Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 15

Main Battle Tank - T-80/T80U/T80UM/T-80UM1/T-80UM2 Page 1 of 15

Main | Wargames Section: | Tiger Tanks Section: | Main Battle Tanks Section: | Main Battle Tank Prototypes: | Links

T-80U Main Battle Tank. Photo courtesy of Alexey Marakov - Tanks in Moscow web site.
Today is: August 22, 2008
Last Updated: July 8, 2006

Russian T-80U/UM/UM1/UM2 Main Battle Tank.

Introduction:
The development of the T-80 Main Battle Tank started in the Soviet era, with the tank entering service
in 1976. The T-80 was the first production tank in the world to be equipped with a gas turbine engine. At
first, Western analysts confused it with the T-72, as they looked similar, but actually the two tanks were
rather different.

The T-72 (left) and the T-80 (right). Western analysts were confused between the two, but the T-80 was rather different.

Actually, the two tanks were the product of two different design bureaus: the T-80 from Kharkiv
Morozov Machine Building Design Bureau in Kharkiv, Ukraine, and the T-72 from Uralvagonzavod
(Dzierzhinsky Ural Railroad Car Works) - UVZ, at Nizhny Tagil, Russia). They were only similar in general
appearance.

file://C:\Documents and Settings\Owner\Desktop\T-80U.htm 8/22/2008


Main Battle Tank - T-80/T80U/T80UM/T-80UM1/T-80UM2 Page 2 of 15

Two generations of the T-80 Main Battle Tank: On the left, the T-80B; on the right, the new T-84.

The T-80 was a direct descendant of the earlier T-64, which was a high-technology main battle tank
designed by the Tank Design Bureau of Kharkiv that went to revolutionize the Soviet tank concept. This new
tank design concepts, were developed under the leadership of Aleksandr A. Morozov, and the T-64 became
the first main battle tank of the new generation of Soviet-designed tanks. The T-64 was the first tank in the
world to feature an automatic loader, enabling the crew to be cut from four to three - commander, gunner
and driver.

The T-64 is thus considered to be a landmark in the history of tank development in the Soviet Union, as
every tank of the Soviet T-series entering service ever since (specially the T-80, T-80U, and its posterior
developments) was influenced by the concepts initially introduced by the T-64 tank design.

Unlike the T-72, the T-64 was only used by the Soviet Army and never exported. It was superior to the
T-72 in most qualitative terms, until the introduction of the T-72B model in 1985. Both tanks armed elite and
regular formations in Eastern Europe and elsewhere, the T-64A model being first deployed with East
Germany's Group of Soviet Forces in Germany (GSFG) in 1976, and some time later in Hungary's Southern
Group of Forces (SFG).

By 1981 the T-64B began to be deployed in East Germany and later in Hungary. While it was believed
that the T-64 was only reserved for elite units, it was also used by much lower "non-ready formations", for
example, the Odessa Military District's 14th Army. The T-72 shared a similar destiny, being deployed on high
readiness formation all across the Western Military District (Rogachev Guards Motorized Rifle Division in the
Belarus MD and Iron Division's Motorized Rifle Division in the Carpathian MD) and Eastern Europe (Central
Group of Forces in Czechoslovakia), but also on lower readiness formations on Transbaikal and Central-Asia
MD since late 1980s.

The T-64A was a further development of the T-64 tank by means of fitting it with a 125mm smoothbore
gun (1969), improvement of the engine systems and running gear. The T-64B was a further development of
the T-64A tank by means of installing a more advanced fire control system and armament stabilizer, guided
missile system, improving the protection level etc. The T-64BV had all of those, plus featured an enhanced
anti-radiation protection and add-on explosive reactive armor.

From left to right: T-64A, T-64B, and T-64BV Main Battle Tanks.

Other advanced features included a sophisticated multi-layer protection, NBC protection system, new
layout of the power pack compartment, as well as the more sophisticated automatic fire control and gun-
lunched missile ability that appeared with the T-64B in 1976. All those innovations were also installed on the
T-80, as well as the high cost composite armor.

