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.

d 2y( x) dy( x)
2x 2py( x) 0
dx2 dx

15.0 0

H3(x)

10 .0 0 H2(x)

5.0 0
H1(x)

Ho(x)
0 .0 0

0 .0 0 0 .40 0 .80 1.20 1.60 2.0 0


X

- 5.0 0

2007
Email: dsourlas@physics.upatras.gr
www.physics.upatras.gr
1
3

1. . 5
1.1 5
1.2 7
1.3 9
1.4
1 10
1.5 . . 12

2. . .1 15

3. 1 21
3.1 21
3.1 . .1 23
. . 31
3.2 41
dy 1x 1y 1
3.2 44
dx 2 x 2y 2
. . 46
3.3 1 53
3.4 59
3.5 62
3.6 66
3.7 67
3.8 69
3.9 Bernoulli 71
. . Bernoulli 74
3.10 Ricatti 78
. . Ricatti 81

4. 85
4.1 85
4.2 .
. 86
4.3
88
4.4
. 92
94

i
5. n 101
5.1 . .n 101
5.2 . . 103
5.3 Wronski 104
5.4 105
5.5 106
5.6 . .
y + A1(x)y +A (x)y=0 107
5.7 109
5.8 2
111
5.9 . . n>2 114
5.10 116
5.11 . .n 118
5.12 120
5.13
122
5.14 127
. .2
. 130

6. Wronsky
. .2 . 145
6.1 145
6.2 y=gY 149
6.3 150
6.4 . .2 153

7. L(D) 157
7.1 157
7.2 L (D) 161
163

8 Laplace . 169
8.1 . Laplace 169
8.2 Laplace 173
8.3 Laplace 178
8.4 Laplace 181
8.5 E . .
Laplace 186
8.6 Laplace 192

9. 203
9.1 . .1 1 203
9.2 n 208
ii
9.3 n 212
9.4 . . . 214
. .1 217

10. Euler 237


. . uler 242

11. 251
11.1 251
11.2 . .
y (x)+P(x)y +Q(x)y(x)=0 253
11.3 Schrodinger . . Hermite
266
11.4 Legendre 272
11.5 Legendre 275
11.6 Frobenious 278
. . 291

12. 331
12.1 331
12.2 333
12.3 336
12.4 341
12.5 Laplace 357
12.6 359

13. 369
13.1 369
13.2 369
13.3 371
13.4 377

14 393
14.1 393
14.2 394
14.3 395
14.4
396
14.5
396
14.6 397
14.7 402
14.8 408
14.9 - 411
14.10 - 414
14.11 - 414
iii
14.12
- 419

15. . 423
15.1 423
15.2 423
15.3 428

429
2 429
3.1 430
3.2 432
3.2 449
3.3 450
3.4 454
3.5 467
3.6 471
3.7 475
3.8 476
3.9 479
4.4 480
5.3 494
5.5 495
5.8 496
5.9 502
5.10 511
5.13 511
5.14 530
8.6 536
11 549
11.6 553
12.3 559
14.7 566
14.8 587
14.9 589
14.11 590
14.12 593

600

. 609
-1 (x) Dirac 609
-2
611
-3 - 614
-4
616
iv
-5 624
-6 627

Green 629
-1 629
-2 631

Laplace 633
-1
Laplace 633
-2 Bromwich 633
-3
Laplace 634
-4 Bromwich
. 635

639

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-
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dy dy dy
f ( x) , f (y) , f (x, y)
dx dx dx

O Leibniz
, -
. Leibniz
dy/dx f(x)dx.
Newton Leibniz, 18 , ,
Jacob Bernoulli (1654-1705), Johann Bernoulli (1667-1748), Clairaut (1713-
1765), Riccati (1676-1754),
.
, , Euler (1707- 1783), -

.
Cauchy (1789-1857), Lagrange
(1736-1813), Laplace (1749-1827),

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, 17 18 ,
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Peano (1858-1932), 1890,
Euler Cauchy,
. Lipschitz (1832-1903), 1876,
Picard (1856-1941), 1890 -

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Cauchy.
, Poincare (1854-1912), 1881,
Liapunov (1857-1918) 1892, -
, .
4

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, 20 ,
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Birkhoff (1884-1944) Lefschetz (1884-1972). -
, , , Cesari, Hale, Lasalle (1916-1983),
Arnold, Yoshizawa, Sell,
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1.

1.1 .

, ( . ), -
.

: (1)-(7) , :
(1), (2), (4), (6), (7) y(x).
(3) (5) ,(
).
dy d 2y dy
y (1) 4 y cos x (2)
dx dx 2 dx
2
2 2 2 dy
0 (3) y2 x (4)
x 2
y 2
z 2 dx

2
2
1 2 d 3y dy
(5) 3 y2 0 (6)
x 2
c t2 dx 3 dx
2
d 2y dy
(sin y) 1 (7)
dx 2 dx

:
)" ", ( . . ), y
,(
(1), (2), (4), (6), (7)
)" ", ( . . ),
,
(3) (5).
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. . . 1 ,
2 ,2 ,1 ,2 ,3 2 .

,
, (
). . . (1)-(6)
1 ,1 ,2 , 1 4 . -
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siny),
.
6 1

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,( ), -
. . . . . y2dy+dy=dx
. . . y2dy/dx+dy/dx=1 . .
1 1
. .
-
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,( ). . .

, . . V=V(x,y,z) -
V/ x, V/ y, V/z, (
V x, y, z).
,
.
, " ".

: . . -
.

3 4 2 4
d 4y dy z z z
1. y2 5. 2
dx 4 dx x4 x y y4

2. y +siny+x=0 6 dy= 1 y 2 dx .
2 2
z z z
3. y +x2y+xy=sinx 7. 2

t x2 y2

4. y y y 8. y1/2 +y =y

1. , 4 , 1 .
2. , 1 , .
3. , 2 , 1 .
4. , 2 , 2 .

(1
, . = ( ),
d /d “ ” , “
” .( d /d -
d d -
. d /d 0
d /d 0 ). , = ( 1 , 2 , , n ),
/ 1 , / 2 , , / n -
1 , 2 , , n.
1 , 2 , , n .
7

5. 4 , 1 .
6. , 1 , 2 .
7. 2 , 1 .
8. , 2 , 2 .

1.2 .

" " . . -
. .
. . . . " "
. ., . x(2 .

x2
: . . y +2xy- e =0 (1)
2
y=x e x (2)
A . . (1) :
x2 x2 x2 x2 x2 x2 x2
xe 2x xe e = e 2x 2 e 2x xe e 0
x.

. . . . . (1) :
x2
y (x c)e (3)
c , .( , (3) (1)
, (3) (1) x).
(3) " " (1). , -
, ,
, " ". . . (3), c=0, -
(2). , " "
. . ,
. .
. . :
y= (x,c) (4)
(x,y,c)=0 (5)
A (5) y, ,
(4). , :
) . . n n .
) n
. . n . .
, . . n :
y= (x,c1 ,c2 , ,cn) (6)
:
(x,y,c1 ,c2 , ,cn)=0 (7)

(2
x x I
.
8 1

c1 ,c2 , ,cn (6) (7)


. .

, . .,
.
1. y =y y=cex
2. y =ex-y-1 2ey-ex-ce-x=0
3. y +y=0 y=c1sinx+c2cosx
4. y -y=0 y=c1sinhx+c2coshx

1.3 .

y= (x) . .
. .
. .1 , . (x,y,c)=0, c,
: . .1

. . n, . (x,y,c1 ,c2, ,cn)=0,


n c1 ,c2 , ,cn n- :
. . n.

1.4 . .1

. .1 :
y = f(x,y) (1)
(1) (x,y) dy/dx
f(x,y).
, , (x,y)
f(x,y). -
,( ), .
. .,
. . .
. . y =1+xy :
9

. .
y =1+xy

. .1 , -
(xi ,yi), ( (xi ,yi)),
. . .

. .1 , (x0 ,y0), Euler,


:
1. 0 , (x0 ,y0) y =f(x0 ,y0). O -
f(x0 ,y0 ) y=y(x) (x0 ,y0).
2. (x0 ,y0 ) :
y=y0+(x-x0)f(x0 ,y0)
x=x1=x0+h h
(3
: y1=y0+hf(x0, y0)
3. (x1 ,y1)
:
y=y1+(x-x1)f(x1 ,y1)
y x=x2=x1+h :
y2=y1+hf(x1 ,y1)
4. (xn+1 ,yn+1)
:
xn+1 =xn+h , yn+1 =yn+hf(xn ,yn)

(3
h
.
10 1

5. (xn ,yn) n=0,1,2,... , -


. . y =f(x,y),
(x0,y0 ).

1 3
2

0 h 4
O
x0 x1 x2 x3 x4 x

: Euler h
y0=y(x0) . .:
1) y =x-y y(0)=1 h=0,5
2) y =3x2-y y(0)=1 h=0,1
3) y =x+ex y(0)=0 h=0,2

1.5 . .

. . -
, , -
. "
".
dy
. .: y (1)
dx
. . :
y(x)=ce x (2)
c, , .
. . x=x0 y(x) y(x0)=y0, (2)
x=x0:
y0 ce x0 c y0e x0

, x0=0, c=y0 :
y(x)=y0e x
(0, y0).
H . . y= y -
.
. ,
. :
11

x c 0
1) 0 lim x y(x) lim x ce
- c 0
2) =0 y(x)=c=
3) 0 limx y(x)=limx ce x =0

y
y y
c 0
c 0

x
x x

c 0
c 0
0 0
=0
.1 .2 .3

-
, =0
, 0.
, . .y= y
0. , ,
, .| - | ,
, , .
x x
y=ce y=ce . =0, .2, -
, .1 .3, .
. =0
, (bifurcation point), . . y = y.
2.
. .1

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, .
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,

, .
. .1 y =f(x,y) ,
.

: . .:
y =f(x,y) (1)
. f(x,y),
:
y0=y(x0) (2)
:
(1
: f(x,y) f(x,y)/ y -
(x0, y0), , ( . . ):
y =f(x,y) , y0=y(x0) (3)
. -
.
,
, Picard (1856-1941) :
(3) x0 x -
:
x
y ( x ) y( x 0 ) f (t ,y(t ))dt (4)
x0

(4)
. . : y =f(x,y) , y0=y(x0).

(1
f(x,y) D R2 :
( M 0)( (x,y) D)[|f(x,y)| M]
14 2

(4),
, " -
" y=y0(x)(2 , -
y(x). " " -
(4) y0(x) :
x
y1 (x) y(x 0 ) f (t, y 0 (t))dt
x0
(4)
' . :
x
y n 1 (x) y(x 0 ) f (t, y n (t))dt (5)
x0
yn(x) ,
(4) . . (3).
limn yn(x)=limn yn+1(x)=y(x)
(5) :
x x
limn yn+1(x)=y0+limn f (t, y n (t))dt y(x)=y0+ lim n f (t, y n (t))dt
x0 x0
x
y(x)=y(x0)+ f (t, y(t))dt
x0
(4).

:
lim lim
( . . fn(x)=nxexp(-nx2) , x 0
x0 0 :
x0 x0 nx 2 1 x0 nx 2
lim n f n (x)dx lim n nxe dx lim n e d nx 2
0 0 2 0
x0
1 nx 2 1 nx 02 1
lim n e lim n 1 e
2 0 2 2
x0 x0 nx 2 x0
lim n f n (x)dx lim n nxe dx 0 dx 0
0 0 0
x0 x0
lim n f n (x)dx lim n f n (x)dx
0 0
-
Picard -
f(x,y).

:
) f(x,y)

y, :

(2
y0(x) y(x0)
. .1 15

f (x, y)
) .
y

: x y
. x y
.

: . . . y (x)=f(x,y)=x+y y(0)=1
y0(x)=1.
x x2
y1(x)=1+ (t 1)dt 1 x
0 2
x
t2 2 x3
y2(x)=1+ 1 2t dt 1 x x
0
2 6
x
t3 x3 x4
y3(x)=1+ 1 2t t2 dt 1 x x2
0
6 3 24
x
t3 t4 x3 x4 x5
y4(x)=1+ 1 2t t2 dt 1 x x2
0
3 24 3 12 120
x2 x3 xn xn 1
: y n (x) 1 x 2
2! 3! n! (n 1) !
n :
n
x
ex
n 0 n!
: limn yn(x)=1+x+2(ex-1-x)+0=2ex -1-x
y(x)=2ex-1-x ,
.
y0(x)=ex
x x2
y1(x)=1+ t e t dt ex
0 2
x
t2 x2 x3
y2(x)=1+ t e t dt ex
2 2 6
0
n
2 3
x x xn 1
yn(x)= ex
2! 3! (n 1) !
y(x)=limn yn(x)=(ex-1-x)+ex=2ex-1-x
y0(x)=2ex-1-x
x
y1(x)=1+ 2e t 1 dt 1 2(e x 1) x y 0 (x)
0

y(x)= limn yn(x)= limn y0(x)=y0(x)


16 2

y0(x) .

.
,
y(x0), y0(x)=y(x0).

: . .
) ) ) .
1) y =y2 y(0)=0 .
2) y =-x/y y(0)=2 .
3) y =2 y y(0)=0 .
3. 1
1 :
F(x,y,y )=0 (1)
(1) y .
dy
f (x, y)
dx
(1) :

3.1

f(x,y) -
, x y, . f(x,y)= g(x)h(y).
" " . . -
. . y x :

dy 1
g(x)h(y) dy g( x )dx c
dx h( y )

1: . . y =-y2 . :
dy y 0 dy dy 1 1
y2 dx dx x c y
dx y2 y2 y x c
y=0 . .
y=1/(x+c) c,
. 1.2. , y=0
y=1/(x+c) . . -
. .
' -
. .
f(x,y)=-y2 '
y

x0=c
x
18 3

, (- x + ,- y + ). . f/ y=-2y=
= , . OXY
.

