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NASA Program Gemini Working Paper No. 5015

CREW EGRESS PROCEDURES DEVELOPED DURING THE


QUALIFICATION TEST PROGRAM FOR THE GEMINI
SPACECRAFT AT-SEA OPERATIONS

DISTRIBUTION AND REFERENCING

This paper is not suitable for general distribution or referencing


It may be referenced only in other working correspondence and
documents by participating organizations.

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRA


MANNED SPACECRAFT CENTER
Houston, Texas
August 26, 1964

(HASa-TM.--Xr72.2a-0)- CfiEH EGEESS P B O C E D U B E S N75-705M;


:DEVELO,J?ED : r>yBi;NG. ,THE QOAiiF.iCA.TioN TEST
PBQGEAM iFO'R^TBE' GEMINI SE:A^ECE|fT - AT-SEA
(DPEBATIOIIS ( N A S A ) 61 p ; "^ dnelas
00/98 17463-
I.
MSA. PROGRAM GEMINI WOEKING PAPER NO. 5015

CREW EGRESS PROCEDURES DEVELOPED DURING THE QUALIFICATION TEST

PROGRAM FOR THE GEMINI SPACECRAFT AT-SEA OPERATIONS

Prepared by:
Paul T. Chaput
AST, Operational Evaluation and Test Branch

AUTHORIZED FOR DISTRIBUTION:

Chr^topher C. KraPC,
Assistant Director for Flight Operations

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION

MANNED SPACECRAFT CENTER

HOUSTON, TEXAS

August 26, 1964


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Section Page

SUMMARY 1

INTRODUCTION 1

DESCRIPTION OF TEST VEHICLE AND FACILITIES 2

Boilerplate 201 2
NASA Water Tank Facility 3
NASA Motor Vessel "Retriever" 3

DESCRIPTION OF TESTS AND RESULTS 3


Test I 3
Test II 5
Test III 6

CONCLUSIONS 6

APPENDIX I - BOILERPLATE 201 TEST FLOTATION ATTITUDES,


WEIGHT, AND CENTER OF GRAVITY 8

APPENDIX II - EGRESS PROCEDURE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM FROM THE


QUALIFICATION TEST PROGRAM FOR THE GEMINI SPACECRAFT
AT-SEA OPERATIONS 12

APPENDIX III - TEST PLAN, WATER TANK, SURFACE EGRESS . . . . 23

APPENDIX IV - TEST PLAN, WATER TANK, UNDERWATER EGRESS ... 29

APPENDIX V - TEST PLAN, GULF OF MEXICO, SURFACE EGRESS ... 39

APPENDIX VI - ILLUSTRATIONS ^7
CREW EGRESS PROCEDURES DEVELOPED DURING THE QUALIFICATION TEST
PROGRAM FOR THE GEMINI SPACECRAFT AT-SEA OPERATIONS

SUMMARY

A predicted spacecraft roll attitude of up to 18° right will place


the forward lower corner of the right hatch on the waterline. Though
splash curtains offer some protection, opening the right hatch in any
sea state other than calm will result in shipping water through the right
hatch opening.

This difficulty resulted in the development of an egress procedure


in which only the left hatch is opened. Both crewmen exit through the
left hatch with the first crewman to egress staying on the right side of
the spacecraft, draping himself over the right hatch, until the second
crewman has egressed. This procedure, when properly performed, allows
maximum open hatch freeboard during egress and after abandonment of the
spacecraft, thereby minimizing the possibility of spacecraft swamping
and sinking.

More rapid egress may be possible if simultaneously both hatches


are opened and both crewmen enter the water forward of the hatches.
But this will probably result in swamping and sinking of the spacecraft
in any sea state other than calm. Very close crew coordination is re-
quired during egress. Also, the possibility of a crewman slipping and
striking himself on a hatch corner or other spacecraft protrusion is
increased.

Underwater egress tests utilizing boilerplate 201 indicate that


crewmen can escape from a flooded spacecraft sinking in any assumed
underwater attitude. The basic escape technique to follow is to hold
the legs together and pull the body through the hatch opening with the
arms (pushing off with the legs, if necessary) keeping all parts of the
body away from protrusions and keeping other body motions to a minimum.
Once clear of the spacecraft, use the suit buoyant force to indicate
direction of the surface, (it is possible to become disorientated and
swim underwater in a direction other than towards the surface.)

INTRODUCTION

The qualification test program for the Gemini spacecraft at-sea


operations includes a development program (Appendix II) to define
egress problems, to develop egress procedures, and to qualify test
subjects in egress procedures in preparation for Static Article No. 5
at-sea tests. .This is a report of the egress development program to
date. Future results will be reported as a supplement to this working
paper.

The total development program consists of four test series:

I. NASA Water Tank/Boilerplate 201 egress development (surface


and underwater).

II. Open sea egress procedure qualification.

III. Static Article No. 5. familiarization.

IV. Evaluation and standardization of egress techniques utilizing


. Static Article No. 5.

Tests I, II,. and III have been completed and a number of subjects
qualified for Static Article No. 5 tests.

