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Chapter

1
Introduction
Chapter Outline
· Information Representation
· Architecture of Computer and
Embedded Systems
· Design Problem
· Organization of the Text
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D
igital circuits, systems, and digital techniques play a dominant role in our day-to-day life.
They find extensive applications in most physical systems—communication and signal pro
cessing systems, data processing, automation, robots, computers, medical instrumentation,
consumer electronics, digital signal processors (DSPs), and embedded systems. The information or
data is processed in these systems. In communication networks, information or signal is processed
and then transferred between users located at various geographical places/points. Examples of such
networks include telephone networks, computer communication networks, TV/wireless broadcast
systems, cellular networks, and internet.

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2 Digital Design

Digital circuits and systems, being basically information/data processing systems, consist of
logic gates, combinational and sequential logic circuits (flip-flops, counters, and registers), memory
circuits, programmable logic devices (PLDs), and embedded systems with field programmable gate
arrays (FPGAs). It is in this context that the text addresses to the study and design of these circuits
and systems. Emphasis has also been laid to the HDL-based digital design.
In this chapter, we present concepts associated with representation of information: why do we
prefer digital circuits/systems and basic architecture of a computer and an embedded system which
comprises several representative digital systems/sub-systems. Subsequent sections deal with de-
sign concepts, computer-aided design (CAD), modular concept of design and organization of the
text.

1.1 Information Representation


Information may be speech, music, spatially varying pattern of image or picture in TV or data,
which is basically converted into an electrical signal for processing, transmission, and reception.
Non-electrical signals are converted into electrical signals by employing transducers or low-power
transducers called sensors. Signal conditioning systems assist in transforming the output of trans-
ducers or actuators to the desired form required by the next stage of the system. They are also used
for amplification, signal processing, refining, and wave-shaping of signals.
Information may be available in discrete form of data or may often be obtained by first sam-
pling and quantizing the analog signal and then converting into digital signal/data using an encoder.
The signals which are both time and amplitude discrete are referred to as digital signals. Analog to
digital converters (ADC) are generally employed for converting an analog electrical signal into a
numerically coded (digital) signal. It performs sample and hold along with quantizing and encoding
operations. The digital signal/data are processed by digital systems. In digital circuits/systems and
computers, the information is discrete in nature and is usually in the form of binary data with digits
0 and 1, which are known as bits.
Since analog signal output is required in most physical systems e.g., electrical signal required
to drive motors and signal for the speaker to provide acoustical signal, the digital signal/data is
again converted to analog signal by employing digital to analog converters (DAC). These signal
processing operations are shown in Fig. 1.1.

Physical Signal Digital


Senser / conditioning system /
ADC DAC Actuator
Variable transducer system computer
(analog)

Analog Digital Digital Analog Physical


Analog
signal signal signal data data signal Variable
(analog)

Figure 1.1 Signal Processing Operations

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Chapter 1 | Introduction 3

A question that now arises. Why do we employ digital circuits/systems? Digital circuits/systems are preferred
over analog systems due to the following advantages:
· Unlike analog circuits, operation of digital circuits is not affected by the precise values of digital
signals.
· Unlike analog circuits, the digital circuits can be cascaded without any loading problems.
· Digital circuits are less sensitive to tolerances of component values and are independent of aging,
temperature, and other external parameters.
· Digital systems are less affected by spurious fluctuations of signal (noise) so long as we are able to
distinguish a HIGH from a LOW level in the presence of noise.
· Digital systems can handle data with precision and more accuracy.
· Operation of digital systems can be controlled easily by a set of instructions called a program.
· Digital circuitry and large size digital systems (VLSI) may be programmed and fabricated easily
and economically.
· Billions of bits of information may be stored in a very small physical space in memory units.
Digital circuits/ systems suffer from the following:
· Limited range of frequencies (usually less than 1 GHz) available for operation/processing that is
mainly governed by the sample and hold circuits and ADC.
· Requirement of pre-processing and post-processing devices such as ADC and DAC, complex digital
circuitry, and processors.
However, the advantages overweigh the disadvantages of digital circuits/systems. With continuing
decrease in the cost of digital circuitry and processors, applications of digital circuits/systems are increasing
rapidly.