2: . . y = y. :
y 0 dy dy 1
y= y dx dx 2 y x c y ( x c) 2
y y 4
y=(x+c)2/4
x0=-c.
. . y = y 0.
. . y =- y . y=0
. . . .

, f(x,y)= y ' (-
x + , y 0). . :
f 1
y 2 y
y=0.
. x=x0 y=0
y=0 y=(x-x0)2/4 x0=-c. ' y(x0)=0 -
: y=0 , y=(x-x0)2/4.

O x0 =-c x

: 1 -
y=0 . . y= y c
y=0 y=(x+c)2/4 .

: . .:
1) y =-x/y . x2+y2=c
2) y =xy . y=cexp(x2/2)
3) y =x-x2 . y=x2/2-x3/3+c
4) y =2y/x . y=cx2
1 19

5) y =-1/ x . y=-2 x +c

3.1A . .1

, . .
. -
.

: . . y2(y )2 +y2= 2 (1)


(x-c)2+y2= 2 (2)
.
y= y=- (1) . .,
y
A B y=

y=-

(2) c. y= y=-
. . (1).

(x,y,c)=0 , -
:
)
) -
.
( ), (x,y) x,y,y
(1
.
. ., x,y,y -
. . ,
. .
: . . ,
. .

. . .

(1
, ,
.
20 3

,( y= ,
y=- (1).
-
. ., :

.
(x,y,c)=0
(A), ( ) c . (x,y,c)/ c=0 (B),
c ( ) ( ).
: (x,y)
(x,y,c)=0.
,(
(x,y,c)=0).
c. x
y c, .
x=x(c) , y=y(c) ( )
c ,
( ) .
-
, .
. :
dy(c)
dc yc
y –
dx(c) xc
dc
c -
,( . . . 8.7),

y x x

y
y
:
yc x
x xc y yc 0 ( )
xc y

c -
(x(c),y(c)) ,
c :
(x(c),y(c),c)=0 ( )
c. c ( ) :
d
x(c), y(c), c x xc y yc c 0
dc
( ) c =0
x=x(c) y=y(c)
:
(x,y,c)=0 (x, y,c) 0
c
1 21

c -
.

1: y=cos(x+c).
: (x,y,c)=y-cos(x+c)=0 (1)
sin x c 0 (2)
c
c (1)
(2)
,
y2=1 y= 1. -
y=cos(x+c)
y= 1.

1: -

(x,y,c)= 0, . .,
(x,y,c)=0, c :
d
(x,y,c)=0 (x, y,c) (x, y,c) (x, y,c)y 0
dx x y
:
(x,y,c)=0 (x, y,c) 0
c

2: y-c=(x-c)2
y=x.
) c c
c, .
) . . .
) .
: ) (x,y,c)=y-c-(x-c)2=0 (1) 1 2 x c 0 x-c=1/2 (2).
c
(1) (2) -
c :
y=-x+1/2-1/4=0 y=x-1/4 (3)
-
.
) (1) x
=y -2(x-c)=0 (4).
x
(1)
(4)
c : (y /2)2-(y /2)-y+x=0
(4) . .
) y=x-1/4 y =1 (5). -
(3) (5) (4):
(1/2)2-(1/2)-x+1/4 +x=0 . -
22 3

. .

3: XOZ ,
v0 .
0 .
XOZ -
, ,
. .
d 2r
: F m :
dt 2
:
d 2x dx
Fx 0 m c1 x(t ) c 1t c2 (1)
dt 2 dt
( 1)
t=0 x(0)=0 c2=0 x(0) v 0 cos c1=v0cos
x(t)=v0(cos )t (2)
:
d 2z dz 1 2
Fz mg m gt k1 z(t ) gt k 1t k2 (3)
dt 2 dt 2
t=0 z(0)=k2=0 z(0) =k1=v0sin ,
1 2
z(t) gt v 0 (sin )t (4)
2
t (2) (4):
x (5)
g
(2) t (5) , (4) z 2
x2 (tan )x
v 0 cos 2v 0 cos2
g
(x, z, ) z 22
x 2 (tan )x 0
2v0 cos
gx 2
(x,z, ) z 2
1 tan 2 x tan 0 (6)
2v 0
(6) ,( ),
(6) :
gx 2 1 1
2
2 tan x 0
2v 0 cos2 cos2
gx
tan 1 0 (7)
v 02
, . tan
(6) (7):
(7) , . tan
(6) (7):
2
v0
(7) tan (8)
gx
1 23

gx 2 v04 v02 g 2 v02


(6) z 1 0 z x f (x) (9)
2v 0 2 g2x2 g 2v 0 2 2g
(9) .

2: , -
(9) (9)
x x2 y2 ( ;) . E :
2
g v0
z f x2 y2 x2 y2
2v 0 2 2g

3: . . F(x,y,y )=0
F(x,y,y ) x, y, y
2
D xyy . (x0,y0,y0 )
D
F(x0, y0, y0 )=0 F(x0, y0, y0 ) 0
y
y =f(x,y),
(x0,y0), y0 =f(x0,y0) F(x,y,f(x,y))=0.
(x0,y0,y0 ) :
F(x0, y0, y0 )=0 F(x0, y0, y0 )=0
y
, . . F(x,y,y )=0
y0= (x0) , y0 = (x0).
:

: . . F(x,y,y )=0. :
F(x,y,p)=0 F(x,y,p)=0
p
p, ( y =p),
F F F
p =0 0
x y y
. . F(x,y,y )=0.

4: . .
2 2
4y=8y x+8x +(y )
: . . p=y :
F(x,y,p)=4y-8px-8x2-p2 =0 (A)
F(x,y,p)=-8x-2p=0 (B)
p
p ( ) ( )

2
D n
.
24 3

y=-2x2
.
. . :
F F F
y =0 0 y =p=-4x.
x y y
F F
: =-8p-16x=-8(-4x)-16x=16x, =4 0
x y
F F
y =16x+4(-4x)=0
x y

. .

1. -
. ,
. ' ,
t t+dt, dm m -
, .
t=0 m0 ,
t.
: dm=- mdt .
- t c
dm/m=- dt lnm=- t+c m=c1e c1=e
A t=0 m=m0 m0=c1 . m=m0e- t. ,
, ,
t, m(t) .

: , , -

(t,t+dt), (
), . ,
, (=1023)
, ,
t . .
d /dt(3 .
m. d -
dt. d =- dt. , ,
- t
= 0e .

(3
, y=f(x) lim x 0 y/ x
y 0 x 0. y -
0 . , .
| |=1, =1023, , ,
0 .
y=f(x) | [ , ],
dx 1023 ( - ) .
1 25

2: (t) ( . .
. . .), t. -
, :
dN/dt=kN (1)
k .
(1) :
N(t)=cekt (2)
(2) ,
, 1961 3,06 109 2%
,
N(t)=ce0..2t (3)
c t 1961,
: N(0)=c=3,06 109 . (3) :
9 0.02t
N(t)=3,06x10 e (4)
(4) -
, '
, . . , , . . .
. .:
dN
N N2 , 0 (5)
dt
/ = . . (5) :
dN
N 1 N 1 (6)
dt
(6) . . (1)
N
, 1 1. . . (6)
m
:
N t
(7)
1 ce
N

N=

P(ln(c/k), /2)

/(1+c)
t1
t

(0)= 0 .
(7) . =0 = ,
26 3

( t - t ), (t1, 1), -
d2N/dt2=0. :
d2 N dN
2 0 1= /2.
dt 2 dt
(7) t1=lnc/

3: V=5m3 -
. t=0
q=3lit/min, '
. c=0,5gr/lit.
, ,
, t 0. t=10min;
m(t). ( , -
, ' -
' ).
: , t
t+dt. dt
dm. dm :

dm=[ t t+dt] - [ t t+dt]

, (t, t+dt), -
.
,
q. , dt ,
qdt. ' ,
m/V, ( m V
). qdt dt
[m/V]qdt. -
cqdt. :
m dm
dm cqdt qdt qdt (1)
V m
c
V
H (1) . . -
. m
-
cV
m=0 t=0. ( ,
-
m
). -

(4) 0 t 0
m . :

t
1 27

m
t
dm m q m q
q dt ln c ln c t ln 1 t
m V V cV V
c 0
0 V
q q
m t t
1 e V
m cV 1 e V
cV

4: ' ,
FR
,( ). , -
-
4
. :
FR = 1v (1)
FR = 2v2 (2)
v 1 , 2 .
, m
h0 ,
) (1)
) (2).
: :
F=mg-FR
=dv/dt, F=m
:
dv
mg FR m (3)
dt
) FR (1), (3) :
dv dv
mg 1 v m dt
dt g 1
v
m
t=0 v=0 t v.
0 t 0
v :
v v

dv m dv gm mg 1
t t ln v ln t
mg m
g 1
v 1 v 1 1
0 m 0 1

t=0 v=0, v mg/ 1 .


, :

(4
(5) (6) Reynolds Re,
vl
Re ,n ,v
n
l .
28 3

1 1
1
t mg 1
t
ln 1 v t 1 1
v e m
v 1 e m
mg m mg 1

. -
t v =mg/ 1 . v
mg/ 1 v mg/ 1

. t [0, )

mg/k 1

t
) FR (2), (3) :
dv dv
mg 2 v2 m gdt
dt 2
v2 1
mg
0 v
0 t , :
v

d 2
v
mg mg
0 gt (4)
2 2
v2 1
mg
0
x=[ 2/mg]1/2v -
:
1/[x2-1]=A/[x-1]+B/[x+1]
, =1/2, =-1/2
dx 1 1 1 | x 1|
2
ln x 1 ln x 1 c
x 1 2 2 2 | x 1|
v=0 x=0,
1 x 1 1
ln ln(1) 0
2 x 1 x0 2
(8) :
1 mg x 1
ln gt (5)
2 2 x 1
1 29

2
t=0 v=0, , v 1
mg
x 1, |x-1|=1-x. (5) :
1 x 2 g 1 x 2 2
t
ln 2 t e m
1 x m 1 x
2
x v v :
mg
2g
2 t
mg 1 e m
v
2g
2 2 t
1 e m

,
2g
t
e m
:
2g 2g
t t
mg e m
e m
mg 2g
v tanh t
2
2g
t 2g
t 2 m
e m
e m

, t 0, . -
mg mg
t ,v v v
2 2

x 1 |x-1|=1-x.
t [0. ).

mg/k 2

5: XOY -
y=y(x) OX
: -
OX.
: y=y(x) (x,y).
, A, -
, OX ,( ).
30 3
(5
= = .
= .
B =90- = . :
BN BN
tan =y =cot =( . ) yy =BN=OB-ON=OB-x
MN y
=( . = .)= -( . = .) ON 2 NM2 x2 y2
yy x2 y2 x (1)
. . (1) .
:

y
M(x,y)
K

900- =

A O N B x

1 d 2
yy x x2 y2 (x y2 ) x2 y2
2 dx
dz dz
x2+y2=z 2 z 2dx 2 z=2x+c z=x+c
dx z
z=(x+c )2 x2+y2=(x+c )2 y2=2c x+c 2
,
.

1) " ": , -
,( ), " " , -
. .
t=0
t=t1 0 1 . .( :
.)

(5
1 31

ln 2
: t1
N1
ln
N0

2) ,( . . ),
dx, dI=- Idx,
.
0
0/10 ,( ), .
: x=ln10/

3) 3, t=0,
=2kg, -
, , -
r=1 gr/min.

4) m v0 -
.
, -
t .
: v0=60km/h, m=100kg. k1=4 10-3 kg/sec.
k1 k1
t v0m t
: v v0e m S 1 e m
k1

5)

. 1200 C 700 C
0
20 C,
300 C ;
: t=ln10/ln2= 3,32h.

6) h0=1000m
. - m=85kg. -
FR FR=k1v, k1=10-3kg/sec -
v ( ) . v
h t.
v(t) h(t).
g kt g g kt
: v( t ) 1 e k=k1/m h ( t ) h 0 t 1 e
k k k2

7) N
, h1=500m.
h0=1000m h1=500m, ( " "),
FA(T)=1/2 cD v2 , ,
cD=1,1 , =0,4m2 " " .
32 3

500m " " FR


,( . ).

3.2

. . 1 , ,
. .

: n f=f(x1, x2, ,xn)


x1,x2, , xn
f( x1, x2, , xn)= f(x1,x2, ,xn)
.