For Test IV, Static Article No. 5 will include the latest seat
configuration. All details (including stowage of helmets and other
loose equipment, donning of neck dams, acquisition of survival kits,
actuation of life vests and rafts, and possibly closing of the hatch) .
will be tested until a qualified, standardized, detailed egress sequence
is developed.

The Flight Crew Support Division, Astronaut Activity Office, and


Crew Systems Division are integrally involved in the egress development
program. Completion of the test program will result in an astronaut
egress training program by the Flight Crew Support Division with Static
Article No. 5 as the training vehicle.

DESCRIPTION OF TEST VEHICLE AND FACILITIES

Boilerplate 201 (illustration l)

Boilerplate 201 has the basic exterior and pressure cabin dimen-
sions of the Gemini spacecraft. Its equipment bays are equivalent
to a Gemini spacecraft in dimensions but contain dummy equipment which
approximate equipment displacement of Gemini spacecraft no. 3. The crew
station is mocked up and includes instrument panels, center pedestal,
attitude and maneuver controls, switches, knobs, and other protrusions
which could hinder egress, and seats (including dummy backpacks and
egress kits). Scuba breathing equipment is- located in the ECS equipment
bay with masks and regulators located by each seat.
The .boilerplate 201 hatches are similar in form and opening mechanism
to flight articles but are less in weight and differ in the opening and
closing force characteristics from those of a flight article.

The :boilerplate also contains splash curtains, a spacecraft recovery;


ring, and dummy antennas.

See Appendix I for weight, center of gravity, and flotation attitude


data.

MSA Water Tank Facility (illustration 2)

The water tank, containing fresh water, is located in Hangar 135 at


Ellington AFB. It is 16 feet deep by 2k feet in diameter and includes a
filtering system. A monorail and 2-ton hoist is located above, the-.tank.

. MSA Motor Vessel "Retriever" (illustration 3)

The Eetriever is a converted LCU modified for use as an ppen-sea


test facility. It includes a boom capable of placing test vehicles into
the water and retrieving them from the water.

DESCRIPTION OF TESTS AND RESULTS

Test I . .

Surface egress, water tank.- (See Test Plan, Appendix III)


Throughout the tests, the monorail hoist remained attached to boiler-
plate 201 to permit the lifting .of the boilerplate whenever water was
shipped.

The surface egress test series was divided into two phases based on
spacecraft flotation attitudes. The first phase was with the boilerplate
in Flotation Attitude 1 (.18° roll right) and the second in Flotation
Attitude, 2 (0° roll). In both test phases the test subjects first
egressed wearing coveralls and then wearing Gemini pressure type suits.

• Flotation Attitude 1 (l8° right roll): All egress attempts with


the boilerplate in Flotation Attitude 1 were performed with test subjects
exiting through the left hatch. No difficulties were encountered during
the transition of right seat subject to the left seat. This maneuver,
though, remains to be qualified in a .flight item.
As the several planned egress sequences were attempted, it became
apparent that before entering the water the left seat subject must off-
set the boilerplate roll left which occurs when the right seat subject
moves to the left seat. A procedure was developed in which the left
seat subject exits from his hatch over to the right side of the space-
craft near the heatshield and then uses the recovery loop and/or left
hatch sill as a handhold until the second crew member has entered the
water on the right side.
Ropes tied to the boilerplate recovery loop were alternately pulled
to induce a spacecraft roll motion having air amplitude of about 30°
either side of the trimpoint while the above egress was successfully
performed several times, (illustration k) ' •
Flotation Attitude 2 (0° roll): The several egress sequences with
both hatches open were attempted with the boilerplate in this attitude.
Even in calm water, motions by the crew members would cause boilerplate
rolling sufficiently to cause the shipping of water. Simultaneous
egress forward through the hatches appeared to be the most rapid method
of egress, but there was danger of striking the open hatches when
entering the water, (illustration 5) It appeared that roll and pitch
motions induced by the egressing crew members in combination with roll,
pitch, and heave motions caused by sea and wave actions would make
egress through both hatches hazardous and would probably cause space-
craft loss during or subsequent to egress.

The one-hatch method of egress developed for Attitude 1 was


attempted. The procedure appeared to be the most desirable method of
crew egress. This method was less hazardous than the two-hatch method.
Once abandoned, though, the boilerplate was liable to loss in any sea
state other than calm because of the minimum open-hatch freeboard.

This method was also successfully accomplished with artificially


induced boilerplate rolling motion.

Underwater egress, MSA water tank facility.- (See Test Plan,


Appendix IV)Test operational procedures were first developed without
test subjects. Boilerplate handling procedures were developed to place
the boilerplate in five underwater attitudes: (l) hatches up, (2)
hatches to the side, (3) heatshield down, (k) nose down, and (5) hatches
down. For each egress exercise with test subjects, the boilerplate was
submerged with the left hatch open and the right hatch closed.

Once the boilerplate was filled with water, opening of the closed
hatch was not more difficult in any of the underwater test attitudes
than opening of the hatch with the boilerplate in a normal attitude on
the surface.
The test subjects encountered no difficulty in getting clear of
the boilerplate in any of the underwater test attitudes when the fol-
lowing procedures were followed:
1. Keep legs close together and use legs only to push away from
the seat.
2. Keep torso and extremities away from protrusions.

