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INTERTEK

WORK-INSTRUCTION
DOCUMENT STATUS
Actions Prepared: Approved and edited: Authorised:
Authority WFD JON RK
Document Title General calibration of Vertical Cylindrical Tanks by EODR
Document I.D. WI CAL-03
Issue Number 1
& Date 7 September 08
Implementation
16 January 07
Date
Revision Number 01
& Date 7 September 08
Revision
Issued by the Intertek Calibration Department, Sharjah
Description
Revised
Nil
Pages
Document WORK-INSTRUCTION
Contents 1. Purpose
2. Scope
3. Reference information
4. Responsibility
5. Procedure
6. Record keeping
Copy Right and No part of this document shall be reproduced or transmitted in any
Confidentiality form or by any means without the prior permission of the Group
General Manager of the Intertek (HQ) Sharjah.

 Copyright Intertek (HQ) Sharjah


General Procedure for the Calibration of Vertical Cylindrical Tanks

1. Purpose
This procedure describes the measurement method and computational methodology for the
development of a capacity table for vertical cylindrical tanks by use of a laser measuring
device. This method is known as EODR (Electro-Optical Distance Ranging). The distance
and the angle to various points on each course of the tank shell wall are measured. These
distances and angles are then used to compute the radius of each course.

2. Scope
This procedure specifies a method for the calibration of vertical cylindrical tanks having
diameters greater than 5m by means of internal measurement using a laser measuring
device, and for the subsequent compilation of tank capacity tables at various levels.
 This method shall not be used in the calibration of abnormally deformed tanks (e.g.
dented) or non circular tanks.
 This method is applicable to tanks tilted by up to 3% from the vertical provided a
correction is applied for the measured tilt.
 This method is applicable to tanks with cone up, cone down and flat bottoms.

3. References
 API – Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standard Chapter 2.2A, 2.2B & 2.2D
 ISO Standard 7507 Part 4.

4. Responsibility
 It is the responsibility of the Manager to ensure all relevant information is made available
to the technician assigned to conduct the calibration.
 It is the responsibility of the calibration technician to ensure this work instruction is
complied with.

5. Procedure

Tank Entry Safety


Prior to commencing work on a tank the technician shall satisfy himself that all safety
requirements have been complied with to ensure work can be carried out in a safe manner.
Special emphasis is to be paid with regards to confined space entry. The technician must
also ensure tank is certified gas free and a PTW (permit to work) issued and signed by
suitably authorized personnel. All conditions of the PTW must be complied with at all time
whilst on site. Appropriate PPE (personal protective equipment) must be worn as well as any
additional equipment deemed necessary by the client. Safety ‘standwatch’ should be present
at the tank entrance for duration of internal calibration and sound alarm if emergency occurs.
The technician may also carry out a visual inspection that the tank is effectively isolated and
any potential danger be reported prior to commencing measurement.

Tank Status (API 2.2A Section 9)


 Tanks shall only be calibrated after they have been filled at least once with a liquid of
equal or greater density than the liquid which they will hold when in use. A hydrostatic
test for a period of approximately 24 hrs will satisfy this requirement and this must be
confirmed with tank owner regarding newly constructed tanks.
 Calibration shall be carried out without interruption. If tank is operational then there shall
be no transfers in or out of tank. Operations must be informed that tank is to remain static
during calibration. Measurements may be taken with tank full or empty.
 If the tank is open, it should be certified gas free, clean with no other work going in or
around tank that might interfere or obstruct the calibration operation.
 Lighting, where required, should be suitably placed within the tank so the bottom survey
and internal measurements can be completed.
Procedure for calibration of vertical cylindrical tanks by EODR
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5. Procedures

Definitions
 Reference target point: A fixed point clearly marked on the inside surface of the bottom
course of the tank shell wall.
 Slope distance: The distance measured from the laser measuring device to a target point
on any given course of the tank shell wall.
 Target point: One of a series of points on the inside surface of the tank shell wall to which
slope distance, vertical and horizontal angles are measured by use of the laser
measuring device.