:
) f=f(x,y)=x3y-x2y2+y4 x y
o =4
f( x, y)=( x)3( y)-( x)2( y)2+( y)4= 4(x3y-x2y2+y4)= 4f(x,y)

xz 3
) f=f(x,y,z)=xy2+ xyz
y
=3,
( x)( z)3 xz 3
f( x, y, z)=( x)( y)2 + +( x)( y)( z)= 3
xy 2 xyz = 3f(x,y,z)
z y
) f=f(x,y)=xsiny-xy ,
:
f( x, y)= f(x,y) xsin( y)-( x)( y)= (xsiny-xy)

:
dy g(x, y)
(1)
dx h(x, y)
g(x,y) h(x,y) , .
:
1
g( x, y)= g(x,y) g(x,y)= g( x, y)

1
h(x,y)= h( x, y)

=1/x :
y y
g(x,y)=x g 1, h(x,y)=x h 1,
x x
(1) :
1 33

y y y
x g 1, g 1, g*
dy x x x y
F (2)
dx y y y x
x h 1, h 1, h*
x x x
y y y y
g* g 1, h* h 1,
x x x x
y
=R(x) (2) . . .
x
:
y(x) dy dR
R(x) y(x)=R(x)x x R
x dx dx
dy/dx (2) :
dR dR dR dx dR
x R F(R) x F(R) R ln x c (3)
dx dx F(R) R x F(R ) R

(3), R ’
R, ( y), x.

dy
1. . .: 2xy x2 y2
dx
y2 y
2
x2 1 1
dy x2 y2 x2 x
: : (4)
dx 2xy 2 2y y
x 2
x x
y dy dR
R(x) y=R(x)x x R (4) :
x dx dx
dR 1 R2 dR 1 R2 1 R2
x R x R
dx 2R dx 2R 2R
:
2RdR dx c2
c1 -ln(1-R2 )=lnx=lnc2 1-R2 = x2-y2=c2x
1 R2 x x

2. . .
2
x
y
3xye
y 2 2
x x
2 2 y y
y ye 3xye
: x/y
x/y=R. :
dx dR
x=Ry dx=Rdy+ydR R y (5)
dy dy
34 3
2 2
x x
y y
dx 1 y2 y 2e 3xye
dy dy x
2

y
dx 3xye
y2 -
(5) :
2 2 2 2
dR 1 eR 3 Re R 1 eR dy 3 Re R
y R 2 2 2 dR
dy 3 Re R 3 Re R y 1 eR
2 2
3ReR 3 3ReR 2 3 eù 3
ln|y| dR 2 dR dù ln 1 e ù c
1 e R2
2 1 R 2 1 eù 2
3
x2 2

=R2. : y c1 1 e y2
lnc1=c

: ,
.
1. y =(y-x)/x ( . y=xln|c/x|)
2. y =(3x+y2)/xy (A . )
3. y =(x2+2y2)/xy (A . y2=cx4-x2)
4. y =(2y+x)/x (A . y=cx2-x)
5. y =(x2+y2)/2xy (A . y2=x2-cx)
y x
6. y= (A . -2 +ln|y|=c)
x xy y
y2
7. y= 1/ 3
(A . )
xy xy 2
x4 3x 2y 2 y4 1
8. y= (A . y2 =-x2 1
x 3y ln|cx 2 |

dy 1x 1y 1
3.2A : (1)
dx 2x 2y 2

x=x0+X, y=y0+Y x0, y0 , -


, (1) :
dY 1X
1 1x 0 1y0 1
(2)
dx 2X2 x
2 0 y
2 0 2
x0, y0 :
1x0+ 1y0+ 1=0 2x0+ 2y0+ 2=0 (3)
(2) :
1 35

dY 1 X 1Y
(4)
dX 2 X 2Y
(3) x0, y0 -
x0, y0 , 1 2- 2 1 0.
, . 1 2- 2 1=0, 2/ 1= 2/ 1. . . -
, 2= 1 2= 1, (1) :
dy x y 1
1 1
(5)
dx ( 1x 1 y) 2

R= 1x+ 1y (6)
dR dy
1 1 (7)
dx dx
(5) 1x+ 1y dy/dx (6) (7) ,
dR R 1
: 1 1 (8)
dx R 2
(8) . . .

dy x y 2
1 (9)
dx x y 1
: x=X+x0, y=Y+y0 (9) :
dY X Y x 0 y 0 2
(10)
dX X Y x 0 y 0 1
x0+y0+2=0 x0-y0+1=0 x0=-3/2 y0=-1/2.
x=X-3/2 y=Y-1/2. (10) :
Y
dY X Y 1 X
(11)
dX X Y Y
1
X
dY dR
R= / , Y=RX X R (11) :
dX dX
dR 1 R 1 R dX
X R 2 dR
dX 1 R 1 R X
R=X/Y, Y=y+1/2 X=x+3/2 :
2
1 1
y y
2 2 3
arctan ln 1 ln x c
3 3 2
x x
2 2

dy x y
2. (12)
dx 1 x y
(1, 1).
: x=X+x0, y=Y+y0 (12)
dY X Y x0 y0
dX 1 X Y x0 y0
36 3

x0+y0=0 1-x0-y0=0 .
x+y=R, dy/dx=dR/dx-1. (12)
dR R 1
1
dx 1 R 1 R
: y=1/2(x+y)2 +c.
(1,1) 1=1/2(1+1)2+c c=-1 -
1
y ( x y)2 1
2

2x 3y 1
. . y
3x 4y 1
( . x2+3xy+2y2 +x+y=c)

. .

1)

-
. .2
x F( x , x ) (1)
x . (1)
. . :
x y y F( x , y) (2)
x=x(t), y=y(t). -
, y x
x. .
( x, x ) ( x , y) -
. .

. .
: . . (2) -
:
y F( x, y) dy F( x, y)
(3)
x y dx y
-
.
x Kx bx K, b 0
b ,
. :
F( x , y ) Kx by .
m=1, b2 4K (3) -
dy Kx by
: (4)
dx y
. . . :
1 37

y y
x K b K b
dy x x
(5)
dx y y
x
y dy dR
R (x) y xR ( x ) R x .
x dx dx
(5) :
dR ( K bR ) dR
R x x
dx R dx
2
(K bR ) dR K bR R RdR dx
R x 2
R dx R R bR K x
RdR dx
.
K bR R 2 x
:
RdR 1 2RdR 1 ( 2R b b) 1 2R b
dR dR
R 2 bR K 2 R 2 bR K 2 R 2 bR K 2 R 2
bR K
b dR 1 d(R 2 bR K) b dR 1
2 2 2
ln R 2 bR K
2 R bR K 2 R bR K 2 R bR K 2
b dR
.
2 R 2 bR K
:
dR
(6)
R 2 bR K
2
b b2
R 2 bR K R K (6)
2 4

dR b b2
2
R K t
b b2 2 4
R K
2 4
b2
K dt
dR 4 1 dt
2 2
b b2
2
b b2
b2 t 1
R K K t2 K K
2 4 4 4 4

b
R
1 1 2
tan .
2
b b2
K K
4 4
38 3

b
R
RdR 1 b 1 2 .
2
ln R 2 bR K tan 1

R bR K 2 2 b 2
b2
K K
4 4
b
R
1 b 1 2
: ln R 2 bR K tan 1
lnx C
2 2 2
b b2
K K
4 4
y
R :
x
y b
2
1 y y b 1 1 x 2
ln 2 b K tan lnx C
2 x x 2 2
b b2
K K
4 4

2) .

, -
y. | |= -
.
(c,0) .
x,y. x -

dx
,x cos (1)
dt
1 39

( - ),
dy
y ,y sin (2)
dt
(1) (2) :

dy sin
(3)
dx cos
y x
sin , cos (3) :
2 2 2
x y x y2
y
dy x2 y2 x2 y2 y x2 y2 y
dx x x x
2 2
x y
dy x2 y2 y
: (4)
dx x
. .
(4) :

y2 y2 y y2 y
x 1 y x 1 1
dy x2 x2 x x2 x
(5)
dx x x
y
R (x) y xR ( x ) :
x
dy dR dR 1 R2 R dR
R x . (5) R x x
dx dx dx dx
40 3

1 R2 R R dR dx
1 R2 nR 1 R2
1 R 2 x
v
ln x K

v
: , ln R 1 R2 ln x K R+ 1+R 2 K1 x
v‰
y y2 y+ x 2 y2
o 1 2 K1 x K1 x y+ x 2 y2 K1 x 1
(6)
x x x
(6) y- x 2 y2 :
y2-(x2+y2)=K1x +1
(y- x 2 y 2 ) -x2=K1x +1
(y- x 2 y2 ) y- x 2 y 2 =-x1- /K1 (7)
(6) (7):
1 1
2y=-x1- / 1+K1x +1 = K1 x 1
x1
2 1

) , y(0)=0 -
1- 0 .1 = .

) 1 . limx 0 y(x)=- , .
(0,0) .
) =1 limx 0y(x)=-K1 /2

H K1 , y(c)=0
+1 1- 2 - 2 -2 -
0=½ (K1c -c /K1) 0=K1 c -c K1 =c 1=c

3) .

A A ( x , y, z ) . -
A (x,y,z)
A. A -
, A
A . . .
:
dx dy dz
Ax Ay Az
: C A -
:
r (t ) x(t ) i y(t ) j z(t )k
dr (t )
C -
dt
A :
1 41

dr (t ) dx dy dz
= A dx(t)/dt= Ax, dy(t)/dt= Ay, dz(t)/dt= Az
dt Ax Ay Az
( x , y) ( xy) î (x 2 2 y 2 )ˆj x,y,z -
. :
dx dy dy x2 2y 2
xy x 2y 2
2
dx xy
. .. :
2
2 y
x 1 2
dy x
(1)
dx y 2
x
x
y dy dR
R y xR R x (1) :
x dx dx
dR 1 2R 2 dR 1 2R 2 1 2R 2 R2 1 R2
R x x R
dx R dx R R R
RdR dx
. . . :
1 R2 x
RdR dx 1 d 1 R2 1
C nx C n 1 R2 nx C
1 R2 x 2 1 R2 2
1 1 y2
n 1 R2 2
nx C 1 R2 2
C1 x 1 R2 C2x 2 1 C2x 2
x2
y2
C2 x 2 1 y2 C2 x 4 x2 .
x2
.

: (xy) i (x 2 2y 2 ) j
42 3

3.

3 1 T
(6
. .1 :

dy
P( x)y Q( x) (1)
dx

dy
Q(x)=0 . P( x)y 0 . .1
dx
. . . (1) -
,
dy dy P( x )dx
) P( x)y 0 P( x)dx k y = c1e
dx y
(7
) . . (1)
y(x)=g(x)Y(x) (1)
. g(x) , . .
. y =gY +g Y :
gY +g Y+P(x)gY=Q(x) gY +(g +P(x)g)Y=Q(x)
. . g(x) :
P ( x )dx
g +P(x)g=0 g(x)=c1 e
. g(x) . :

(6
. . (1) y y
.
(7
y(x)=g(x)Y(x)+h(x) Y(x) -
g(x), h(x) . .
1 43

P ( x )dx
e
gY =Q(x) Y(x)= Q( x ) dx c 2
c1
P ( x )dx P ( x )dx
y( x ) e Q( x )e dx c (2)

c=c1c2.
(8
. . (1) :
x.
.
. . e P(x)dx :
P ( x )dx P ( x )dx P ( x )dx d P ( x )dx P ( x )dx
e y e P( x)y e Q( x) e y Q( x)e
dx
P ( x)dx P ( x)dx P ( x )dx P ( x )dx
e y Q( x)e dx c y( x) e Qc>0
( x)e dx c

1: . .: y -2xy=x
: P(x)=-2x, Q(x)=x P(x)dx=-x2 c<0
x 2 2 2 1 2 1
y(x)= e e x xdx c e x e x2 c ce x
2 2
:

c>0

c<0

y=-1/2 -
c=0.

2: . .: y +(4/x)y=x4

(8
,
4.
44 3

: P(x)=4/x, Q(x)=x4 P(x)dx=4lnx :


4 ln x 4 ln x 4 1 x9 c x5
y(x) e e x dx c c
x4 9 x4 9
-
: y(0)=y0, c/x4 x=0.

. . 1 :
y =f(x,y) .
f(x,y)=-4y/x+x4, -
f(x,y)
x=0, .
.

y(0)=y0, .
.
y=x5/9, c=0
x=0.

3: (x) :
x
t (t)dt x2 (x) (1)
d x d d d
: t (t)dt 2x x (x) 2x x (x) 2x
dx dx dx dx
(2)
xdx xdx 2
(x) e 2xe dx c (x) 2 ce x /2
(2)

:
x
x 2 2 x t2 t2 x2
t 2 ce t /2
dt x2 2 ce x /2
t2 c exp d x2 2 cexp
2 2 2
2
2 2 x2 2
2 x2 2
[x - ]+c exp exp x 2 c exp c=-( +2)exp
2 2 2 2
x2 2
(x)=2-( 2+2)exp
2
, , c : -
2

(2) x= : ( )= 2 ce 2 (3)
2 2
(1) x= 0= + ( ) ( )=- (4) (3) (4) ' -
2

( ) : c=-( 2+2) e 2
1 45

P(x) Q(x) . x0
, x<x0
x>x0. y(x)
x0. .
y (x) .