This pattern continued with the T-80. The Morozov bureau improved upon the earlier design,
introducing a gas turbine engine, developing 1,000 hp, in the original model. This gave the tank a high
power-to-weight ratio and made it one of the most mobile main battle tanks in the world, and consequently it

file://C:\Documents and Settings\Owner\Desktop\T-80U.htm 8/22/2008


Main Battle Tank - T-80/T80U/T80UM/T-80UM1/T-80UM2 Page 3 of 15

was referred to as the "flying tank". In subsequent variants of the T-80, the gas turbine has been
replaced with a diesel engine, to lower maintenance costs. Between 1976 and the present the T-80 has
undergone a number of modifications that included the T-80, T-80B, T-80U ("U" corresponds to "Y" in the
cyrillic alphabet, meaning improved), and the T-80UD ("D" meaning diesel engine).

T-80 MAIN BATTLE TANK: VARIANTS

T-80B (left), T-80UM (center), and T-80UK (right) Main Battle Tanks.

VARIANTS:

T-80 - First production model, essentially a T-64 with GTD-1000 1,100 hp (820 kW) gas turbine engine.

T-80B - New ceramic armor.

T-80BV - Added explosive reactive armor.

T-80U (1985) - New turret. Added ATGM AT-11 Sniper. Improved 1,250 hp (930 kW) GTD-1250 engine. Added Kontakt-5
explosive reactive armor.

T-80UD - Ukrainian diesel-engined version with 1,000 hp (750 kW) 6TD engine (exported to Pakistan).

T-80UK, T-80UDK - Command version of T-80U, equipped with the Shtora Electro-optical countermeasures system.

T-80UM - Russian version, with new Buran Thermal Imaging sight in place of Luna IR.

T-80UM1 "Bars" (Snow Leopard) - Russian prototype with new Arena countermeasures system, upgraded 2A46-M4 main gun,
and GTD-1250G engine.

T-80UM2 "Chiorny Oriol" (Black Eagle) - Russian prototype with new turret including separate crew and ammo compartments,
blow-out panels on the ammo compartment, new autoloader, Kaktus ERA, new targeting systems, extended hull with an
additional road wheel, and other undisclosed improvements.

T-84- Ukrainian development of the T-80UD.

T-84 Oplot - Ukranian development, based on a T-80UD, with advanced features, such as: new all-welded turret; new generation
of explosive reactive armor, that increases protection form both chemical energy and kinetic energy attack over the frontal arc;
thermal imaging sight; and a new 1,200 hp engine.

T-84 Yatagan - Further Ukrainian development, based on the T-84 Oplot MBT, fitted with a 120mm smoothbore gun compatible
with NATO 120 mm ammunition, fed by a bustle-mounted automatic loader.

T-80U Main Battle Tank.

T-80U MBT

The T-80 appeared as production model in 1984, retaining the basic features of the T-64 series
(including the 125mm smoothbore gun with autoloader). Major innovations included the first Soviet use of a
gas turbine engine, providing increased speed and power, and the first use of a laser rangefinder providing
major improvements in fire control. It incorporates features common to both the T-64 and T-72, especially in
weaponry. Easily distinguishable features of this tank as compared with the standard T-72 are the attachment
of side skirts and twelve turret-mounted grenade launchers with seven on the left side and five on the right

file://C:\Documents and Settings\Owner\Desktop\T-80U.htm 8/22/2008


Main Battle Tank - T-80/T80U/T80UM/T-80UM1/T-80UM2 Page 4 of 15

side.

Firepower

The T-80U(M) was also the first production Soviet tank to incorporate a laser range finder and ballistic
computer system. The original night sight is the II Buran-PA (800-1300 meters range). The 12.7-mm MG
NSVT has both remote electronically operated sight PZU-5 and gun-mounted K10-T reflex sight. The night
sight cannot be used to launch the ATGM. The day sight can be used at night for launching ATGMs if the
target is illuminated. A variety of thermal sights is available, including the Russian Agava-2, French SAGEM-
produced ALIS and Namut sight from Peleng. Thermal sights are available for installation which permit night
launch of ATGMs.

The T-80U carries the 9M119 Refleks (NATO designation AT-11 Sniper) anti-tank guided missile system
which is fired from the main gun. The range of the missile is 100m to 4,000m. The system is intended to
engage tanks fitted with ERA (Explosive Reactive Armour) as well as low-flying air targets such as helicopters,
at a range of up to 5km. The missile system fires either the 9M119 or 9M119M missiles, which have semi-
automatic laser beam riding guidance.

T-80 Main Battle Tank, at the firing range.

