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Innovation in Learning

A A GENERAL ISSUES

Longevity
Lesson code: L4IC-CSEB-CSGX-Q INTERMEDIATE

1 Warm-up
What do you think is important for a long healthy life?

2 Health and wellbeing


Match the words on the left with their definitions on the right:

1. longevity a. extremely fat


2. premature b. happening too soon
3. life expectancy c. having more body weight than normal
4. overweight d. how long you are likely to live
5. obese e. living for a long time
6. wellbeing f. rich
7. neighbourhood g. the area of a town or city where you live
8. wealthy h. the state of feeling happy and healthy

3 Find the information


Complete the average number of years that each of the following lifestyles and behaviours add to a
person's life expectancy according to the `research' in the article, and write down the reasons given:

a. Eating chocolate 1 year (antioxidants in dark chocolate)


b. Eating less meat
c. Keeping active
d. University education (men)
e. Education (women)
f. Golf
g. Not smoking
h. Marriage (men)
i. Marriage (women)
j. Living in the right neighbourhood
LE

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Longevity
Innovation in Learning

A A A A GENERAL ISSUES

How to live to 114 (in theory)


Doctors can now tell us which habits may extend our lives - and just how much extra
time they give us.
By Roger Dobson, Tuesday, 21 October 2008

1 New research shows exactly how many years study shows a 40 per cent reduced risk of a
longer people can live by adopting healthy premature end. The health benefits of exercise and
behaviours - from stopping smoking and losing companionship may be the reason.
weight to eating less meat and being positive.
7 Losing weight can add as much as seven years to
2 Studies have suggested that dark chocolate is a person's life. A team at Oxford University
good for the heart and may boost longevity. showed that people who are obese at the age of
Research based on Harvard graduates showed 40 died, on average, seven years earlier.
that people who eat chocolate lived a year or so
longer than those who do not. Those who ate one 8 Not smoking adds up to 10 years to life. A team at
to three bars a month came out best with a 36 per the University of Helsinki found that those who
cent lower risk of premature death. Antioxidants, had never smoked lived an average 10 years
especially in dark chocolate, may be responsible. longer than those who smoked more than 20 a
3 Diets with low levels of meat and vegetarian diets day. Research on men in New Zealand showed
have been linked to lower risk of premature death. that 50 per cent of smokers die prematurely, and
A review of research by public health specialists that they die 14 years earlier than non-smokers.
at Loma Linda University in America looked at the Heart disease and cancer are among the biggest
life expectancy of those who rarely ate meat and killers. The good news for smokers is that it is
found that sticking to such a diet added 3.6 years never too late to give up, According to the US
to a person's life. The health effect may be due to National Institute on Drug Abuse, a 35-year-old
lower saturated fat intake and higher antioxidant man who quits smoking will increase his life
levels as a consequence of eating more fruit and expectancy by 5.1 years on average.
vegetables.
9 According to a Chicago University report, married
4 Moderate to high levels of activity can extend life men live, on average, 10 years longer than
by between 1.3 and 3.7 years. Researchers at non-married men, while married women live about
Erasmus University in the Netherlands say the four years longer than non-married women. One
main reason is the beneficial effect that physical theory is that married men adopt less risky and
activity has on the heart. People who take exercise more healthy lifestyles as a result of the
are also less likely to be overweight and more commitment that marriage brings. Married women
likely to have a better quality of life. may live longer due to improved financial
5 Highly educated women can expect to live more wellbeing. However, one Swiss study found that
than five years longer than less-educated women, being married shortens a woman's life by 1.4
while men with a university degree have an extra years, possibly because of the stress of living with
7.8 years, according to a Harvard University a man.
study. One explanation is the adoption of healthier
10 Wealthy people live longer than the poor. One of
lifestyles, and one of the biggest differences was
the clearest contrasts was found by Baltimore
in heart disease rates.
health officials in the US. In the poor
6 Research at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden neighbourhoods, the average life expectancy was
shows that golfers live five years longer. The 63 years, against 83 in wealthy suburbs.
LE

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Review your flashcards at least 3-5 times a week for 20 minutes to keep the material fresh in your memory.
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Linguahouse.com OC
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TM
Longevity
Innovation in Learning

A A A A GENERAL ISSUES

4 Lifestyle phrases
Match the verbs on the left with the words on the right to form phrases from the text:

1. stick to a. a healthier lifestyle


2. adopt b. a healthy diet
3. quit c. exercise
4. be d. married
5. lose e. positive
6. take f. smoking
7. get g. weight

5 Explaining and speculating


Look at the following sentence from the text:

Antioxidants, especially in dark chocolate, may be responsible.


The underlined structure is used for speculating on the reason for something. Find similar
expressions in paragraphs 3,4,5,6 and 9.
Complete the following sentences using the expressions from this exercise:

1. Research shows that older adults perform better at university than younger adults. that
older people tend to have more motivation because they have had to experience life's difficulties.
2. Road accidents tend to happen more often on Fridays than other days. This
end-of-week tiredness and heavy traffic.
3. Sharks do not often eat the humans that they attack. that the human body does not
provide the high-energy fat that sharks need.
4. James failed his driving test poor preparation.
5. Many people lose their memories when they get older. The loss of "synapses" or connections
between brain cells .
6. The average sea level around the world is rising. global warming.
7. Mark's computer has been operating very slowly recently, a virus.
8. People from southern Europe are often very cheerful. the warm and sunny weather.
9. Some people are obese despite not eating too much. Genetic factors .
10. The economy is doing badly this year the financial crisis.

6 Talking point
What do you think of the research findings in the article?
Is the life expectancy in your country high or low? What are the reasons for this?
Is it good to live to a very old age?
LE

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Review your flashcards at least 3-5 times a week for 20 minutes to keep the material fresh in your memory.
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Longevity - Key
Innovation in Learning

A A A A GENERAL ISSUES

1- Warm-up

Possible answers include: keep active, have a healthy diet, reduce stress, live in a country which has a high
standard of living, have good genes, etc.

2- Health and wellbeing

1. e 2. b 3. d 4. c 5. a 6. h 7. g 8. f

3- Find the information

a. -
b. 3.6 years (lower saturated fat intake, higher antioxidant levels)
c. 1.3-3.7 years (good for the heart, less likely to become obese)
d. 7.8 years (adoption of healthier lifestyle)
e. 5 years (adoption of healthier lifestyle)
f. 5 years (exercise and companionship)
g. 10 years (reduced risk of cancer and heart disease)
h. 10 years (adoption of less risky and healthier lifestyle)
i. 4 years (financial wellbeing)
j. 20 years (wealthy people live longer)

4- Lifestyle phrases

1. b 2. a 3. f 4. e 5. g 6. c 7. d

5- Explaining and speculating

... may be due to ...; ... as a consequence of ... (formal) (P3)


the main reason is ... (P4)
One explanation is ... (P5)
... may be the reason (P6)
One theory is that ... (P9)
... due to ...; ... possibly because of ... (P9)

Possible answers:
1. One explanation is/One theory is
2. may be due to
3. The main reason is/One explanation is/One theory is
4. due to/as a consequence of
5. may be the reason/may be responsible
6. The main reason is
7. possibly because of
8. The main reason is/One explanation is/One theory is
9. may be the reason/may be responsible
10. due to/as a consequence of
LE

You can review this worksheet online at www.linguahouse.com/ex i


AB

Review your flashcards at least 3-5 times a week for 20 minutes to keep the material fresh in your memory.
PI

O
c
Linguahouse.com OC
P H OT