3. Pull the body through the hatch opening mainly by grasping


the hatch opening edge and ingress/egress handle and pulling
with the arms, keeping all other body motions to a minimum
(except for pushing with the legs, if necessary).

4. Use arm motions to swim clear of the spacecraft.

5. Once clear, use the suit buoyancy to indicate the direction


of the water's surface. It is possible to be disorientated
and swim in a wrong direction.

On one occasion the boilerplate- in a hatches-down attitude was


quickly hauled to the surface when the left seat subject signaled that
the right seat subject was experiencing difficulties. The right seat
subject was not having difficulties and was surprised when this emer-
gency maneuver occurred; but the incident verified the adequateness of
the emergency procedure used.

Test II
. Surface egress, Gulf of Mexico.- (See Test Plan). The test was
first performed in nearly calm sea conditions and later repeated in
rough sea conditions. Boilerplate 201 was in Static Flotation Atti-
tude I (18° roll right) for each test.
Calm water: The primary boilerplate handling procedures listed
in the test plan proved feasible and were closely followed except that
test subjects were able to reenter the boilerplate from the raft.
The one-hatch method of egress was performed by each set of
subjects. Simultaneous egress forward through both hatches was per-
formed with no shipping of water by the boilerplate.

Rough water (sea conditions - 4 to 5 foot waves with occasional


swells to 7 feet): The one-hatch method of egress was performed twice.
A deviation from previous egress procedures was that the first subject
stayed on the right side of the boilerplate only until the second
subject was exiting onto the right side of the boilerplate, that is,
6

when the second subject was approximately over or to the right of the
boilerplate's center of gravity. On previous tests, the first subject
had delayed entering the water until the second subject was about to or
had entered the water.

No water was shipped by the boilerplate during egress or during


the period of boilerplate free floating subsequent to egress, though
the left hatch remained open. Occasionally the ECS section was awash,
but the splash curtain did not allow water to enter the cabin.

Test III

Static Article Mo. 5 Familiarization.- This test consisted of


familiarization of test subjects with the cabin interior arrangement
and switch locations in preparation for at-sea tests. Dry runs of
egress procedures were not performed in the Static Article while it
was on land or in the water tank as originally planned.

Test subject egress training in Boilerplate 201 was considered


adequate for Static Article No. 5 at-sea tests.

CONCLUSIONS

Crew egress through both'hatches of a floating Gemini spacecraft


will probably result in swamping and sinking of the spacecraft in any
sea state other than calm.

The most favorable method of egress appears to be the procedure


of both crewmen exiting in series through the left hatch opening
(assuming a spacecraft roll right flotation attitude), with the left
seat subject positioning himself over the right hatch until the right
seat subject has exited through the-left hatch opening onto the space-
craft, and with both crewmen entering the water at the right side of
the spacecraft.

A more rapid crew egress is possible with both crew members


simultaneously exiting through their respective hatches and over the
RCS section, but loss of the spacecraft is probable.

A spacecraft flotation attitude with an appreciable off-center


roll attitude (such as the 18° roll right flotation'-attitude used during
the tests) in combination with the recommended one-hatch egress method
allows greater open hatch'freeboard during and subsequent to crew
egress> thus minimizing the possibility of spacecraft swamping and
:
sinking. • '
7

Escape from a sinking spacecraft appears possible based on the


boilerplate tests. Opening of the spacecraft hatches appears possible
once the spacecraft has filled with water.
8

APPENDIX I

Boilerplate 201 Test Flotation Attitudes, Weight,


and Center of Gravity
m
\

static waterl«ne
*r z. axis

Figure 1.- Boilerplate 201, test flotation attitude 1.


Y axis
vertical

Static w/aterline,
X axis

rn

Figure 2.- Boilerplate 201, test flotation attitude 2.


11

BOILEKPLATE 201 DATA


(Wo Crew)

Weight 3913

C.G. XO.OO

-Y1.82

Above data is for the egress tests in the Gulf of Mexico. Data for
other tests differ slightly because of changes in boilerplate equipment
and hardware for different tests.
Changes in pitch and roll attitudes were achieved by adjusting
styrafoam displacement in the equipment bays and RCS section.

At the time of testing, Flotation Attitude 1 (Appendix I, page l)


was the expected static water attitude of Gemini Spacecraft No. 3.
APPEMDIX II

Egress Procedure Development Program from the Qualification


Test Program for the Gemini Spacecraft At-Sea Operations
13
Egress Procedure
Development Program

Test No. I

Tank Facility Test

Object: Test Wo. I of the egress program will define the problems

of egressing from the Gemini spacecraft. By conducting the

tests under closely controlled conditions, the basic problems

of egress can be determined and probably solved without the

interfering effects of waves and wind. In addition, test

subjects of later ECS (environment) at-sea qualification

tests will be initiated and become proficient in egress

techniques to be utilized should abandoning static article

No. 5 became necessary in emergencies at sea.

Major Equipment and Support Forces .