The T-80U (and subsequent models) uses the 125mm 2A46M-1/2A46M-4 smoothbore 125 mm guns,
though the fire control system is an improvement over that fitted to earlier Soviet tanks. The 125 mm
weapon fires APFSDS, HEAT, and HEF ammunition, carrying 45 rounds (of which 28 stored in a carousel auto-
loader), to a maximum aimed range of 3,000 - 4,000 meters (depending on the type of ammunition), at a
rate of between 6 and 8 rounds/minute. Loading is hydro-mechanical with a 28 round carousel container. 45
rounds are carried. The gun fires separate loading projectiles which have semi-combustible cartridge case and
sabot.

The 125 mm gun is also capable of launching the 9M119M "Refleks-M" (AT-11 Sniper-B) ATGM, up to a
range of 5,000 meters.

Protection

The T-80U has advanced composite armor at the front and sides, and the front, side and top armor
behind Kontakt-5 ERA (T-80U, U(M), UK) or Arena APS (T-80UM1). Modernization options for the T-80U MBT
- of which the best known example is T-80UM1 "Bars" (Snow Leopard) - include the fitting of the Arena
prototype APS, Shtora-1 EOCMDAS or its components, upgraded 2A46-M4 main gun, GTD-1250G engine, and
an air conditioner.

T-80U MBT - Estimated Armor Protection Levels:

T-80U Main Battle Tank, Against Kinetic Energy Against Chemical Energy
with Kontakt-5 ERA (in mm of RHAe) (in mm of RHAe)

Turret 280 - 850 960 - 1,450

Glacis 780 1,080

Lower Front Hull 310 - 430 500

RHAe = Rolled Homogeneous Armor Equivalent; an equivalent RHA thickness of a


given armor type against a given armor piercing ammunition or missile (i.e. Kinetic
Energy penetrators, like APFSDS DU long-rod penetrators or Chemical Energy
projectiles, like HEAT ammunition and ATGM's). Modern composite (Chobham) armor
may be several times more efficient against Chemical Energy than RHA of the same
thickness.

Source: Tank Protection Levels web site.

file://C:\Documents and Settings\Owner\Desktop\T-80U.htm 8/22/2008


Main Battle Tank - T-80/T80U/T80UM/T-80UM1/T-80UM2 Page 5 of 15

Kontakt-5 is a Russian type of third-generation explosive reactive armour. It is the first type of ERA
which is effectively able to defeat modern APFSDS rounds. Introduced on the T-80U tank in 1985, Kontakt-5
is made up of "bricks" of explosive sandwiched between two metal plates. The plates are arranged in such a
way as to move sideways rapidly when the explosive detonates. This will force an incoming KE-penetrator or
shaped charge jet to cut through more armour than the thickness of the plating itself, since "new" plating is
constantly fed into the penetrating body. A KE-penetrator will also be subjected to powerful sideways forces,
which might be large enough to cut the rod into two or more pieces. This will significantly reduce the
penetrating capabilities of the penetrator, since the penetrating force will be dissipated over a larger volume
of armor.

Other countermeasures include quieter running, gas-turbine engine which exhausts smokeless gases,
improved heat insulation of roof and hatches, ventilation of the engine-transmission system, cooling system,
smoke-laying system and smoke discharging system.

Mobility

The T-80 was the first Soviet operational tank to be powered by a gas-turbine, with a GTD-1000 gas-
turbine engine developing 1100 hp. The road wheel spacing is not identical, with distinct gaps between the
three pairs of road wheels. To extend the operational range of the T-80, additional fuel tanks can be mounted
at the hull rear, which can be quickly jettisoned if required. A large circular container mounted on the turret
rear carries two snorkels for deep fording operations. The larger one provides an air intake for the gas-
turbine, with the other being fitted onto the radiator grill.

The T-80U has excellent mobility, due to its low ground pressure, and is also one of the world's fastest MBTs.

The T-80U MBT uses the GTD-1250 gas turbine. It is a step ahead of the GTD-1000T and GTD-1000TF
engines that were installed on the previous tanks of T-80 line. This gas turbine can use jet fuels as well as
diesel and low-octane gasoline, has good dynamic stability, service life, and reliability. the GTD-1250 gas
turbine has a built-in automatic system of dust deposits removal.

The latest engine - GTD-1250G - also features a hydro volume turning mechanism that reduces the fuel
consumption by 9% while increasing the average speed by 29%.

