)
or canoe method, and that time has buried them where they now are.

25.– PostsforBurial Csmoes.

(b) Formerly when. a person died the body was placed in the forks of two trees and
left there. There was no particular cemetery, but the person was
generally left near
tho place where tho death occurred. This Skokomisli Talley is said to have been full of

canoes containing persons thus,buried. What their customs were while burying,
or what they placed aronnd the dead, I am not informed, but am told that they did
not take as much care then of their dead as they do now. I am satisfied, however,
that they then left some articles around the dead. An old resident informs me that
thé Clallam Indians always bury their deadin a sitting posture.
(o) About twenty years ago gold mines were discovered in British Columbia, and
boats being scarce in this région, unprincipled white men took many of the cauoes in
svMcIlthe Éidian dead had been left, emptying them of their contents. This incensed
the Indians audthey changed their mode of burial somewhat by burying the dead in one
place, placing them in boxes whenever they could obtarn-them, by building scaffolds
for them instead of placing them in forks of trees, and by cutting their canoes so as
to render them useless, -vvhenthey were used as coffins,or left by the side of the dead.
The ruins of one such graveyard now remain about two miles from this agency.
Nearly all the remains -wereremoved a few years ago.
With this I furnish you the dutlines of such graves which 1 have drawn. Fig- 25
shows that at present only one pair of posts remains. I have supplied the other pnir
as they evidently were.


Ks. 2B.–Tenton Scaffold.

Figure 26 is a recent grave at another place. That part which is covered with board
and cloth incloses the coffin, which is on a' scaffold.
As the Indians have been more in -contact with the whites theyhave learned to
bury in the ground, and this is the most common method at thé present time. There
are cemeteries everywhere where Indians hâve resided any length of time. After a
person has died a coffin is madeaffcérthe cheaper Mnds of American ones, the body is
placée! in it, and also with it a number of articles, chiefly cloth or clothes, though oc-
casionally money. 1 latoly heard of a child being buried with a twenty-dollar gold
piece in each hand and another in its mouth, but I amnot able to vou chfor the truth
of it. As general thing, money is too valuable with them for this purpose, and there
is too much temptation for some one to rob the grave when this is leffcin it.
flT.AT.T.AM.. 175
(dS)The grave is dug after the style of the whites, and the coffin then placed in it.
Afterit lias been covered, it is customary, though not universal, to build some kind of

"Fia. 27.– House-Burial.

an inclosure over it or arounâ it.in tie shàpe of a small house,
shed, lodge, or fence.
These are from 2 to 12 feet tign, froin 2 to 6 feei? wide, and fcom 5 to 12 feet Some

Ko. 28.– Honae-Bnrial.

of these are so well iuclosed that it is impossible to see within, and some are quite open.
Occasionally a window is placed in the front side. Sometimes thèse inclosures are

c.overed with oloth, which. is generally white, sometimes partly covered, and some
have none. Around the grave, both outside andinside of the inclosure, varions articles
are placed, as gans, canoës, dishes, pails, cloth, sheets, blankets, beads, tubs, lamps,
bows, mats, and occasionally a roughly-carved human image rudely painted. It is
said that around and in the grave of one Clallam chief, buried a few years ago,
|500 worth of such things were lef Most of thèse articles are cut or broken so as to
render them valneless to man and to prevent their being stolen. Poles are also often
erected, from 10 to 30 feet long, on wlrich American flags, handterchiefs, clothes, and
cloths of varions colors are hung. A few graves hâve nothing of this kind. On some
graves these things are renewed every year or two. This depends mainly on the
number of relatives living and the esteem in. whieb.they hold thé deceased.
Thé belief exists that as the body decays spirits carry it away particle by particle
to the spirit of the deceased in the spirit land, and also as these articles decay they
are also carried away in a similar manner. I have never known of the placing food
near a grave. Figures 27 and 28 will give you some idea of this class of graves.
Figure 27 has a paling fence 12 feet square aronndit. Figure 28 is simply a frame
over a grave where there is no enclosure.
(c) Givilizeâmode. – Afew persons, of late, h'ave fallen almost entirely into the
American custom of burying, building a siinple paling fence around it, but placing no
articles aronnd it this is more especially true of the Clallams.


In regard to thé funeral ceremonies and mourning observances of sections (a) and
(6) of the preceding subject I know nothing. ïn regard to (c) and (d), they begin to
mourn, more especially the women, as soon as a person dies. Their mourning song
consists principàlly of the sounds represented by the three English notes mi mi, do do,
la la; those who attend the fnneral are expected to bring some articles to place in the
coffin or about the grave as a token of respect for the dead. The articles which I
have seen for this purpose have been cloth of some kind; a small piece of cloth îs re-
turned by the mourners to the attendants as a token of remembrance. They bury
much sooner after death than white persons do, generally as soon as they can obtain
a coffin. 1 know of no other native fanerai cérémonies. Occasionally before being
taken to the grave, I have,hold Christian funeral ceremonies over them, and thèse
services increase from year to year. One reason nrhieh has rendered them somewhat
baekward about having these fnneral services is, that they are quite superstitions
about going near the dead, fearing that the evil spirit which Irilled the deceased will
enter the living and kill them also. Especially are they afraid of having children go
near, being much more fearful of the effect of the evil spirit on them than on older

They have no regular period, so far as I know, for monrning, but often continue it
after the burial, thongh I do not know that they often visit the grave. If they feel
the'loss very mnch, sometimes they will monrn nearly every day for several weeks
especially is this true when they meet an old friend who has not been seen since the
funeral, or when they see an article owned by the deceased which they have not sean
for a long time. The only other thing of which I think, which bears on this subject,
is an idea they have, that before a person dies-it may be but a short time or it may
be several months-a spirit from the spirit land comes and carries off the spirit of the
individual to that place. There are those who profess to discover when this is done,
and if by any of their incantations they can compel that spirit to return, the person
will not die, but if they are not able, then the person will become dead at heart and
in time die, though it may not be for six months or even twelve. Tou will also find
a little on this subject in a pamphlet which 1 wrote on the Twana Indians and which
has recently'been pnblishod by thé Department of the Interior, under Prof. F. V.
Hayden, United States Geologist.

George Gibbs~ gives a most interesting account of the burial cere-

monies of the Indians of Oregon and Washington which is
here reproduced in its entirety, although it contains examples of other
modes of borialbesides that in canoes; but to separate the narrative
would destroy the thread of the story:
The common mode of disposing of the dead among the
fishing tribes was in canoës.
These were generally drawn into the woods at some prominent point a short distance
from the village, and sometimes placed between the forks of trees or raised from thé
groundonposts. Uponthe CoInmbiaBiver thé Tsinnk had in particiilar twoverynoted
cemeteries, a high isolated bluff about three miles below the month of the Cowlitz,
called Mount Comn, and one some distance above, called Coffin Rock. The former
would appear not to have been very ancient. Mr. Broughton, one of Vancouver's
lieutenants, who explored the river, mates mention only of smet'a! canoes a.t this
place; and Lewis and Clarke, who noticed the monnt, do not speak of them at all,
bnt at the time of Captain Wilkes's expédition it is conjectured that there were at
least 3,000. A fire caused by the carelessness of one of his party destroyed the
whole, to thé great indignation of the Indians.
Captain Belcher, of thé British ship Sulphur, who visited thé river in 1839, re-
marks "Intheyea,rl836 [1826] the small-pox made gréât ravages, and itwas fol-
lowed a few years since by the ague. Consequently Corpse Island and Coffin
as well as thé adjacent shores, were studded not oniy with canoës, bnt at
thé period
of our visit the skulls and sbeletons were strewed about in all directions." This
method generally prevailed on the neighboring coasts, as at ShoaJ. Water
Bay, &c.
Farther np the Columbia, as at the Cascades, a different form was
adopted, whioh is
thns described by Captain Clarke
"About half a mile below this honse, in a very thick part of thé
woods, is an ancient
Indian bnrial-piace it consists of eight vaults, made of pine cedar
boards, closely
connected, abont 8 feet square and 6 in height, the top seonrely covered with wide
boards, sloping a little, so as to convey off the rain. The direction of all these is east
and west, thé door being on the eastern side, and partially stopped with wide boards,
decorated with rude pictures of men and other animais. On
entering we fonnd in
some of them fonr dead bodies, carefully wrapped in skins, tied with cords of
and bark, lying on a mat in a direction east and west; thé other vaults contained
only bones, whioh in some of them were piled to a height of 4 feet; on the tops of the
vaults and on poles attached to them hung brass kettles and
frying-pans with holes
in their bottoms, baskets, bowls, sea-sheUs, skins, pieces of
cloth, hair bags of trinkets,
and small bones, the offerings of friendship or affection, which have been saved
by a
pions veneration from the ferocity of war or the more dangerons temptation of indi-
vidnal gain. The whole of thé walls as well as the door were decorated with
ngnrescntandpainted on them, and besides these were several wooden
images of
men, some ofthem so old and decayed as to have almost lost their shape, whieh were
ail placed against the sides ofthe vault. These images, as well as those in the honses
we have lately seen, do not appear to be at ail thé objects of adoration in this
they were most probably intended as resemblances of those whose decease they indi-
cate, and when we observe them in houses they occupy the most conspicuous part,
bnt are treated more like ornaments than objects of worship. Near the vaults whioh
are still standing are the remains of others on the
gronnd, completely rotted and cov-
ered with moss; and as they are formed of the most durable
pine and cedar timber,
there is every appearance that for a very long series ofyears this
retired spot bas been
thé depository for the Indians near this place."