4: y +2y=Q(x), y(0)=0 :
1 0 x 1
Q(x)
0 x 1
: 0 x 1 P(x)=2 Q(x)=1. :
2x 1 2x 1
y1 (x) e e 2x dx c1 e 2x
e c1 c1e 2x

2 2
x>1 P(x)=2 Q(x)=0. :
2x
y 2 (x) c 2e
:
2x
1/ 2 c1e 0 x 1
y(x) 2x
c2e 1 x
:
lim x 1 y1 (x) lim x 1 y 2 (x)
x 1 x 1

1 2x
lim x 1 c1e
x 1 2
2x
lim x 1 c 2e
x 1

½+c1e-2=c2e-2 c2-c1=e2/2

, x=0.
:
y(0)=0 1/2+c1=0 c1=-1/2

c2=c1+e2/2=-1/2+e2/2=1/2(e2-1)
:
2x
1/ 2 1 e 0 x 1
y(x)
1/ 2 e 2 1 e 2x
x 1

. .
46 3

y
1) y- x2 . y=cx+x3/2
x
2) y -ycotx=2xsinx . y=x2sinx+csinx
3) y +2y=3ex . y=ce-2x +ex
1 1
4) y +y=sinx . y=ce-x + sinx- cosx
2 2
5) y (x)+P(x)y(x)=0, y(0)=1

2 0 x 1
P(x)
1 x 1

1) 500 C ’
0
100 C. 5 600 C,
) 750 C ) 20
.
( . ) t=15,4 min, ) =79,50C. , ,
. . dT/dt=k(T-T ), )

2) ’ -
300 C. 10 00 C
20 150 C, .
0
( . -30 C)

3) 3sin2t Volts, 10
enry. 0,5 -
t, 6 mpere.
( . I=609/101e-20t+30/101sin2t-3/101cos2t, . . dI/dt+(R/L)I=E/I

4) t=0 , =4Kw -
80lit. -
q=0,5lit/min. -
0
, 0=10 C. -
t. (
c=1kcal/kg, 1Joule= cal =0.24, 1Kw= 1kjoule/sec, =1kg/lit).
q
P t P q
: T=T0+ 1 e m . . dT= dt (T T0 ) dt
cq cV V

3.4 .
1 47

dy P( x, y)
. . (1)
dx Q( x, y)

(1) P(x,y)dx+Q(x,y)dy=0 (2)


F(x,y) :
P(x,y)= F/ x Q(x,y)= F/ y (3)
(9
(2) F (2)
dF = 0. (1)
F(x,y)=c (4)
P(x,y) Q(x,y) -
, (3):
2 2
P F Q F
(5)
y x y x y x
F , -
Schwarz 10 :
2 2
F F P Q
= (6)
x y y x y x
(6) (2) -
F. , (1) -
(4).
F :

dy
: : (8y-x2y) +(x-xy2)=0 (7)
dx
: (7) (x-xy2)dx + (8y-x2y)dy=0 (8)
P
P=x-xy2 =-2xy
y
Q
Q=8y-x2y =-2xy
x
P Q F F
F =P =Q, -
y x x y
(8). F :

(9
F=F(x1,x2, ,xn) n x1, x2, , xn :
F F F
dF= dx1 dx 2 dx n
x1 x2 xn
(10
H Schwarz : f(x,y)
2 2
F F
, = .
x y y x
2
F
.
x y
48 3

F F F
1. =P =x-xy2. x,
x x x
( y ), :
1 2 1 2 2
x xy2 dx xdx y2 xdx x yx (9)
2 2
2. F(x,y) (9) (y) y:
1 1 2 2
F(x,y)= x2 y x + (y) (10)
2 2
(10) x (y)/ x=0 -
:
F
=P=x-xy2
x
3. (y) (10) y
2
Q=8y-x y
F 2 d
=-x y+ =8y-x2y (11)
y dy
(11) d /dy=8y =4y2 (12)
(12) (10) :
1 2 1 2 2
F(x,y)= x - y x +4y2 (13)
2 2
(7) :
1 2 1 2 2
x - y x +4y2=c
2 2

: . .
.
1. (2xy+x)dx+(x2+y)dy=0
2. xexydx+yexydy=0
3. yexydx+xexydy=0
4. ydx+xdy=0
5. (x-y)dx+(x+y)dy=0
ydx 1 x
6. 2 2 2
dy 0
x y y x y2
2

:
x2 y2
1. yx2+ c 4. xy=c
2
2. 5.
x 1
3. exy=c 6. arctan + =c
y y
1 49

3.5

-
.
. . " " ,( . . -
), , . ' , -
.

, ( .
),
.
:
(x,y,c)=0 (1)
:
F(x,y,k)=0 (2)
: (2) -
(1). " "
(1).

(1)
) . . (1).
(1) x c (1) -
, .:
(x, y,c) 0
dy
d dy f (x, y) (3)
(x, y,c) 0 (x, y,c) (x, y,c) dx
dx x y dx
) . .:
dy 1
(4)
dx f ( x, y)

(x,y) . . (4) . . (3) -

1
f(x,y) 1
f (x, y)
, (4)
(3), . (4)
.

1: :
2 2 2
x +y =c
: F(x,y,z)=x2+y2-c2=0 x,
x
2x+2yy =0 y =-
y
. .
y =y/x dy/dx=dx/x
:
50 3

lny=lnx+c1 y=kx ( k=lnc1)


,
(0,0) c, k
(0,0), . 1.

y x2+y2=c2

y=kx

.1
2: y=cx2.
2
: y=cx y -2cx=0 , (
c c=y/x2 ),
y =2y/x. . .
y =-x/2y 2ydy=-xdx.

.2
1 51

y2=-x2/2+k. y=cx2 , -
, (0,0)
(0,0), OX
2k k .2..

x2 y2
3 : 1
c c 5
-
,
.
: x :
x y dy 5x 5yy
0 c= c-5=
c c 5 dx x yy x yy
:
(x+yy )(xy -y)-5y =0
. . .
-
y -1/y . -
-
-
-
.
:
. . (x+yy )(xy -y)-5y =0
y
(y )2+ y + =(x+yy )(xy -y)-5y =0
=xy, =x2-y2-5 =-xy. y1 =f1(x,y)
y2 =f2(x,y) -
, , - .3
, y1 y2 = / =(xy)/(-xy)=-1.
. . y1 =f1(x,y)
. . y2 =f2(x,y). . .
. ., .
-
.

: c 5
x2 y2
1 0 c 5 , .3, ( c 0
c c 5

: 1) .
) x2-y2=c2 (A . xy=k)
) y=cex (A . y2=-2x+k)
) x2-y2=cx (A . x2y+y3/3=k)
2)
(x,y,c)=0 (x,y,c).
52 3

3.6

,
, :
(r, ,c)=0 (1)
, -
(r, ). ,
, r= , ,( ):
rd
tan =
dr
rd
c . . .

:
d dr
r f (r, ) (2) (r, )
dr d
(1) r
c (1)

(1). . . :
d 1
r (3)
dr f (r, )

:
:
1) r=c(1-cos ) . r=kcos2( /2)

tan
c 2
2) r= . r=k
1 cos sin
3) r=ec . (lnr) =k2- 2 2

3.7

:
(x,y,c)=0 (1)
:
F(x,y,k)=0 (2)
F
/2. F .
. . (1) :
dy
f ( x, y) (3)
dx
1 53

1 (1) (x,y)
f(x,y) (x,y) (x,y)
tan =f(x,y) =tan-1[f(x,y)]. -
2, 1 (x,y) ,

= + =tan-1[f(x,y)]+

:
1 2
tan tan tan f (x, y)
f (x, y) tan
1
1 f (x, y) tan
. . :
dy f (x, y) tan
dx 1 f (x, y) tan

:
y=cx /4.
: , , . .
(x,y,c)=y-cx=0.
y cx
y
y yx 0 y
y c 0 x
x
f(x,y)=y/x :
f (x, y) tan y
1
4 x x y
y x y
1 f (x, y) tan 1
4 x
dy x y
. . :
dx x y
y
. . : ln k 2 x 2 y2 2 tan 1
0
x
x=rcos y=rsin :
2 2 -1
ln[k r ]-2tan (tan )=0 ln[k2r2]-2 =0 r=k1e
. .
54 3

: ,
x2+y2=R2 /4. 2 2 -1
. ln(x +y )+2tan (y/x)=c

3.8

1) . ,( ),
= (x,y) V=V(x,y). -
,
. V(x,y)=c, c .
, .
-
.

: Q -
. ' (x,y) V=k/r
k r (x,y) .
V=k/r=c1 r=k/c1 x +y =c2
2 2
c2=(k/c1)2,
. :
(x,y,c)=x2+y2-c2=0 (1)
, (1) x:
1 55

d
(x, y,c) 2x 2yy 0
dx
y =f(x,y)=-x/y
. .
y =-1/f(x,y)=y/x dy/y=dx/x -
y=c1x

-
. -
-
:
V V
E= V= i j
x y
x y r
k 3i k 3j k 3
r r r
-
-
.
2) . , .
.
,

.
3) . ,
. , -
, , .
-
.

3.9 BERNOULLI (1667-1748)

:
dy
P(x)y Q(x)y R (1)
dx

=0 . . (1) .
=1 ,( )
0,1 (1) .
.
y=u :
-1 P Q 1
y = u u =Pu +Qu u= u u
56 3

Bernoulli. -
. .
. . . :
) - +1=1 ( -1)=0 =0 y=1
1
) - +1=0 = ( )
1
Bernoulli :
1
y u1
: u =(1- )P(x)u+(1- )Q(x)
(2) 3.3.

: (1) y- ,
y, :
1
y y- =P(x)y- +1
+Q(x) y 1
P(x)y 1
Q(x)
1

1
u=y1- y u1

: . . y=gu, -
Bernoulli ,
g(x). Bernoulli -
y=gu :
gu +g u = Pgu+Qg u
u, (g -Pg)u
P ( x )dx
g =Pg g e
-1
u =Qg u .

: . . y =y+ex y
: Bernoulli P(x)=1, Q(x)=ex, =1/2.
1
1 1
1
y u 1
u 2
u2 y =2uu
1 1 x
2uu =u2+exu u= u e ( . . .1 )
2 2
x 2
x x/2 x
u=e +ce y= e ce 2
(1)

y=gu :
x ½ x ½
y =gu +g u=gu+e (gu) gu +(g -g)u=e (gu) . g -g=0 g=ex
exu =exex/2u½ u-½u =ex/2 u-1/2du= ex/2dx u½=ex/2+c u=(ex/2+c)2
y=gu=e (e +c) =(e +cex/2)2
x x/2 2 x

: ,( ), . .
(0,1), .
1 57

y(0)=1 (2)
(2) (1)
1=(1+c)2 c=0 c=-2
y1 =e2x y2=(ex-2ex/2)2 . . 1.
(0,1) OXY

f(x,y) = y+ex y
f ex
y 1
y 2 y

y1
y
y2

2ln2 x

.1
’ - x , y 0. OX
(y=0) ,( f y 0)
, f/ y . -
, ’ ’ -
(y 0) o .
y(0)=1 -
y
y=u2, .
’ u= y
. .
,( ), u

OX. :
u=ex+cex/2
u c 0
c 0. u(x) y2 (c=-2)
2, u(x)
x x0=2ln(-c). -
.
y2(x)=(ex-2ex/2)2
.1
’ u= y -
y.
58 3

2ln2 x
-1

.2

: . .:
1
1) y +xy=xy2 A . y x2
2
ce 1
3
2) y- y x4 y1/ 3 y2/3=cx2+2x5/9
x

. . Bernoulli

1)

.
, T .
Newton :
2
ds
F=m = m 2 = x-T-A (1)
dt
N mg cos
T N T mg cos
( = ).
2
ds
, A k k 0. (1) :
dt
2 2
d 2s ds d 2s k ds
m 2 mg sin mg cos k g sin g cos (2)
dt dt dt 2 m dt
1 59

g, , . (3)
2 2
d s 2 ds
h2
dt 2 dt
k 2
h2 =gsin - gcos .
m
gsin - gcos .
ds d 2 2 2
(t) h (3)
dt dt

, (s) . :
d d dt 1d d d
.
ds dt ds dt dt ds
(3) :
2
d 2 d
h2 2
h2 (4)
ds ds
. . Bernoulli P(s) h 2 , Q(s) 2
1.

1 1 1
1 ( 1) d 1 du
u u2 u 2
ds 2 ds
(4) :
1 2 1
1 du 1 du du du
u 2
1
h 2u 2 2
h 2u 2 2
2h 2 u 2h 2 u 2 2

2 ds u 2 2 ds ds ds
. .1 . :
2 h 2 ds 2 h 2 ds 2 2
u (s) e 2 2e ds C e 2h s
2 2 e 2 h s ds C
2 2
2 h 2s 2
2 h 2s
u (s) e e 2h s C Ce (5)
h2 h2
1 2
2 2 2 h 2s
u2 u (5) (s) Ce .
h2
(0) o
60 3

2 2
( o )2 C C ( )2 .
h2 h2
2 2 2
2 2 2 h 2s 2 h 2s 2 h 2s
: (s) ( o) 2
e 2 2
1 e o e .
h h h
2
2 h 2s 2 h 2s
(s) 2
1 e o e .
h

2)

t 0
, .
(F ~ ),
2
(F ~ 2) F=- - ,
( 0 ).
. Newton :
d 2 d 2
F=m m (1)
dt dt m m
m
,
m m
d 2
(1) (2)
dt
. . Bernoulli P( x ) , Q( x ) 2.
1
1 1
u1 2
u (3)
u
d d du 1 du
(3) .
dt du dt u 2 dt
1 du 1 1 du du
(2) : u u
u 2 dt u u 2
dt dt
. .1 . :
dt dt t 1 1
u e e dt C e e t dt C e t
e t
C Ce t .