T-80UK - Command Tank

The T-80UK tank provides command and control capability for field commanders and enable
communications with superior command. It is similar to the T-80U but has a number of additional features. It
is fitted with the Shtora-1 countermeasures suite also fitted on the T-90 tank. Shtora-1 is produced by
Electronintorg of Russia. This system includes infrared jammer, laser warning system, grenade discharging
system and a computerized control system. Operational range is 200m.

The tank has a combined symmetric dipole antenna for both UHF and HF communications. This
increases range when the tank is stationary - up to 40km for the R-163-50U radio and 350 km for the R-163-
50K radio. An AB-1-P28 1kW benzene generator is provided to power communications when the tank is
stationary. T-80UK also has a more advanced fire control system, automatic loader for the gun, built-in turret
ERA (Explosive Reactive Armour) and TNA-4-3 navigational aid.

Specifications
T-80U SPECIFICATIONS:

file://C:\Documents and Settings\Owner\Desktop\T-80U.htm 8/22/2008


Main Battle Tank - T-80/T80U/T80UM/T-80UM1/T-80UM2 Page 6 of 15

SPECIFICATIONS - T 80U MAIN BATTLE TANK, RUSSIA

Crew 3

Weight 46 tons
GTD three shafts with two cascades of turbo
Engine compression power turbine and GTD-1250 controlled
nozzle assembly

Power 1250 hp

Transmission mechanical, planetary

Track metallic with rmsh and rubber-tyred road wheels

Suspension torsion bar

Shock absorbers hydraulic, telescopic (on 1, 2 and 6 road wheels)

Electrical equipment 22 - 29 v DC

Starter storage batteries 4

Total capacity 340 a h

Radio receive/transmit, telephone, simplex, R-173

Intercom for four men R-174

Ground pressure 0.865 kg/sq cm

Road speed unpaved 40 - 45 km/hour

Paved 60 - 65 km/hour

Maximum Speed 70 km/hour

Fuel consumption for 100 km

Unpaved road 460 - 790 liters

Paved road 430 - 500 liters

Fuel endurance

Unpaved road 335 km (main fuel tanks)

400 km (with extra fuel drums)

file://C:\Documents and Settings\Owner\Desktop\T-80U.htm 8/22/2008


Main Battle Tank - T-80/T80U/T80UM/T-80UM1/T-80UM2 Page 7 of 15

Paved road 500 km (main fuel tanks)


600 km (with extra fuel drums)

Obstacle Crossing

Gradient 32 deg

Side slope 30 deg

Trench 2.85 m

Fording depth

Without preparation 1.2 m

With preparation 1.8 m

With snorkel 5m

Dimensions

Length (gun forwards) 9.66 m

Length (over hull) 7m

Length of track on ground 4.3 m

Width (over tracks) 3.4 m

Width (over gill armor panels) 3.6 m

Track 2.8 m
Height (over turret roof) 2.2 m

Ground clearance 451 mm

Weapons

Main gun 125 mm 2A46M-1 smoothbore

Rate of fire 6-8 rounds/min

Elevation/depression +15 to -5 deg

Coaxial machine gun 7.62 mm PKT

Machine gun 12.7 mm utes (NSVT-12.7) AD

Ammunition

125 mm 2A46M-1 gun 45 rounds

7.62 mm machine gun 1250 cartridges

12.7 mm ad machine gun: 500 cartridges

T80UK VARIANT

Combat rate of fire of 125 mm


4 rounds/min
gun:

Maximum range 4,000 m with HE-Frag with time and percussion fuzes:

Ammunition

Main Gun 30 rounds

PKT machine gun 750 cartridges

Communications

UHF R-163-50u radio


Range under light cross-country
20 km
terrain with rod antenna

Range with combined antenna 40 km

Frequency 30 - 80 MHz

10 preset frequencies

uhf with frequency modulation, transmit/receive mode


R-163up radio
of operation by telephone

Frequency bands 10

Range under light cross-country


10 km
terrain with rod antenna:

receive/transmit mode, telephone/telegraph with


R-163-50k radio
amplitude modulation

Frequency 2 - 30 MHz, 16 preset frequencies

file://C:\Documents and Settings\Owner\Desktop\T-80U.htm 8/22/2008


Main Battle Tank - T-80/T80U/T80UM/T-80UM1/T-80UM2 Page 8 of 15

Range under light cross-country


20 - 50 km
terrain with rod antenna

Range with combined antenna 350 km

Ukrainian T-80UD, T-84 Oplot, and T-84 Yatagan MBT.