1.2 Architecture of Computer and Embedded Systems


The structure and contents of logic blocks constitute the architecture of a digital system. Let us
discuss the architecture of computer and embedded systems.
Architecture of a Computer Computer is most commonly used digital system in our day-to-day
activities such as transportation, medical diagnosis and treatment, and business transactions. Com-
puters are also used in design, manufacturing processes, and industries and are employed for moni-
toring environment and weather. A digital computer processes binary data to perform various com-
putational tasks. Although basic rudiments of computers are introduced at school level, it is worth
considering architecture of a computer. Hardware constituents of a computer (computer compo-
nents) will be discussed in various chapters of this text.
Computer system consists of two functional entities – hardware and software packages, which
are referred as operating systems. Software consists of instructions and programs. The computer
system hardware is organized to form computer system architecture. As shown in Fig. 1.2 basic
constituents of a computer system are central processing unit (CPU), memory unit, and input—
output processing unit. The CPU can be mainly divided into arithmetic logic unit (ALU), control
unit and set of registers to perform special functions and short-term storage of data inside the CPU
without accessing the external memory.

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4 Digital Design

Memory
unit

ALU

Control
unit

cpu

From Input Input output output To outside


output devices inter facing devices world
world

Figure 1.2 Basic Constituents of a Computer System

All arithmetic and logic operations on data are performed in ALU. The types of operations
that can be performed in ALU are controlled by the control unit. Memory provides the necessary
data to be operated on by the ALU. The intermediate and final results of processed data are trans-
ferred to the output unit.
Control unit consists of decoders, a sequence counter, number of control logic gates, flip-
flops, and registers. It continually fetches and executes instructions. The specified operations are
executed by sending proper signals to the rest of the units. The timings for all flip-flops and regis-
ters in the system are controlled by a master clock generator.
Memory, an essential unit in computer used to store the programs and data, consists of RAM
chips and ROM chips. RAM is used for storing bulk of the programs and data that are subject to
change. Since CPU can access any location in this memory unit at random, this memory is called
random access memory (RAM). RAM section provides the designed memory capacity and is used
to store programs and data that will often change during operation. Integrated circuit RAMs are of
two types: static RAM and dynamic RAM. Static RAM essentially consists of flip—flops to store
binary information that remains valid as long as power is available. Dynamic RAM (DRAM) has
larger storage capacity and operates with reduced power consumption. ROM (read only memory)
chips store instructions and data permanently that do not change; this memory is not lost when
power is shut off.
Input—output (I/O) devices transfer/communicate information between the computer and out-
side world. The external information/data are transferred by the input devices to memory or ALU as
controlled by the control unit. Keyboards, modems, ADC, magnetic disk drives, and magnetic tapes
constitute input devices. The control unit directs output devices to receive data from memory or
ALU and then provide information/data from the computer to the outside world. Commonly em-
ployed output devices are DAC, LED readouts, video monitors, printers, disks, or tape units.

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Chapter 1 | Introduction 5

Microcomputers and Microprocessors The heart of every microcomputer is a microprocessor unit (a


single IC) that provides timing and control signal for all units of the microcomputer, fetches instruc-
tions, and transfers data to and from memory, performs arithmetic and logic operations. It is the
CPU of a microcomputer. Basic microprocessor and architecture of a microcomputer is shown in
Fig. 1.3.

Memory
RAM ROM
Clock

Address and
Microprocessor
Data bus

Input Output
Register Inter facing
Section

ALU

Control
and
Input Input
Timing
Devices Devices
section

(a) Basic microprocessor (b) Architecture of a microcomputer

Figure 1.3 Basic Microprocessor and Architecture of a Microcomputer

Architecture of Embedded Systems An embedded system may be considered to be a combination of


a specific computer software and/or system/device to perform a dedicated function for a specified
application. With information technology playing a dominant role, our lives have become more
dependent on embedded systems. Embedded systems include mobile phones, embedded communi-
cation and control systems, ‘robotic surgeon’, ‘smart home’, safety-critical applications in railways,
aircrafts, aerospace, and automotive devices. Most embedded systems employ digital signal proces-
sors, FPGAs, sensors, actuators, communication, and software tools. Figure 1.4 shows the sche-
matic diagram of an embedded system for Tsunami detection and decision support system. In this
embedded system, real-time operating system (RTOS) and data integration software may be em-
ployed for Tsunami detection process. Based on wave models, decision criteria, and inundation
impacts for Tsunami decision support processing system, information regarding effective measures
to be taken may be provided to the outside world.

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6 Digital Design

Signal detection
hardware

CPU
Tsunami
Tsunami
RTOS decision
detection
support
processing

Data Integration
software
Wave Decision Inundation
models criteria Impacts

Information to Outside world

Figure 1.4 Schematic Diagram of an Embedded System for Tsunami


Detection and Decision Support System
Commonly used mobile set, referred as mobile station (MS), is an embedded system with
various sub-systems such as communication system, central processor with keyboard and other
accessories and subscriber identity module (SIM), shown in Fig. 1.5. The communication system
block with transmitter and receiver are shown separately in Fig. 1.6. A mobile station may be
considered to comprise following main functional groups:

Communication
system

Central Processor
with clock, internal
bus and keyboard

SIM

Figure 1.5 A Mobile Set

· Mobile terminal that offers common functions used by all services that the MS offers.
· Terminal equipment is a peripheral device of MS that offers services to a user and does not contain
GSM specific functions.
· SIM is personalization of the mobile terminal that stores user parameters.