1 1
. t 0 (0) o
u 1 t
Ce

1 o o 1 1
o o C 1 o C 1 C . :
1
C o

1 1 1
(t)
1 1 1 t 1 o t 1 t
e e 1 o
e t
1 1e
o o o o
1 61

3.10 RICATTI (1676-1754)

y = (x)y2+ (x)y+ (x) (11


(1)

1) (x)=0 (1)
2) (x)=0 (1) Bernoulli
Bernoulli, (1) -

y(x) = g(x)Y(x)+h(x) (2)


. Y(x) -
g(x), h(x)
. . .

y(x)=Y(x)+h(x) (3)
(1)
Y (x)+h (x)= (x)[Y(x)+h(x)]2+ (x)[Y(x)+h(x)]+ (x)
Y (x)= (x)Y2(x)+ (x) 2 (x)h(x) Y(x) + (x)h2(x)+ (x)h(x)+ (x)-h (x) (4)
. . (4) h(x) -
: h (x) = (x)h2(x)+ (x)h(x)+ (x) (5)
(4) :
Y = (x)Y2+[ (x)+2 (x)h(x)]Y (6)
Bernoulli =2 . h(x)
(5) . h(x)
(5) -
-
.
y0(x)=h(x) (1),
:
y=Y+y0 (7)
Bernoulli:
Y = (x)Y2+[ (x)+2 (x)y0]Y (8)
Y=u1/(1- ) =2 .Y=1/u. :

1
y= y0
u

Ricatti .
(1) (2) -
:

11)
,
.
62 3

g h2 h h
Y = gY2+ 2 h Y (9)
g g
Ricatti.
g(x) h(x)
(9). :
h2 h h
=0 h = h2+ h+ (10)
g
g g
+2 h- 0 2 h (11)
g g
(10)
h=y0 (12)
y0 , (11) :
2 y0 dx
g e (13)
2
(9) : Y = gY
1
: Y (14)
gdx c

(2), (12) (14) :


(x ) 2 ( x ) y0 dx
g e
y y0 = +y0 (15)
( x ) 2 (x ) y0 dx
gdx c (x)e dx c

: :
y =y2-(2x+1)y+(x2+x+1) (1)
.
: . . (1) x

, . -
2
1 y -
, .
y=kx k=1 :
y0=x
(1) : y=Y+y0=Y+x
:
y =Y +1=(Y+x)2-(2x+1)(Y+x)+x2+x+1=Y2+2xY+x2-(2x+1)Y-x(2x+1)+x2+x+1
Y =Y2-Y (2)
(2) Bernoulli .
:
1
y=x+ (3)
1 ce x
1
y= +x (1) :
u
1 63

2
1 1 1
1 2 u x ( 2x 1) x ( x 2 x 1)
u u u
1 x 1 1
2
x2 2 2x 2 x2 x x2 x 1
u u u u
1 1 1
2
u u -u=-1 ( )
u u2 u
u(x)= e x e xdx c ex e x
c 1 ce x
x
1 1 e
y x x x
u 1 ce x e x
c

: Ricatti
, . :
1u
y
u
Ricatti ,
. :
1uu u2 u
2
y= 2
u u
2
Ricatti y = (x)y + (x)y+ (x) :
2
1uu u u 1u2 u
2 2 2
‹ u u u 0
u u u u

: . .
2 1 3x2
1) y =y2- . y=
x2 x c x3
2) Ricatti y = (x)y2+ (x)y+ (x) -
y=u R

. . Ricatti)
Schr ö dinger
. . Ricatti .
Schr ö dinger :
2
d2 d2 2m
V( x ) ( x ) E (x) E V( x ) ( x ) 0 (1)
2m dx 2 dx 2 2

:
2 i 2 i
u ( x ) dx 2 i u ( x ) dx
Ae A u ( x )e
2 2 i 2 i 2 2 i 2 i
2 i u ( x )dx 2 i u ( x )dx du 4 2
u ( x )dx u( x )dx 2 i
A u(x) e A e A 2
u (x)e Ae u (x)
dx
(1) :
64 3

2 2 i 2 i 2 i
4 u2 u ( x ) dx u ( x ) dx 2 i 2m u ( x ) dx
A 2
e Ae u (x) 2
E V( x ) Ae 0

2 4 2i 2mi 2 4 2i
u (x) 2
u 2 (x) 2
E V( x ) 0 u (x) 2
u 2 (x)

2mi 4 2i 2mi
2
E V( x ) 0 u (x) 2
u 2 (x) 2
E V( x ) 0
2 2
2 i mi
u (x) u 2 (x) E V( x ) 0 (2)
. . Ricatti.
.
V( x ) 0, (2) :
2 i mi 2 i mi
u (x) u 2 (x) E 0 u (x) u 2 (x) E (3)

k 2mE
uo k 2
.
2
1 k 1
u(x) u (x) 2
.
2
(3) :
2 2
1 2 i 1 k miE 2 i 1 k2 k miE
2 2 2
2 4
1 2 i i 2 2i miE 2 i i 2mE 2i miE
2 2
k k 2 2
k
2 2
1 2 i 2i 2 i 2 i
2 2
k 2ki 2ik

2 ikdx 2 i 2 ikdx
. .1 . e e dx C

2 i 2 i 1
e 2ikx e 2 ikx
dx C e 2ikx e 2 ikx
Ce 2ikx Ce 2ikx
2ik k

2 ikx
1 k 1 k e k
Ce 2ikx . u
2 2 2
Ce 2ikx C e 2 ikx

k k
d 2 ikx k
u n C e .
2i dx k 2

2 i 2 i d 2 ikx k
u ( x ) dx n C e dx dx
2 i dx k 2
Ae Ae
2 ikx
n C e ikx
2 ikx A
Ae k
A C e e ikx ACe ikx e ikx
.
k k
1 65

A
AC e ikx e ikx
.
k
4.
( Euler)

4.1

. . :

dy P( x, y)
(1)
dx Q( x, y)
.
P(x,y)dx+Q(x,y)dy (2)
F(x,y). ' (1)
(x,y) ,
(2) (x,y) , :
F F
dF= dx dy Pdx+ Qdy
x y
F(x,y)=c
H (x,y) .
(x,y) :
2 2
F F F P F Q
P= , Q= P , Q
x y y x y y x y x x
Schwarz :
P Q
P = Q (3)
y y x x
(3) -
(x,y). (3)
(1).

dy
: . . 2xlnx +y=0 (4)
dx
: (4) ydx+2xlnxdy=0 (5)
P=y P/ y=1 Q=2xlnx Q/ x=2lnx+2
P/y Q/x (5) . (5)
(x,y)=y/x. :
y2
dx+2ylnxdy=0 (6)
x
P=y2/x ( P)/ y=2y/x
Q=2ylnx ( Q)/ x=2y/x
( )/ y= ( )/ x (6) .
F y2 dx
P F y2 (x) y 2 ln x (x)
x x x
68 4

F d
2y ln x Q 2y ln x
y dy
d
0 c F(x,y)=y2lnx+c
dy
(5) y2lnx=c1

4.2
.

. . (1)
.
(x,y). ,( -
), -
. :
) ydx-xdy
(x,y)=-1/x2 d(y/x) (1)
(x,y)= 1/y2 d(x/y) (2)
(x,y)=-1/xy dln(y/x) (3)
y
(x,y)=-1/(x2+y2) d arctan (4)
x
) ydx + xdy
(x,y)=1/xy dln(xy) (5)
1
(x,y)=1/(xy)n (n 1) d (6)
(n 1)(xy)n 1
1
(x,y)=1/(x2+y2) d ln x2 y2 (7)
2
1
(x,y)=1/(x2+y2)n (n>1) d (8)
2(n 1)(x2 y2 )n 1

) ydx + xdy
(x,y)=x -1y -1 d(x y ) (9)

. .
-
.

1: . . (y2-y)dx+xdy=0
A : . .
-(ydx-xdy)+y2dx=0.
4. 69

(1)-(4) ydx-xdy (x,y)=1/y2 -


. :
x
y=
x c

2: . . (y-xy2)dx + (x+x2y2)dy=0
: . . : ydx+xdy-xy2dx+x2y2dy=0 -
(5)-(8).
(x,y)=1/(x2y2) . -
:
ydx xdy dx 1 dx 1
dy d dy ln| x| y c
(xy)2 x xy x xy

3yx2
3: . . y=
x 3 2y4
: . . :
2 3 4
3yx dx-(x +2y )dy=0 x (3ydx-xdy)-2y4dy=0
2

, ydx+ xdy =3, =-1,


x2y2. , -
x ' (x,y)=y-2. -
:
2
x2y-2(3ydx-xdy)-2y2dy=0 d(x3y-1)-2y2dy=0 x3y-1= y3 c
3

4.3 -

,
:
P Q
y x
I) f (x) ( y) (10)
Q

f ( x )dx
(x)= e (11)
: (3) 4.1
P Q
P = Q
y y x x
x, -
= (x), ( / y=0), :
d P Q
Q
dx y x
70 4

:
P Q
y x
Q
x, f(x), :
d d f ( x )dx
f (x) f (x)dx (x) e
dx

1: y =2xy-x
: :
(2xy-x)dx-dy=0
P Q
y x
: P=2xy-x, Q=-1 =-2x
Q
2 xdx
x2
(x,y)= e e
:
2 1
y=c e x
2

P Q
y x
II) =g(y) ( x) (12)
P
, ( ),
y :
g ( y )dy
(y)= e

2: . . y2dx+xydy=0
:
P Q
dy
y x 1 1
P=y2, Q=xy = (x,y)= e y
e ln x

P y y

:
ydx+xdy=0 d(xy)=0 y=c/x

III) P=yf(u), Q=xg(u) u=xy (14)

1
(x,y)= = (u) (15)
xP yQ

3: . .: y(1-xy)dx+xdy=0
4. 71

: P=y(1-xy), Q=x. (14).


(15) (x,y)=-1/(x2y2).
. 3.4 y=-1/[xln|cx|]

IV) = (u(x,y))
d u d d u d
ux , uy
x du x du y du y du
(u) :

f (u )du
(u)= e
P Q
y x
f(u)= u.
Qu x Pu y
: (3) .6 :
P Q
d P d Q 1d y x
uy P ux Q
du y du x du Qu x Pu y
P Q
y x
u, ,
Qu x Pu y
P Q
y x f (u )du
=f(u) (u)= e
Qu x Pu y

1: . .
(5x2+2xy+3y3)dx+3(x2+xy2+2y3)dy=0
= (u) u=x+y. . .
: :
P Q
y x
u=x+y. :
Qu x Pu y
P Q
2x+9y2, 6x+3y2, ux=1, uy=1
y x
P Q
(2x+9y2)-(6x+3y2 )=-4x+6y=-2(2x-3y2)
y x
Qux-Puy=Q-P=3(x2+xy2+2y3)-(5x2+2xy+3y3)=-2x2-2xy+3xy2+3y3=
=-2x(x+y)+3y2(x+y)=(-2x+3y2)(x+y)
72 4

P Q
y x 2 2 f (u )du
= f (u ) =e e 2 ln u =u2=(x+y)2
Qu x Pu y x y u
. . (u)
. . :
F F
dF= dx dy (x+y)2(5x2+2xy+3y3)dx+(x+y)23(x2+xy2+2y3)dy=0
x y
:
F(x,y)=x5+3x4y+x3y3+3x3y2+x2y3+3y5x+3x2y4+x6=0

2: . . (2y3-3xy)dx+(x2+xy2)dy=0 -
= (u) u=x/y2 . .
: :
P Q
y x (6y2 3x) (2x y2 ) 5 x 5y2 x y2
= =
Qu x Pu y x2 1 2xy x2 x2
xy2 2 2y3 3xy 5 x 5 x
y y4 y2 y2
x x
1 1
y2 y2 1 1 f (u )du x
= f (u ) = e e ln u u
x x2 x x x u y2
2
y2 y 4 2
y y 1 2 y
. . =x/y :
2 3
x x 2 2 x3
2xy 3 dx x dy 0 dF F x y c
y y2 y

4.4

, . . ,
.
, Pdx + Qdy = dF (F),
F ,
(F)(Pdx+Qdy)= (F)dF=d (F)dF
: -
. . Pdx+Qdy=0, dx+ Qdy=dF, -
. . (F).
-
. . :
(P1dx+Q1dy)+(P2dx+Q2dy)=0 (16)
, 1, . .
P1dx+Q1dy=0 , 2, . .
P2dx+Q2dy = 0, :
4. 73

1P1dx+ 1Q1dy=dF1 2P2dx+ 2Q2dy=dF2


. . -
1 1(F2) 2 2(F2). 1 2,

1 1(F1)= 2 2(F2)
(16).

1: . .:
(3x+2x3y3)dy+(y+4x2y4)dx=0
: . . :
(3xdy+ydx)+x2y2(2xdy+4ydx)=0 (17)
2
1 , (9), 1=y .
1 1 dF1=d(xy3). -
1 y2 1(xy3). 2
-5/2
, (12) (13) 2=y .
2 2. dF2=d[4/3x3y3/2].
2 y-5/2 2[4/3x3y3/2]. -
, . . (17)
=x y ( P)/ y= ( Q)/ x. :
( P) x y (y 4x 2 y 4 ) ( 1)x y 4( 4)x 2
y 3

y y
( Q) x y (3x 2x 3 y3 ) 3( 1)x y 2( 4)x 2
y 3

x x
=-5/9, =3/9. -
:
=x-5/9y3/9 .