T-80UD Main Battle Tank.


Photos: Kharkiv Morozov Machine Building Design Bureau (left); Army Technology Web site (right).

T-80UD Main Battle Tank

The T-80UD main battle tank was designed by the Kharkiv Morozov Machine Building Design
Bureau - KMBD at the beginning of the 1980's and entered series production at the State Enterprise
Malyshev Plant in 1985. KMBD is a state-owned company settled in Kharkiv, Ukraine, which designed many of
the most famous Soviet tanks during the course of it's history. It was responsible for many important Soviet
tanks, including BT tank series, T-34, T-55, and T-64. Later, the company has produced advanced, quality
designs following the T-64 heritage, like the T-80 and it's variants, and more recently, the T-84 series of Main
Battle Tanks.

Firepower:

The T-80UD is fitted with an advanced fire control system, and either the gunner or commander can lay
and fire the main armament at stationary and moving targets while the tank is stationary or moving with a
high first round hit probability.

The commander's PNK-4S observation and sighting system comprises a commander's TKN-4S
combined day/night sight and a gun position sensor. The commander's TKN-4S combined sight is stabilized in
the vertical plane and has three channels: a day unity vision channel, a day channel with magnification of x8
and a night channel with magnification of 5.4x.

The gunner's 1G46 day sight has a two-axis stabilized line of sight and incorporates a laser range-
finder and a missile guidance capability. In the standard version the gunner has a TO1-KO1E sighting system
with TPN-4E image intensification sight, but as an option, the Buran-Catherine-E thermal imaging sight can
be fitted.

The 1V528-1 ballistic computer automatically takes into account all the inputs from the sensors
including tank speed, angular target speed, gun trunnion axis cant, crosswind speed, target range, and
course angle. Additionally, the following parameters are manually input: ambient air temperature, charge
temperature, barrel wear ambient air pressure and so on. The computer also computes the time when the
high-explosive fragmentation projectile with controlled detonation should be detonated over the target.

The main armament consists of a 125mm KBA3 smoothbore gun fed by a carousel-type automatic
loader and fitted with a thermal sleeve and fume extractor (bore evacuator). The main gun has a quick-
replacement barrel which can be changed under field conditions without the need to remove the gun from the
tank. This gun is installed in the KMBD's main battle tanks T-84 Oplot and T-80UD. The gun weighs 2500 kg,
and has a muzzle velocity of 1700 m/s, when firing firing the 3VBM17 "MANGO" APFSDS round.

T-80UD carries 45 two-piece rounds (projectile and charge), of which 28 rounds are placed in the
automatic loader, with the remainder being stored at the driver's station and in the fighting compartment.
Types of ammunition that can be fired by the gun include APFSDS (armor-piercing stabilized discarding
sabot), HEAT (high explosive anti-tank), HE-FRAG (high explosive fragmentation) rounds and the 9M119M
"Refleks-M" (AT-11 Sniper-B).

file://C:\Documents and Settings\Owner\Desktop\T-80U.htm 8/22/2008


Main Battle Tank - T-80/T80U/T80UM/T-80UM1/T-80UM2 Page 9 of 15

The role of the 9M119M "Refleks-M" system is to enable the main gun to fire a laser guided missile with
a maximum range of 5,000 m. The missile consists of two parts. The missile can be fired while both the tank
and target are moving. The tandem warhead enables the missile to defeat targets fitted with explosive
reactive armor with a high degree of efficiency. Although the primary role of the missile is to engage tanks
and other AFV's operating at ranges beyond the effective range of the 125mm tank gun firing conventional
ammunition, it can also be fired against other battlefield targets such as hovering helicopters and pillboxes.

Besides the main gun, the T-80UD also has a 7.62mm coaxial machine gun and 12.7mm anti-aircraft
machine gun. The anti-aircraft machine gun is mounted on the commander's cupola and is intended for use in
the ground/air and ground/ground roles being aimed and fired while remaining in the vehicle under full armor
protection from the commander's station. The machine gun can be elevated from -5° to +70° and traversed
through +/-75° to the right and left of the vehicle longitudinal axis, or through +360° together with the tank
turret. The machine gun is fitted with a vertical stabilization system providing stabilization in the vertical
angle range of -3° to +20°.

