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Non-stationary Signal Parameters

Shazia Hasan, B.K. Panigrahi, IIT Delhi

Silicon Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar B. Biswal,

P.K. Dash, Silicon Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar

Silicon Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar

Abstract: The paper presents an adaptive Unscented Kalman that stimulates the social behaviors of birds or fish. In this

Filter (AUKF) for the estimation of non-stationary signal paper, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique [8, 9, 10]

amplitude and frequency in the presence of significant noise and is used to optimize the noise covariance matrices in order to

harmonics. The initial choice of the model and measurement achieve the best UKF performance. Generally, PSO has global

error covariance matrices Q and R along with other UKF

parameters is performed using a modified Particle Swarm

searching ability at the beginning of the run and a local search

Optimization (PSO) algorithm. Further to improve the tracking near the end of the run. Therefore, while solving problems

performance of the filter in the presence of noise the error with more local optima, there are more possibilities for the

covariance matrices Q and R are adapted iteratively. Various PSO to explore local optima at the end of the run. Although

simulation results for time varying frequency of the signal reveal PSO is easy to implement and has few parameters to adjust, it

significant improvement in noise rejection and accuracy in suffers from premature convergence, velocity explosion, and

obtaining the frequency and amplitude of the signal. finding good solutions as quickly as it could. Thus we use

Index Term: Adaptive Unscented Kalman Filter Extended adaptive particle swarm optimization (APSO) algorithm. The

Kalman Filter, Particle Swarm Optimization. paper uses Unscented Kalman filter to track the signal

parameters in noise (as low as SNR=10 dB) based on an

I. INTRODUCTION optimal choice of Q and R matrices. The simulation results of

tracking sinusoids corrupted by noise with low SNR and

The classical nonlinear filter is extended kalman filter harmonics reveal significant accuracy and noise rejection

(EKF) [1]; its filter equation is the same as linear kalman filter property.

equation by linearizing the nonlinear equation based on 1-

order Taylor expansion at the predicted points. So the filter II. SIGNAL MODEL

maybe diverge when the observability of the system is low,

instable due to linearization and erroneous parameters, costly Consider a signal consisting of M sinusoids, which can be

calculations of derivatives and the biased nature of the modeled as

estimates and sometime the Jacobian matrix does not exist, in

yk = ∑i=1 Aik cos(ωik tk + φik ) + vk , k = 1,2,....N

M

this case, The EKF can not be used, to address the deficiencies (1)

of EKF, Julier [2] proposed a new unscented transform, which

can be efficient and unbiased for the mean and variance, based Where Aik , ωik and ϕ ik are amplitude, frequency and phase of

on this transform, the Unscented Kalman filter was proposed, the i-th sinusoid respectively, t k = kT s where T s is the

it is shown that this filter have 2-order approximate

convergence for Taylor expansion. sampling time. The modeling error v k is a zero mean Gaussian

The main advantage of unscented transformation used in white noise with variance σ 2

v

. Since the focus in this paper is

UKF is that it does not use linearization for computing the to estimate the amplitude and frequency of a sinusoid buried

state and error covariance matrices resulting in a more in noise only the fundamental component of the signal is

accurate estimation of the parameters of a non stationary considered which is described as

signal [3]-[6]. However, its accuracy significantly, if SNR is

y k = Ak cos(kω k Ts + φ k ) + v k , (2)

low and the noise co variances and some of the parameters

used in unscented transformation are not chosen correctly. The white noise vk is modeled as vk ∼ N (0, Rk ) , and the

Thus for best signal tracking performance, it is proposed in covariance of the measured error is given by

this paper to use particle Swarm Optimization technique T

(PSO),for the optimal choice of UKF parameters and error Rk = E( vk v k ) (3)

covariance matrices Q and R. The discrete signal can be represented in state space as

The particle swarm optimization technique is a stochastic x k +1 = Fk x k + wk (4)

optimization technique developed by Eberhert and Kennedy

and the model error covariance wk = N(0, Q k ) and the problem, L=3 so χ k −1 is a 3×7 matrix. The sigma points are

state variables are expressed as computed as,

(

χ 0, k −1 = x̂ k −1 χi,k −1 = xˆ k −1 + (l + λ)Pk −1 i , i = 1, 2 , ..., L )

x k (2) = A cos( x k (3).kΔTs + φ) (5)

(

χi+L,k−1 = xˆk−1 − (L + λ)Pk−1 i , i = L +1, ...,2L ) (11)

The parameter λ is used to control the covariance matrix, and

x k (3) = ω 2

is λ = α (L + K ) − L (12)

The state-transition matrix in this case becomes equal to

Both λ and K are scaling parameters. The constant α

⎡ cos(xk (3)ΔTs ) sin(xk (3)ΔTs ) 0⎤ determines the spread of the sigma points and its value is

Fk ( xk ) = ⎢⎢− sin(xk (3)ΔTs ) cos(xk (3)ΔTs ) 0⎥⎥ (6) between 0.0001<= α<=1.