Cont. N. A. Ethnol., 1877. i., p. 200.

tt t ~i

A~nt~Rr denositorv of this

this kind upon an
a,n island in the
island in thé river few miles
river a few miles above
above gave
Another depository of kind upon gave
it thé name of Sepulcher Island. The ~t<!<<t, a tribe of the Upper Tsinuk, whose
bnrial place is here clescribed, are now nearly extinct but a number of the sepulchers
still remain in different states of preservation. The position of the body, as noticed
to the
by Clarke, is, 1 believe, of universal observance, thé head being always placed
west. The reason assigned to meis that the road to thé m~-me!-Bs-t:!<t-?Mp, the country
ofthe dead, is toward the west, and if they place them otherwise they would be con-
fnsed. East of the Cascade Mountains thé tribes whose habits are equestrian, and
who use canoes only for ferriage or transportation pnrposes, bury their dead, usually
or to prevent the bodies
heaping over them piles of stones, either to mari!: the spot
from being exhumed by the prairie wolf. Among thé Yakamas we saw many of their
walls whioh lino thé lower valleys,
graves placed in conspicuous points of the basaltic
and designated by a clump of poles planted over them, from whioh nnttered various
articles of dress. Formerly these prairie tribes killed horses over the graves-a eus
tom now falling into disuse in consequence of the teachings of thé whites.
the Maka,h
Upon Puget Sound ail the forms obtain in digèrent localities. Among
of Cape Flattery the graves are covered with a sort of box, rudely construoted of
in some cases, while
boards, and elsewhere on thé Sound the same method is adopted
in others the bodies are placed on elevated scaffolds. As a general thing, however,
the Indians upon the water placed the dead in canoes, while those at a distance from
it buried them. Most of the graves are surroanded with strips of cloth, blankets, and
other articles of property. Mr. Cameron, an English gentleman residingatEsqnimaIt
there were graves having at
Harbor, Vancouver Island, informedme that on his place
each corner a large stone, the interior space filled with rubbish. Thé origin of these
was nnkno~vn to the present Indians.
The distinctions of rank or wealth in all cases were very marked; persons of no
consideration and slaves being buried with very little care or respect. Vancouver,
whose attention was particularly attracted to their methods of disposing of thé dead,
mentions that at Port Discovery he saw baskets suspended to thé trees containing the
skeletons of yonng children, and, what is not easily explained, small square boxes,
tribes place articles of
containing, apparente, food. I do not think that any of these
food with the dead, nor have I been able to learn fromliving Indians that they formerly
followed that practice. What he took for such I do not nnderstand. He also men-
tions seeing in the same place a cleared space recently burned over, in whioh. the
skulls and bones of a number lay amongthe ashes. Thé practice of burning the doad
exists in parts of California and among the Tshimsyan of Fort Simpson. It is also
to my knowl-
pursued by the Carriers ofNew California, but no intermediate tribes,
edge, follow it. Certainly those of the Sound do not at present.
Itis clear from Yanconver's narrative that some great épidémie had recently passed
remains-nncared for and
through thé country, as manifestedbythe quantity of human
exposed at the time of hisvisit, and very probably the Indians, being a&aid, had
bnmed a house, in whioh the inhabitants had perished with the dead in it. This ia
where sickness bas
frequently done. They almost invariably remove from any place
prevailed, generally destroying thé house also.
At Penn Cove Mr. Whidbey, one of Vancouvor's officers, noticed several sepulchers
forméd exaotly like a sentry-box. Some of them were open, and contained the skele-
tons of many young children tied up in baskets. The smaller bones of adults were
likewise noticed, but not one of thé limb bones was found, whioh gave rise to an opin-
ion that thèse, by the living inhabitants of the neighborhood, were appropriated to
useful nnrposes, such as pointing their arrowa, spears, or other weapons.
It is hardiy necessary to say that such a practice is altogether foreign to Indian
character. The bones ofthe adults had probably beenremovedand bnried eisewhere.
The corpsea of cliildren arevarionsly disposed of; sometimes by auspending them, at
others by plaeing in the hollows of trees. A cemetery devoted to infants is, however,
an unnsnal occurrence. In cases of chiefs or men of note much pomp was used in the

accompaniments of tho rite. The canoes were of great size and value–tho war or
state canoes of the deceased. Frequently one was invertpd over that holding the
body, and in one instance, near Shoalwater Bay, the corpse was deposited in a small
canoe, which again was placed in a larger one and covered with a third. Among thé
3MmM& and 2~t/M?!sthé ~ma/tKO-tfsboard of the owner was placed near him. The
Puget Sound Indians do not make these tarna/MM-MS boards, but they sometimes con-
structed eBigies of their chiefs, resembling the person as nearly as possible, dreasedin
his usual costume, and wearing the articles of which he was fond. One of these, rep-
resenting the Skagit chief Sneestum, stood very conspicuously upon a high bank on
the eastem side ofWhidbey Island. The figures observed by Captain Clarke at the
Cascades were either ofthis description or else tho carved posts whioh had ornamented
thé interior of the honses of the deceased, and were connected with the superstition
of the ~maTmo-MS.The most valuable articles of property were put into or hung up
around the grave, beingnrstoarefullyrenderednnserviceable, and thelivingfamilywero
literallystrippedto dohonortothedead. Noiîttleself-denialmusthavebeenpraoticed
in parting with articles so precious, but those interested frequently had the least to
say on the subject. The graves of women were distingnished by a cup, a,Eamas stiot:,
or other implement of their occupation, and by articles of dress.
Slaves wei3 killed in proportion to the rank and wealth of the deceased. In some
instances they were starved to death, or even tied to thé dead body and left to perish
thushorribly. Atpresentthiapraoticehas beenahnostentirelygivennp, but tillwithin
a very few years it was not unoommon. A case whiohooourred in 1850 hasbeen already
mentioned. StiIllater,inl853,Toke,aTsinûkchieflivingatShoalwaterBa,y,undertook
to kill a slave girl belonging to his daughter, who, in dying, had requested that
this might be done. The woman fled, aud was found by some citizens in the woods
half starved. Her master attempted .to reclaim her, but was soundiy thrashed and
warned against another attempt.
It was usual in the case of chiefs to renew or repair for a considerable length of
time the materials and ornaments of the burial-place. With thé common class of per-
sons family pride or domestic anection was satisfied with the gathering together of
the bones after the flesh had decayed and wrapping them in a new mat. The viola-
tion of the grave was always regarded as an offense of the first magnitude and pro-
voked severe revenge. Captain Belcher remarks: "Great secrecy is observed in all
their burial ceremonies partly from fear of Europeans, and as among themselves
they will instantly punish by death any violation of thé tomb or wage war if perpe-
trated by another tribe, so they are inveterate and tenaceously bent on revenge
should they discover that any act of thé kind has been perpetrated by a white man.
It is on record that part of the crew of a vessel on her return to this port (the Colum-
bia) suffered because a person who belonged to her (but not then in her) was known
to have taken a sinill, which, from the process of Battening, had become an object of
ouriosity.11 He adds, however, that at the period of his visit to thé river the akulla
and skeletons were scattered about in ail directions; and as 1 was on most of their po-
sitions nnnoticed by the natives, I suspect the feeling does not extend much beyond
their relatives, and then only till decay has destroyed body, goods, and chattels. The
chiefs, no doubt, are watched, as their canoes are repainted, decorated, and greater
oare taken by placing them in sequestered spots."
The motive for sacrificing or destroying property on occasion of death will be re-
ferred to in treating of their religious ideas.- Wailing for thé dead is continued for a.
long time, and it seems to be rather a ceremonial performance than an act of sponta-
neous grief. The duty, of course, belongs to the woman, and the early morning is
usually chosen for the purpose. They go out alone to some place a little distant from
the lodge or camp and in a loud, sobbing voice repeat a sort of stereotyped formula;
as, for instance, a. mother, on the loss of her child, seaM s7Ma!-do. Bx~-Mt ah ta
6M< <(!e-<!a~ "Ah chief!" "My child dead, alas!" When in dreams they see any
of their deoeased friends this lamentation is renewed.


