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People no longer buy shoes to keep their feet warm and dry. They buy them because of the way
the shoes make them feel masculine, feminine, rugged, different, sophisticated, young,
glamorous, "in" buying shoes has become unemotional experience . Our business now is selling
excitement rather than shoes. - Francis C. Rooney Modern marketing calls for more than
developing a good product it attractively and making it accessible to target customers.
Companies must also communicate with their present and potential customers. Every company is
inevitably cast into the role of communicator and promoter. What is communicated however
should not be left to change. To communicate effectively; companies hire advertising agencies to
develop effective ads; sales promotion specialists to design sales incentive programmers sand
public relations firms to develop the corporate image. They train their sales people to be friendly
and knowledgeable. For most companies, the question is no whether to communicate but rather
what to say, to whom. Promotion influences demand by communicating product and company
message to the market. A promotion Techniques involves the co-ordination of all communication
efforts aimed at a specific audience; consumer and shareholder. The most critical promotional
question is the proper mix of advertising, personal selling, sales promotion and publicity. The
promotion mix is usually co-ordinate on a campaign basis, taking the campaign may efforts
include atonal campaign with one unified theme. All promotion messages tie in to this theme in
one way or the, rather than conflicting with it.

·c To ensure most cost effective power for sustained growth of India.
·c To provide clean and green power for secured future of countrymen.
·c To retain leadership position of the organization in Hydro Power generation
while working with Dedication and innovation in every project we undertake.
·c to maintain continuous pursuit for cost effectiveness, enhanced productivity
For ensuring financial health of the organization, to take care of stakeholders µaspirations
·c To be a technology driven, transparent organization, ensuring dignityand respect for its
team members.
·c To inculcate value system all cross the organization for ensuring
·c Trustworthy relationship with its constituent associates & stakeholders.
·c To continuously upgrade & update knowledge & skill set of its
human resources.
·c To be socially responsible through community development by
leveraging resources and knowledge base.
·c To achieve excellence in every activity we undertak

The word µAdvertising¶ has its origin from a Latin word µAdventure¶ which means to turn to.
The dictionary meaning of the word is µto announce publicity or to give public concerned to a
specific thing which has been announced by the advertiser publicity in order to inform and
influence them with the ideas which the advertisement carries. In business world the terms in
mainly used with reference to selling the product of the concern. The advertising, as Jones
defines it is "a sort of machine made mass production method of selling which supplements
the voice and personality of the individual salesman, such as manufacturing the machine
supplements the hands of the craftsman." It is thus a process of buying/sponsor/identified media
space or time in order to promote a product or an idea. From a careful scrutiny of the above
definition, the following points emerge.
Advertising is a paid form and hence commercial in nature. This any sponsored communication
designed to influence buyer behavior advertising. Advertising is non-personal. Unlike personal
selling, advertising is done in a non-personal manner through intermediaries or media whatever
the form of advertisement (Spoken, written or visual). It is directed at a mass audience and not
directed at the individual as in personal selling. Advertising promotes idea, goods and services.
Although most advertising is designed to help sell goods, it is being used increasingly to further
public interest goals. Advertising is identifiable with its sponsoring authority and advertiser. It
discloses or identifies the source of opinions and ideas.