⎢⎣ 0 0 1⎥⎦ After computing the sigma points the time update of state

estimates are given by

The observation model is given by

y k = h( x k ) + v k (7) χ k k −1

= F k −1 ( x k −1 ) (13)

2L

Here h( x k ) = [1 0 0] x k , and the observation matrix H is xˆ k− = ∑W i

m

χ i, k k −1

(14)

given by i=0

And the model noise covariance matrix is given by λ λ , W (m ) = 1 , i

⎡q1 0 0 ⎤ W 0( m ) = , W i( m ) = i+ L

⎢ (9) L+λ 2(L + λ ) 2(L + λ )

Q = ⎢ 0 q2 0 ⎥⎥

=1, 2…, L (15)

⎢⎣ 0 0 q 3 ⎥⎦ The a priori error covariance is given by

In the presence of harmonics, the performance of the single

[ ][ ] +Q

2L T

sinusoid model might deteriorate and, therefore, the signal Pk = ∑ Wi(c) χi,k k−1 − x̂ −k χi,k k−1 − x̂ −k k (16)

model should contain harmonics also. In the model with a i =0

nonlinear observation matrix, any number of harmonic Where the weights Wi c are defined by

components can be added increasing the computational

burden. λ

W 0( c ) = + (1 − α 2 + β )

(L + λ )

III. ADAPTIVE UNSCENTED KALMAN FILTER (AUKF) 1 1

W i( c ) = + (1 − α 2 + β ) , W i(+cL) = ,

2(L + λ ) 2(L + λ )

Although EKF is straightforward and simple it suffers from i=1,2…,L (17)

instability due to linearization and erroneous parameters, The estimated output is

costly calculation of Jacobean matrices; and the biased nature

of its estimates. The unscented Kalman filter known as UKF is

Yi , k k −1 = H χ i ,k k −1,( ) (18)

considered in this paper to overcome the disadvantages of 2L

EKF. The main advantage of UKF is that it does not use ŷ −k = ∑Wi−0

i

(m )

Y i,k k −1

(19)

linearization for calculating the state predictions and

The a posterior state estimate is computed as

covariance matrices and thus it provides accurate Kalman gain

estimates. Instead of liberalizing the Jacobean matrices, the X̂ k = X̂ −k + K k ( y k − ŷ −k ) (20)

UKF uses a deterministic sampling approach to capture mean Where Kk is the Kalman gain given by

and covariance estimates with a minimal set of sample points.

K k = G k S −k1 (21)

It utilizes a deterministic sampling approach in choosing

[χ ][ ] (22)

2L

2×L+1, sigma points (L is the state dimension) based on a

∑W

T

With G k = i

(c)

− x̂ −k Y i , k k −1 − ŷ −k

i , k k −1

square-root decomposition of the prior covariance. These i=0

sigma points are propagated through the nonlinearity, without

[Y ][ ]

2L

∑W

T

approximation, and a weighted mean and covariance is found. Sk = (c)

− ŷ −k Yi , k k −1 − ŷ −k + Rk (23)

i i , k k −1

i=0

The UKF thus involves the recursive application of the

sampling approach to the state space equations of the signal. Rk is measurement error covariance matrix. The a posterior

The UKF algorithm is summarized in the following steps: estimate of the error covariance matrix is given by

For the system state x, initialize with

Pk = Pk−1 − K k S k K Tk (24)

xˆ 0 = E[ x 0 ] , P0 = E[( x 0 − xˆ 0 )( x 0 − xˆ 0 ) T ] , (10)

Like the EKF algorithm, the UKF parameters Qk, Rk,α,β, K

Given a state vector at step k-1, sigma points are computed are to be chosen by trial and error. The measurement error

and stored in the columns of L×(2L+1) sigma point matrix χ ,

covariance Rk and model error covariance Qk are updated in

where, L=dimension of the state vector. For the present

the following manner gives us Adaptive Unscented Kalman

3854

filter. Adaptive PSO algorithm (APSO):

The model error can be estimated at instant k as follows The inertia weight ω is updated by finding the variance of the