With most of the Northwest Indians it was quite common, as men-

tioned by Mr. Gibbs, to kill or bury with the dead a living slave, who,
another slave; but
failing to die within three days, was strangled by
in many
the custom has also prevailed among other tribes and peoples,
cases the individuals offering themselves as voluntary sacrifices. Ban-
croft states that-
In. Panama, Nata, and some other districts, when a caciquedied, those of his con-
cubinesthat loved him enough,those that he loved ardently and so appointed,aswell
as certain servants, killed themselvesand were interred with him. This they did in
orderthat they might wait npon him in the land of spirits.
It is well known to ail readers of history to what an extreme this re-
and Africa.
volting practice has prevailed in Mexico, South America,


As a confirmed rite or ceremony, this mode of disposing of the dead

has never been followed by any of our North American Indians, al-
in springs
though occasionally the dead have been disposed of by sinking
or water-courses, by throwing into the sea, or by setting afloat in ca-
noes. Among the nations of antiquity the practice was not uncommon,
for we are informed that the Ichthyoph'agi, or fish-eaters, mentioned by
on the Persian Guif, invariably
Ptolemy, living in a region bordering
committed their dead to the sea, thus repaying the obligations they had
incurred to its inhabitants. The Lotophagians did the same, and the
of forethought for the sur-
Hyperboreans, with a commendable degree
into the sea. The
vivors, when ill or about to die, threw themselves
burial of Balder the beautifol," it may be remembered, was in a highly
decorated ship, winch was pushed down to the sea, set on nre, andcem-
mitted to the waves. The Itzas of Guatemala, living on the islands of
Lake Peten, according to Bancroft, are said to have thrown their dead
into the lake for want of room. The Indians of Nootka Sound and the
Chinooks were in the habit of thus getting rid of their dead slaves, and,
seldom bury the
according to Timberlake, the Cherokees of Tennessee
dead, but throw.them into the river."
The Alibamans, as they were called by Bossu, denied thé rite of sep-
ulture to suicides they were looked upon as cowards, and their bodies
thrown into a river. The Bev. J. G. Wood* states that the Obongo or
African tribe take the body to someranning stream, the course of which
bas been previously diverted. A deep grave is dug in the bed of the
stream, the body placed in it, and covered over carefully. Lastly,
stream is restored to its original course, so that ail traces of thé grave
are soon lost.
The Kavague also bury their common people, or wanjambo, by sim-
ply sinking the body in some stream.
*UnoiYiIizedRacesof the Worid, 1870,vol. i, p. 483.
-n_o.(,U."I:;L.I.I.V AQUATIC iaal141üL VV1J11

Historians inform us that Alaric was buried in a manner similar to

that employed bythe
by the Obongo, for in 410, at Cose
Cosença, a town of Calabria,
the Goths turned aside the course of the river
Vasento, and having made a grave in the
midst of its bed, where its course was -most
rapid, they interred their kingwith a prodig-
ious amount of weaith and riches. They then
caused the river to resume its regulàr course,
and destroyed all persons who had been con-
cerned in preparing this romantic grave.
A later example of water-burial is that af-
forded by thé fanerai of De Soto. Dying in
1542, his remains were inclosed in a wooden
chest well weighted, and committed to the tnr-
bid and tumultuous waters of the Mississippi.
After a careful search for '~ell-authenti-
cated instances of burial, aqnatio and semi-
aquatic, among NorthAmerican Indians, but
two have been found, which are here given.
The first relates to the Gosh-Utes, and is by
Capt. J. H. Simpson
Skull Ya.Iley,whichis a part of thé GreatSalt Lake
Désert, and which-n'ahave crossedto-day,Mr. George
W. Bean, my guide over this route last faU,says de-
rives its name fromthe number of stnills which have
beemfoundin it, and which have arisen fromthe cus-
tom of the Goshtite Indians burying their dead in
springs, which they sink with stones or keep down
withsticks. He sayshe has actually seentheIndians
bury their dead in this way near thé town of Provo,
wherehe resides.
As corroborative of this statement, Cap- ~°- so.–Mounung-cmdie.
"tain Simpson mentions in another part of the volume that, arriving at
a, spring one evening, they were obliged to dig ont the skeleton of an
Indian from the mud at thé bottom before nsing the water.
This peculiar mode of burial is entirely unique, so far as
known, and
but from the well-known probity of the relator might well be qnestioned,
especially when it is remembered that in the country spoken of water
is quite scarce and Indians are carefui not to polinte the streams or
springs near which they live. Conjecture seems useless to establish a
reason for this disposition of the dead, nnless we are inclined to attrib-
ute it to the natural indolence of the savage, or a desire to poison the
springs for white persons.
The second example is by George Catlin,t and relates to thé Chinook:
TMaIittJecradIehas a stra,ptvliiohpassesoverthewoman'aforeIleadwhHst
thé cradlerides on her back, and if the child dies during its subjection to this
Exploration Great Salt Lake Valley,Utah, 1859,p. 48.
tHiat. North AmericanIndians, 1844,vol. ii, p. 141.

~m- ;f .fInoH~nn
modeits cradle becomesits comn,forming a little canoe,in whiohit lies floating on
the water in somesacredpool, where they are often in the habit of fastening their
canoescontaining the dead bodiesof the old and yonng, or, which is oftenthe case,
elevatedinto the branchesof trees,where their bodiesareleft to decay andtheirbones
to dry whiist they are bandaged in many sldns and curiouslypaobed in their canoes,
with paddlesto propel and ladies to bale them out, and provisionsto last and pipes
to smokeas they are performingtheir "long journeyafter deathto their contemplated
hnnting gronnds,"-wtïiohthese peoplethink is to be performedin their canoes.
Figure 30, after Catlin, is a representation of a mourning-cradle.
of her
Figure 31 represents the sorrowing mother committing the body
dead child to the mercy of the elements.