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1. Impersonal
2. A communication of ideas.
3. Aimed at mass audience
4. By a paying sponsor.
The two forms of mass communication that is something confused with advertising are publicity
and propaganda. If we eliminate the elements of the "paying sponsor" (The paid requirement) we
would have the element ofc publicity left For publicity is technically speaking, advertisement
without payment in a similar manner. If we eliminate the requirement of an "identified sponsor",
the resulting communication is propagandistic. It is important for us to emphasize that
advertising may involve the communication of ideas or goods of service. We are all aware that
advertising attempts to sell goods and services. But we may overlook the more important fact
that it often sells ideas. Advertising may persuade with information; it may persuade with
emotion: more frequently, it endeavors to persuade with some mixture of both.
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(1) Electronic Media
Advertisers use two types of media to reach target consumers over the airwaves; radio or T.V.
(A) Radio: Advertisers using the medium of radio may also be classified
as National or Local advertisers. The radio is a prominent vehicle of advertising in our country
and accounts for a large sum of the total advertising budget. The radio serves principally local
rather than national or large regional markets. Many small advertisers use the radio. So do some
large organizations. When T.V. became a factor in the advertising scene, some industry
observers felt that radio advertising might become insignificant or even disappear. This has not
been so, for radio operators have responded to the challenge by offering
programmers that features music etc.
(B) Television:
Late in India, a growing class of advertising media has been the TV. In our country, commercial
advertising on TV is severely limited because broadcast timings are only in the evenings. The
TV is a unique combination timing of sight and sound and achieves a deeper impact than the
other media do. This is particularly advantageous for advertisers whose product require
demonstration. TV advertising offers advantage of impact, mass coverage, repetition, flexibility
and prestigious. In our country not everyone has a TV set; therefore it does not reach everyone.
Moreover, in rural India where 76.31% of our population lives. There are hardly any TV sets,
except at the community centers where electricity is available. Moreover, TV programmers in
our country do not offer much selectivity. The translation is limited; any centers do not have TV
towers. TV appeals to both the senses of sound and of sight. As a result is combines the two to
produce high-impact commercials. Finally, the fact that product or service is promoted on TV
may build a prestigious image of the product and its sponsor. The pleasure derived from
watching TV is at least potentially transferable to the advertising message delivered through the
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The print media carry their massages entirely through the visual mode. These media consist of
newspapers, magazines and direct mail.
(A) Newspaper:
A sizable share of the total advertising budget is spent on advertising in newspapers. Newspapers
in our country virtually reach most of the homes in the cities. Since newspapers are local,
marketers can easily use them to reach particular markets. This selectivity is easily rigorous.
Some are in the twelve-hour range. From the viewpoint of the advertiser, newspaper offers
several advantage, they are local in content and appeal and provide opportunity for direct
communication between a product and its local dealers or distributors. Because newspapers
supply news, they offer an atmosphere of factual information and of currency that may be
favorable for some advertising situations.

(B) Magazines:
Magazines are also mean of reaching different market, both original and maternal and of general
and specific interest. An organization may approach national markets through such publication
as Business India, Famine, Sports week, India Today, Business World and Film fare. Some
marketers divide their market on the basis of such variable as age, educational level and interest
magazines. Magazines are divided into those parts that serve business, industrial consumers,
ladies, sports etc. The diversity of magazines is tremendous. Some offer news or together
"General Interest" content to huge audience. Others are highly specialized, technical or even
exotic. In general, magazines offer advertiser the opportunity to reach highly selective audience.
The primary advantage of magazine advertising is selectivity of market targets; quantity
reproduction long life; the prestige associated with some magazines; and the extra service
offered by many publications.

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(A) Outdoor Advertising:
Outdoor advertising involves the use of sign and bill-boards, posters or displays (such as those
that appear on a building¶s wall) and electric spectacular (large, illuminated, sometime animated
sign and display). The marketers may purchase billboards on the basis of showings. A showing
Indicates the percentage of the total population of a particular geographic area that will be
exposed to it during one month period. The highest showing is 100. Here the number of
billboards is would attract approximately 50% of the local population about 20 times during a
month. Sings are usually smaller than billboards and are erected and maintained by the marketer
rather than by the advertising media. This form of advertising has the advantage of
communication quick and simply ideas of repetition and of the ability to promote products that
are available for sales.

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Transport advertising appears on the inside or outside of taxis, buses, railways and other modes
of passenger transportation. Marketers may use transit advertisement to attain high exposure to
particular groups consumers on theory way to and from work and tourists. Repeat exposure is
possible for a majority of the people in our country use public transport basis. Transport
advertising is useful in reaching consumers at an advantageous point which they are embarking
on a shopping trip. This medium is a low cost medium.
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According to the American Marketing Association, Sales Promotion consists of those marketing
activities other than personal advertising and publicity that stimulate consumer purchasing and
dealer effectiveness, such as displays shows and expositions, demonstration and various non-
recurrent selling efforts not in the ordinary routine. Sales promotion activities are impersonal and
usually nonrecurring and are directed at the ultimate consumers, industrial consumers and
middlemen. These activities tend to supplement the advertising and personal selling efforts.
Examples of sales promotion are free product samples, trading stamps, store displays, premiums,
coupons and trade shows.