Z k = Xˆ k − Xˆ k− = K k ( y k − yˆ k− ), (25) population fitness as

2

M

⎛ fi − favg ⎞ . (33)

Note that , according to number of state which is three in the σ 2

= ∑ ⎜⎜

f

⎟⎟

i =1 ⎝ ⎠

above UKF model Z k takes different value, leading to

where f avg is the average fitness of the population of particles

different variance estimates. Hence the model error covariance

estimate is taken as the average of all the three terms in a given generation. f i is the fitness of the ith particle in the

( )

^

population. M is the total number of particles

Qk = 1/ 2 abs(Z1k ) + abs(Z2k ) + abs(Z3k ) 2 × I ,

2 2

(26)

And measurement error covariance is estimated as { (

f = max fi − favg , i=1, 2, 3……M )} (34)

R = R0 + λ (abs Z k )(abs Z k −1 ), (27) In the equation given above f is normalizing factor which is

Where λ is forgetting factor and 0 ≤ λ ≤ 1 used to limit σ. If σ is large, the population will be in a random

In this way in every instant the model error covariance and searching mode, while for small σ or σ = 0, the solution tends

measurement error covariance are updated .This new value of towards a premature convergence and will give the local best

^ position of the particles. To circumvent this phenomenon and

covariance matrix Q k and R is used to improve estimate of to obtain gbest solution, the inertia weight factor is updated

the state through iterative procedure. using a fuzzy rule base and fuzzy membership values of the

change in standard deviation Δσ in the following way:

IV. PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION OF AUKF

Δσ = σ(k) −σ(k −1) (35)

ALGORITHM

The fuzzy rule base for arriving at a weight change is

An optimized solution to obtain an optimal performance expressed as

with low SNR can be possible using particle swarm R1. If Δ σ is Big Then Δ ϖ =rand1 ( ) Δσ (36)

optimization technique. PSO is a novel stochastic origin in the R2: If Δ σ is Small Then Δϖ = rand2 ( ) Δσ

motion of a flock of birds searching for food. During its flight

each particle adjusts its trajectory by dynamically altering its Where the membership functions for Big and Small are given

velocity according to its own flying experience and the flying by μ B (s) = Δσ ; μ S (s) = 1 − Δσ (37)

experience of the other particles in the search space. For a

particle moving in a multidimensional search space let si,j and where rand1 ( ) and rand 2 ( ) are random numbers

vi,j denote the position of ith particle in the jth dimension and between 0 and 1, and 0 ≤ Δσ ≤ 1

velocity at time t is,

Using centroid defuzzification principle the value of Δ ϖ is

⎧pbesti (t), if f (si (t +1) > f ( pbesti (t) obtained as

pbesti (t +1) = ⎨ (28)

⎩ si (t +1),if f (si (t +1) < f ( pbesti (t) Δϖ = Δ σ . rand1 ( ) Δσ + rand2( ) Δσ . (1- Δσ ) (38)

and the global best position is obtained as Thus the value of the new weight is obtained as

gˆbest(t) = min{ f ( pbest0(t), f ( pbest s (t)} (29)

1(t),.....,f ( pbest w(k) = w(k - 1) + Δϖ ; 0.4 ≤ w (k) ≤ 0.9 (39)

The modified velocity and position of each particle at time Here the influence of the past velocity of a particle on the

(t+1) can be calculated as current velocity is chosen to be random and the inertia weight

⎛ωvi (t) + ϕ1.rand( ).(pbesti − si (t))⎞ is adapted randomly depending on the variance of the fitness

vi (t +1) = K.⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ (30) value of a population. This results in an optional coordination

⎝ + ϕ2 .rand( ).(gbesti − si (t)) ⎠ of local and global searching abilities of the particles.

si (t + 1) = si (t ) + vi (t + 1) (31)

V. SIMULATION RESULTS FOR ESTIMATION OF TIME

where vi is the velocity of ith particle at time t+1, si is the VARYING FREQUENCIES

current position, ω is the inertia weight factor ϕ1 and ϕ 2 are

acceleration constant, rand ( ) is an uniform random value in The following case studies on frequency, amplitude and

the range [0,1], K is the constriction factor which is a function phase of the non-stationary signals in noise are presented to

highlight the adaptive EKF, AUKF and APSO performance

ϕ1 and ϕ 2 given by

1 (32) Case 1: Ramp variation in signal Frequency

K =

2

2 − ϕ − ϕ − 4ϕ

The signal considered for performance is

and ϕ = ϕ1 + ϕ 2 ; ϕ > 4 y (k ) = sin(kωTs + φ ) + n(t ) and the angular frequency

A suitable selection of inertial weight ω and acceleration ω is varied linearly as ,For

coefficients ϕ1 and ϕ 2 is crucial in providing a balance

between the global and local search in the flying space.