1. Tank Facility

2. Boilerplate No. 201

3- Lifting Crane, min. 5 "ton capacity

k. SCUBA personnel (standby)

5- Tech. Services Division personnel ' '

6. Photo Services Division personnel

Participating Organizations:•

FCOD, Astronaut Activities Office, GPO

Test Conductor: E. N. Harrin or as designated by E. N. Harrin

Test Program:

Test Wo. I will be divided into part A, surface egress,

and part B, underwater egress.

Part A: Spacecraft occupied by two test subjects will be


placed on the water with both hatches open. Test subjects

will be allowed to move about the spacecraft and to even-

tually abandon the spacecraft. At least three routes will

be used in abandoning spacecraft (l) over side; (2) over RCS

section; (3) over heat shield. These egresses will be per-

formed by the test subjects individually and then simultane-

ously. As the test develops, rafts and other survival equip-

ment will be deployed by the test subjects. Pressure suits


will also be used. The effect of the order and method of

hatch openings will be investigated. Should egress from

spacecraft be feasible, procedures of safeguarding the cap-

sule from flooding effects will be initiated.

Safeguards: Spacecraft boilerplate will at all times be

attached to lifting crane. Lifting lines will not have

more slack than would allow the spacecraft to barely sub-

merge should it flood. SCUBA swimmers will be on a standby

basis. Spacecraft will have SCUBA bottles installed in

boilerplate.

Part B: Boilerplate spacecraft with hatches open will be

placed in water in various attitudes such as normal floata-

tion attitude, pilot face down, pilot back down, pilot head

down and on side. Spacecraft will then be intentionally

flooded until spacecraft is completely submerged but not on

tank floor. Test subjects will then egress. Egress will be

performed in normal flight clothing and then pressure suits.


These spacecraft attitudes will check the existence of any
15
unusual buoyancy forces existing in equipment or suit

which may cause egress difficulties. Also, the feasibility

of underwater hatch opening in various sequences will be

investigated.

Safeguards: Spacecraft boilerplate will at all times be

attached to lifting crane. Lifting lines will not have more

slack than would allow the spacecraft to barely submerge

should it flood. SCUBA swimmers will be on a standby basis.

Spacecraft will have SCUBA bottles installed in boilerplate.


16
Test No. II
Object: 1. To study the effect of wind and wave action upon the

feasibility of egressing from the spacecraft under at-sea

conditions.

2. To introduce the test subjects to the complete at-sea

environment of wind, waves. In addition, to qualify test

subjects for the Gemini static article No. 5 at-sea opera-

tions.
Major Equipment and Support Forces
1. NASA M/V Retriever

2. Boilerplate No. 20
3. Inflatable life rafts

4. Mercury Emergency Flotation Bags (2)

5. Motorboat
6. SCUBA personnel

7. Tech. Services Division personnel

8. Photo Services Division personnel

Participating Organizations:
FCOD,.Astronaut Activities Office, GPO

Test Conductor: E. N. Harrin or as designated by E. N. Harrin

Test Program: At-sea Test


The at-sea test will be divided into the Galveston Bay and

the Gulf phases. Each phase will be further sub-divided

in the following groupings:

1. Spacecraft with attached flotation device.

2. Spacecraft without flotation device

3- Retrieval of spacecraft with onboard test subjects by the

NASA-M/V Retriever.

The phase I test will consist of placing the boilerplate


17

spacecraft with test subjects aboard in the water. Flota-


tion device will then be installed and hatches opened by

the test subjects. The test subjects will then report any

unusual characteristics. The test subject and boilerplate


spacecraft will then be separately retrieved, the flotation

device removed, test subjects re-inserted, and the boiler-

plate spacecraft placed back into the sea. Phase II will


commence by the test subjects opening the hatches in a
controlled sequence and manner. Test subjects will abandon

the boilerplate spacecraft. Should the boilerplate space-

craft not be submerged at this stage of test, securing the


boilerplate spacecraft hatch will be attempted. These
tests will be repeated until all test subjects will be judged

.proficient.

Phase III will consist of placing test subjects in boiler-


plate spacecraft in the water and retrieving the unit with-

out having opened the hatches. This phase will evaluate the
adequacy of procedures and communications between test sub-
jects and motor vessel during possible future operations.

Safeguards: The motor vessel lifting line will be attached

to the boilerplate spacecraft at all times. SCUBA air breath-

ing apparatus will be installed in the boilerplate spacecraft


and the flotation device along side. Medical personnel will

be aboard the M/V Retriever.


18

Test No. Ill

Object: To introduce and familiarize test subjects to the static

article No. 5 configuration.

Major Equipment and Support Forces

1. Tank Facility

2. Gemini Static Article No. 5

3- Lifting crane, min. 5 ton capacity •

h. SCUBA equipment in static article No. 5

5. SCUBA personnel

6. Tech. Services Division personnel

7- Photo Services Division personnel

Participating Organizations:

FCOD, Astronaut Activities Office, GPO

Test Conductor: E. N. Harrin or as designated as test time

Test Program:

The test subjects will be familiarized with the operation

of the ECS, communication, and power management equipment

and techniques to be employed during evaluation and qualifica-

tion tests of the static article No. 5. Upon completion of

the familiarization several egresses will be made with the

static article No. 5 on dry land. These "dry runs" will

familiarize test subjects with the intimate details of the

spacecraft interior. The spacecraft will then be placed in

the tank facility. Egress from the spacecraft on the water

will be limited to hatch opening and limited motions. This

is necessary so that valuable interior equipment will not


19

be damaged by possible flooding before the completion of

qualification tests. Should spacecraft prove very stable,

limited abandoning of the spacecraft exercises will be con-

sidered.