Equipment
 Laser measuring instrument; TPS – System 1100 is an Electronic Theodolite and Total
Station designated for reflector-less position measuring devices.
o The measurement beam emitted from the instrument is visible and can be focused on
a small spot on the object measured.
o Distance and horizontal and vertical angles are instantly presented on a screen.
 Principal specifications of the laser instrument used in this measuring system are as
follows;
Technical Data
Electronic Theodolite T-1100 Model
Angular resolution 3” (1 mgon) for Hz & V
Method – Absolute, continuous 30 X, Erect
telescope
Laser WILD DIOR 3002S Laser diode, effective
output - 1.0mW, Visible red beam, class II
Main power NiCd 12 V DC battery 1.1 Ah
Power consumption 4W 0.33A during measuring
Distance resolution 1 mm
Computer system Self contained LCD display – single face &
portable IBM PC compatible
System performance
Measuring range distance 2-150m without prisms
Measuring range angle 360°, 400 gon
Maximum distance measuring speed 0.3 sec
Angular measuring accuracy 3”(1 mgon)
Distance measuring accuracy +/-2mm + 2ppm
Weight and dimension of the instruments to be taken in the tank
Laser DIOR 3002S 1.7 kgs or 340 x 290 x 200mm
Electronic Theodolite 6.8 kgs
Tribrach, on board battery & tripod 3.7 kgs
Total weight 12.2 kgs
 Instrument mounting: the instrument shall be mounted on a tripod which is firm and
stable. The legs of the tripod shall be held firm, and steadied by suitable devices such as
magnetic bearers, if necessary.
 Stadia: a rigid bar, usually 2m long, such that the graduated length between the two
stadia marks remains constant to within +/- 0.02mm.
 Equipment for bottom calibration: Bottom calibration may be undertaken by the liquid
method or by use of the laser measuring instrument, surveyors level or water filled tubes.
 Auxiliary equipment including;
o Heavy weights to be set around the instrument to steady the unit.
o Proper illumination in the tank, if required.

Procedure for calibration of vertical cylindrical tanks by EODR


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Instrument set up within tank
 Set up
o The instrument shall be set up with care, according to the procedure and
instruction given by the manufacturer.
o The instrument shall be set up so as to be stable. If necessary the tank bottom, in
the vicinity of the instrument, shall be made firm and steady by placing heavy weights
in the area. The legs of the tripod on which the instrument is mounted shall be fixed
by use of suitable devices, such as magnetic bearers, to prevent slippage on the tank
bottom.
o The instrument shall be set perfectly horizontal to ensure that the vertical axis
(standing axis) is vertical.
o The instrument shall be free from external vibration.
o The sighting lines from the instrument to the tank shell wall shall not be obstructed.
 The instrument shall be switched on and brought to operating temperature for at least the
minimum time recommended by the manufacturer.
 After the instrument has reached its correct operating temperature, carry out the
appropriate procedure given by instrument manufacturer. Then select and clearly mark
on the tank shell wall two reference target points, which shall be approximately 100 grad
apart and preferably on the same horizontal plane as the instrument.
 The slope distances to each of the two reference target points shall be measured. Two
successive readings to each reference target points shall be taken. The two readings, at
each point, shall agree within +/- 2mm. The average distance to each point shall be
computed. The slope distance shall be recorded.
 Wait 15 minutes and repeat above. The repeated slope distances shall agree within +/-
2mm of the slope distances originally measured. The slope distance shall be recorded.
 If the original and repeated average slope distances do not agree within +/- 2mm,
determine the reason for the difference;
o If the reason for difference is due to the instrument and/or its stability, repeat the
procedure;
o If the instrument was off during the determination of the difference, repeat the
procedure;
o If neither the above is appropriate, repeat the procedure;
o Repeat the appropriate procedures until two successive readings agree within +/-
2mm.

Selection of Target Points


 There shall be two sets of target points per course, one at 1/5 to 1/4 of course height
above the lower horizontal seam, the other at 1/5 to 1/4 of course height below the upper
horizontal seam.
 The number of target points selected on each course of the tank shell wall is dependent
on tank circumference. The minimum number of target points per set, as a function of
tank circumference, is given below;
Tank Circumference Minimum number
of target points
up to 50 m 8
above 50 m to 100 m 12
above 100 m to 150 m 16
above 150 m to 200 m 20
above 200 m to 250 m 24
above 250 m to 300 m 30
above 300 m 36
Note: A number of target points, greater than the minimum number of points in the table,
may be chosen depending on specific circumstances and tank conditions.
 The target points shall be at least 300mm from any vertical welded seam.

