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# LEVERAGING PERFORMANCE AND

## POWER SAVINGS FOR EMBEDDED

SYSTEMS USING MULTIPLE TARGET

Guided By:
Presentation By:
Mr.MANU.T.S DHANESH.M.S
Lecturer Roll.No:2007
Dept. of ECE M.Tech (Electronics) with specialization in
VLSI and Embedded systems
TKI, Karuvelil
CONTENTS:
 INTRODUCTION
 DVFS

 TGPM-ALL FLOWCHART

##  FLOW CHART EXPLANATION

 TGPM-ALL ALGORITHM

 TGPM-N FLOWCHART

 TGPM-N ALGORITHM

 PERFORMANCE COMPARISON

 CONCLUSION

 REFERENCES
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INTRODUCTION:
 Increasing the performance is one of the
fundamental aim of embedded system design.
 Our aim is to increase performance while keeping
energy consumption low.
 To achieve this we define TGPM algorithm.

3
DYNAMIC VOLTAGE AND FREQUENCY
SCALING(DVFS):
 P α f V2
 Vαf
 Pαf 3

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TGPM-ALL ALGORITHM.
TGPM-ALL Start
FLOW CHART:
Pre processing steps

Queue

Compute f*

met ?

## Remove that test Remove all test cases

cases from queue. From queue.

## Is queue Execute task at f*

empty ?
No Yes
6
speed.
PREPROCESSING STEP:
 tij = tijon + tijoff

Case P(τij) tijon tijoff Dij
τi23
i1 0.1
0.2 40
10 0 100
20
τi5
i2
i23 0.1
0.2
0.4 10.001
10.
20 0 20
40
τi3 0.1 10 0 20
τi4 0.3 30 0 60
τi1
i5 0.4
0.1 20
40 0 40
100

##  Pass these values to a queue.

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NEWTON INTERIOR POINT ALGORITHM:
 For frequency optimization.
φ(f)=(-1/t)Σlog(Di-(wion/f)-wioff)-(1/t)log(fi-fi*)-(1/t)log(1-fi)
Initialize t=1, β=5/6 , є=0.000001;
Loop:
1. Compute ∆f := − 2φ(f)-1 φ(f);
and λ2 := φ(f)T 2φ(f)-1 φ(f).
2. Stopping criterion: quit if λ2 /2 ≤ є.
3. update t := β * t
4. update value of f, f := f + t ∆f
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VERIFICATION:
 Checks whether task gets completed as expected.
 If yes, remove all other task case from the queue
and operate at this frequency.
 If No, remove that task case from the queue and
repeat this algorithm.
 If queue is empty, operate at full speed.

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TGPM-ALL ALGORITHM:

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COMPLEXITY:
 Checks test cases until appropriate test cases are
selected.
 If no: of test cases are very large and no test case
gives correct frequency, then after examining all the
test case task has to be completed at full speed.
 This will increase the complexity with out any
benefit.

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TGPM-N ALGORITHM.
TGPM-N Start
FLOW CHART:
Pre processing steps & k=0

Queue

Compute f*

met ?

## Remove that test

cases from Remove all test cases
queue,k=k+1 From queue.
No
No Is queue
Is k=N?
empty ?

Yes 13
speed. stop
 This algorithm keeps track of the number of failed
test case attempts for task T.
 If it meets the predefined value N, it will discard
remaining test cases for the task.
 Execute the task at full speed until completion.

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TGPM-N ALGORITHM

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PERFORMANCE COMPARISON;
EFFECTS OF Poff,C AND ti*off
 Effects of these parameters are similar on all
DVFS-based power management schemes.
 As (poff/pon(f)) increases, off-chip components
consume relatively more energy.
 Increased switching capacitance (C) and off-chip

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EFFECTS OF TEST CASE SIZE ON ENERGY
CONSUMPTION.

## TGPM-ALL slowly deteriorates as the number of

test cases and failed test cases increases. 17
EFFECTS OF SLACKS ON ENERGY
CONSUMPTION.

## TGPM-ALL and BEST have very similar sensitivity to

available slacks.
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EFFECTS OF TEST CASE SIZE ON
EFFICINCENCY.

## TGPM-1 ensures shorter completion of tasks and

efficient frequency assignment by switching to full
speed after the most probable test case fails to hold. 19
CONCLUSION:
 TGPM algorithm is introduced to increase
performance while keeping energy consumption
low
 There are two versions of this algorithm TGPM-ALL
and TGPM-N
 Can save up to 60% of CPU power by using this
algorithm.

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REFERENCES:
i. Edward Y. Y. Kan , W. K. Chan and T. H. Tse.
Leveraging Performance and Power Savings for
Embedded Systems using Multiple Target
Deadlines, Quality Software (QSIC), 2010 10th
International Conference, IEEE.
ii. T. K. Tan , A. Raghunathan , and N. K. Jha.
Embedded Operating System Energy Analysis
and Macro-modeling, IEEE.
iii. S. Boyd and L. Vandenberghe. Convex
Optimization. Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge, 2004.
iv. http://www.stanford.edu/class/ee364b/lectures/tru
nc_newton_slides.pdf 21