Object:
To complete the development of egress techniques by egress-

ing in an at-sea environment. This section will be issued

upon the successful development of Tests I, II, and III.


Page Intentionally Left Blank
21
GEMINI E G R E S S PROCEDURE
DEVELOPMENT CHART

Test No. I , Part A

Test No. JSL


• • i V
To be, deTfirrrhrttd \
i/ \
I afTer >u<cc$*fy) j
I completion of j
\Tesrs r,TL, and JOT /

B/P 101 AsfronawT


Egress
Te&Ts Training

i_|c«m«»mc»Ti'»n5

IJ

TesT Na I, Parr B

FOD (OETB)
OCT
APPENDLX I11

Test Plan - Water Tank, Surface Egress


2k
G E M I N I CREW EGRESS TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT
AND TEST SUBJECTS TRAINING

Test 1, Part A - Water tank, surface egress

January 23, 2k, \96k - Hangar 135-E11ington AFB

Objecti ves :

1. To develop procedures for emergency egress from Static Article #5-

2. To train test subjects for future Static Article #5 at-sea tests.

3. To i n i t i a t e development of an astronaut egress t r a i n i n g program.

Test Condi tions:

Calm water (water tank).

Observations and/or data:

Visual observations and photographic coverage of procedures; opinions of


test subjects; boilerplate roll and pitch angles and waterline measurements.

Test Procedure:

Water egress procedures w i l l be developed for k boilerplate flotation


att i tudes :

1. 0 rol1 , 0 pitch
o o
2. 18 right r o l 1 , 0 pitch

3. Flotation device attached w i t h boilerplate i n i t i a l l y in attitude 1.

k. Flotation device attached with boilerplate i n i t i a l l y in attitude 2.

Charts 1 to k indicate the general egress procedures that w i l l be attempted


u n t i l the most ideal sequences are determined.

All egress attempts w i l l begin w i t h both test subjects s i t t i n g in the seats


with lap and shoulder harnesses connected and with both hatches closed.

Test subjects w i l l wear coveralls or swimsuits for i n i t i a l development of


procedures. Training suits w i t h water vests w i l l be worn during latter
tests.
Equipment and F a c i l i t i e s :

Water tank, monorail, crane, B/P 201, a u x i l i a r y flotation device, s t i l l


camera, movie camera, 2 t r a i n i n g suits, 2 one man life rafts, 2 water
vests , inclinometer.

Personnel

Test Conductor - Paul T. Chaput

Test Subjects - F l i g h t Crew Support - Gordon Harvey


Crew Systems - John B e l l
Astronauts - Jim Lovell

Tech Services Personnel - 1 crane operator


- 1 monorail operator
- 1 scuba diver

Photographic Services Personnel - 1 s t i l l photographer


- 1 movie photographer

Special Precautions:

1. Water in tank w i l l be tested before each test period by the


Occupational Hygiene Branch of the Center Medical Office

2. A scuba diver w i l l be standing by during all tests.

3. Test subjects have been approved as such by the Center Medical


Office.
26
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APPENDIX IV
Test Plan - Water Tank, Underwater Egress
30
GEMINI CREW EGRESS TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT
AND TEST SUBJECTS TRAINING

Test I, Part B - Water Tank, underwater egress


Hanger 135 - Ellington AFB

Objectives:

1. To evaluate the difficulties of underwater egress from the


Gemini spacecraft.

2. To familiarize test subjects with these difficulties by training


with Boilerplate 201 in preparation for Static Article No. 5
at-sea tests.

3. To initiate development of an astronaut egress training pro-


gram.

Test Conditions;

Calm water (water tank)

Observations and/or Data;

Observations of test subjects, swimmers, and other cognizant per-


sonnel, photographic and visual coverage.

Test Procedure and Schedule:

I. Test Technique check-out

Prior to tests utilizing test subjects, the use of equip-


ment will be checked and the safest test techniques will be
developed, as follows:

A. Place B/P 201 in the water tank. Open the left hatch.

B. Attach the crane and monorail cables to the pertinent


hardware on the boilerplate. Remove the drain plug from
the boilerplate allowing the boilerplate to fill with water,
sink below the surface, and assume predetermined attitudes.
(SEE APPENDIX I FOR VARIOUS UNDERWATER ATTITUDES TO BE
ASSUMED AND ATTACHMENT POINTS OF CRANE AND MONORAIL TO
ACHIEVE SUCH ATTITUDES.) Take note of crane-monorail co-
ordination necessary for a smooth transition of the sinking
boilerplate from its surface attitude to its underwater
attitude.
31

C. For each underwater attitude tested, allow a scuba quali-


fied swimmer to examine the difficulty of opening the
right hatch from o^siae the boilerplate.