Protection:

The armor protection of the T-80UD, which includes advanced multi-layer armor and explosive reactive
armor package for the turret and chassis, provides to the T-80UD a high level of battlefield survivability. The
T-80UD can disguise itself on the battlefield by laying a smoke/aerosol screen. Mounted on either side of the
turret is a bank of four electrically operated smoke grenade launchers.

T-80UD MBT - Estimated Armor Protection Levels:

T-80UD Main Battle Tank, Against Kinetic Energy Against Chemical Energy
with Kontakt-5 ERA (in mm of RHAe) (in mm of RHAe)

Turret 280 - 850 960 - 1,450

Glacis 780 1,080

Lower Front Hull 310 - 430 500

RHAe = Rolled Homogeneous Armor Equivalent; an equivalent RHA thickness of a


given armor type against a given armor piercing ammunition or missile (i.e. Kinetic
Energy penetrators, like APFSDS DU long-rod penetrators or Chemical Energy
projectiles, like HEAT ammunition and ATGM's). Modern composite (Chobham) armor
may be several times more efficient against Chemical Energy than RHA of the same
thickness.

Source: Tank Protection Levels web site.

The T-80UD can lay its own smoke screen by injecting diesel fuel in the engine exhaust (i.e. by using
so-called engine smoke emitter). To reduce the thermal signature of the tank on the battlefield, the T-80UD
power pack compartment top deck is fitted with special heat insulation.

Mobility:

The T-80UD is powered by a model 6TD-1 6-cylinder diesel engine developing 1,000 hp. The air inlet of
the engine allows air to be ducted from the least dusty quarter and enables water obstacles to be crossed to a
water depth of 1.8 m without preparation. There are two parts to the air filtration system, the centrifugal pre-
cleaners and the air cleaner casing. This enables the tank to be operated in hot and dusty conditions for up to
1,000 km without a change of filters and to carry out combat under radioactive conditions.

The suspension is of the torsion bar type with each side having six dual rubber-tyred road wheels with
the idler at the front, drive sprocket at the rear and track support rollers. The upper part of the suspension is
covered by a skirt, the forward part of which is armored (fitted with explosive reactive armor). A rubber mat
hangs at the front of the vehicle and this helps to keep the dust down.

Other Features:

The T-80UD MBT standard equipment also includes an NBC system, provision for deep fording, fire
detection/suppression system, radiation shielding and a dozer blade mounted under the front of the hull. The
NBC protection system protects the crew and inner equipment of the tank against the effects of nuclear
explosions, radioactive dust, toxic agents and bacteriological materials.

file://C:\Documents and Settings\Owner\Desktop\T-80U.htm 8/22/2008


Main Battle Tank - T-80/T80U/T80UM/T-80UM1/T-80UM2 Page 10 of 15

The deep fording equipment enables the tank to cross water obstacles to a water depth of 5 m (1.8 m
deep water obstacles can be crossed without preparation). The fire detection/suppression system enables
internal fires to be detected and suppressed in both crew compartment and power pack compartment. The
radiation shielding is designed in the form of liner fixed on both internal and external surfaces of the tank.

The dozer blade enables the tank to dig up a tank caponier within 15-40 minutes depending on the type
of ground. The T-80UD can be fitted with various types of mine-clearing system at the front of the hull
including KMT-6 plough-type system and KMT-7 roller-type system. Two long-range fuel tanks and an
unditching beam can be mounted at the rear of the hull.

The T-80UD main battle tank is in service with Ukraine, Russia and Pakistan.

T-84 Oplot Main Battle Tank. Photos: Kharkiv Morozov Machine Building Design Bureau.

T-84 Oplot Main Battle Tank

The first T-84 prototype was completed in 1994, and then several other prototypes were produced.
Those were subjected to extensive trials, both in the Kharkiv Morozov Machine Building Design Bureau
facilities and with the Army. Only after successful completion of this extensive trials program in mid-1990's,
the T-84 entered service with the Ukrainian Army in 1999.

The T-84 Oplot main battle tank is the result of the continued main battle tank development by the
Kharkiv Morozov Machine Building Design Bureau, which is Ukraine's leading design authority for
armored fighting vehicles.