3855

0 ≤ k ≤ 300 w(k ) = w0 ,for 300 ≤ k ≤ 700 components. Thus, UKF and its variants are able to track non-

stationary signal frequency and amplitude efficiently in

w(k ) = w0 + ( w1 − w0 ) / 400(k − 300) ,and presence of noise and harmonics. Also Table-3 presents the

for k > 700 w( k ) = w1 . (40) mean of MSE for the different variants of the Kalman filter.

The above equation represents a time varying frequency from Table. I

w0= 50 Hz to w1=55 Hz. The sampling frequency is chosen as The mean of MSE over 100 independent runs

1 kHz. The errors between the tracked parameters and the Algorithm 60Db 30Db 20Db 10Db

actual parameters are shown in Fig.1 for noise level of 10 dB. EKF 0.0049 0.0063 0.3031 0.501

From the figures it is observed that for the SNR 10dB the AEKF 0.0044 0.0058 0.2901 0.490

performance of the EKF tracker is found to deteriorate as

UKF 0.0042 0.0056 0.2953 0.493

shown in Fig.1. The tracked frequency is found to contain

AUKF 0.003 0.0033 0.0192 0.0312

noise and fluctuations during the initial samples and when the

frequency is ramped. Same signal is analyzed using UKF, AUKFPSO 0.0021 0.0031 0.0063 0.0137

AUKF and AUKF with APSO.Fig.2 shows the improvement

Table. II

of AUKF which uses tuning of measurement and model error The mean of MSE over 100 independent runs

covariance matrices. Then tuning of AUKF parameters is Algorithm 60Db 30Db 20Db 10Db

done through one of the variants of PSO (APSO). To have a EKF 0.00513 0.0854 0.0538 0.231

meaningful comparison of the performance of the various

AEKF 0.0032 0.0721 0.0489 0.219

filters like the EKF, AEKF, UKF, AUKF and the UKF

UKF 0.0030 0.073 0.0501 0.214

optimized by the PSO the mean of MSE over a 100 iterations

AUKF 0.0021 0.035 0.0386 0.1551

are given in Table-1 at different noise levels.

AUKFPSO 0.00146 0.0219 0.046 0.0214

Case 2: Frequency modulated variation Table. III

The mean of MSE over 100 independent runs

In this test the frequency of the sinusoid is modulated by a Algorithm 60Db 30Db 20Db 10Db

small time varying frequency component and the resultant EKF 0.121 0.0263 0.196 0.421

frequency is tracked with the various filters mentioned for test AEKF 0.0987 0.0209 0.190 0.401

1. The test signal used is UKF 0.0955 0.017 0.189 0.398

y k = A sin(φ (k )) + n(k ) (41) AUKF 0.0087 0.016 0.163 0.288

where φ( k ) = φ( k − 1) + ω( k ) Δt , for k ≥1 (42) AUKFPSO 0.0063 0.0089 0.096 0.126

and the frequency is time varying,

ω(k) = 2π [50 + sin(2π.1.t k ) + .5 sin(2π.6.t k )] (43)

Frequency estmate

60

The signal to noise ratio of the signal y k is 10 dB as in the 55

last two examples. Fig.3. shows the results of tracking of

frequency, frequency error and amplitude error of the signal 50 EKF

with 10db noise. It is observed that when the SNR is lowered AEKF

to 10 dB, the frequency tracking performance of the Kalman 45

filters deteriorate and significant errors creep in as shown in 0 200 400 600 800 1000

Fig.3. Similar to case.1 analysis the above signal is analyzed

using UKF, AUKF and AUKF with APSO. Fig.4 shows the 4

Frequency error

As in case 1,the performance of the various filters like the 2

EKF, AEKF, UKF, AUKF and the UKF optimized by the 0

PSO the mean of MSE over a 100 iterations are given in

Table-2 at different noise levels. -2

0 200 400 600 800 1000

Case 3: Step variation in signal frequency

0.5

Amplitude error

jump from w0=50 Hz to w1=52 Hz. Fig.5 shows the signal

0

parameter tracking results at SNR=10 dB. Similar to case.1

analysis the above signal is analyzed using UKF, AUKF and

with APSO. Fig.6 shows the improvement of AUKF and -0.5

APSO over UKF at 30dB SNR.Fig.7 shows the effect of 0 200 400 600 800 1000

harmonics present in the signal as noise. Here the signal is samples

corrupted with 30dB noise, 3rd and 5th harmonic components. Fig.1 Comparison of EKF and AEKF for ramp

