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D e v e l o p m e n t o f a m

D e v e l o p m e n t o f a m u l t i z o n e m o d e l f o r d i r e c t i n j e c t i o n d i e s e l c o m b u s t i o n

Y Liu and K C Midkiff

Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA

S R Bell

School of Engineering, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, USA

Accepted 26 August 2003

Abstract: Diesel engines have attracted considerable engines are high thermal efficiencies and reduced attention in recent years because of the increasingly emissions of hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen restrictive `engine-out’ emission standards being adopted (NO x ). However, diesel engines still emit high levels by regulatory agencies. The cutting-edge technologies of of particulates and achieving acceptable NO x levels emissions reduction in engines fall into three categories: is becoming a challenge as more restrictive emissions preprocessing, improved combustion processing and post- restrictions are implemented. Consequently, motiv- processing. An engine cycle simulation was developed to ation for developing cleaner-burning diesel engines investigate and, thus, find possible avenues of reducing has escalated. emissions through modifying the combustion process. This Three categories of emission reduction strategies simulation includes models for fresh air charging, fuel and are commonly applied to engines: preprocessing, air mixing, wall heat transfer, diesel droplet evaporation, combustion processing and postprocessing. Here,

ignition delay and mixture combustion with species equi- `preprocessing’ refers to all technologies used to treat librium reactions. These models, together with a thermo- the fresh air and/or fuel before its admission into dynamic analysis of the cylinder gas, yield instantaneous the cylinder and `postprocessing refers to the tech- cylinder conditions, overall indicated engine performance nologies applied to the exhaust gas after it leaves the and a prediction of the engine-out NO x and soot emissions. engine cylinder. The application of preprocessing The engine parameters and operating conditions used technologies generally increases the production cost in the work presented here were chosen to be representative of the fuel and reduces emissions by influencing the of a Caterpillar 3401 single-cylinder diesel engine. Experi- combustion process. The obvious shortcomings of mental investigations were also conducted with the engine, postprocessing methods are the extra cost in main- and the combustion model has been verified by comparing tenance and replacement of these devices. Because the experiment results to the simulation results. numerical and experimental studies play a unique role in combustion improvement for engines, further

Key words: multizone model, engine cycle simulation,

emission modelling Engine models of varying complexity are com- monly employed, including relatively simple zero-

dimensional thermodynamic combustion models as

1. Introduction well as complex three-dimensional models. Zero-

dimensional models of diesel engines are typically Diesel fuel is an attractive fuel for reciprocating used to analyse the heat release and fuel-mass burn- internal combustion engines due to its relatively low ing rates based on the solution of a system of ordi- price and its availability. Compared to spark-ignited nary differential equations for pressure, temperature gasoline engines, advantages inherent in diesel and mass. However, they do not explicitly model the

numerical and experimental studies are needed.

Y Liu, K C Midkiff and S R Bell

detailed phenomena, such as diesel fuel droplet vaporization, air entrainment, local temperatures and local equivalence ratio, that vary temporally and spatially. Three-dimensional models use time- averaged and turbulence-correlated conservation equations of mass, momentum, energy and atomic species. In addition to the possible drawbacks of mesh-dependence and mathematically inaccurate approaches to modelling viscous flow and boundary conditions, the time cost to obtain solutions for the governing equations is often burdensome. Quasi- dimensional models can be used to provide some details of the temporal and spatial phenomena of combustion with the potential to reduce the compu-

tational time significantly. volume constraint. The thermodynamic state of

The engine cycle simulation developed in this work was used to model a Caterpillar 3401 engine, which is a single-cylinder, four-stroke, water-cooled, turbocharged direct injection diesel engine.

water-cooled, turbocharged direct injection diesel engine. Fig. 2 Schematic of packet development and air entrainment

Fig. 2 Schematic of packet development and air entrainment during fuel injection.

include mass conservation, energy conservation, the ideal gas equation of state and the cylinder gas

the

gas in each packet is determined from a differential equation for the packet gas energy as shown in Fig. 3:

dE g

dt

=

Ç

Q

combustion

Ç

W

Ç

+ Q

heat transfer

mÇ l h l + mÇ ea h ea

(1)