The overall layout of the T-84 Oplot main battle tank is conventional, with the driver's compartment at
the front, fighting compartment in the center and power pack at the rear. The driver is seated in the center
and has a single-piece hatch cover that lifts and swings to the right. In front of this are three forward-facing
periscopes, and the center one of those can be replaced by a night driving device. There is an escape hatch in
the hull floor, behind the driver. The commander is seated on the right and the gunner on the left. Both are
provided with single-piece roof hatches.

The T-84 Oplot main battle tank is based on the T-80UD, but has a number of advanced features
which distinguish it from the former:

 new all-welded turret;


 explosive reactive armor of new generation to give more protection against both chemical energy and kinetic energy
attack over the frontal arc;
 thermal imaging sight;
 1,200 hp engine rather than a 1,000 hp engine the T-80UD is powered by;
 digitization of the electronics packages associated with the fire-control system;
 optronic countermeasures system;
 auxiliary power unit;
 muzzle reference system;
 navigation system;
 enlarged side skirts to give additional protection of the hull sides and running gear components against attacks by
infantry armed with short range anti-tank missiles.

file://C:\Documents and Settings\Owner\Desktop\T-80U.htm 8/22/2008


Main Battle Tank - T-80/T80U/T80UM/T-80UM1/T-80UM2 Page 11 of 15

Two views of the T-84 Main Battle Tank - to the left, an early T-84; to the right, the new T-84 Oplot.

T-84 MBT - Estimated Armor Protection Levels

T-84 Main Battle Tank with Against Kinetic Energy Against Chemical Energy
Kontakt-5 ERA (in mm of RHAe) (in mm of RHAe)

Turret 850 - 1100 1250 - 1600

Glacis 680 - 720 960 - 1040

Lower Front Hull N/A N/A

RHAe = Rolled Homogeneous Armor Equivalent; an equivalent RHA thickness of a


given armor type against a given armor piercing ammunition or missile (i.e. Kinetic
Energy penetrators, like APFSDS DU long-rod penetrators or Chemical Energy
projectiles, like HEAT ammunition and ATGM's). Modern composite (Chobham) armor
may be several times more efficient against Chemical Energy than RHA of the same
thickness.

Source: Tank Protection Levels web site.

The T-84 Oplot main battle tank is a very efficient fighting machine intended to fulfil the mission of
providing mobile protected firepower in all types of terrain, is very well protected, has good battlefield
mobility as well as good strategic mobility, and is able to undertake a wide range of battlefield missions on a
24 hour basis under all weather conditions.

file://C:\Documents and Settings\Owner\Desktop\T-80U.htm 8/22/2008


Main Battle Tank - T-80/T80U/T80UM/T-80UM1/T-80UM2 Page 12 of 15

SPECIFICATIONS - T-84 OPLOT MAIN BATTLE TANK, UKRAINE


Parameter Measurement unit Value
Dimensions
- length (gun forward) meters 9.664
- length (hull) meters 7.705
- width (over tracks) meters 3.595
- width (with skirts) meters 3.775
- height (turret roof) meters 2.215
- height (including roof-
meters 2.76
mounted 12.7mm MG)
Ground clearance meters 0.515
Track width meters 0.58
Track meters 2.8
Length of track on ground meters 4.29
General characteristics
Crew persons 3
Combat weight tons 48
Power-to-weight ratio hp/ton 26
Ground pressure kg/cm2 0.93
Max road speed km/h 65-70
Average cross-country
km/h 45-50
speed
Fuel capacity liters 1,200
Operating temperature
°C -40 to +55
range
Cruising range:

file://C:\Documents and Settings\Owner\Desktop\T-80U.htm 8/22/2008


Main Battle Tank - T-80/T80U/T80UM/T-80UM1/T-80UM2 Page 13 of 15

- road km 450
- cross-country km 350
Obstacles
Fording
- without preparation meters 1.8
- with preparation m 5
Gradient % 63
Side slope % 36
Vertical obstacle meters 1
Trench meters 2.85
Model 6TD-2 two-stroke, multi-fuel, liquid-cooled 6-cylinder diesel
Engine
engine, fuel injected, developing 1,200 hp at 2,600 rpm
Power output hp 1,200
at crankshaft rotation
rpm 2,600
speed
Transmission mechanical, epicycle train with 7 forward and 5 reverse gears
Suspension torsion bar
Armament
- main 125mm smoothbore KBA-3 gun
- coaxial 7.62mm KT-7.62 machine gun
- anti-aircraft 12.7mm KT-12.7 machine gun
Ammunition
- main armament rounds 40 (28 in autoloader)
- coaxial machine gun rounds 1,250
- anti-aircraft machine gun rounds 450

T-84 Yatagan Main Battle Tank. Photos: Kharkiv Morozov Machine Building Design Bureau.