This is a term quaintly used by the learned M. Pierre Muret to express

the devouring of thé dead by birds and animais or the surviving friends
and relatives. Exposure of the dead to animais and birds has already
been mentioned, but in thé absence of any positive proof, it is not be-
lieved that thé North American Indians followed the custom, although
cannibalism may have prevailed to a limited extent. It is true that a few
accounts are given by authors, but these are considered apochryphal
in character, and the one mentioned is only offered to show how credulous
were the early writers on American natives.
That such a means of disposing of thé dead was not in practice is
somewhat remarkable when we take into consideration how many analo-
gies have been found in comparing old and new world funeral
and others,
ances, and the statements made by Bruhier, Lafitau, Muret,
who give a number of examples of this peculiar mode of burial.
For instance, the Tartars sometimes ate their dead, and the Massa-
geties, Padseans, Derbices, and Effedens did thé same, having previousiy <.
strangled the aged and mixed their fiesh with mutton. Horace and
Tertulian both amrm that the Irish and ancient Britons devoured the
South America did
dead, and Lafitau remarks that certain Indians of
the same, esteeming this mode of disposai more honorable and much to
be preferred than to rot and be eaten by worms.
J. G. Wood, in his work already quoted, states that thé Fans of Afriea
devour their dead, but this disposition is followed only for the common
people, the kings and chiefs being buried with much ceremony.
The following extract is from Laûtau
Dans l'AmériqueMéridionalequelque Peuples décharnent les corps de leurs Guer-
riers et les mangent leurs chairs, ainsi queje viens de le dire, et après les avoir con-
sumées,ils conserventpendant quelquetemps leurs cadavres avec respect dans leurs
Cabanes,et il portent cessqueletesdans les combatsen guise d'Etendard,pour ranimer
leur couragepar cette vue et inspirer de la terreur a leurs ennemis.
Mœnrsdes Sauvages,1724,tome li, p. 406.

n est vrai qu'il y en a qui font festin des cadavres de leurs parens; mais il est faux
qu'elles le mettent à mort dans leur vieillesse, pour avoir le plaisir de se nourrir de
leur chair, et d'en faire un repas. Qaelqnes Nations de l'Amérique Méridionale, qui ont
encore cette coûtume de manger les corps morts de leurs parens, n'en nsent ainsi que
par piété, piété mal entendue à, la verité, mais piété colorée néanmoins par quelque
ombre de raison; car ils croyent leur donner une sépulture bien plus honorable.

To the credit of our savages, this barbarons and j'evolting practice is

not believed to hâve been praeticed by them.



The above subjects are coincident with burial, and some of them,
particularly mourning, hâve been more or less treated of in this paper,
yet it may be of advantage to here give a few of the collected examples,
under separate heads.


One of the most carefully described scenes of mourning at the death

of a chief of the Crows is related in thé life of Beckwourth* who for
many years lived among this people, finally attaining great distinction
as a warrior.
1 dispatched a herald to the village to inform them of thé head chief's death, and
then, burying him according to his directions, we slowly proceeded homewards. My
very soul sickened at the contemplation of the scenes that would be enacted at my
arrivai. When we drew iu sight of thé village, we found every lodge laid prostrate.
We entered amid shrieks, cries, and yells. Blood was streaming from every conceiv-
able part of thé bodies. of ail who were old enough to comprehend their loss. Hundreds
of fingers were dismembered; hair torn from thé head lay in profusion about thé
paths; wails and moans in every direction assailed the ear, where unrestrained joy
had a few honra before prevailed. This fearful mourning lasted until evening of the
next day.
A herald having been dispatched to our other villages to acquaint them with the
death of onr head chief, and request them to assemble at the Rose Bud, in order to
meet our village and devote themselves to a general time of mourning, there met, in
conformity to this snmmons, over ten thousand Crows at the place indicated. Snoh
a scene of disorderly, vociferous mourning, no imagination can conceive nor any pen
portray. Long Hair cut off a large roll of his hair; a thing he was never l~nownto do
before. Thé cutting and hacking of human nesh exo&ededall my previous experience;
fingers were dismembered as readily as twigs, and blood was poured out like water.
Many of the warriors would eut two gashes nearly the entire length of their arm;
then, separating the s'kin from thé nesh at one end, would grasp it in their other
hand, and rip it asunder to the shoulder. Others would carve varions devices upon

*Autobiogra,phy of James Beokwouith, 1856, p. 269.


their breasts and shoulders, and raise the sMn. in the same manner to make the scars
show to advantage after the wound was healed. Some of their mutilations were
ghastly, and my heart sickened to look at them, but theywouldnot appearto receive
any pain from them.
It should be remembered that many of Beckwourth's statements are
to be taken cum grana salis.
From I. L. Mahan, United States Indian agent for thé Chippewas of
Lake Superior, Red Cliff, Wisconsin, the following detailed account of
mourning has been received:
There is probably no people that exhibit more sorrow and grief for their dead than
they. The young widow mourns the loss of her husband; by day-as by night she is
heard silently sobbing; she is a constant visitor to the place ofrest with the greatest
ielnota,noewill shefollow the raised camp. The friends and relatives of the young
moumer wili incessantly devise methods to distract her mind from the thought of her
lost husband. She refuses nourishment, but as nature is exhausted she is prevailed
upon to partake of food; thé snpply is scant, but on every occasion the best and lar-
gest proportion is deposited npon the grave of her husband. In the mean time the
female relatives of the deceased hâve, according to custom, submitted to her charge
a parcel made up of different cloths ornamented with bead-work and eagte's &atnet's,
which ahe is charged to keep by her side-the place made vacant by the demise of her
husband-a reminder of her widowhood. She is therefore for a term of twelve moons
not permitted to wear any finery, neither is she permitted to sUcken up and comb her
head; this to avoid attracting attention. Once in a while a female relative of de-
ceased, commiserating with her grief and sorrow, will visit her and voluntanly pro-
ceed to comb ont the long-neglected and matted hair. With a jealons eye a vigilant
watch is kept over her conduct dnring the term of her widowhood, yet she is allowed
thé privilege to marry, any tune during her widowhood, an unmarried brother or
consin, or a person of the same JDo~em[Me] (family mark) ofher hnsband.
At the expiration of her term, the vows having been faithfully performed andkept,
the female relatives of deceascd assemble and, with greetings commensurate to the
occasion, proceed to wash her face, comb her 'hair, and attire her person with new
a.pparel, and otherwise demonstrating the release from her vow and restraint. Still
she has not her entire freedom. If she will still refuse to marry a relative of the de-
ceased and will marry another, she then has to purchase' her freedom by giving a
certain amount of goods and whatever else she might have manufactured during her
widowhood in anticipation of the future now at hand. Frequently, though, during
widowhood the vows are disregarded and an inclination to Birt and play courtship or
form an alliance of marriage ontside of the relatives of the deceased is being indulged,
and when discovered the widow is set upoir by the female relatives. her slici: braided
hair is shorn close up to thé back of her neck, ail her apparel and trinkets are tom
from her person, and a quarrel frequently resùlts fatally to some member of one or the
other side.

Thomas L. MoKenney* gives a description of the Chippewa widow

I have noticed several women here carrying with them rolls of clothing. On inquir-
ing what these imported, I learn that they are wMotMwho carry them, and that thèse
are badges ofmonming. It is indispensable, when awoman of the Chippeway Nation
loses her husband, for her to take ofher best apparel–andthewholeofitisnotworth
a dollar-and roll it up, and connne it by means of her husband's sashes; and if he
had ornaments, these are generally put on the top of the roll, and around it is wrapped
a piece of cloth. This bundle is called her husband, and it is espected that she is

*Tonrio théines, 1827, p. 292.