,
. .:
3 3
1. (3x2y-x2)dx+dy=0 (A . = ex , y=c e x +1/3)
2. (2xy2+x/y2)dx+4x2ydy=0 (A . =y2, 2x2y4+x2=c)
3. (x2+y+y2)dx-xdy=0 (A . =-1/(x2+y2), y=xtan(x+c))
4. (y+x3y3)dx+xdy=0 (A . =(xy)-3, 1/y2=2x2(x-c))
5. xy2dx + (x2y2+x2y)dy=0 (A . =(xy)-2, ln|xy|=c-y)
y3 y3
2 2 3 3 4 3 2
6. 3x y dx+(2x y+x y )dy=0 (A . = e , 3
x y e =c) 3

7. (x3y2 -y)dx+(x2y4-x)dy=0 (A . =(xy)-2, 3x3y+2xy4+cxy=-6)


74 4

1)
m -
L , -
.
. -
T

B mg .
:
d 2s
Ft mg sin m (1)
dt 2
s -

Ft . -

L . ds d d 2s
s L L L ,
dt dt dt 2
g
(1) : mg sin mL sin 0 (2)
L
(2) ( ), :
g d 1 2 g 1 2 g
sin 0 cos 0 cos .
L dt 2 L 2 L
g d g
2 E cos 2 E cos . .
L dt L
t
d d
: dt dt
g g
2 E cos 0 2 E cos 0
L L

2) -
.
Gauss
, q1,
q2 A(- ,0) B( ,0) . r1, r2 -
, (x,y) .

Gauss. :
q q q
E dS E 4 r2 E
o o 4 o r2
4. 75

q
E r̂ . q1 , q 2 :
4 o r2
q1 q1 q2
E1 2
r̂1 3 1
r. E2 3
r2 .
4 r
o 1 4 r
o 1 4 o 2 r

1 q1 q2
E . r1 r2 (1)
4 o r13 r23
r1 , r2 :
r1 x x̂ yŷ ,
r2 x x̂ yŷ
1 1
2 2
r1 x y2 2
, r2 x y2 2

.
E ., :
1 q1 q2
E . (x ) x̂ yŷ (x ) x̂ yŷ
4 o r13 r23
1 q1 q2 1 q1 q2
E . x x x̂ y y ŷ .
4 o r13 r23 4 o r13 r23

dx dy dx dy
Ex Ey 1 q1 q2 1 q1 q2
x x y
4 o r13 r23 4 o r13 r23
q1 q2 q1 q2
y dx x x dy 0 (2)
r13 r23 r13 r23
. ..
q1 q2 q1 q2
P ( x , y) y Q( x , y) x x .
r13 r23 r13
r23
P ( x , y) Q( x , y)
:
y x
P q1 q2 3 1 1 3 1 1
y q1 (x )2 y2 2
2y q 2 (x )2 y2 2
2y
y r13 r23 r14 2 r24 2
P q1 q2 q1 q2
3y 2
y r13 r23 r15 r25
Q q1 q2 3 1 3 1
q1 ( x ) 2( x ) q 2 (x ) 2( x )
x r13 r23 r14 2r1 r24 2r2
76 4

Q q1 q2 3q1 ( x )2 3q 2 ( x )2 P ( x , y) Q( x , y )
.
x r13 r23 r15 r25 y x
q1 q 2 q1 q2 q1 q2 q1 2 q2 2 2q1 2q 2
3y 2 3 x 3 x
r13 r23 r15 r25 r13 r23 r15 5
r2 r13 r23
q q2 P ( x , y) Q( x , y) q1 q 2
3 51 ( x )2 y2 3 (x )2 y2 .
r1 r25 y x r13 r23
P ( x , y) Q( x , y) q1 q2
y x r13 r23 1
.
P ( x , y) q q2 y
y 31
r1 r23
1
dy
e y
e ny y.
. . y. -
(2) y :
q1 q2 q1 q2
y2 dx y (x ) (x ) dy 0.
r13 r23 r13 r23
F -
. :
ydy ydy
F Qdy g( x ) q1 (x ) 3 q 2 (x ) g( x ) ,
r1 r23
ri2 (x )2 y2 2ri dri 2 ydy i 1,2 .
:

r1dr1 r2 dr2 dr1 dr2


F q1 (x ) q 2 (x ) g(x) q1 (x ) q 2 (x ) g(x)
r13 r23 r12 r22
1 1 x x
F q1 (x ) q 2 (x ) g( x ) q1 q2 g( x ) .
r1 r1 r2
g(x). -
:
dF d x x
P q1 q2 g (x) P
dx dx r1 r2
1 1 dr1 1 1 dr2
q1 (x ) q2 (x ) g (x) P.
r1 r12 dx r2 r22 dx
dri dri x
ri2 (x )2 y2 2ri 2( x ) i 1,2 .
dx dx ri
1 1 x 1 1 x y2 y2
q1 (x ) q2 (x ) g (x) q1 q2
r1 r12 r1 r2 r22 r2 r13 r23
4. 77

r12
(x )2 r23 (x )2 r12 (x )2 r23 (x )2
q1 q2 g (x) q1 q2
r13 r23 r13 r23
g (x) 0 g(x ) C.
-
:
x x
F q1 q2 C
r1 r2

3)
:
.

f (q 1 , q 2 ,......, q n ) 0 (1)
1,2,3,...., n (qn : ) -
f qj. - -

f (q 1 , q 2 ,....., q n , q 1 , q 2 ,......, q n , t ) 0,

(1).

. ,
.
Oxy.
x 1 , y1 , x 2 , y 2 :

2 2 2
x2 x1 y2 y1 0. -
:
M AB 0 x1 x 2 y2 y1 y1 y2 x 2 x1 0 (2)
x , y, x, y
x, -
:
.
x1 x cos x1 x sin
2 2
y1 y sin y1 y cos
2 2
x2 x cos x2 x sin
2 2
y2 y sin y2 y cos
2 2
x1 x 2 2x ,
y1 y2 2y , y2 y1 sin ,
78 4

x2 x1 cos
(2) 2x sin 2 y cos 0 x sin y cos 0
sin dx cos dy 0 (3)
(3)
.
5. n

, ,
, . ’ -
2 , -
:
1)
.
2) .
3) , ,
-
.

5.1 . .n

n :
(x,y,y ,y , ,y(n-1),y(n))=0
(1)
y(n)=dyn/dxn .
(1) y(n) :
y(n) =f(x,y,y ,y , ,y(n-1)) (2)
: f, f/ y, f/ y , , f/ y(n-1) (1

(x0, y(x0), y (x0), y (x0), ,y(n-1)(x0), (2)


.

"
n".
(2), n+1 :
x0, y(x0), y (x0), y (x0), , y(n-1)(x0)
. . n -
n c1, c2, , cn, -
.

(1
, ' .
n+1 x,y,y ,y , ,y(n-1) ' n+1 .
:
(n+1) , f, f/ y,
f/ y , , f/ y(n-1), x,y,y , ,y(n-1) " "
, ( x0, y(x0), y (x0 ),..., y(n-1)(x0)
x,y,y ,y , ,y(n-1), , . -
,( ), y(x) (2), , x=x0 -
y(x0), y (x0) . , y(n-1)(x0).
80 5

1: . .
y +y=0 y=c1sinx+c2cosx.
, x=x0=0 y(0)=3, y (0)=4
: y(0)=c1sin(0)+c2cos(0)=c2
E y(0)=3 c2=3. ' y :
y (x)=c1cosx-c2sinx y (0)=c1cos(0)-c2sin(0)=c1
H y (0)=4 c1=4.
y=4sinx+3cosx

2: . . y =2x '
y(0)=0, y (0)=1.
: . . dy /dx=2x
d
y 2xdx c 1 x2 c 1 y x2 c1
dx
1 3
y x2dx c 1dx x c 1x c 2
3
y(0)=0 c2=0.
y (x)=x2+c1, y (0)=1 c1=1.
1 3
y x x
3

1: y -y=0 : y=c1sinhx+c2coshx. -
y(0)=1, y (0)=-6

2: s=s(t) .
( : =d2s/dt2=dv/dt=-g= .
s=s(t) . . y =-g).
c1 c2 ; -
t=0 -
[s(0)= , v(0)=0].

5.2

d2 y dy
: A1(x) A2 (x)y 0 (1)
dx2 dx
:
) ,( ),
y . ( . . . .
y +A1(x)y +A2(x)y=f(x)
y, y , y ,
).
n 81

) , "
": y1 y2 (1),
y=c1y1+c2y2 (2)
c1, c2 , (1)
, y (2),
(1) :
c1[y1 +A1(x)y1 +A2(x)y1 ]+c2[y2 +A1 (x)y2 +A2(x)y2] (3)
, y1 y2 (1)
. (2)
(1). (1) " " y(x)=0, -
.

-
.

5.3 Wronski

. .2 ,
(2) .
:
y=c1y1+c2y2 (1)
. .2 , . :
y +A1(x)y +A2(x)y=0 (2)
(2) (1) -
c1, c2 . (2), -
(x), :
) x=x0
(x0)= 0 (3)
) x=x0
(x0)= 0 (4)
(1) (2), (x) (1)
c1 c2 . c1 c2 :
(x)=c1y1(x)+c2y2(x)
c1 c2 .
c1y1(x0)+c2y2(x0)= 0 (5 )
c1y1 (x0)+c2y2 (x0)= 0 (5 )
, (1), (x) -
x0 . , ( -
c1 c2 (1) ), :
y 1( x 0 ) y 2 ( x 0 )
W(x0)= 0 (6)
' '
y (x0 ) y (x 0 )
1 2

(x) x0 -
, (1) (2), -
82 5

y1, y1 , y2, y2 .
:
y1(x) y2(x) . .:
y +A1(x)y +A2(x)y=0
O y=c1y1 +c2y2
:
y1(x) y2 (x)
W y1(x),y2 (x)
y1' (x) y2' (x)
, ( ), ( ) y1(x),
y1 (x), y2(x), y2 (x). To G. Wronski,
( 1778-1853). H W(x) " Wronski"

: , Wronski,
. . , ,
1. y +y=0 y=c1cosx+c2sinx y=k1eix+k2e-ix
2. y -y=0 y=c1coshx+c2sinhx y=k1e +k2e-x
x

5.4 .

n : {y1(x), ,yn(x)}. n -
I R, :
c1y1(x)+c2y2(x)+ +cnyn(x) 0 (1)
x I c1,c2, , cn .

: {ex, e-x}
(- , ).
: c1 c2 ,
:
c1ex+c2e-x 0 (2)
(2) : c2e-x=-c1ex c2=-c1e2x (3)
c1 , (3) ,
x (3) -
.
c1 , c2 (2)
c1=c2=0. {ex, e-x} .

5.5

(1)
, {y1(x), y2(x), ,yn(x)} -
.
n 83

: {1-x, 1+x, 1-3x} -


(- , + ).
: : c1(1-x)+c2(1+x)+c3(1-3x) 0 (4)
: (-c1+c2-3c3 )x+(c1+c2+c3) 0 (5)
(5)
.
, .
-c1+c2-3c3=0 c1+c2+c3=0 (6)
c3=1, (5), c1=-2 c2=1. ,
, (4) x. {1-x, 1+x, 1-3x} -
(- , + ).

:
(- , + ).

1. {e2x, e-2x } . . .
2. e 1x ,e 2 x 1 2 . . .
3. {x, 1, x-1} . . .
4. {x+1, x-1} . . .
5. {x+1, x2+x, 2x2-x-3} . . ..

5.6 . . y +A1(x)y +A2(x)y=0

, y1(x) y2(x) . .:
y +A1(x)y +A2(x)y=0
c1y1(x)+c2y2(x)=0 -
c1=c2=0. c1,c2
c1y1(x)+c2y2(x)=0, y1 y2 . -
y1(x) y2(x) , ,
y2(x)/y1(x) c=-c1/c2 , :
y2 (x) y1y2 y1 y2
2
y1(x) y 1

.
Wronski, :

( ): y1(x) y2(x) ,
Wronski .

(x),
,( ), x=x0, ( . (x0)
(x0) ), :
84 5

( ): y1(x) y2(x) ,
Wronski y1 y2. (
y1, y2 ).
: , Wronski -
, y1(x) y2(x) . x=x0
:
y 1( x 0 ) y 2 ( x 0 )
W(x0)= =y1(x0)y2 (x0)- y1 (x0)y2(x0)=0 (1)
' '
y (x 0 ) y ( x 0 )
1 2

(1)
y1 (x 0 ) y1 (x 0 )
(2)
y 2 (x 0 )y 2 (x 0 )
: (x)=c1y1(x)+c2y2(x) (3)
c1=1, c2=- (4)
:
(x0)=0 (x0)=0
y(x) 0 y(x0)
y (x0) , (3) -
, . . -
c1, c2, ( (4)),
c1y1(x)+c2y2(x) 0
y1(x) y2(x) .
( ).
( ) Wronski
:

: y=c1y1(x)+c2y2(x)
y +A1(x)y +A2(x)y=0 y1 y2 , -
Wronski
y1 y2 .

: ( ), .
W(y1,y2) 0 x D, : c1y1+c2y2 0 |c1|+|c2| 0 .
: c1y1+c2y2=0 y1/y2=y1 /y2 =-c2/c1

: ( ) ( ) -
-
(2
. . y +A1(x)y +A2(x)y=0 1(x), 2(x)
x. .

(2
A1(x) A2(x)
. .
n 85

5.7 .

1. {x3, |x|3}
[-1, 1].
: : c1x3+c2|x3| 0 (1)
3 3
x 0, |x |=x , x 0 |x3 |=-x3
x 0 (1) c1x +c2x3 0
3
(2)
x 0 (1) c1x3-c2x3 0 (3)
(2) c1 c2 ,
(3) . c1=c2=0 -
.