2. Cycle Simulation Description

Ç

where Q

to diesel combustion, W is the boundary work occur-

combustion is the chemical energy released due

Ç

A schematic describing the major processes in a typi-

cal engine cylinder, which include combustion, heat

transfer and piston work, is shown in Fig. 1. As fuel

is injected into the cylinder, several fuel packets of

equal mass are assumed to be formed for each

angle. Packets formed at different crank angle times

are subject to varying evaporation rates and air entrainment rates. The packet development is sche-

matically described in Fig. 2. The

state of the cylinder gas in each of the packets is

evaluated continuously throughout the engine simu-

lation, and the combustion process details within the T

packet are provided at each time step. The governing equations used in the simulation

Ç

ring on the packet, Q heat transfer represents the radiative

and convective heat losses from the packets and the last two terms represent enthalpies of the vaporized diesel fuel and entrained air respectively. The internal energy of each packet may be written as

crank

dE g

Ç

dt = m g C v T g + C v T g g

(2)

thermodynamic

Combining equations (1) and (2), an expression for the packet temperature can be obtained as

Ç

g =

1

m g C v

(

Ç

Q

combustion

Ç

W

Ç

+ Q

heat transfer

l h l + ea h ea g C v T g )

(3)

+ mÇ e a h e a mÇ g C v T g ) (3) Fig.

Fig. 1 Schematic of a direct injection (DI) engine with thermo- dynamic processes identified.

Runge± Kutta integration of equation (3) is performed on each packet, yielding instantaneous local tem- perature across the cylinder. An average cylinder

local tem- perature across the cylinder. An average cylinder Fig. 3 Schematic of the thermodynamic state

Fig. 3 Schematic of the thermodynamic state in local packets.

Development of a multizone model for DI diesel combustion

temperature is then calculated at each instant and, Equation (4) suggests three critical features. Firstly,

using the ideal gas equation, the cylinder gas press- ure is determined. From the close of the intake valve to the start of fuel injection (FIS), a single zone is used to simulate the compression process, with

property values updated each time step. be stratification of entrainment into different packets.

Each packet is described by an entry index, I, and a

packet classification index, J. I

entry indices and J t is the total number of packet

classification indices. K is an arbitrary air entrain-

ment constant. The parameter m ea refers to the entrained mass of the local packet with entry index

and classification index J and I respectively. The par-

ameter m

The parameters h and h end are the instantaneous cal- culation crank angle and the fuel-injection-end crank angle respectively. The parameters D h calc and D h inj are the calculation time step and overall fuel injection duration respectively used in the calculation. The parameter h s is the time required to completely entrain the surrounding fluid into the spray jet or the time required for the spray jet to engulf the

combustion chamber volume. For simplicity, diesel droplet evaporation was modelled by the isolated, steady state, single-droplet approach of Spalding [ 3 , 4]. To summarize, the solu- tion of mass flux out of the diesel droplet surface is obtained after solving the energy and species equa- tions for the droplet through application of suitable boundary conditions. The mass flux can be written as

is the total mass of the unburned zone.

mation. The boundary work

t is the total number of

routines are used for modelling the processes of fuel evaporation, air entrainment, ignition delay, diesel chemical energy release and combustion product for-

the entrained air mass should be related to the mass of the surrounding fluid. Secondly, the overall entrained air mass should increase as the fuel injec- tion continues. Finally, at each time step there should

Ç

To calculate Q combustion in equation (3), several sub-

Ç

rate ( W ) is obtained by

the simple calculation of the product of pressure, P, and volume change, D V , across each calculation time

Ç

step. The heat loss rate ( Q

heat transfer ) includes the

heat

exchange processes with the surroundings. The last three terms on the right-hand side of equation (3) describe diesel droplet enthalpy, entrained air enthalpy and the internal energy change of a packet.