never to be seen withont it. If she walks ont she takes it with lier if she sits down
in her lodge, she places it by her side. This badge ofwidowhood and'of
mourning thé
widow is compelled to carry with her until some of her late husband's family shall call
and take it away, whioh is done when they think she bas mourned long enough, and
which is generally at the expiration of a year. She is then, but not before, released
from her mourning, and at liberty to marry again. She has the privilege to takethis
husband to thé family of the deceased and leave it, bnt this is considered
and is seldom done. Sometimes a brother of the deceased takes the widow for his
wife at the grave of her hnsband, which is done by a ceremony of
walking her over it.
And this he has a right to do and when this is donc she is not required to
go into
monrning; or, if she chooses, she has the right to go to Mm,and ho is bound to support
1 visited a lodge to-day, where I saw one of these badges. The size varies accord-
ing to thé quantity of clothing whioh the widow may happen to hâve. It is expected
of her to put up her best and wear her Mor~t. The 7MM6aK~saw
jnst now was 30
inches high and 18 inches in circumference.
I was told by the interpreter that he knew a woman who had been left to mourn
after this fashion for years, none ofherhusband's familycalling for the badge ortoken
of her grief. At a certain time it was told her that some of her husband's family were
passing, and she was advised to speak to them on thé subject. She did so, and told
them she had monrned long and was poor; that she had no means to buy
clothes, and
her's being ail in thé monrning badge, and sacred, could not be touched. She ex-
pressed a hope that her request might not be interpreted into a wish to marry; it was
only made that she might be placed in a situation to get some clothes. She got for ·
answer, that they were going to Mackinac, and would think of it." They left herin
this state of uncertainty, bnt on returning, and finding her faithful
still, they took
her "husband" and presented her with clothing of various kinds. Thus was sho re-
wardedfor her constancy and made comfortable.
The Choctaw widows mourn bynever combing their hair for the term of their
which is generally about a year. The Chippeway men monrn by painting their faces
1 omitted to mention that when présents are going round, the badge of
this 7t!fs6a;H<comes in for an equal share, as if it were the
living husband.
A Chippeway mother, on losing her child, prepares an image of it in the best man-
ner she is able, and dresses it as she did her living child, and fixes it in the kind of
oradie I have referred to, and goes through the ceremonies of
numing it as if it were
alive, by dropping little particles of food in the direction ofits mouth, and giving it
of whatever the living child partook. This ceremony also is generally observed for a
Figure 32 represents the Chippewa widow holding in her arms the
substitute for the dead husband.
The substitution of a reminder for the dead husband, made from
furs, and other articles, is not confined alone to the Chippewas, other
tribes having the same custom. In some instances the widows are
obliged to carry around with them, for a variable period, a bundle con-
taining the bones of the deceased consort.
Similar observances, according to Bancroft,* were followed by some
of the Central American tribes of
Indians, those of the Sambos and Mos-
quitos being as follows
The widow was bonnd to snpply thé grave of her husbandfor
a year, after whieh she
took up the bones and oarried them with her for another year, at last
placing them
npon the roof ofher house, and then only was she allowed to marry again.

*Nat. Races of Pacifie States, 1874, vol. i, pp. 731, 744.


On retorning &omthe grave the property of the deceased is destroyed, the cocoa
palms being cnt down, and all who have taken part in the fanerai undergo a lustra-
tion in the river. Relatives ont off the hair, the men leaving a ridge along the middle
from thé nape of the neolc to thé forehead. Widows, according to some old writers,
after supplying the grave with food for a year take np the bones and carry them on the.·
back in the daytime, sieeping with them at night for another year, after whioh thoy
are placed at thé door or upon thé house-top. On the anniversary of deaths, friends of
the deceased hold a feast, called seekroe,at whieh large quantities of liquor are drained
to his memory. Sqnier, who witnessed thé ceremonies on an occasion of this kind,
saysthat males and females were dressed imf!'e cloaks fantastically painted black and
white, while their faces were correspondingly streaked with red and yellow, and they
performed a slow walk aronnd, prostrating themselves at intervals and calling loudly
npon the dead and tearing thé gronnd with their hands. At no other time is the de-
parted referred to, the very mention of his name being anperstitionsly avoided. Some
tribes extend a thread from the honse of death to thé grave, oarrying it in a straight
line over evory obstacle. Froebel states that among thé Woolwas ail property of the
deceased is buriedwith him, and that both hnsband and wife ont the hair aud bnm
thé hut on thé death of either, placing a grn.el of maize npon thé grave for a certain

Benson* gives the following account of the Choctaws' funeral cere-

monies, embracing the disposition of the body, mourning feast and
Their fnneral is styled by them "the last cry."
When the hnsband dies the friends assemble, prepare the grave, and place the
corpse in it, but do not fill it np. The gnn, bow and arrows, hatchet, and knife are
deposited in the grave. Poles are planted at the head and the foot, npon which flags
are placed; the grave is then inclosed by pickets driven in thé ground. The funeral
ceremonies now begin, the widow being the chief monrner. At night and morning
she will go to the grave and pour forth the most piteons cries and wailings. It is not
important that any other member of the family should take any very active part in
thé ory," though they do participate to some extent.
The widow wholly neglects her toilet, while she daily goes to the grave during one
eutire moMtfrom the date when the death occurred. On thé evening of the last day
ofthe moon the friends all assemble at the oabin of the disconsolate widow, bringing
provisions for a sumptuous feast, which consists of corn and jerked bèef boiled to-
gether in a kettle. While thé snpper is preparing the bereaved wife goes to thé grave
and pours out, with nnnsnal vehemence, her bitter wailings and lamentations. When
the food is thoronghly cooked thé kettle is taken from the Sre and placed in the center
of the cabin, and the friends gather aronnd it, passing the bnnalo-horn spoon from
hand to hand and from month to month till all have been bountifnlly supplied. While
snpper is being served, two of the oldest men of the company qnietly withdraw and
go to thé grave-and fill it up, taking down the fiags. Ail then join in a dance, whioh
nat nnfrequently is continued till morning; the widow doeanotfail to unite in the
dance, and to contribute her part to the festivities of the occasion. This is the !ns<
ery," the days of monrning are ended, and thé widow is now ready to form another
matrimonial alliance. The ceremonies are precisely the same when a man has lost
his wife, and they are only slightly varied when any other member of the family has
died. (Slaves were buried without ceremonies.)
Lifo Among the Choctaws, 1860,p. 294.


Some examples of human sacrifice have already been given in con-

nection with another subject, but it is thonght others might prove inter-
esting. The first relates to the Natchez of Louisiana.*
When their sovereign died he was accompanied in thé grave by his wives and by
several of his subjects. Thé lesser Suns took care to follow the same cnstom. The
law likewise condemned every Natchez to death who had married a girl of the blood
of thé Sans as soon as she was expired. On this occasion I must tell yon the history
ofan Indianwho was noways \villingtosnbmitto thislaw. Hisname was ~Keac~ea!;
he contracted an alliance with the Suns, but the consequences whioh this honor
bronght along with it had like to have proved very unibrtiunate to him. His wife fell
sieL: as soon as he saw her at the point of death he fled, embarked in a piragua
on the -MMsMppt, and came to New Orleans. He put liimaelf nnder thé protection of
M. de Bienville, the then governor, and o&ered. to be his htintsman. The governor
accepted his services, and interested himself for him with the Natchez, who declared
that he had nothing more to fear, because the ceremony was past, and he was accord-
ingiy no longer a lawfiil prize.
Elteacteal, being thns aasured, ventnred to retnrn to his nation, and, without set-
tling among them, he made several voyages thither. He happened to be there when
the Snn called thé .SfMtySerpent, brother to the Great Sun, died. He was a relative
of the late wife of Elteacteal, and they resolved to make him pay his debt. M. de
Bienville had been recalled to France, and the sovereign ofthe Natchez thonght that
the protector's absence had annulled the reprieve granted to the protected persou,
and accordingly he eansed him to be arrested. As soon as the poor fellow found him-
self in thé hut of thé grand chief of war, together with the other victims destined to
be sacrificed to thé Stung <S'e)'pemt,
he gave vent to the excess of his grief. The favor-
ite wife of the late Sun, who was likewise to be sacrificed, and who saw the prepara-
tions for her death with firmness, and seemed impatient to rejoin her hnsband, hear-
ing .EHeac~a?s complaints and groans, said to him: "Art thon no warrior?" He
answered, "Yes; 1 am one." "However," said she, "thon cryest; life is dear to
thee, and as that is the case, it is not good that thou shonldst go along with us; go
with the women." .EHesc~eaZreplied: "True; life is dear to me. Itwonidbewellif
I walked yet on earth till to thé death of thé Great Sun, and I would die with hun."
Gothyway," said the favorite, "it is not fit thon shouldst go with ns, and that thy
heart should remain behind on earth. Once more, get away, and let me see thee no
Elteacteal did not stay to hearthis orderrepeated to him; he disappeared like light-
ning three old women, two of which werehia relatives, o&ëredto ;pay his debt; their
age and their infirmities had disguated them of life; none of them had been able to
use their legs for a great while. The hair of thé two that were related to Elteacteal
was uo more gray than those of women of fifty-five years in France. The other old
woman was a hundred and twenty years old, and had 'very white hair, whioh is a
very Tinoommonthing among the Indians. None of the three had a quite wrinkieu.
skin. They were dispatched in thé evening, one at the door of the ~!t!:y jSer~eKt,
and thé other two upou the place before thé temple. < cord jg fastened
round their necks with a slip-knot, and eight men of their relations strangio them by
drawing, fonr one way and four the other. So many are not necessary, but as they
acquire nobility by such executions, there are always more than are wanting, and the
operation isperformed in an instant. The generosityof thèse women gave Elteacteal
Dosau.'aTravols (Forster'a translation), 1771, p. 38.