T-84 Yatagan MBT

The T-84 Yatagan (also referred to as the KERN2-120 - the designation of the prototype - or the T-84-
120) main battle tank is based on the T-84 Oplot MBT, incorporating new technical solutions that were
developed during modernization of T-72-120 Main Battle Tank. Both are products of the Kharkiv Morozov
Machine Building Design Bureau of Kharkiv, Ukraine. The T-84 Yatagan Main Battle Tank is fitted with a
fire control system derived from the T-84 Oplot MBT and adapted to the new armament. Its main specific
feature is a 120mm smoothbore gun with a chrome plated barrel, which is NATO standard ammunition
compatible, and has the ability to fire a barrel-launched 120mm guided missile, designed and manufactured
in Ukraine.

The T-84 Yatagan main battle tank is fitted with a fire control system derived from the T-84 Oplot MBT
and adapted for the new armament. The protection levels of this main battle tank are also the same as the T-
84 Oplot MBT, as well as where the mobility characteristics are concerned.

file://C:\Documents and Settings\Owner\Desktop\T-80U.htm 8/22/2008


Main Battle Tank - T-80/T80U/T80UM/T-80UM1/T-80UM2 Page 14 of 15

T-84 Yatagan - an ingenious solution. A T-84 Main Battle Tank with a NATO ammuniton compliant 120 mm main gun.

T-84 Yatagan MBT Specifications

PARAMETER MEASUREMENT UNIT VALUE

DIMENSIONS

Length (gun forward) meters 9.664

Length (hull) meters 7.705

Width (over tracks) meters 3.595

Width (with skirts) meters 3.775

Height (turret roof) meters 2.215

Height (including the 12.7mm MG) meters 2.76

Ground clearance meters 0.515

Track width meters 0.58

Track meters 2.8

Length of track on ground meters 4.29

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

Crew 3

Combat weight tons 48

Power-to-weight ratio hp/ton 25

Ground pressure kg/cm2 0.93

Max road speed km/h 65

Average cross-country speed km/h 45-50

Fuel capacity liters 1,300

Operating temperature range oC - 40 to + 55

CRUISING RANGE

road km 540

cross-country km 350-400

OBSTACLES

Fording without preparation meters 1.8

Fording with preparation meters 5

Gradient % 63

Side slope % 36

Vertical obstacle meters 1

Trench meters 2.85

Model 6TD-2 twin-stroke, multi-fuel, liquid-cooled 6-


Engine cylinder diesel engine, fuel injected, developing 1,200 hp at
2,600 rpm

Capacity hp 1,200

file://C:\Documents and Settings\Owner\Desktop\T-80U.htm 8/22/2008


Main Battle Tank - T-80/T80U/T80UM/T-80UM1/T-80UM2 Page 15 of 15

At crankshaft rotation speed rpm 2,600

mechanical, epicycle train with 7 forward and 5 reverse


Transmission
gears

Suspension torsion bar

WEAPONS

Main 120 mm smoothbore gun

Coaxial 7.62 mm KT-7.62 machine gun

Anti-aircraft 12.7 mm KT-12.7 machine gun

AMMUNITION

For main armament rounds 40 (22 in automatic loader)


For coaxial machine gun rounds 4,000

For anti-aircraft machine gun rounds 450

Sources:

Alexey Marakov's Tanks in Moscow Web site

Army Technology Web site

Defense Update Web site

Vasily Fofanov's Modern Russian Armour Page

Kharkiv Morozov Machine Building Design Bureau - KMBD

Uralvagonzavod (Dzierzhinsky Ural Railroad Car Works) - UVZ

Ukrspets Export on the T-80 Main Battle Tank.

http://btvt.narod.ru/

The ARMOR Site! is © Copyright 1997-2006 Fabio Prado . All Rights Reserved.

file://C:\Documents and Settings\Owner\Desktop\T-80U.htm 8/22/2008