Procedure for calibration of vertical cylindrical tanks by EODR


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Method of calibration
 Sight all the target points along the horizontal plane at each course location, and
measure the slope distance, horizontal angle and vertical angle to each.
 Measure and record the slope distance, horizontal angle and vertical angle to each of the
reference target points.
 Complete the measurements to the target points on each course prior to moving to the
next course. Also measurement shall begin from the bottom course and extend, course by
course, to the top.
 After all measurements on a course are completed, repeat the measurements to the
reference target points.
 If the repeated slope distance to the reference target points do not agree with the
measurements taken during the setting up or the instrument, within the tolerance given
below then repeat the steps above.
 If the horizontal and the vertical angle to the reference target points do not agree within
the tolerance given below, then repeat the steps above.
 If statistical agreement is not obtained between the original and repeated measurements
of either slope distances, horizontal angles or vertical angles, then the reasons for such
disagreement shall be determined, the cause eliminated and the calibration procedure
repeated.
 Carry out all measurements without interruption.

Tolerances
 Reference target point, distance verification; the distance to each of the reference target
point before/after the tank calibration as been carried out shall be within +/- 2mm.
 Reference target point, horizontal and vertical angle verification; the horizontal and
vertical angle to each of the reference target points before and after the tank calibration
has been carried out shall be within +/- 0.005 grad.

Other Measurements
 Tank bottom calibration; the bottom shall be calibrated by the liquid method or by use of
the laser measuring device or by use of surveyors level or water filled tubes. The choice
of method shall be decided by the calibrator, taking into account the facilities available at
the site during calibration.
 Reference height determination; the overall height of the reference point on each dip-
hatch (upper reference point), if fitted, above the dip-point shall be measured using a dip
tape and weight. This overall height, to the nearest millimeter, shall be recorded in the
calibration certificate and permanently marked on the tank adjacent to the dip-hatch.
 The following data shall be determined and processed;
o the density and the working temperature of the liquid to be stored in the tank;
o height of each course;
o thickness of each course of plating;
o safe filling height and maximum filling height;
o deadwood;
o the tilt of tank as shown by the deviation from a vertical line.
 The vertical height difference between the datum-point and the dip-point, if any, shall be
measured by normal surveying methods and recorded. In use, each measured tank dip is
referred to a dip-point; the position of the dip-point may differ from the datum-point used
for the purpose of tank calibration (e.g. on the intersection of the tank shell and the tank
bottom plate).
 If tank construction drawings are available, calibration measurement shall be compared
with the corresponding dimensions shown in the construction drawings. Any
measurement which shows significant discrepancies shall be checked. If the calibration
and drawings measurements do not agree, the reasons for the discrepancy shall be
determined and calibration procedure repeated if necessary.
Procedure for calibration of vertical cylindrical tanks by EODR
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Calculation and development of capacity tables
 Compute the internal radii of the tank by the procedures set below.
o The dimensional co-ordinates of each target point shall be converted to Cartesian
using the following equations; X = [D] [cos θ] [cos Φ], Y= [D] [sin θ] [sin Φ] & Z = [D]
[sin Φ], Where;
D = measured slope distance
Θ = measured horizontal angle
Φ = measured vertical angle
o The calculation of the positions of the various target points at any one, horizontal level
is simplified if the vertical height co-ordinates, Z values, are all reduced to a common
level. Care shall be exercised in this reduction to ensure that the values of the Z co-
ordinates are reduced to a common value which ensures that the adjusted positions of
the target points are on a plane which is normal to the vertical axis of symmetry of the
tank. It should not be assumed that the tank is truly vertical.
o Alternations in the values of a Z co-ordinate will require a compensating alternation in
the values of the X and Y co-ordinates of that point. Such adjustments shall be
carried out by established mathematical techniques.
o Reduction of the values of the X and Y co-ordinates to the internal radius at each
level at which measurements have been taken shall be carried out by established
mathematical techniques.
 Once the internal radii are computed, the development of the capacity table shall be
carried out applying the following correction
o for hydrostatic head effect;
o to the certified tank shell temperature;
o for deadwood;
o for tilt.

Shell Measurement by Laser Method Bottom Calibration by Laser Method

6. Record Keeping
Copies of the technician’s handwritten calculations shall be filed in the appropriate job file, and
held in the location's record system for a period of seven years.

Procedure for calibration of vertical cylindrical tanks by EODR


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