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Publicity is a means of promoting the mass market and is similar to advertising, except that it is
free, is found in the editorial portion of news media and pertains to newsworthy events. The most
common type of publicity are news release (also know as press release), photographs and feature
stories. Marketers have less control over the nature of the publicity that their organization and
products receive than they have over their advertising, personal selling and sales promotions
messages. Upon receiving a news release, for instance, the editor or broadcast station programme
director may choose to throw the release in the waste paper basket, change the hording, or print
or broadcast it in the original form. The disposition of the news release is entirely in the hands of
the media and cannot be dictated by the marketer.
Personal selling consists of persons to communication between the sales persons and their
prospects. Unlike advertising, it involves personal interactions between the sources and the
destination. Advertising aims at grouping the shotgun approach, while personal selling aims at
``individuals the right approach. Sales persons are in theposition to tailor their messages
according to the unique characteristics of each prospect. Further, by observing and listening,
sales persons receive immediate feedback on the extent to which their messages are getting
across. If feedback indicates that the message is not getting across, the sales person may quickly
adjust it or the method of its presentation.
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' ICICI Bank Personal loan - Higher Rate of Interest 42% p.a
' ICICI Bank Personal loan - harassment
' ICICI Bank Personal loan - Regarding Personal Loan Processing Fee
' ICICI Bank Personal loan - EMI Restarted without receiving the
' ICICI Bank Personal loan - ICICI Bank Personal Loan
' ICICI Bank Personal loan - Delay in disbursement of Personal Loan
' ICICI Bank Personal loan - waiting for my PF from past 3 yrs.
' ICICI Bank Personal loan - Foolish Policies to make customers
' ICICI Bank Personal loan - Unsolicited phone call.

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Marketers engage in public relations in order to develop a favorable image of their organization
and products join the eyes of the public. They direct this activity to parties other than target
consumers. These "other" include the public at large labour unions, the press and environmental
groups. Public relations activities include sponsoring, lobbying and using promotion message to
persuade members of the public to take up a desired position. The term public relations refers to
a firm's communication and relationships with the various sections of the public. These sections
include the organization customers, suppliers, share holders, employees, the government, the
general public and the society in which the organization operates.
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Advertising is an art not a science. Effectiveness of which cannot be measured with
mathematical or empirical formula some advertisers argue that advertising efforts go to waste,
but every advertiser is keenly interested in measuring or in evaluation of add effectiveness.
Testing for the effectiveness of add will lead advertisement testing must be done either before or
after the ad has done in the media. It is of two types, pretesting which is done before the add Has
been launched and one is referred to as cost testing which is done before the add has been
launched and one is referred to as cost testing which is done after launching the advertising
campaign. The basic purpose of advertising effectiveness is to avoid costly mistakes, to predict
the relative strength of alternative strength of alternative advertising strategies and to increase
their efficiency. Sales-Effect: Communication-effect advertising research helps advertisers assess
advertising's communication effects but reveals little about its sales impact. What sales are
generated by an ad that increases brand awareness by 20% and brand preference by 10%?
Advertising's sales effect is generally harder to measure than its communication effect. Sales are
Influenced by many factors besides advertising, such as the product's features, price, availability
and competitors' actions.

These assess the various stages of buyer awareness, preference, buying intention and the actual
purchase in relation to add effort. They are called sales effect tests.

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Though increase in sales in the true measure of advertising effectiveness, in reality it is difficult
to measure the increase that is due to a particular advertisement. It is rather difficult to correlate
the response in sales with the advertising programmed. However, a few methods have been
discalced in the following paragraphs which are generally used to measure the sales response to

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' The additional sales generated by the ads are recorded, taking several routes.
' Past Sales before the ad and sales after the ad are noted. The difference is attributed to add
' Controlled Experiment: In experimental market, any one element of marketing mix is
changed. It is compared with the sales of another similar market. The element's presence
observance is a reason for difference in sales.
' Instead of two markets, the experiment can be carried on the two groups of consumers.