life again, acquired him the degree ofcoHsMa-e~,and cleared his honor, whioh he had
snllied by fearing death. He remained quiet after that time, and taking advantage
of what he had learned dnring his stay among the French, he became a juggler and
made use of his knowledge to impose npon Ma conntrymen.
The morning after this exécution they made everything ready for the convoy, and
thehonr being come, the great master of the ceremonies appeared at the door of the
to accompany the de-
but, adorned suitably to his quality. The victims who were
ceased prince into the mansion of the apirits came forth; they consisted of thé favor-
ite wife ofthe deceased, ofhis second wife, his chancellor, his physician, his hired
man, that is, his first servant, and of some old women.
The favorite went to the Great Sun, with whom there were several Frenchmen, to
take leave of him; she gave orders for the Suns of both sexes that were her children
to appear, and spoke to the following enëot
"Children, this is the day on which 1 am to tear myself from you (sic) arms and
to follow yonr father's steps, who waits for me in the country of the spirits; if I were
to yield to yonr tears 1 wouldinjnre mylove andfailin myduty. I have done enough
for yon by bearing you next to my heart, and by snoMing you with my breasts.
Yon that are descended of his blood and fed by my milk, ought you to shed tears v
Rejoice rather that you are ~tt?:s and warriors; you'are bound to give examples
firmness and valor to the whole nation: go, my children, 1 have provided for all your
wants, by procuring yon friends my friends and those of your father are yours too
I leave you amidst them; they are the French; they are tender-hearted and gênerons
make yourselves worthy of their esteem by not degenerating from yonr race; always
act openly with them and never implore them with meanness.
"And you, Frenchmen," added she, tumingherseiftowards onr officers, "I recom-
mend my orphan cMIdren to yon they will know no other fathers than yon yon
onght to protect them."
After that she got up; and, followed by her'troop, retnrned to her husband's hut
with a surprising firmness.
A noble woman came to join herself to the nnmber of victims of her own accord,
being engaged by the friendship she bore the <S<MKy &rp6nt to follow him into the
other world. The Enropeans called her the ~tHtyMylady, on account of her majestic
deportment and her proud air, and because she oniy-fmqnented the company of thé
most distinguished Frenchmen. They regretted her mnch, because she had the Ioiowl-
edge.ofseveral simples with whioh she hadsaved the lives ofmanybfonrsiok. This
moving sight filled our people with grief and horror. The favorite wife of the de-
ceased rose up and spohe to them with a smiling conntenance: "I die withont fearj"
said she, "grief does not embitter mylast hours. 1 reoommend my children to you;
whenever yon see them, noble Frenchmen, remember that yon hâve loved theirfather,
and that ho was till death a tme and sincere friend of your nation, whom he lovedmore ·
than himself. The disposer of life has been pleased to call him, and I shall soon go
andjoinhim; I shall tell him that 1 have seen your heartsmovedat thé sight ofhis
corps; do not be grieved; we shall belonger friends inthecottmtj'~o/tytesptrMstha.n
here, because wo do not die there again.*
Thèse words ibrced tears from thé eyes of all the French; they were obliged to do
all they could to prevent the Great Sun from killing himself, for he waa inconsolable
at thé death of his brother, upon whom he was used to lay the weight of government,
he being great chief of war of the Natches, i. e., generalissimo of their armies; that
prince grewffarions by the resistance he met with; he held his gnn by the barrel, and
the Sun, his presnmptive heir, held it by the look, and oansed the powder to fall out

*At the hour intended for thé ceremony, they made thé victims swalldw little balls
or pills of tobacco, in order to make them giddy, and as it were to take thé sensation
of pain from them; after that they were ail strangled and put npon mats, the favorite
on the right, the other wife on the left, and the others according to their rank.
t~nuyv.j BURIAL iN~.U~JUt'JH-tJ'i––VYjlOUUJ-UJÏi.O.

of the pan; the hut was fnll of Suns, Nobles, and Honorables, who were ail trembling,
but the French raised their spirits again, by hiding ail the arma belonging to the sov-
ereign, and filling the barrel ofhis gun with water, that it might be unfit for use for
some time.
As soon as the Suns saw their sovereign's life insafety, theythanked the French, by
squeezingtheir hands, but withont spea-king a.most profonmd silence reigned throngh-
out, for grief and awe kept in bounds the multitude that were present.
The wife of the Great Sun was aeized with fear during this transaction. She was
asked whother she was ill, and sheanswered aloud, "Tes, I am" and added with a
lower voice, If the Frenchmengo out of this hut, my husband dies and ail thé Na/tches
will die with him;stay, then, brave Frenchmen, because yourwordaare aspowerfulas
arrows besides, who could have ventnred to do what you have done? But yon are
his true friends and those of his brother." Their laws obliged the Gréât Snn's wife to
follow her husband in the grave this was donbtieas the cause of her fears; and
likewise the gratitude towards the French, who interested themselves in behalf of hia
life, prompted her to speak in the above-mentioned manner.
The Great Sun gave his hand to the officers, and said to them: "My friends, my
heart is so overpowered with griéfthat, though my eyes were open, I have not taken
notice that yon have been standing ail this while, nor have 1 asked you to ait down;
bnt pardon the excess ofmy affliction."
TheFrenohmentold him that he had noneedof excuses that they were going to leave
him alone, but that they would cease to be his friends unless he gave orders to light
the fires again,t lighting his own before them; and that they should not leave him
till his brother was buried.
He took all thé Frenchmen by the hands, and said: "Since all the chiefs and noble
officers will have me stay on earth, I will do it; 1 will not Mn myself; let the fires be
lighted again immediately, and m wait till death joins me to my brother; I am
already old, and till I die I shall walk with the French; had it not been for them I
should have gone with my brother, and all the roads would have been covered with
dead bodies.

Improbable as this account may appear, it bas nevertheless been

credited by some of thé wisest and most careful of ethnological writers,
and its seeming appearance of romance disappears when the remem-
brance of similar ceremonies among Old Worid peoples comes-to our
An apparently well-authenticated case of attempted burial sacrifice
is described by Miss A. J.ARen~ andreferstotheWascopnms~ofOregon.
At length, by meaning looks and gestures rather than words, it was found that the
chief hao- determined that thé deceased boy's friend, who had been his companion in
hunting the rabbit, snaring thé pheasant, and fishing in the streams, was to be his
companion to the spirit land; his son should not be deprived of his associate in the
strange world to which he had gone that associate should perish by the hand of his
father, and be conveyed with him to the dead-house. This réceptacle was built on a
long, black rock in the center of the Columbia River, around whieh, being so near
the falls, the current was amazingly rapid. It was thirty feet in length, and perhaps
half that in breadth, completely enclosed and sodded except at one end, where was a
*The established distinctions among these Indians were as follows The Suns, rela-
tives of the Great Sun, held the highest rank; next came the Nobles; after them the
Honorables and last of ail the common people, who were very much despised. As the
nobility was propagated by thé women, this contributed much to multiply it.
tThe Great Sun had given orders to put ont ail the tires, which is only done at the
death ofthe sovereign.

narrow .n.aperture e~+,m.++. "+,w, m, --Il

just snnicient to carry a corpsethrongh. The council overrulecl, and
little George, instead of being slain, was conveyed living to the dead-honse about
snnset. Thé dead were piled on each side, leaving a narrow aiale between, and
on one of these waa placed the deceased boy; and, bound tightly till tho purple, qniv-
ering Beah puffed abovo the strong bark cords,.that he might die very soon, tho liv-
ing was placed by his side, his face to his till thé very lips met, and extending along
limb to limb and foot tofoot, and nestled down iuto his couch of rottenness, to im-
pede his breathing as far as possible and smother his cries.
Bancroft* states that-
The slaves sacrificed at thé graves by thé Aztecs and Tarascos were selectecl from
varions trades and professions, and took with them thé most cherished articles of the
master and the implements of their trade wherewith to snpply his wants-
while among certain of the Central America.ntribedeath was voluntary,
wives, attendants, slaves, friends, and relations sacrificing themselves
by means of a vegetable poison.
To the mind of a savage man unimpressed with the idea that self-
murder is forbidden by lav or custom, there can seem no reason why,
if he so wills, he shoold not follow his beloved chief, master, or friencl
to thé happy other world; and when this is remembered we need not
feel astonished as we read of accounts in whieh scores of self-immola-
tions are related. It is quite likely that among our own people similar
customs might be followed did not the law and society frown down
such proceedings. In fact the daily prints occasionally inform us, not-
withstanding the restraints mentioned, that sacrifices do ta~:e place on
the occasion of the death of a beloved one.