D. With the crane as the primary lifting force and the boiler-
plate nose ring or recovery ring as the crane attachment
point, slowly raise the boilerplate from the water - allow-
ing the boilerplate to drain as it is lifted clear of the
water. Use crane dynamometers to measure forces on the
crane and monorail cables to insure that force limits are
not exceeded.

II. Tests with Test Subjects


A. Before development tests or training of test subjects is
started, all test subjects will attend the following:

1. Detailed briefing.
2. Check-out on the use of the boilerplate scuba breath-
ing equipment by scuba qualified instructors.

3. Familiarization with restrain harness release mechanism


or B/P 201 seats.
B. Investigation of underwater egress difficulties will then
be carried out with two test subjects as follows:
1. Adjust the restraint harnesses to the test subjects.

2. Place B/P 201 in the water tank and attach the crane
and monorail cables to the appropriate rings for the
underwater attitude desired.

3. Have test subjects (in training suits and wearing


goggles) enter the boilerplate and fasten restraint
harnesses.

4. Close right hatch.

5. Prepare for lowering of the boilerplate below the water's


surface with the following preparations:

a. Two scuba swimmers in water, each observing a


designated test subject.

b. Video camera on floor of tank facing upwards and


operating - with monitor in view of project engineer.
c. Crane and monorail operators prepared to take
instructions from the project engineer.

d. Test subjects prepared to use boilerplate scuba


breathing equipment.

e. Medical doctor in attendance.

6. Swimmer removes boilerplate drain plug allowing the


boilerplate to sink to its predetermined underwater
attitude at a depth such that the test subjects will
be completely underwater during egress. (The first
"live" test will be with the boilerplate in Attitude 1
of Appendix I - i.e., in a horizontal, hatches up
attitude. This will permit the subjects to familiarize
themselves with underwater use of the scuba breathing
equipment and will allow easy egress from a normal
sitting position.)
7. Start of egress. The. swimmer designated to observe
the subject in the right seat (with the hatch closed)
will position himself such that he can be seen by the
right seat subject through the right hatch window and
by the left seat subject through the open left hatch.
At a given signal (See Appendix II) the right seat
subject will disconnect his restraint harnesses and
open the hatch. This will be observed by the swimmer
through the hatch window and by the left seat subject.
Once the right seat subject has the hatch open, the
left seat subject may disconnect and egress also.

Should the right seat subject encounter any difficulty


before or while opening the hatch, the left seat .
subject will signal the swimmers. The swimmer
observing the right seat subject should open the hatch
and aid the subject.

The subject or subjects upon encountering any difficulties


should immediately resume use of the scuba breathing
equipment.

(NOTE: If certain underwater attitudes were found to


cause great difficulty in opening the hatch during the
test technique check-out (Section I) tests in these
attitudes will be .performed with both hatches open at
all times.)
53

III. Test Subject Training


The remaining four test subjects will be trained in under-
water egress using the sequence of Section II B above - modified
by changes determined necessary or advantageous.

Equipment and Facilities;


Water tank with working filtering system, monorail, crane, 2 crane
dynamometers, 2 Gemini training suits, 2 sets of scuba< equipment and wet
suits, B/P 201 with 2 sets of scuba breathing equipment installed, 2 pairs
of water goggles, 2 resuscitators, 1 underwater video camera and associated
monotors and equipment, 1 underwater movie camera, 1 standard movie
camera, 1 underwater still camera, 1 standard still camera.
Personnel;

Test Conductor Paul T. Chaput


Test Subjects Egress Development;
Flight Crew Support - Gordon Harvey
Astronaut - Jim Lovell
Subsequent Egress Training:
Flight Crew Support - Bob Mercer, J. B. Thomas
Technical Services Personnel:
1 crane operator
1 monorail operator
2 scuba qualified swimmers

Scuba Instructors:

Joe Garino
Charlie Rogers

Photographic Personnel;

1 still photographer
1 movie photographer
1 underwater movie photographer
1 video director
Special Precautions:

1. Water in tank will tie tested by the Occupational Hygiene Branch


of the Center Medical Office.

2. A physician from the Center Medical Office will be in atten-


dance during tests with test subjects.

3. Test subjects will be thoroughly familiar with use of the


boilerplate scuba equipment as well as the physiological
aspects of underwater breathing of compressed air, etc.

k. Test subjects will wear properly fitted goggles for clear vision
underwater.

5. Soda bottles and other objects not necessary for the tests
will not be allowed on the tank walkway.

6. The area surrounding the tank below the walkway from the tank
wall out to about 6 feet will be kept clear of personnel or
damageable equipment.