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Chapter 1 | Introduction 7

Antenna

Voice Channel
decoding Demodulator
decoder
Speaker

Channel
Modulator Amplifier
Voice encoding
encoder

Microphone
Figure 1.6 Communication System Block

1.3 Design Problem


The design of basic digital electronic systems/sub-systems/circuits, can be considered to mainly be
concerned with the design of combinational, sequential, memory circuits, programmable logic de-
vices, and embedded systems with field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). Design problem of all
physical systems (be it digital circuits/systems) begins with the following:
· Definition of the problem to be tackled that arises when there are needs to be met with.
· The desired specifications to be met with along with Performance Indices (PI). The desired specifi-
cations and PI provide qualitative and quantitative measures to be taken for satisfying the needs.

1.3.1 Design/Computer Aided Design


Figure 1.7 shows a simple block diagram showing the steps involved in the design/computer-aided
design (CAD). For a given set of desired specifications and PI, a model is chosen based on the
following criteria:
· Available technology [before the advent of ICs, the models were based on solid-state bipolar and uni-
polar devices (BJT, FET etc.].
· Technical know how (know how increases with more and more advanced techniques known or learnt).
· Experience

Figure 1.7 Block Diagram for Design / CAD

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8 Digital Design

Model: Various types of models are used to study how well each strategy can meet the desired
objective.
Analysis is used to explore and evaluate how well the model meets the specifications and PI. If
the specifications and PI are met by analysis, the breadboard form (which is useful for laboratory
test and evaluation) is built to test whether the design meets the specifications and PI.
Next, a prototype is fabricated that is an exact replica of the production version. If the specifi-
cations and PI are met after final testing, manufacture/production begins in the form of an integrated
circuit (IC) chip. An integrated chip may in general consist of logic gates, flip-flops, counters,
registers, ALU, etc.
At any stage if the specifications and PI are not met, the model is altered and all the steps are
repeated. Feedback path may be used and changes may be incorporated at the fundamental level, if
necessary, and the whole process may be repeated to meet the performance objectives.
Computer-aided design (CAD) helps in improving reliability at the modelling stage and re-
duction in the cost of breadboards and prototypes. With realistic simulation of all aspects of the
circuit performance, breadboard and prototype stages are completely eliminated.
In summary, electronic design (even CAD) is an iterative process that requires repeated ef-
forts through the design cycle (as per Fig. 1.7). In general, computer-aided design environment may
require several tools and techniques such as support devices, simulation, analytical tools, data base
management system, expert systems, graphic packages, etc. (as shown in Fig. 1.8).
Simulation and
Modelling
Text files Support
/ HDL Devices

Analytical
IP Core CAD Tools

User Graphics
Interface
Database
System

Fig. 1.8

Figure 1.8 Computer-Aided Design Environment

Production and testing are often dependent on computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) and/ or
computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) with automated work units (robots), networks of com-
puter systems, and automatic test equipment.

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Chapter 1 | Introduction 9

1.3.2 Modular Approach to Design


Most digital hardware units/circuits/systems are designed on modular basis. A digital hardware
unit/circuit/system may be partitioned into smaller modules/blocks and each module/block, with
specific circuitry, may be designed separately. The interconnections between various modules may
be defined and these modules may be combined as per design requirements to form a single hard-
ware unit.
Figure 1.9 shows a schematic flow chart adopted for modular approach to design. The details
of the enclosed part in the box of this figure are shown separately in Fig. 1.10.

Design
formulation
Macromodel
A

Module Module º Module


1 2 N

Define interconnection
between modules

no
Simulation of
complete system
yes

Hardware
realization

Testing

yes
no

yes

Product implementation

Figure 1.9 Flow Chart for Modular Approach to Design

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10 Digital Design

Module

Sub module Sub module

Sub leaf Sub leaf Sub leaf Sub leaf


module module module module

Figure 1.10 Details of Module

CAD tools may be used in the simulation process. If simulation results show error due to
faulty design of some modules then path A is followed or some modules may be dropped. On the
other hand, path B is followed to redefine interconnections if the simulation error is due to intercon-
nection of modules. If the simulation of complete system/circuit suggests that the design specifica-
tions and performance requirements of the designed system/circuit are achieved, the hardware real-
ization may be obtained. After successful simulation and testing of hardware realization, produc-
tion implementation may be carried out. If the specifications are not met at any stage, the modules
may be altered with all the steps repeated.
Some of these aspects of design have been extensively considered in Chapter 5 and Chap-
ter 10.