In Beltramil an account is given of the funeral ceremonies of one of
the tnbes of the west, inclnding a description of the feast which took
place before the body was consigned to its final resting-place
I was a spectator of the funeral ceremony performed inhonor of the manes of C~o!t(!y
~Fe~ter's son-in-law, whose body had remained with the Sioux, and was suspected to
have furnished one of their repasts. What appeared not a little singniar and indeed
ludierous in this funeral comedy was thé contrast exhibited by the terrifie lamenta-
tions and yells ofone part ofthe company while the others were singing a.nd dancing
with ail their might.
At another funeral ceremony for a member of the 6~'<md~&e!?te, and at whioh as
a man of another <oo)'!d!
I was permitted to attend, the same practice occurred. But at
thé feast which took place on that occasion an allowance was servedupfor the deceased
ont of every article of which it consisted, while others were beating, wounding, and
torturing themselves, and letting their blood now both over the dead man and his
provisions, thinking possibly that this was the most palatable sea-soningfor the latter
whioh they could possibly snpply. His wife fnrnished out an entertainment present
Nat. Races of Pacif. States, 1875, vol iii, p. 513.
tPiIgrimage, 1828, vol. ii, p. 443.

for him of all her hair and rags, with which, together with his arme, his provisions,
his ornaments, and his mystio medicine bag, he was wrapped up in thé skin which
had been his last covering when alive. He was then tied ronnd with the bark of
some partionlar trees which they use for making cords, and bonds of a very firm text-
ure and hold (thé only ones indeed vhich they have), and instead of being buried in
the earth was hung up to a large oak. The reason of this was that, as his favorite
Manitou was the eagle, his spirit would be enabled more easily from such a situation.
to Ëy with him to Paradiae.
HJnd* mentions an account of a burial feast by De Brebeuf which oc-
carred among thé Hmrons of New York
The Jesuit missionary, P. de Brebeuf, who assisted at one of thé "feasta of the
dead" at the village of Ossosane, before thé dispersion of thé Hurona, relates tha,t
thé ceremony took place in the présence of 2,000 Indians, who offered 1,200 présents
at the common tomb, in testimony of their grief. The people belonging to five large
villages deposited thé bones of their dead in a gigantic shroud, composed of fbrty-
eight robes, each robe being made of ten beaver skins. After being carefully wrap-
ped in this shroud, they were placed between moss and bark. A wall of stones was
built around this vast ossuary to préserve it from profanation. Before covering the
bones with earth a few grains of Indian corn were thrown by thé women npon the
saoredreUcs. According to thé superstitions belief of thé Hurons the sonis ofthe
dead remain near the bodies nntil thé "feast of the dead"; after whioh ceremony
they become free, and aau at once départ for thé land of spirits, whioh they believe to
be situated in the régions of the setting snn.

Ossuaries have not been used by savage nations alone, for the custom
of exhuming the bones of the dead after a certain period, ancl collecting
them in suitable receptacles, is well known to have been practised in
Italy, Switzerland, and France. The writer saw in the church-yard of
Zug, Switzerland, in 1857, a slatted pen containing the remains of hun-
dreds of individuals. These had been dug np from the grave-yard and
preserved in the manner indicated. The catacombs of N'aples and Paris
a&brd examples of burial ossua-ries.


The following account is by Dr. S. G. Wright, acting physician to the

Leech Lake Agency, Minnesota
Pagan Indians, or those who have not become Christians, still adhere to the ancient
practice of feasting at the grave of departed friends thé object is to feast with thé
departed; that is, they believe that while they partake of thé visible material thé
departed spirit partages at thé same time of the spirit that dwells in thé food. From
anoient time it was cnstomary to bury with the dead varions articles, auch especially
as '<veremost valned in lifetime. The idea was that there was a spirit dwelling in the
article represented by the material article; thns thé %var-club contained a spiritual
war-dub, the pipe a spiritual pipe, which could be used by the departed iu anothor
world. Thèse several spiritual implements were snpposed, of course, to accompany
the soul, to be nsed also on the way to its fmal.abode. This habit has now ceased.

Can:MUanred River Exploring Expédition, 1860, ii, p. 164.


This subject has been sufficiently mentioned elsewhere in connection
with other matters and does not need to be now repeated. It has been an
almost universal cnstom thconghont the whole extent of the country to
place food in or near the gTave of deceased persons.

Gymnastic exercises, dignified with this name, upon the occasion of a
death or funeral, were common to many tribes. It is thus described by
An ooeaaional and very singular figure was called thé danoe for the dead." It
was known as thé O-yt~tes. It was danced by thé women alone. The mnsio was
entirely vocal, a select band of singers being stationed in the oenter of thé room. To
the songs for tho dead which they sang the dancers joined in chorus. It was plain-
tive and mournfnl music. This danoe was usually separate from all councils and the
only dance of the occasion. It was commenced at d.nsk or soon after and continued
until towards morning, when the shades of the dead who were believed to be present
and participate in the danoe were supposed to disappear. The dance was had. when-
ever a family whioh had lost a member calledfor it, which was usually a year after thé
event. In the spring and fall it was often given for ail the dead indisoriminately,
who were believed then to revisit the earth and joinin the danoe.
The interesting account which now follows is by Stephen Powers,t t
and relates to thé To-kai-a of California, containing other matters of
importance pertaining to burial
I paid a visit to their camp four miles below Ukiah, and finding there a unique
kind tif assembly-house, desired to enter and examine it, but was not allowed to do
so until I had gained the confidence of the oid sexton by a few frienilly wordsand the
° tender of a silver half dollar. Thé pit of it was about 50 feet in diameter and 4 or 5
feet deep, and it was so heavily roofed with earth that the interior was damp and
somber as a tomb. It looked like a low tumulus, and was provided with a tunnel-
like entrance about 10 feet long and 4 feet high, and leading down to a level with the
noor of thé pit. The mouth of the tunnel was closed with brush, and thé vénérable
sexton would not remove it until he had slowly and devoutly paced several times to
and fro before the entrance.
Passing in I fonnd the massive roof supported by a number of peeled poles painted
white and ringed with blaob and ornamented with rude devices. The floor was cov-
ored thick and green with sprouting wheat, whioh had been scattered to feed the
spirit of the captain of thé tribe, lately deceased. Not long afterwards a deputation
of thé Senèl came up to condole with the Yo-kaî-a on the loss of their chief, and
a dance or series of dances was held which lasted three days. During this time of
course the Senèl were the guests of the Yo-kat-a, and the latter were anbjected to a
*League of the Iroquois, 1851, p. ?7.
tCont. to North Amerioan Ethnol., 1878,iii, p. 164.
'DU.n.i.a.i~ BUBIAL j-MU~jS––ï()-KA)-A.