Fig.7 illustrates the negligible effect of 3rd and 5th harmonic frequency variation with 10Db noise

3856

F req uen c y e s tim ate

Frequency estimate

58

56 52 AUKFPSO

UKF

54 AUKF

UKF 50

52

AUKF

50 AUKFPSO

48 48

0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 200 400 600 800 1000

frequency error

1

fre que nc y error

0 0

-1 -1

0 200 400 600 800 1000

0 200 400 600 800 1000

1

1

Amp error

A m p error

0.5 0

0

-1

0 200 400 600 800 1000

-0.5

0 200 400 600 800 1000 Samples

Fig.4 Comparison of UKF, AUKF and AUKFPSO for

Fig.2 Comparison of UKF,AUKF and AUKFPSO

modulated frequency variation with 10Db noise

for ramp frequency variation with 10Db noise

Frequency estimate

53 54

Frequency estimate

52 TEKF

51 52

EKF

50

50

49

48 48

0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 20 40 60 80 100

1

Frequency error

1

frequency error

0

0.5

-1 0

-2

-0.5

0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 20 40 60 80 100

0.1

Amp error

Amplitude error

0

0

-0.2

-0.4

-0.1

0 200 400 600 800 1000

0 20 40 60 80 100

Samples Sample

Fig.3 Comparison of EKF and AEKF for modulated Fig.5 Comparison of EKF and AEKF for modulated

frequency variation with 10Db noise frequency variation with 10Db noise

AEKF, EKF

3857

VII. CONCLUSION

The paper proposes an adaptive Unscented Kalman filter

F re q u e n c y e s tim a t e

54

Adaptive PSO optimization techniques to estimate the

52 amplitude and frequency of a signal, whose frequency is either

UKF ramped, modulated or is varied in a step-wise manner. Both

50 AUKF large and small variations along with noise are considered for

AUKFPSO signal frequency and parameter estimation. It is observed that

48 the error in frequency estimation decreases significantly in

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

2 UKF with Q and R optimization using APSO. The paper also

presents the effects of an adaptive measurement error

F re q u e n c y e rro r

1

performance of the UKF in tracking accurately the signal

parameters along with frequency.

0

REFERENCES

-1

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 [1]. P.K.Dash, R.K. Jena, G.Panda, and A.Routray, “An extended complex

Kalman filter for frequency measurement of distorted signals’, IEEE Trans. on

1 Instrument and Measurement, vol.49, pp.746-753, 2000

A m p e rro r

0.5

Estimation” in Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 92.No.3, March 2004

filtering nonlinear systems,” Proc. of the 34th IEEE ACC, Washington:

Seattle, Jun. 1995, pp. 1628-1632.

-0.5

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 [4] Julier S J, Uhlmann J K, Durrant-Whyte H F. “A new approach for the

Sample nonlinear transformation of means and covariances in filters and estimators”,

IEEE Trans on Automatic Control, vol. 45(3), 2000, pp. 477-482.

Fig.6 Comparison of UKF, AUKF and AUKFPSO

for square frequency variation with 10Db noise [5] Julier S J. “The scaled unscented transformation”. Proceedings of the

American Control Conference, Anchorage, AK, 2000, pp. 4555-4559.

for the nonlinear transformation of means and covariances in filters and

F re q u e n c y e s t im a t e

1408.

52

[7]. M.Athans, R. P.Wishner and A.Bertolini. Suboptimal State Estimation

50 For Continuous-Time Nonlinear Systems From Discrete Noisy Measurements.

IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, TAC-13(6) 504-518, October 1968.

48

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 [8]. J. Kennedy, and R.C. Eberhart, Swarm Intelligence, Morgan Kaufmann

Publishers, 2001.

F r e q u e n c y e r ro r

Particle Swarm Optimizer”, IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, vol.23, No.2,

pp.1166-1174, April. 2008.

0

[10]. M.A. Abido, “Optimal design of power system stabilizers using particle

-1 swarm optimization”, IEEE Trans. on Energy Conversion, vol.17, pp.406-413,

Sept.

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

0.1

A m p e rr o r

-0.1

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Sample

Fig.7 Comparison of UKF and its variants

with harmonic and 30dB noise

UKF, AUKF, AUKFPSO

3858

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