3. Subroutine development

During the diesel injection process, fuel is sprayed into a relatively high-temperature, high-pressure cyl-

inder charge where the liquid begins vaporizing. As described earlier, the non-uniform mixture in the cyl-

inder is modelled using multiple zones and

the

injected fuel is divided evenly into the packets. In developing the simulation for non-uniform mixtures,

the desire was to introduce air/fuel stratification

in

a realistic yet simple manner. As fuel is injected, air from the surrounding unburned zone is entrained

packet is

identified by the time of entry into the cylinder and

permit

easy identification (the packet numbering method is shown in Fig. 2). No geometrical characteristics are assigned to the spray jet and local packets. The entrained air mass is determined by a simple entrainment function. As the spray jet develops, the entrained air mass increases. As the end of injection approaches, the spray jet dissipates and the air entrainment decays. A simple mathematical equation [1 , 2 ] for the air mass entrained, m ea , was used:

classified by a simple numbering method to

into the various burning packets. Each

ub

mÇ = g * ln ( B + 1)

(6)

Ä

where g * = r / R and B is the mass transfer number. During evaporation prior to combustion, the mass transfer number is evaluated by assuming the Lewis number equal to one (the thermal transfer equivalent to diffusion transfer). The thermal and diffusion transfer numbers prior to combustion may be expressed respectively as

g

B T = C g ( T 2 L + C l ( T w

w

T ) T R )

(7)

and

B D = Y F 2 Y FW

Y FW

Y FR

I t J t ( Y + 1) A D h h calc s

m

ub

B exp A

J t B

I J

I

t

m ea ( I, J ) = K

(4)

(8)

In equation (4), the value of injected fraction, Y, is

determined as a function of crank angle: where the subscripts 2 , w, F and R refer to the sur- rounding ambient, the surface wall of the diesel

droplet, the fuel side and the droplet inner side respectively. After ignition and in the presence of combustion, modification must be made on the mass

Y = G

h end h

D h inj

0

when

when

h < h end

h > h end

(5)

Y Liu, K C Midkiff and S R Bell

transfer numbers, i.e. equations (7) and (8). The updated equations are written as

B T = D H f Y 0 2 + C g ( T 2 T w ) L + C l ( T w T R )

(9)

yields the cylinder gas temperature, expressed as

Ç

T g =

1

m g C v

Ç Ç

( W + Q

heat transfer

mÇ ex h ex

+ in h in g C v T g )

(16)

and

B D = f Y 0 2 + Y FW

Y FR

Y FW

The mass flowrates of exhaust and intake gas can

be calculated using a simple, one-dimensional, adia-

batic, quasi-steady, incompressible flow equation for

an ideal gas:

(10)

where f refers to the stoichiometric fuel± oxygen ratio and D H is the enthalpy of combustion for diesel fuel.

An ignition delay model was used to account for the physical and chemical preparation of the first group of flamelets in the cylinder after fuel injection.

After evaluating several models with the

conditions of the test engine, the Hardenberg and

Hase equation [ 5 ] was selected for ignition delay: depending on the valve lift, valve diameter and

is the open valve port area

where P 1 is the upstream pressure, P 2 is the down-

(17)

mÇ in,ex = A VP C f S

RT c 1 CA P 2 B 2/ c A P 2

2

c

P

1

P

1

B ( c + 1)/ c D 0.5

operating

stream pressure, A

VP

t id = K const exp C E A A

where

R T 17 190B + A P 12.4B 0.63 D

(11)

1

1

21.2

Ä

design of the intake system or exhaust system, C is

f

the discharge coefficient for the valve port, c is the ratio of specific heats and P / P is the downstream± upstream pressure ratio. For choked flow, the press- ure ratio, P 2 / P 1 , in equation (17) can be replaced by

2

1

K const = (0.36 + 0.22SÂ p )

E A =

618 840

CN + 25

(12)

(13)

P 2

P 1

= A

c

+ 2 1 B c /( c 1)

(18)