7. Should a swimmer determine it advisable to immediately lift the


boilerplate to the surface, he will release a piece of styra-
foam (Which rapidly comes to the surface). Upon seeing this,
the crane will be signalled to quickly lift the boilerplate.
TEST PLAN
Appendix. J

ATTITUDE 1 HATCHES UP

Crane Mono«*ai| Crane

ATTITUDE 2. HE ATSHIE. UP DOWN

Crane.
Crane
36 TEST PLAN
Append/* r

ATTITUDE. 3 HATCHES TO THE SIDE

Crane

ATTITUDE 4- HATCHES DOWN


37
TEST

ATTITUDE 5" NOSE DOWN

AAonorai

C«-ane
38
TEST PLAN
TL

HAND SIGNALS

1. Signal by the swimmer to the test subjects:

THUMB UP - Start Egress

2. Signals by the left seat test subject to the swimmers:

BOTH ARMS THRUST AWAY - Right seat subject


FROM BODY, experiencing difficulty
FISTS CLENCHED (before or during attempt to
open hatch)

3. Signal by either test subject

ONE ARE THRUST AWAY - Signalling test


FROM BODY, FIST subject experiencing difficulty
CLENCHED

k. Any move by a test subject to resume use of the boilerplate scuba


breathing equipment once the subject has dispensed with its use
will be construed by the swimmers as a sign of difficulty.
39

APPENDIX V
Test Plan - Gulf of Mexico, Surface Egress
GEMINI CREW EGRESS TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT
AND TEST SUBJECTS TRAINING

Test II Parts I and II - Egress without and with flotation collar -


Gulf of Mexico
PART I Test Objectives
1.1 To examine the technique of egress from the Gemini spacecraft in an
open sea.
1.2 To train test subjects in egress from the Gemini vehicle in prepar-
ation for Static Article No. 5 at-sea tests.
PART 2 System Description
2.1 Test Vehicle
Gemini B/P 201 (Egress Trainer) will be used for this test. The
B/P is configured to the basic overall dimensions of a spacecraft and
contains mocked-up seats and equipment. The flotation attitude is
the same as that of Static Article 5. The following data is applicable
to the B/P 201.
2.1.1 Weight and CG
Weight 391? (no crew)
X axis 0.00 (no crew)
Y axis (-) 1.82 (no crew)
Z axis 127.814- (no crew)
2.1.2 Flotation
Pitch 0° (no crew)
Roll 18° Right (no crew)
PART 3 Observations and/or data
Observations of test subjects and cognizant observing personnel.
PART k Test Procedures
4.1 Boilerplate 201 handling
U.I.I Primary
U.I.1.1 On Board Preparation
The B/P will be placed on the deck in a vertical posit ion
and the ships boom line attached to the ring in the space-
craft spider.
4.1.1.2 Placing B/P in Water
The boom will then be used to place the B/P in the water
heat shield first. The tag line attached to the recovery
loop will be left in place during the test. Once the B/P
is in the water the ship will back away a short distance.
4.1.1.3 Test Subject Recovery
If the egress can be accomplished close enough to the ship
(50 ft.) the swimmers will either remain on board the ship
or in a 20 man life raft tied close to the side of the
ship. Once the egress has been completed, the test subjects
will swim the short distance to the ship with the aid of
a line if necessary.
4.1.1.4 B/P Recovery
After the egress has been completed and the test subjects
recovered, the B/P will be winched in and removed from
the water and placed on the deck in a vertical position.
The tag line already tied to the B/P recovery loop will
be used to stabilize the B/P.
4.1.2 Secondary
4.1.2.1 On Board Preparation
The B/P will be placed on the deck in a horizontal handling
dolly and the ships boom line will be attached to the ring
in the spacecraft spider. The boom line will then be coiled
in a "S" pattern on the deck. A one inch rope with floats
attached every four feet will be laid along the boom line
and the two taped together with masking tape every two feet.
4.1.2.2 Placing B/P in Water
The B/P will be placed in the water with an eight foot
sling attached to the recovery loop on the heatshield end
of the spacecraft. Tag lines will be used to stabilize
the load. Once the B/P is in the water, the hook will be
detached and the ship will begin backing away from the B/P.
As the ship backs away the boom line and float line com-
bination will be fed over the side until all of the line
is out.
U.I.2.3 Turbocraft Operation
The turbocraft with the three swimmers on board will manuever
to within thirty feet of the B/P and hold that position in
preparation for recovering the test subjects from the water.
Once the test subjects are recovered the turbocraft will
return to the ship until the next egress.
4.1.2.4 Normal B/P Recovery
After each egress the B/P will be removed from the water
to prepare for the next test. The ship will move slowly
to the side of the B/P while the line is pulled in by hand.
Once alongside the ship the recovery hook will be attached
to the B/P recovery loop and lifted from the water by "boom-
ing up". Once clear of the water, tag lines will be attached
to the small end to stabilize the load until the B/P is
placed in the horizontal cradle.
4.1.2.5 Emergency B/P Recovery
Should an emergency develop the spacecraft will be pulled
in with the ship's winch. As the line is pulled in, the
float line will be stripped from the winch line. The B/P
will then be lifted clear of the water and placed on the
deck in a vertical position.
4.2 Test Subjects
The two developmental test subjects will egress using the sequences
of paragraph 4.3. Once the best sequence is determined, the train-
ing subjects will egress twice using the best determined sequence
and alternating seat positions for each egress. Test subject pro-
cedures will be as follows:
4.2.1 Test subject preparations before entering B/P.
4.2.1.1 Don training suit
4.2.1.2 Don neck dam
4.2.1.3 Don personnel harness
4.2.2 Procedures upon entering B/P
4.2.2.1 Enter B/P (on the deck of the Retriever) and fasten lap
belts.
43