considerable expense. 1 was prevented by other engagements from

being présent
and shall be obliged to depend on thé description of an eye-witness, Mr. John
whose account is hère given with a few changes
There are four officials connected with thé building, who are
probably ohosen to
preserve order and to allow no intruders. They are thé assistants of thé chief. The
invitation to attend was from one of them, and admission was given by thé aame.
Thèse fonr wore blaok vests trimmed with red Bannel andshellomaments. The chief
made no spécial display on thé occasion. In addition to these four, who were officers
of the assembly-chamber, there were an old man and a yonng woman, who seemedto
be priest and priestess. The young woman was dressed (lifferently from any other,
the rest dressing in plain calico dresses. Her dress was white covered with spots of
red Bannel, eut in neat figures, ornamented with shells. It looked gorgeous and de-
noted some office, the name of whioh I could not ascertain. Before the visitors were
ready to enter, the older men of the tribe were reclining around the fire smoMng and
chatting. As the ceremonies were about to commence, thé old man and young woman
were summoned, and, standing at the end opposite thé entrance, they inaugurated
thé exercises by a brief service, which seemed to be a dedication of the honse to the
exercises about to commence. Eaoh of them apoke a few words, joined in a brief
chant, and the house was thrown open for their visitors. They staid at their post
nntil thé visitors entered and were seated on one side of the room. After thé visitors
then others were seated, making abont 200 in all, though there was plenty ofroom in
the oenter for thé dancing.
Before thé dance commenced the chief of thé visiting tribe made a brief speech,
in which he no doubt referred to the death of the chief of the and offered
the sympathy of hia tribe in this loss. As he spoke, some of thé women scarcely re-
frained from crying ont, and with dimoulty they suppressed their sobs. I presume
that he proposed a few moments of mourning, for when he stopped the whole assem-
blage burst forth into a bitter wailing, some screaming as if in agony. The whole
thing created snch a. dinthat I was compelled to stop my ears. The air was rent and
pierced with their cries. This wailing and shedding of tears lasted about three or five
minutes, though it seemed to last a half hour. At a given signal they ceased, wiped
their eyes, and quieted down.
Then préparations were made for the dance. One end of the room was set aside for
the dressing-room. The chief actors were five men, who were mnsonlar and agile.
They were profusely deoorated with paint and feathers, while' white and dark stripes
covered their bodies. They were girt abont thé middle with cloth of bright colors,
sometimes with variegated shawls. A feather mantle hung &oia. the shonider, roaeh-
ing below thé knee strings of shells ornamentedthe neck, while their heads were oov-
ered with aorownofeagte feathers. Theyhadwhistles in their mouths as they danced,
swaying their heads, bending and whirling their bodies; every muscle seemed to be
exercised, and the feather ornaments quivered with light. They were agile and
graoefnl as they bonnded about in thé sinuous course ofthe dance.
The five men were assisted by a semicircle of twenty women, who only marked
time by stepping np and down with short step. They always took their places Brst
and disappeared first, the men making their exit gracefully one by one. The dresses
of the women were suitable for the occasion. They were white dresses, trimmed
heavily with black velvet. The stripes were about three inches wide, some plain and
others edged like saw teeth. This was an indication of their mourning for the dead
ohie~ in whose honor they had prepared that style of dancing. Strings of haliotis
and paohydesma shell beads enciroled their necks, and around their waists were belts
heavily loaded with the same material. Their head-dresses were more showy than
those of thé men. The head was encircled with a bandeau of otters' or beavers' fur,
to which were attached short wires standing out in ail directions, with glass or shell
.b. strung on them, and at the tipslittle
".r~ featherfiags and qnail plumes. Surmount-
ing all was
ing all was a pyramidal
pyramidal plume
plume of black, gray, and scarlet, the top generally
feathers, black
of feathers,
13 A E

Ail these com-

being a bright scarlet bunch, waving and tossing very beantifnlly.
bined gave their heads a very brilliant and spangled appearance.
The first day thé dance was slow and funereal, in honor of the To-kaî-a, chief
a monotonons
died a short time before. Thé music was monmftil and simple, being
chant in whioh only two tones were nsed, accompaniedwith a rattling ofsplit
on the
and stamping on a hollow slab. The second day thé dance was more lively
airs whioh had a greater range of
part of the mon, the music was botter, employing
The dress of the women was
tnne, and the women generally joined in the chorus.
if observed in
not so beautiful, as they appeared in ordinary calico. The third day,
accordance with Indian custom, the dancing was still more lively and theproceedings
be much more
more gay, just as the coming home from a Christian ftineral is apt to
jolLy than the going ont. evi-
AYo-baî-awidow's style of mourning is peculiar. In addition to the usual
a white
dences of grief, she mingles the ashes of her dead husband with pitch, maMng
aronnd the
tar or unguent, -with which she smears a band abont two inches wide aU.
off close to the head), so that at a little
edge of Nie hair (whioh is previonsly ont
distance she appears to be wearing a white chaplet.
It is their custom to "feed thé spirits of the dead" for the space of one year by go-
to freinent while living, where they
ing daily to places which they were accustomed
who has lost her babe goes overy
sprinide pinole upon the ground. ATo-kaî-a mother
one played when alive, or to the spot
day for a year to some place where her little
where the body was burned, and milks her breasts into the air. This is accompanied
her little one to return,
by plaintive mourning and weeping and piteous calling upon a wild
and sometimes she sings a hoarse and melancholy chant, and dances with
estatic swaying of the body.


It has nearly always been customaryto sing songs at not only fanerais,
but for varyingperiods of time afterwards, although these chants may

no doubt occasionally have been simply wailing or mournful ejaculation.

A writer mentions it as follows
no accom-
At almost aU funerals there is an irregular crying kind of singing, with
the same melody at thé same time in nnison.
paniments, but generally all do not sing and nnishes
Several may sing the same song and at thé same time, but each begins
decease of a
when he or she may wish. Often for weel~s, or even months, after the
or cry by
dear friend, a living one, usnally a woman, will sit by her house and sing ·
or meet an es-
the hour, and they also sing for a short time when they visit the grave
both men
teemed friend whom they have not seen since the decease. At the funeral
the funeral,
and women sing. No. 11 I have heard more frequently some time after
see p. 251 of the
and No. 12 at the time of thé fanerai, by thé Twanas. (For song
magazinequoted.) Thewordsaj-esimplyanexolamationof grief, as our word"alas,"
and sometimes they use merely the
but they also have other words which they use,
and sometimes not, but in some
sylable la. Often the notes are snng in this order,
order thé notes doand la, and occasionally mi, are sung.
Some pages back will be found a reference, and the words of a peculiar
death dirge sung by the Senèl of California, as related by Mr.
It is as follows
*Am. Antiq., April, May, June, 1879, p. 251.

Mr. John CampbeU, of

Montréal Canada, has kmdly called thé at-
tention of the writer to death songs very similar in for in-
stance, the Basques of Spain ululate thus
Lelo il Lelo, Leio dead Lelo,
Lelo il Lelo,
Lelo zarat, Lelo zara,
This was called thé ululating Lelo." Mr. Campbell.says
This again conneots with the Lijms or Ailinns of thé Greeks and
which Wilkinson conneets with tho Coptic ya lay-lee-ya lail." The AHeMa which
Lescarbot heard the SonthAmerioans sing must have been the same wail. The Greek
verb o~.o~M amd the Latin ulnlare, with an English howl and
wa.U, are probably
derived from this ancient form of lamentation.

In our own time a writer on thé manner and customs of the Creeks de-
scribes a peculiar alleluia or hallelujah hè
heard, from which he inferred
that the American Indians must be thé descendants of the lost tribes of

It is not proposed to describe under this heading
examples of those
athletie and gymnastic performances following the death of a person
which have been described by Lafitau, but simply to call attention to a
practice as a secondary or adjunct part of the funeral rites, which con-
sists in gambling for the possession of the property of the defunct. Dr.
Charles E. McChesney, U. S. A., who for some time was stationed
among thé Wahpeton and Sisseton Sioux, furnishes a detailed and in-
teresting account of what is called thé ghost gamble." This is played
with marked wild-plum stones. So far as ascertained it is peculiar to
the Sioux. Figure 33 appears as a fair illustration of the manner in
which this game is played.
After the death of a wealthy Indian thé near relatives take charge of the
and at a stated time–nsuaHy a,fithe time of thé first feast held over thé bundle con-
taining the look of hair-they a,re dividedinto many small piles, so as to give ail the
Indians invited to play an opportunity to win something. One Indian is selected to
represent the ghost, and he plays against ail the others, who are not required to stake
anything on the resnit, but simply invited to take part in the ceremony, which