Combining equations (16), (17) and (18) and the necessary geometric parameters, solutions describ-

speed SÂ p ing the gas exchange processes can be obtained with

acceptable accuracy. The oxides of nitrogen, NO x , are formed mainly at high temperature [7 ] in the presence of nitrogen and oxygen. Nitrogen oxide emissions in combustion result from (a) thermal NO, oxidation of molecular nitrogen in the post-flame zone; (b) prompt NO, for- mation of NO in the flame zone, and (3) fuel-bound NO, oxidation of nitrogen containing compounds in

the fuel [ 8 ]. Thermal NO is the dominant mechanism

in internal combustion engine combustion [ 7 ]. Combustion products of eleven species [ 9 ] were con- sidered in the NO x model: H, O, N, H 2 , OH, CO, NO,

extended Zeldovich mech-

anism [ 8 , 10 ], assuming that N remains in the steady

state concentration [ 11] and all other species concen- trations achieve chemical equilibrium, is used to

determined NO kinetics. The extended Zeldovich mechanism consists of the following three reactions:

The variables appearing in equations (11) to (13) are

temperature T in Kelvin, mean piston

energy

in m/s, pressure P in bars absolute, activation

E A in units of kJ/ kmol, cetane number CN and

ignition delay t id in crank angle (CA) degrees.

A simple model was used [1 , 2 ] for the heat

exchange between the cylinder wall and the

local

combusting packets. The heat transfer rates from the burning packets and the unburned zone can be expressed respectively as

V

2/3

i

( T i T m )

Ç

Ç

Q i = Q

 

and

Ç

Ç

Q m = Q

tot

S V

2/3

i

( T i T m ) + V 2/3 (T m T w )

m

V 2/3

m

( T m T w )

tot

S V

2/3

i

(T i T m ) + V

2/3

m

( T m T w )

(14)

(15)

Ç

In equations (14) and (15), Q tot is the overall cylinder

heat transfer calculated from Woschni’ s correlation

[6 ] and the subscript i refers to the burning

packets,

m to the unburning zone and w to the cylinder wall.

O 2 ,

H O , CO and N . The

2

2

2

Ç

Ç

Ç

The summation of Q m and all Q i yields Q

A thermodynamic model of the cylinder gas is

employed to simulate the exhaust and intake pro- cesses under a transient system analysis of the boundary work and heat loss. Energy conservation

tot .

K

A

N 2 + O u NO + N

K

B

K

C

N + O 2 u NO + O

K

D

(19)

(20)

Development of a multizone model for DI diesel combustion

K

E

N + OH u NO + H

K

F

(21)

Once the concentrations of O 2 , N 2 , H, O, and OH in equations (19), (20) and (21) are known from equilib- rium analysis, the formation rate of N (in terms of

concentration) can be obtained as

dC N

d t

= K A C N 2 C O K B C NO C N

K C C N C O 2 + K D C NO C O

K E C N C OH + K F C NO C H

(22)

The forward and reverse reaction rate constants K A , K B , K C , K D , K E and K F , which are functions of tem- perature, are shown in Table 1 [12 ]. After substituting the steady state N concentration obtained above, the non-linear equation for the rate of change of C NO concentration (d C NO /d t ) can be expressed as

dC NO

dt

= K A C N 2 C O K B C NO C N

+ K C C N C O 2 K D C NO C O

+ K E C N C OH K F C NO C H

(23)

The NO concentration is obtained by solving equa- tion (23). For diesel combustion, particulate emissions stem primarily from the combustion of locally rich mix- tures. Carbonaceous particulates formed from gas- phase processes are generally referred to as soot. The balance between the formation and subsequent destruction by combustion governs the soot concen- tration in the exhaust during engine combustion. Despite much recent progress towards the under- standing of soot formation mechanisms [ 13 ], the exact processes are still unclear. A study of the soot

Rate constants (cm 3 / mol s) and temperature (K)

A = 1.8 × 10 14 × exp

K

A 38370

T

B

K

B = 3.8 × 10 13 × exp

A 425

T

B

 

K

C = 1.8 × 10 10 × T × exp A 4680

T

B

K

D = 3.8 × 10 9 × T × exp A 20820

T

B

K

E = 7.1 × 10 13 × exp

A 450

T

B

K

F = 1.7 × 10 14 × exp

A 24560

T

B

formation process usually considers the simple stages of particle generation and particle growth. The soot formed during the combustion process also sim- ultaneously undergoes oxidation, which can occur at precursor, nuclei and particle growth stages. Soot oxidation, which is a heterogeneous reaction, depends on the diffusion of reactants to and products from the soot surface as well as the kinetics of the reaction. Soot formation is primarily controlled by the tem- perature, pressure and equivalence ratio of the local packets. Based on the work of Hiroyasu and Kadota [ 14], the following model for soot formation was adopted:

dm soot,form

dh

= A form m diesel,gas w B 1 P 0.5 exp A 1.25 × 10

4

Ä

R

T

B

(24)

where m diesel,gas is the mass of the diesel vapour in the local combustion packet, w is the equivalence ratio of local packet, the cylinder pressure P is in