4.2.2.2 Attach one man raft lanyard to personnel harness


4.2.2.3 Radio check
4.2.2.4 Close and secure hatches
4.2.3 Egress and recovery procedures (after B/P has been placed in
the water and the Retriever has backed off).
4.2.3.1 Monitor radio until cleared to egress
4.2.3.2 Egress according to planned sequence
4.2.?•3 Swim to and board 20 man raft (or the turbocraft or Retriever)
4.2.3.4 Board the Retriever at the ramp
4.3 Egress Procedures
4.3.1 Primary procedure
4.3.1.1 Left seat subject opens the left hatch and activates the
one man raft - throwing it over the right side.
4.3.1.2 Left seat subject exits through the left hatch opening to
the right side of the B/P, using the recovery ring as a
handhold.
4.3.1.3 Right seat subject moves to the left seat, activates his
raft, and throws it over the right side - forward of the
first raft.
4.3.1.4 Right seat subject exits through the left hatch opening
and over the right side into the water.
4.3.1.5 Left seat subject slides into the water on the right side
of the B/P.
4.3.1.6 Both subjects swim to rafts.
4.3.2 An alternate to procedure 4.3.1 is for the right seat subject
to throw the raft to the left side and then exit through the
left hatch over the left side into the water.
4.3.3 A third procedure that may be attempted, depending on sea con-
ditions, is as follows:
4.3.3.1 Subjects simultaneously open hatches, inflate rafts, and
throw them forward and to the side of the B/P.
U.3«3»2 Subjects simultaneously egress through their respective
hatches to the front and respective sides of the B/P.

(This procedure is a rapid one but could result in almost


immediate swamping of the B/P. It will be attempted at
the test conductor's discretion).

k.k Flotation Collar Installation and Egress

At the conclusion of egress training for all test subjects, the


flotation collar will oe installed on the B/P containing the two
developmental test subjects. They will demonstrate egress from
the B/P with flotation device attached.

PART 5 Operations

5.1 Support forces ana equipment:

NASA Motor Vessel Retriever


20 man life rart
B/P 201
2 Gemini training suits
3 sets of scuba equipment and wet suits
minimum of 4 Mercury one man rafts
1 movie camera
1 still camera
1 vacuum cleaner
1 Mercury flotation bag
1 Gemini flotation collar (double tube)
1 patch kit

5.2 Personnel Assignments:

Test Conductor - E. Harrin 1


Egress Test Conductor - P. Chaput 1
Operations Test Conductor - J. Shannon 1
Ship Crew 3
Test Subjects 7
Technical Services Division 6
CMO 1
Photographic Services 2
Crew Systems Division 2
TOTAL 2T
(,
5.3 Personnel Duties

Test Conductor - Responsible for coordination of total test plan.


Egress Test Conductor - Responsible for test arrangements, personnel
briefing (other than operations), and the safe accomplishment of
egress tests and training.
Operations Test Conductor - In charge of operations briefing and
of boilerplate handling, in and out of water, including the deter-
mination and testing of the most advantageous and safest boiler-
plate handling procedures.
Test Subjects and Swimmers - Responsible for carrying out the
instructions of this test plan and of the egress test conductor.
Boom Operator - Responsible for being at the control station pre-
pared to carry out the instructions of the operations test conduc-
tor during all test sequences.
Equipment handling assistant - Aid in the handling of the B/P and
other equipment as instructed by the test conductors and boom
operator.
Suit Technician - Assist test subjects in donning and removing of
training suits and neck dams.
Survival equipment technician - (A) Instruct test subjects on the
actuation and use of the life raft. (B) Assist test subjects in
the donning of personnel harnesses, (c) Attach life raft lanyards
to personnel harnesses.
Medical Doctor - Responsible to render medical assistance at all
times.
Photographers - Responsible to film pertinent portions of each test
sequence as briefed by the egress test conductor.

5A Test Location
This test will be conducted approximately five miles south of
Galveston, Texas in the Gulf of Mexico.

5.5 Call Signs and Communications


Frequency

Retriever Tomcat 1 298.6 me and PM


B/P 201 Tomcat 2 298.6 me
Turbocraft Tomcat 3 IW
The ship will be in continuous contact with the Galveston Marine
operator during the day for messages. If the ship is called by
the operator the call sign is NASA Motor Vessel Retriever.
5.6 Schedule

The Retriever will depart the Coast Guard dock at Galveston at


9:00 am on the planned test date.
PART 6 Safety Precautions

6.1 Life Preservers

At all times during the operation the personnel working in the


turbocraft and on the deck will wear life preservers. Observers
will stay in an area well away from the deck work area.

6.2 Swimmers

Three swimmers will be on duty in the turbocraft during the egress


test to assist the test subjects.

6.3 Medical Care

A doctor will be on duty during the test to provide medical assist-


ance if required.

6.4 Communications

Radio communications will be maintained with the test subjects


during the entire test.

6.5 Signal Light

An externally mounted internally actuated signal light can be used


by the test subjects to indicate that assistance is required.
APPENDIX VI

Illustrations
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