Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 4

LYMPHATIC AND IMMUNE SYSTEM

Lymphatic System

- Has several primary functions:


o Maintains extracellular fluid balance
 Lymph – fluid inside the lymphatic capillaries; passes through the lymphatic vessels to return to
blood.

o Absorbs fats and other substances from the digestive tract


 Chyle – white , milky fluid that passes through the lymphatic vessels

o Functions in the immune system defense of the body.


 Pathogens such as microorganisms and other foreign substances are filtered from lymph by
lymph nodes and from blood by spleen.

- Composed of a number of vessels and other structures.

Lymphatic Anatomy

 Lymph or lymphatic fluid


- An excess from interstitial
areas.

 Lymphocytes
- originate from the red bone
marrow and are carried by
the blood to lymphatic
organs.
o divide and increase
in number when the
body is exposed to
pathogens

 Lymphatic Vessels
- Similar to veins in the
structure of their walls and
the presence of many
valves

- Collect lymph from


interstitial spaces in the
regions served and conduct
it toward the blood circulation.

o Right Lymphatic duct


 Large collecting vessel that receives lymph from the superior right quadrant of the body.

o Thoracic duct
 Conducts lymph received from the rest of the body
 Each duct empties into a subclavian vein
1
References:
1. “Anatomy & Physiology Revealed.” Mheducation.com, 2019, anatomy.mheducation.com/html/apr.html?animal=human&.
2. VanPutte, Cinnamon, Jennifer Regan & Andrew Russo (2019). Seeley’s Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology: 10th ed. McGraw-Hill Education.
3. Patton, K.T. (2013). Laboratory Manual Seeley’s Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology: 8th Edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.
LYMPHATIC AND IMMUNE SYSTEM

 Lymph nodes
- Small, round organs located at irregular intervals in the network of lymph vessels.
- Contain lymphatic tissue mainly composed of lymphocytes.
- Distributed unevenly, with
major aggregations of nodes in
the neck (cervical nodes),
armpit (axillary nodes), and
groin (inguinal nodes).

o Afferent vessel
 Conduct
lymph into a
lymph node

o Efferent vessel
 Conduct
lymph out of
each node

o Lymph nodules
 Within the node, lymph tissue
often forms dense masses
 Germinal center
o Composed of
rapidly
dividing
lymphocytes

o Lymph sinus
 A space that surrounds each
node through which lymph
circulates
 Also contain macrophages

o Capsule
 Functions as the outer
boundary and support
structure for each lymph
node.
 The inner surface of the
capsule has inward extensions that separates the nodules from one another.

 Tonsils
- Lymph organs that surround the openings of the mouth, nose and throat into the lower digestive and respiratory
tracts.

2
References:
1. “Anatomy & Physiology Revealed.” Mheducation.com, 2019, anatomy.mheducation.com/html/apr.html?animal=human&.
2. VanPutte, Cinnamon, Jennifer Regan & Andrew Russo (2019). Seeley’s Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology: 10th ed. McGraw-Hill Education.
3. Patton, K.T. (2013). Laboratory Manual Seeley’s Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology: 8th Edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.
LYMPHATIC AND IMMUNE SYSTEM

o Palatine tonsils
 Each on lateral side of the opening of the mouth into the throat

o Pharyngeal tonsils
 Top of the throat (pharynx) near the posterior of the nasal cavity.

o Laryngeal tonsils
 Posterior of the tongue’s base

 Spleen
- Located in the upper left abdominal cavity
- roughly the size of a clenched fist and is located in the left superior corner of the abdominal cavity.
- filters blood instead of lymph.
o Macrophages in the red pulp remove foreign substances and worn out red blood cells.

 Thymus
- Located in anterior mediastinum
- bi-lobed gland roughly triangular in shape. Located in the superior mediastinum, the partition dividing the thoracic
cavity into left and right parts.
- - site of maturation of a class of lymphocytes called T cells.

IMMUNE SYSTEM

Immunology

- Study of the reactions of host when foreign substances are introduced to the body
- Study all aspects of body defences, such as antigens and antibodies, allergy and hypersensitivity.

Lymphoid Organs

Primary Lymphoid Organ:

1. Thymus
2. Bone Marrow
Secondary Lymphoid Organ:

1. Spleen
2. Lymph nodes
3. MALT
a. Peyer’s Patches
b. Tonsils

3
References:
1. “Anatomy & Physiology Revealed.” Mheducation.com, 2019, anatomy.mheducation.com/html/apr.html?animal=human&.
2. VanPutte, Cinnamon, Jennifer Regan & Andrew Russo (2019). Seeley’s Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology: 10th ed. McGraw-Hill Education.
3. Patton, K.T. (2013). Laboratory Manual Seeley’s Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology: 8th Edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.
LYMPHATIC AND IMMUNE SYSTEM

c. Appendix

4
References:
1. “Anatomy & Physiology Revealed.” Mheducation.com, 2019, anatomy.mheducation.com/html/apr.html?animal=human&.
2. VanPutte, Cinnamon, Jennifer Regan & Andrew Russo (2019). Seeley’s Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology: 10th ed. McGraw-Hill Education.
3. Patton, K.T. (2013). Laboratory Manual Seeley’s Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology: 8th Edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.