Ä

units of MPa, R is the universal gas constant (kJ/ kmol K), T is the temperature in local packet (K)

and A form and B 1 are constants. Soot oxidation is also governed by the tempera- ture, pressure and equivalence ratio, and the follow- ing equation was used to model the process of soot oxidation [ 14 ]:

dm soot,oxidation

dh

= A oxidation m soot P O 2

P

P 1.8 exp A 1.4 × 10

4

Ä

R

T

B

(25)

where m soot is the mass of the soot particulate in the

local packet, P O

local packet (MPa), P is the cylinder pressure (MPa), T is the temperature in the local packet (K) and A oxidation is a constant. The net soot formation rate is the summation of the soot formation and oxidation rates. Once the local

diesel vapour mass, soot mass, equivalence ratio, oxygen mass fraction, cylinder pressure and tem- perature are known, the net soot formation in local packets can be achieved by integrating over time the summation of soot formation and oxidation rates. Summation of the net soot formation for all packets across the cylinder yields the overall instantaneous soot mass in the chamber.

is the oxygen partial pressure in the
2

4. Results and Discussion

Table 1 Rate constants for the NO formation

As mentioned earlier, the cycle simulation has been

mechanism [11]. developed for modelling the Caterpillar 3401 engine,

Y Liu, K C Midkiff and S R Bell

and the simulation results are compared with the experimental results. The engine specifications and baseline operating conditions for the modelling study were selected to be representative of the test diesel engine. The major engine specifications and baseline operating conditions are summarized in Table 2. Experimental measurements of cylinder

NO x emissions and per-

pressure, injection timing,

formance parameters were conducted on the engine at half-load and 1700 r/min. Cylinder pressure was measured with a piezoelectric pressure sensor coupled with an angular position encoder. A chemi- luminescent analyser was used to measure exhaust gas NO x concentration. Injection timing was meas- ured using a needle lift indicator. The simulation

model was used to predict combustion phenomena at the same conditions for which measurements were made. For the modelling cases investigated, it was

spray

assumed that no wall impingement of the fuel

occurred and the formation of combustion products was calculated for each packet. Summation of these

products across the cylinder yielded the concen-

tration of chemical species in the exhaust gas. The

through

predicted specific emissions were obtained

dividing the emission mass by the measured brake power to compare with the experimental brake specific emissions.

agreement

between the experimental and predicted cylinder

pressures under motoring and baseline firing

operating

operating conditions. The baseline engine

parameters include a speed of 1700 r/min, inlet air temperature of 348 K, inlet pressure of 1.82 bar, start of fuel injection (FIS) at 19 CA BTDC and injection duration of 20 CA. In the modelling work, an assumed mean diameter of 40 mm for diesel droplets (DD) was used.

Figure 4 shows that there is good

Cylinders

1

Cycle

4

Bore (mm)

137

Stroke (mm)

165

Displacement volume (cm 3 )

2442

Compression ratio (CR)

15.1

Normal injection timing (BTDC) 20 ± 0.5

Injection duration (CA)

20 ± 0.5

Inlet air temperature (K)

349

Inlet air pressure (kPa)

182

Exhaust pressure (kPa)

131

Speed (r/min)

1700

Power (kW)

20.9

Torque (N m)

117

Table 2 Caterpillar 3401 engine specifications and baseline operating conditions.

engine specifications and baseline operating conditions. Fig. 4 Instantaneous cylinder pressures and needle lift as

Fig. 4 Instantaneous cylinder pressures and needle lift as a function of crank angle for baseline firing and motoring operations with conditions: 1700 r/min, half-load, CR = 15.1, DD = 40 m m, FIS = 19 CA.