1.4 Organization of the Text


The text is designed with systematic exposure of the digital electronics concepts with emphasis laid
to the HDL-based digital design that will help in educating and understanding the basic principles
involved in digital systems design.
Chapter 1 is organized to motivate the students to the basic foundation course in digital
electronics by discussing concepts associated with representation of information, why do we prefer
digital circuits/ systems, the role of digital components and hardware in constituting a computer
system and embedded system. This chapter also addresses design/computer-aided design concepts
and the modular approach to design of digital systems. Last section of the chapter deals with the
organization of the text covered in the book.
The number systems and binary codes necessary to perform arithmetic operations and data
processing in a digital computer are introduced in Chapter 2.
Basic logic gates, switching mode operation of semiconductor devices employed for design of
logic gate families and performance specifications of logic gates are discussed in Chapter 3. In
view of present-day context, more emphasis has been laid on MOS logic families in this chapter.
Chapter 4 addresses to the optimization of logic functions using Boolean algebra, minimiza-
tion of Boolean expressions/functions and logic implementation using gates.
Chapter 5 concentrates on introduction of HDL-based digital design, VHDL, and Verilog
HDL terminology and architecture, and design of sequential circuits using both the languages.

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Chapter 1 | Introduction 11

Three subsequent chapters of this text present a fundamentally different outlook in terms of an
integrated approach to design of all logic circuits using conventional design along with HDL. The
design of digital systems constructed with combination logic circuits – arithmetic circuits, code
converters, multiplexers and de-multiplexers is considered in Chapter 6.
Chapter 7 deals with the design of sequential logic circuits comprising flip-flops, counters,
and shift registers. The second fundamentally different approach of this book is in concentrating
exclusively on design of asynchronous sequential circuits, extensively used in VLSI circuits in
Chapter 8.
In addition to conventional memory, new developments in memory such as floating gate memory
and programmable logic devices (PLD), field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) have been appro-
priately presented in Chapters 9 and 10. Floating gate memory, PLDs, FPGAs are employed in
VLSI circuits and embedded systems.
Chapter 11 is devoted to basic pulse and linear wave-shaping circuits, comparators, regenera-
tive comparator (Schmitt Trigger), clock generator, and monostable multivibrators.
The concepts of data acquisition and signal conversion, used for signal conditioning have
been introduced in Appendix A. This Appendix also addresses the digital signal processors (DSP),
commonly employed in VLSI circuits and embedded systems.

Summary
Digital circuits and systems have a profound effect on our day-to-day life. Information or data is processed in
these systems that, in general, consist of logic gates, combinational and sequential logic circuits, memory
circuits, programmable logic devices (PLDs) and embedded systems with field programmable gate arrays
(FPGAs). The text, therefore, addresses the study and design of these circuits and systems with emphasis on
the HDL-based digital design.
This chapter has introduced the concepts associated with representation of information and the reasons
why we prefer digital circuits/systems. Basic architecture of a computer and an embedded system (which
comprises several representative digital systems/sub-systems), design concepts, computer-aided design (CAD),
modular concept of design, and organization of the text have been discussed in subsequent sections of this
chapter.

References and Suggested Readings


1. Lee, Samual C., Digital Circuits and Logic Design, Prentice Hall Inc., 1976.
2. Gothmann, William H., Digital Electronics, an Introduction to Theory and Practice, Prentice Hall of
India, 1977.
3. Tocci, Ronald J., and Neal S. Widmer, Digital Systems Principles and Applications, Pearson Educa-
tion, 2005.
4. Brown Stephen, and Zvonko Vranesic, Fundamentals of Digital Logic Design with VHDL, 2nd edi-
tion, TMH, 2007.
5. Wolf, Wayne, Computers as Components - Principles of Embedded Computer System Design, Mor-
gan Kaufmann Publisher, an Imprint of Elsevier, 2008.

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12 Digital Design

Review Questions
1.1. Justify that the digital systems have a profound effect on our society.
1.2. Why do we prefer digital systems over analog systems?
1.3. What do you mean by information? How is the information represented?
1.4. Discuss the role of the CPU in a computer.
1.5. Describe the major functions of each of the basic units of a computer.
1.6. Briefly discuss the architecture of a microcomputer.
1.7. What is an embedded system? Explain with an example.
1.8. Define the digital design problem.
1.9. Using a suitable schematic diagram, explain the computer-aided design approach.
1.10. Distinguish between the following terms: – CAM, CIM and CAD.
1.11. Describe the modular approach to design as applied to digital hardware units/circuits/systems.

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