2: W(x3, |x3|) [-1, 1]


:
3
3x 2 x 0
3 x x 0 d|x | 3
|x |= 0 x 0
-x 3 x 0 dx
3x 2 x 0
3 3
x x
x 0 3
W(x , |x |)= 3 0
2 2
3x 3x
3
x x3
x 0 W(x3, |x3|)= 0
2 2
3x 3x
0 0
x=0 W(x3, |x3|)= 0 0
0
W(x3, |x3|) 0 x [-1,1]

3.
( );
: . Wronski -
x3 |x3| ,
. .
y +A1(x)y +A2(x)y=0,
1(x), 2(x) .

2
4: . . y - y =0 [-1,1] y=x3
x
y=|x3|. ;
3 3 3 3
: . W(x , |x |) 0 y=x y=|x | -
, -
2/x x=0.
86 5

5.8 2 -

2 :
y + 1y + 2y=0 1, 2 . (1)
y y y -

,
. . (1). ’ :
y=e x (2)
y= e x y = 2e x
(1) :
( 2+ 1 + 2)e x=0 2
+ 1 + 2=0 (3)
x
e 0. , (3), (2) (1).
(3) . . (1)
2
. 1 -4 2 0, (3) 1 2
. (1)
1x 2x
y1= e y2= e
y1 x
, : e 1 2
. -
y2
(1) :

y=c1 e 1x +c2 e 2x
(4)
2
. 1 -4 2 0, (3) ,
: +i -i . , :
y1=e(
, y2=e( -i )x +i )x
(5)
.
eix=cosx+isinx (3
(5) :
y1=e xei x=e x[cos x+isinx] y2=e xe-i x=e x[cos x-isinx] (6)
(1)
y(x)=u(x)+iv(x)
u(x) v(x) (1).
y=u+iv (1) :
[u + 1u + 2u]+i[v + 1v + 2v]=0 (7)

(3
Taylor :
ex=1+x/1!+x2/2!+ +xn/n!+
x ix. i Taylor
cosx i Taylor sinx, :
eix=1+(ix)/1!+(ix)2/2!+ +(ix)n/n!+ =[1-x2/2!+x4/4!- ]+i[x/1!-x3/3!+x5/5!- ]=cosx+isinx
n 87

. (7) :
u + 1u + 2u=0 v + 1v + 2v=0
u v (1).
(6), :
y1=e xcos x, y2=e xsinx (8)
(1). ' +i -i
(3) (8).
(1) :
y=e x
[c1cos x+c2sin x] (9)
2
1 -4 2=0, (3) ,( ), ,
: y1=e x
(1). (1) -
y2, .
y2/y1 . -
x, . y2 y2=xe x. xe x
x
. . y2=xe . .
(1) :
x
y=(c1+c2x)e

: :
x
y(x)=e Y(x) =- 1/2
: y (x)= e xY(x)+e xY (x)= e x[Y(x)+Y (x)]
y (x)=e x[Y (x)+2 Y (x)+ 2Y(x)]
y + 1y + 2y=0 :
e [Y (x)+2 Y (x)+ Y(x)]+ 1e [ Y(x)+Y (x)]+ 2e xY(x)=0
x 2 x

Y (x)+ [2 + 1]Y (x)+[ 2+ 1 + 2]Y(x)=0


2
=- 1/2 2 + 1=0 + 1 + 2= 12/4- 12/2+ 2=- 12/4+ 2=0
Y (x)=0 Y(x)=k1+k2x. :
y2(x)=y1(x)Y(x)=(k1+k2x)e x
.
x
k1=0 k2=1. y2(x)=xe :
x
y=(c1+c2x)e

1. y +3y +2y=0
x 2
A : y=e : +3 +2=0
1=-1, 2=-2. :
y=c1e-x+c2e-2x

2. : y +y +y=0.
:H : 2+ +1=0
1=(-1+i 3)/2, 2=(-1-i 3 )/2
88 5

x 3 x 3
i x i x
: y c 1e 2 2
c 2e 2 2

x
3 3
: y 2
k 1 cos x k 2 sin x
2 2

3. y -6y +9y=0
: : 2-6 +9=0 1= 2=3.
: y=[c1+c2x]e3x

: . .
3
2
x 7 7
1) y -3y +4y=0 . y c1 cos x c 2 sin x
2 2
2) y +4y +4y=0 A . y=[c1+c2x]e-2x
3) y =0 A . y=c1+c2x
4) y -4y=0 A . y=c1e2x+c2e-2x

5.9 n 2

5.2 5.5 -
. . n 2.
1. . .:
dn y dyn 1 dn 2y dy
A1(x) n 1 A2 (x) n 2 An 1(x) An (x)y 0 (1)
dxn dx dx dx
( i(x) i=1, ,n ), :
y=c1y1+c2y2+ +cnyn (2)
y1,y2, , yn (1).
2. (1) ,
Wronski:
y1 y2 yn

y1 y2 yn
W(x)= (3)

y1( n 1)
y2 ( n 1)
yn ( n 1)

.
x
3. Ai(x)= i= i=1,2, ,n, y=e
:
n n-1 n-2
+ 1 + 2 + + n-1 + n=0 (4)
n 89

(4) . .
. 5.7 n=2. :
0x
) = 0 (4) e . .
) 1= +i , 2= -i (4)
. .:
e( +i )x , e( -i )x e xcos x , e xsin x
) = 1 k (4) k . :
e 1x , x e 1x , , xk-1 e 1x
:
0 1x k 1x
k 1
e 1x
) 1= +i , 2= -i k
(4) :
k 1
0 1 x k 1x e x cos x 0 1 x k 1 xk 1
e x sin x

1: y -y -y +y=0
A : y=e x,
3 2
- - +1=0 ( -1)2( +1)=0.
=1 ex xex =-1 -
e-x . :
y=c1ex+c2xex+c3e-x=(c1+c2x)ex+c3e-x

1. :
1) y -6y +11y -6y=0 ( 1,2,3)
2) y(4)-4y(3)+7y -4y +6y=0 ( 2±i 2,±i)
3) y -6y +2y +36y=0 ( -2, 4±i 2)
4) y(4) +8y +24y +32y +16y=0 ( -2 )

5.10

, :
n
d d
D Dn
dx dxn
. . Dsinx :
d d2
Dsinx= sinx=cosx D2sinx=
sinx=-sinx
dx dx2
d df (x) df (x)
c 1f1(x) c 2f2 (x) c 1 1 c2 2
dx dx dx
D[c1f1(x)+c2f2(x)]=c1Df1(x)+c2Df2(x) (1)

d n dy d n 1y
Dn(Dy)=Dn+1y (2)
dxn dx dxn 1
90 5

(D+ )y=Dy+ y
(D+ )(D+ )y, , D+
dy
(D+ )y= + y. :
dx
dy dy dy dy dy
(D+ )(D+ )y=(D+ ) y D y y D D y y
dx dx dx dx dx
2
d y dy dy
2
y D 2 y Dy DY y D2 ( )D y
dx dx dx
(D+ )(D+ )y= D2 ( )D y (3)

(3) :
(D+ )(D+ )=(D+ )(D+ ) (4)
, . :
d2y dy
1 2 y 0 ( 1, 2 ) (5)
dx 2 dx
:
(D2+ 1D+ 2)y=0 Ly=0 (6)
L=D2+ 1D+ 2 -
(4
.

. . (5). (3) -
(6) :
Ly=(D- 1)(D- 2)y=0 (7)
L=(D- 1)(D- 2) 1, 2 .
1 2, (5) :
y= c1e 1x c 2 e 2 x
1= 2= , : (7), :
(D- )y=u (8)
(8) (7) :
du
(D- )u=0 u 0 (9)
dx
. .1 u -
x
: u=c1e
u (8), . . -
dy x
y: y c1e
dx
1 :
y=c1e x+c2xe x
(10)

(4
D L=D2+ 1D+ 2 :
L[c1y1(x)+c2y2(x)]=c1Ly1(x)+c1y2(x)
. 1 2
x, L ,( L1(x) L2(x) -
L1L2 L2L1. L Linear = ).
n 91

(4) . 5.8.

1: y -4y +4y=0
A : :
Ly=[D2+4D+4]y=0 Ly=[(D-2)(D-2)]y=0
, :
2x 2x 2x
y=c1e +c2xe =[c1+c2x]e

: . . L, -
L=(D- 1)(D- 2) .
1) y -y -2y=0 A . y=c1e-x+c2e2x
2) y -9y=0 A . y=c1e3x +c2e-3x =k1coshx+k2sinhx

5.11 n

. .: y(n) +A1(x)y(n-1)+ +An(x)y=f(x) (1)


f(x), A1(x), , An (x) ,
. . n.
. . n
(1) ,( ), , :
y(x0)=y0, y (x0)=y0 , , y(n)(x0)=y0(n)
f(x), A1(x), , An(x) .
:

: u(x) (1) y1(x), y2(x), , yn(x) -


n , .
y(n)+A1(x)y(n-1)+ +An(x)y=0
(1) :
y=c1y1(x)+c2y2(x)+ +cnyn(x)+u(x) (2)
: (1)
L(x)y(x)=f(x) (3)
L(x)
L(x)=Dn+A1(x)Dn-1+A2(x)Dn-2+ +An(x)=
dn dn 1 dn 2
A1(x) A2 (x) An (x) (4)
dxn dxn 1 dxn 2
y =c1y1(x)+c2y2(x)+ +cnyn(x)
.
Ly =0 (5)
, u(x) (1), :
Lu(x)=f(x) (6)
(5) (6) ,
92 5

Ly(x)=L[y (x)+u(x)]=Ly (x)+Lu(x)=0+f(x)=f(x) (7)


y(x)= y (x)+u(x) (8)
(1).
, -
(8) Y(x) (1):
LY(x)=f(x) (9)
(x)=Y(x)-u(x)
L (x)=LY(x)-Lu(x)
(9) (6) L (x)=f(x)-f(x)=0
(x)
Y(x)= (x)+u(x)
u(x) (1), .
(8).

. . n, .
-
.

5.12

, y
Ly=0 ,
u(x) Ly=f(x).
u(x)
.
. . :
) u(x) ,
f(x) .(
f(x),
).
) u(x)

.
:

1) f(x)=Pn(x), Pn(x) n, :

u(x)= 0+ 1x+ 2x2+ + nxn (1)


0, 1, , n u(x)
.

k, :
u(x)=xk[ 0+ 1x+ 2x2+ + nxn] (1 )
n 93

x
2) f(x)=Ae , , :
x
u(x)=Be (2)

u(x) . .
k,
:

u(x)=Bxke x
(2 )

3) f(x)=Asin x f(x)=Acos x, :

u(x)= 1sin x+ 2cos x (3)

1, 2 u(x)
. .
i -i ,
k, . ., :

u(x)=xk[ 1sin x+ 2cos x] (3 )

4) f(x)=e xPn(x) = . Pn(x) n,


:

u(x)=e x[ 0+ 1x+ 2x2+ + nxn] (4)

0, 1, , n u(x) -
. . -
k, :

u(x)=xke x[ 0+ 1x+ 2x2+ + nxn] (4 )

5) f(x)=e xPn(x)sin( x) f(x)=e xPn(x)cos( x) , = . Pn(x)


n, :

u(x)=e xsin( x)[ 0+ 1x+ 2x2+ + nxn]+


+e xcos( x)[ 0+ 1x+ 2x2+ + nxn] (5)

1, 2, , n 1, 1, , n u(x)
. . i -
k, :

u(x)=xke xsin( x)[ 0+ 1x+ 2x2+ + nxn]+


94 5

+xke xcos( x)[ 0+ 1x+ 2x2+ + nxn] (5 )

6) f(x) , u(x)
.

: f(x)=Pn(x)e xcos x+Qm(x)e xsin x

Pn(x) Qm(x) n m , :
) i
:

u(x)=Us(x)e xcos x+Vs(x)e xsin x (6)

Us(x) Vs(x) s
Pn(x) Qm(x), . s=max{n,m}.
) i -
k, :

u(x)=xk U s (x)e x cos x Vs (x)e x sin x (6 )

Us(x) Vs(x) ( ).

5.13

1: . .:
2
y -y -2y=4x (1)
A : . .
1=-1, 2=2
y =c1e-x+c2e2x
(1) (1) . 5.12
: u= 0+ 1x+ 2x2 (2)
u (1). (2) (1) -
:
2 2-( 1+2 2x)-2( 0+ 1x+ 2x2)=4x2
-(2 2+4)x2-(2 2+2 1)x+(2 2- 1-2 0 ) 0
2=-2, 1=2, 0=-3
(1) : u(x)=-3+2x-2x2 -
: y= c1e +c2e2x -3+2x-2x2
-x

2: . .
y -y =x2
(3)
n 95

A : . . 1=0,
2=1. :
y =c1+c2ex
=0 k=1,
(3) (1 ), . 5.12 :
u=x( 0+ 1x+ 2x2)= 0x+ 1x2+ 2x3 (4)
(4) (3) , :
-(3 2+1)x2+2(3 2- 1)x+(2 1- 0) 0 2 =-1/3, 1=-1, 0=-2
u(x)=-2x-x2 -x3/3
(3) : y=c1+c2ex-2x-x2 -x3/3

: , ,
(1) . 5.12 0, 1, 2 .