Figure 5 shows the experimental and predicted results for the heat release rate with the experimental needle lift for the baseline firing operating condition. The ignition delay can be obtained from the rise of the needle to the start of the positive heat release rate in the experimental results. During the ignition delay, the heat release rate is slightly negative. The model prediction of the heat release rate of premixed combustion is slightly less than the experimental result. The peaks of the heat release rate curves in the premixed combustion period were pronounced in both the experimental result and simulation results. The predicted heat release rate also shows a

results. The predicted heat release rate also shows a Fig. 5 Instantaneous heat release rates and

Fig. 5 Instantaneous heat release rates and needle lift as a function of crank angle for the baseline firing operation with conditions: 1700 r/min, half-load, CR = 15.1, DD = 40 m m, FIS = 19 CA.

Development of a multizone model for DI diesel combustion

slightly longer period of late diffusion combustion than the experimental results. Overall, good agree- ment is seen between the experimental and predicted heat release results. Results of the predicted cylinder average tempera- ture and specific NO x and soot emissions are shown for the baseline conditions in Fig. 6. Experimental soot measurements have not been made and, there- fore, are not available for verification. In equations (24) and (25), constants for soot formation, A form , B 1 and A oxidation , were tentatively chosen as 2 × 10 4 , 0.6 and 5 × 10 2 respectively, according to the experimen- tal results by others [ 15 ] using the same engine. Comparison between the simulation results and experimental soot results from elsewhere [ 15 ] sug- gests that the order of magnitude predicted appears reasonable. As shown in Fig. 6, the specific NO x and soot emissions peaked and levelled off late in the combustion process as the gas temperatures dropped to relatively cool levels.

Figure 7 shows the influence of the engine running quarter- and load on the cylinder pressure. The best pressure T in = 75 °C.

match between the simulation and experiment is

seen at the half-load condition. Table 3 presents

is seen at the half-load condition. Table 3 presents Fig. 7 Instantaneous cylinder pressures as a

Fig. 7 Instantaneous cylinder pressures as a function of crank angle for varying engine loads with conditions:

full-load: Pin = 202 kPa, P ex = 187 kPa, Tin = 55 °C;

half-loads: P in = 182 kPa, P ex = 170 kPa,

the

engine emissions are given in Table 4. Reasonably good agreement of specific NO x emissions between the experimental and simulation results occurred for all loads, but in all cases the model underpredicts NO x emissions. This underprediction of NO x is simi- lar to many previous modelling efforts. This prob- ably occurs because the small but very hot regions in the flame sheets surrounding burning fuel pro- duce high levels of NO x emissions but are not rep- resented well by relatively coarse models. Predicted soot emissions increased with load, as would be expected. Figure 8 shows the soot formation in the cylinder as a function of crank angle for quarter-, half- and full-load conditions. Although the pre- dicted rate of soot formation is lower for quarter- load, the soot formation rate is nearly the same for both half- and full-loads. Due to the increased equiv- alence ratio for full-load, the lower soot oxidation yields a higher specific engine-out soot for the prediction. Figure 9 presents the influence of varying engine speeds (1300, 1500 and 1700 r/min) on the cylinder pressures. With the same inlet air temperature, inlet pressure, exhaust pressure and engine load, decreas- ing the engine speed increases the cylinder pressure

specific NO in both the experimental and simulation results.

Table 5 presents the influence of engine speed on the

angle for the baseline firing operation with conditions:

m m, FIS = engine performance at half-load with increasing

19 CA. engine speed, leading to increased engine indicated

1700 r/ min, half-load, CR = 15.1, DD = 40

influence of the engine running load on the engine

performance for both experiment and simulation.

The results show that increased loads yielded lower

indicated specific fuel consumption

( i.s.f.c.). The

results also show good agreement between the experimental and predicted values for power and

fuel consumption. The influence of the engine running load on the

consumption. The influence of the engine running load on the Fig. 6 Instantaneous gas average temperature

Fig. 6 Instantaneous gas average temperature and in-cylinder

x and soot emissions as a function of crank

Y Liu, K C Midkiff and S R Bell

Indicated power (kW)

I.s.f.c. (g/ kW h)

Load Experiment Simulation Experiment Simulation

1/4

15.1

17.6

193

196

2/4

26.0

28.5

183

186

4/4

47.3

50.3

181

184

Table 3 Influence of the engine load on the engine performance.

Specific NO x (g/kW h) Specific soot (g/kW h)

Load Experiment Simulation Simulation

1/4

14.8

9.2

0.08

2/4

14.1

12.1

0.58

4/4

10.2

7.2

2.0

Table 4 Influence of the engine load on the engine emissions.

4 Influence of the engine load on the engine emissions. Fig. 9 Instantaneous cylinder pressures as
4 Influence of the engine load on the engine emissions. Fig. 9 Instantaneous cylinder pressures as

Fig. 9 Instantaneous cylinder pressures as a function of crank angle for varying engine speeds with conditions:

P in = 182 kPa, P ex = 170 kPa, T in = 75 °C, half-load.

Fig. 8 Instantaneous in-cylinder soot emissions as a function of crank angle for varying engine loads with conditions:

full-load: P in = 202 kPa, P ex = 187 kPa, Tin = 55 °C; quarter- and half-loads: P in = 182 kPa, P ex = 170 kPa,

cylinder pressure in both the experimental and simu-

T in = 75 ° C. lation results. Increasing the inlet air temperatures slightly improves the fuel efficiency, as shown in

Table 7, but leads to higher levels of specific NO x emissions, as shown in Table 8, and predicted soot emissions increase with temperature increase due to the higher equivalence ratio resulting from the higher inlet air temperature.

power and essentially constant fuel consumption.

slightly

increases the specific NO x emissions for both experi-

ment and simulation but decreases specific soot

model

slightly underpredicts NO x levels for all engine speeds. The cylinder pressures around top dead centre (TDC) are presented in Fig. 10, showing the influence of varying inlet air temperatures on the combustion process. Increasing inlet air temperatures lowers the

emissions in the simulation results. Again, the

Table 6 shows that increasing engine speed

5. Conclusions

A phenomenological engine cycle simulation has been developed for evaluating the use of diesel fuel

Development of a multizone model for DI diesel combustion

Indicated power (kW)

I.s.f.c. (g/ kW h)

Speed (r/min) Experiment Simulation Experiment Simulation

1300

24.7

26.6

183

187

1500

25.2

27.1

183

187

1700

26.0

28.5

182

186

Table 5 Influence of the engine speed on the engine performance at half-load.

Specific NO x (g/kW h) Specific soot (g/ kW h)

Speed (r/ min) Experiment Simulation Simulation

1300

13.4

11.2

0.84

1500

13.4

11.8

0.86

1700

14.1

12.1

0.58

Table 6 Influence of the engine speed on the engine emissions at half-load.

of the engine speed on the engine emissions at half-load. combustion and emission formation processes were

combustion and emission formation processes were investigated along with overall engine performance. Reasonable agreements with experimental data for cylinder pressure and NO x were obtained using the model. The major conclusions of the study include:

1. The multizone model for direct injection (DI) diesel combustion was developed and verified with limited experimental data. Coupled with the chemical equilibrium reactions, the extended Zeldovich mechanism and soot formation oxi- dation were successfully integrated in the engine simulation for calculating NO x and soot emissions. Predicted soot emissions are yet to be verified by comparison to experiment, although literature data [ 15 ] suggest that the order of magnitude predicted is reasonable.

Fig. 10 Instantaneous cylinder pressures as a function of 2. The difference between predicted and experimen- crank angle for varying inlet air temperatures with tal peak cylinder pressures in the baseline and

parametric studies is less than 5 per cent for all

specific fuel con-

sumptions are very close to the experimental

NO x emissions for

Caterpillar 3401 engine was modelled and tested varying loads, engine speeds and inlet air tem- experimentally and results from the model and peratures showed reasonable agreements with the

experiments have been compared. The details of the

experimental results, although model predictions

in a reciprocating, compression ignition engine. A

conditions: P in = 182 kPa, P ex = 170 kPa, half-load, 1700 r/min.

cases. The predicted indicated

results. The calculated specific

Indicated power (kW)

I.s.f.c. (g/ kW h)

T in ( °C) Experiment Simulation Experiment Simulation

75

26.0

28.5

183

186

95

25.8

28.2

182

186

115

25.5

28.1

181

183

Table 7 Influence of the inlet air temperature on the engine performance at half-load.

Y Liu, K C Midkiff and S R Bell

Specific NO x (g/kW h) Specific soot (g/ kW h)

T in ( °C) Experiment Simulation Simulation

75

14.1

12.1

0.58

95

15.4

14.1

0.77

115

16.6

16.2

0.92

Table 8 Influence of the inlet air temperature on the engine emissions at half-load.

were somewhat lower than the measured NO x Subscripts

emissions. 3. The influence of engine operating parameters (such as engine load, engine speed and inlet air temperature) on the engine combustion process and emissions has been investigated. Models for NO x and soot emissions provide the potential to assist in the design and operating parameter selection for optimized operation.

ea

ex

g

in

l

entrained air exhaust gas in local packet intake liquid phase

Acknowledgeme nts

The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from Caterpillar, Inc. and The Center for Advanced Vehicle Technologies at The University of Alabama, which receives partial funding from the Alabama Department of Transportation under Project HPP-1602 (526).

References

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2

Notation

BTDC

before top dead centre

C i

concentration of species i ( i = H, O, N,

CA

H 2 , OH, CO, NO, O 2 , H 2 O, CO 2 or N 2 ) crank angle

CN

cetane number

CR

compression ratio

DD

mean diameter for diesel droplets

E

internal energy

FIS

start of fuel

injection

h

specific enthalpy

L

latent heat

m

mass

mass flux out of the diesel droplet surface

P

pressure

Ç

Q

i heat transfer rate from the `burning’

Ç

Q m

packets

heat transfer rate from the `unburned’ zone

Ä

4 Spalding, D. B. Some Fundamentals of Combustion, 1955 (Academic Press, London). 5 Hardenberg, H. O. and Hase, F. W. An empirical for- mula for computing the pressure rise delay of a fuel from its cetane number and from the relevant param- eters of direct-injection diesel engines. SAE Paper 79493, 1979.

6 Woshni, G. Universally applicable equation for the instantaneous heat transfer coefficient in the internal combustion engine. SAE Paper 670931, 1967. 7 Newhall, H. K. and Shahed, S. M. Kinetics of nitric

V volume oxide formation in high pressure flames. In Thirteenth

T temperature

R universal gas constant = 8.314 (kJ/kmol K)

Ç

W boundary work occurring on the packet

D H

D V

h instantaneous crank angle position

w equivalence ratio

heat of combustion of the diesel fuel volume change

Symposium (International ) on Combustion, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1971, pp. 381± 389.

8 Breen, B. P. Combustion control for elimination of NO emissions from fossil-fuel power plants. In Thirteenth Symposium (International ) on Combustion, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1971, pp. 391± 401. 9 Olikara, C. and Borman, G. L. A computer program

Development of a multizone model for DI diesel combustion

for calculating properties of equilibrium combustion products with some applications to I.C. engines. SAE Paper 750468, 1975.

and Models, 1994 (Springer, Berlin, Germany). 14 Hiroyasu, H. and Kadota, T. Model for combustion and formation of nitric oxide and soot in direct injection in a direct injection diesel engine. SAE Paper 760129, 1976. 15 Curtis, E. W., Uludogan, A. and Reitz, R. D. A new

Fundamentals, 1988 (McGraw-Hill, New York). high pressure droplet vaporization model for diesel

Pollution Engineering, 1990 (Prentice-Hall PTR, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey). Lindstedt, P. Soot Formation in CombustionÐMechanisms

13

10 Lavoie, G. A. and Heywood, J. B. Experimental and theoretical investigation of NO formation in internal combustion engines. Combust. Sci. Technol., 1970, 1, 313± 326.

11 Heywood, J. B. Internal Combustion Engine

12 Flagan, R. C. and Seinfeld, J. H. Fundamentals of Air

engine modeling. SAE Paper 952431, 1995.