3: . .
3x
y -y -2y=e (5)
A : . . 1=-1,
2 =2. :
y =c1e-x+c2e2x
(5) (2), . 5.12 -
u(x)= e3x (6)
(6) (5) :
9 e3x-3 e3x-2 e3x=e3x =1/4
(5) :
y=c1e-x+c2e2x+e3x/4

4: . .
y -3y +2y=e2x (7)
: . . 1=1, 2=2.
:
y =c1e +c2e2x
x

2 k=1, -
, (7) (2 ), . 5.12 :
u(x)= xe2x
(7) =1.
(7) :
y=c1ex+c2e2x+xe2x=c1ex+(c2+x)e2x

5: . .:
y -3y +2y=sin2x (8)
: . . 1=1, 2=2
:
y =c1ex+c2e2x
96 5

(8) (3), . 5.12 -


: u(x)= 1sin2x+ 2cos2x
(8) 1=-1/20,
2=3/20. (8) :
1 3
y=c1e-x+c2e2x - sin2x+ cos2x
20 20

6: . .:
y +4y=3sin2x (9)
: . . 1=2i,
2=-2i. . . :
y =c1cos2x+c2sin2x
(9) (3 ), . 5.12, (
±2i k=1 ), :
u(x)=x( 1sin2x+ 2cos2x)
(9) 1=0, 2=-3/4.
(9) :
y=c1cos2x+c2sin2x-3/4xcos2x

7: . .:
y -6y +11y -6y=2xe-x (10)
. .: 1=1,
2=2, 3=3
: . . :
y =c1ex+c2e2x+c3e3x
(1) (4), . 5.12 -
-x
: u(x)=e ( 0+ 1x)
0=-13/144 , 1=-1/12
(10) :
y=c1ex+c2e2x+c3e3x+-13/144e-x-1/12xe-x

8: . .:
y -2y -y +2y=6x+sinx (11)

. . : 1=1, 2=-1, 3 =2.


: :
y =c1e +c2e-x+c3e2x
x

(11) 6 . 5.12.
(1), (3), . 5.12 :
u(x)=(A0+A1x)+ 1sinx+ 2cosx
(11) 1=3/2, 2=3, 1=2/10, 2= 1/10.
(11) :
n 97

y=c1ex+c2e-x+c3e2x+3/2+3x+2/10sinx+1/10cosx

: u(x) -
. . . .,
. . .

: :
4x
1. y -5y +6y=e A . y=c1e +c2e +1/2e4x
3x 2x

2. y +2y +y=x A . y=(c1+c2x)e-x+x-2


3. y +5y +6y=ex A . y=c1e-3x+c2e-2x+ex/12
4. (D2 -1)y=5x-2 A . y=c1ex+c2e-x-5x+2
5. (D2 -1)y=e2x(x-1) A . y=c1ex+c2e-x+e2x(x/3-7/9)
6. (D-1)2y=xex A . y=(c1+c2x)ex +1/6x3ex
7. (D2 -6D+9)y=3e3x A . y=c1e3x+c2xe3x+3/2x2e3x
8. D(D+9)y=3 A . y=c1+c2e-9x+x/3
9. y +9y=x2-2x+1 A . y=c1sin3x+c2cos3x+x2/9-2x/9+7/81
10. y -3y +3y -y=ex A . y=c1ex+c2xex+c3x2ex+(x3/6)ex

5.14 Lagrange


. .:
y(n)+A1(x)y(n-1)+ +An-1(x)y +An(x)y=f(x) (1)
:
y(n)+A1(x)y(n-1)+ +An-1(x)y +An(x)y =0 (2)
. : y =c1y1(x)+c2y2(x)+ +cnyn(x) (3)
-
-
A1(x), A2(x), , An(x) -
, f(x) . 5.12.
. . 2. n 2 .
. .
y +A1(x)y +A2(x)y=f(x) (1 )
. . .
y +A1(x)y +A2(x)=0 (2 )
. y =c1y1(x)+c2y2(x) (3 )
. -
(1 ), (3 ),
c1, c2 v1(x), v2(x). -
(1), :
u=v1(x)y1(x)+v2(x)y2(x) (4)
v1(x), v2(x) (4) -
(1 ). (4) (1 ), , -
98 5

v1(x), v2(x).
, -
, v1(x) v2(x).
v1(x) v2(x).
(4),
u =[v1y1 +v2y2 ]+[v1 y1+v 2 y2] (5)
v1 v2 (5)
. :
v1 y1+v2 y2=0 (6)
u =v1y1 +v2y2 (7)
(7) :
u =v1y1 +v2y2 +v1 y1 +v2 y2 (8)
(4), (7) (8) (1 ), :
v1y1 +v2y2 +v1 y1 +v2 y2 +A1v1y1 +A1v2y2 +A2v1y1+A2v2y2=f(x)
v1[y1 +A1y1 +A2y1]+v2[y2 +A1y2 +A2y2] + v1 y1 +v2 y2 =f(x) (9)
(9) , y1 y2 . .
(2) (9) :
v1 y1 +v2 y2 =f(x) (10)
(5
(6) (10) -
v1 v2 .
v1 v2 v1 v2 .

(1). v1 v2 (4) -
(1). :
0 y2 y1 0
f ( x ) y2 y2f ( x ) y1 f ( x ) y1f ( x )
v1 = , v2 =
W W W W
y 2f ( x ) y1f ( x )
u=v1y1+v2y2=-y1 dx y 2 dx (11)
W W
(11) . 6.4 .

: . . n, :
u=v1(x)y1+v2(x)y2+ +vn(x)yn
vi(x) vi (x), :

(5
,

y1 y2

y1 y2
Wronski W(y1,y2) , y1 y2 -
(2 ). ( , (3 )
(2 )).
n 99

v1 y1+v2 y2+ +vn yn=0


v1 y1 +v2 y2 + +vn yn =0

v1 y1(n-1)+v2 y2(n-1)+ +vn yn(n-1)=f(x) (12)


:
n
Wi x
u x yi x dx
i 1 W x
Wi(x) W Wronsky, i
:
0
0

f x

1: . . y -2y +y=ex/x
: y =c1ex+c2xex
: u(x)=v1(x)e +v2(x)xex
x

v1 v2 :
x x
v1 e +v2 xe =0
v1 ex +v2 [xex+ex]=ex/x
: v1 =-1 , v2 =1/x
v1=- dx=-x , v2= dx/x=ln|x|
: u(x)=-xex+ln|x|xex

2 .: y +y =secx
: :
y =c1+c2cosx+c3sinx
:
u(x)=v1(x)+v2(x)cosx+v3(x)sinx
v1 , v2 , v3 :
v1 1+v2 cosx+v3 sinx=0
v1 0+v2 (-sinx)+v3 cosx=0
v1 0+v2 (-cosx)+v3 (-sinx)=secx
:
v1 =secx , v2 =-1 , v3 =-tanx
: v1= secxdx=ln|secx+tanx|
v2=- dx=-x
v3=- tanxdx=ln|cosx|
u(x)=ln|secx+tanx|-xcosx+sinxln|cosx|
100 5

1) ,
. .:
) y -2y +y= ex/x5 A . u=(1/12)x-3ex
) y +y=secx A . u=[cosx]ln|cosx|+xsinx
) y +4y=sin22x A . u=[cos2(2x)+1]/12

2) n 2, vi (x)
(12).

. .2

1)

,
F( x ) Kx K 0 . . . :
K
K o
F mx Kx mx x x 0 m
x ( o )2 x 0
m
. .2 . -
2
: ( o )2 0 i o . :
0x
x e C1 sin o t C 2 cos o t C1 sin o t C 2 cos o t (1)
x (0) xo x (0) o , (1) -
:
o
x (0) C2 x o , x(t) C1 o cos o t C2 o sin o t x (0) C1 o o C1 .
o

o
(1) x sin o t x o cos o t. (1)
0

x A sin o t (2)
A . (2)
x A sin o t cos A cos o t sin

o o xo
A cos , A sin xo tan
o o
2 2

A2 o
(x o ) 2 A o
(x o ) 2
o o

2)

F( x ) Kx R (x) bx K, b 0 . . .
b K
mx bx Kx 0 x x x 0
m m
n 101

K b
( o )2 (1)
m 2m
x 2 x ( o )2 x 0
2
: 2 ( o )2 0. 4 2
4( o )2 :
2
2 2 ( o )2 2
1, 2 ( o )2
2
:
2
) . ( o )2 , :
2 2 2 2
1,2 i 0 i = 0

:
- t
x(t)=e (c1sin t+c2cos t)
x (t)
:
x(t)=De- tcos( t+ ) (1)
D - e xp(- t)

. -

. - e xp (- t t
-
.

2
) ( o )2 , -
2
1, 2 ( o )2 1 , 2 0 .
1t 2t
x(t) C1e C2e (2)

) .
o, x(t)
ot
1, 2 x (t ) C1 C2 t e (3)
(2) (3)
-
x=0
.

3) Lagrange
n
( : t
( -
)) n -
102 5

q1,….,qn . O Lagrance:
d T T
Q j j 1,2,..., n
dt qj qj
( : ). Lagrance 2 .
N
( ) ri ( )
Qj Fi j 1,2,..., n ( Fi -
i 1
qj
, r -
( )
F F R R ) -
V
V V(q1 , q 2 ,...., q n , t ) , Qj , j 1,2,..., n -
qj
Lagrance Lagrancian L T V (V: ) :
d L L
0 j 1,2,...., n .
dt qj qj
m ,
, -
. . . -
.( xy )

f= - t.
m , .
:
r cos( t ) î sin( t )ˆj r cos( t ) sin( t ) î sin( t ) cos( t ) ˆj
:
1 1
T mr 2 m 2
cos 2 ( t ) 2 2
sin 2 ( t ) 2 cos( t ) sin( t ) 2
sin 2 ( t )
2 2
2 2 1
cos 2 ( t ) 2 sin( t ) cos( t ) m 2 2 2
.
2
xy :
1 2 2 2
L T V T m .
2
n 103

:
d L L
0 (1)
dt
L 1 L 1 2 2
m2 m m2 m .
2 2
d 2 2
O (1) m m 0 m m 0 . .2
dt
2
. - 2=0 = .
t t
C1 e C2e .

4) RLC

RLC, ,
.
Qm . H Q 2 2C
1
2 LI 2 .
. :
dU
I2R (1)
dt
dU d Q2 1 2 Q dQ dI
U . LI LI .
dt dt 2C 2 C dt dt
Q dQ dI
(1) : I2R LI (2)
C dt dt
dQ
I (2) :
dt
dQ
Q dI Q dI I dQ Q d 2Q
I2R I LI IR L dt
R L
C dt C dt dt C dt 2
2
d Q dQ 1
L 2 R Q 0
dt dt C
. .2 .
2 Q 4L
L R 0. : R2
C C
4L
R R2 2
C R R 1
1, 2 .
2L 2L 2L LC

4L 1t 2t
1. R2 Q C1 e C2e
C
R
4L R t
2. A R2 0 Q C1 C2t e 2L
C 2L
104 5

4L
R i R2 2
2 4L C R 1 R
3. A R 1, 2 i
C 2L 2L LC 2L
1
Rt 2 2
1 R
Q Qme 2L
cos( d t) d
LC 2L

(6
5)
-
Vo . Schrödinger V( x ) -
2
: H ( x ) V( x ) ( x ) E (x)
2m
:
1. E Vo 2. E Vo

1.
Schrödinger :
2

A E A
2m
2 mE
2mE k2
k2
2
A 2 A 0 A A 0
. . 2 -
. -
2
: k2 0 ik .
A A1e ikx A 2 e ikx .
Schrödinger :
2 2m
2m (k )2 E Vo
(k ) 2
2
B Vo B E B B 2
E Vo B 0 B B 0
2m
. .2 . -
2
(k ) 2 0 ik .
ik x ik x
B B1e B2e .

(6
De Broglie :
. ( . .
) ;
( ) -
.
p E :
=h/p = /h. Schrödinger (
Schrödinger ).
.
*
. P(x,t)= (x,t) (x,t)dx -
x x+dx.
n 105

e ik x
ik x
( e
). B2 0. A A1e ikx A 2e ikx
B B1e ik x .
-
, :
A (0) B ( 0) A1 A2 B1 A1 A2 B1
A (0) B (0) ikA 1 ikA 2 ik B1 k A1 A2 k B1

A1 A2 B1
2k k k
k B1 A1 A2 B1 A1 A1
A1 A2 B1 k k k k
k
A1 , A 2
.
.

2.
: Schrödinger :
2 2 mE
2mE k2
k2
2
A E A A 2 A 0 A 0.
2m

2
k2 0 ik
ikx ikx
A A 1e A 2e .
: Schrödinger :
2 2m
2m ( k1 ) 2 Vo E
(k 1 ) 2
2
B Vo B E B B 2
Vo E B 0 B B 0.
2m

2
(k 1 ) 2 0 k1
k1 x k1 x
B B1e B2e .

k1x k1 x
. e . B B2 e .
:
A (0) B (0) A1 A2 B2 A1 A2 B2
A (0) B (0) ikA 1 ikA 2 k 1B 2 ik A 1 A2 k 1B 2
2k k ik 1
B2 A1 A2 B2 A1 A1
k ik 1 k ik 1

5) K .
106 5

-
. . . -
:
1
d2
r 1 mr 2
r r( ) 2
F(r ) (1)
d r L2
L m ,r -
F(r) .

. m
M>>m, ( . . -
k
). F(r ) -
r2
1
k . (1) u . . :
r
k
d2u mr 2 F( r )
r2
d2u mk
u F(r ) u (2)
d 2 L2 d 2 L2
. .2 .
2
d u
. . u 0.
d 2
2
1 0 i, :
u1 C1 cos C 2 sin u1 A cos o

C2
A (C 1 ) 2 (C 2 ) 2 tan o .
C1
A, o .
u2 C . u2 0 .
mk mk
(2) u2 u2 2
C
L L2
mk
u A cos o .
L2
1
u :
r
1 mk 1 1
A cos o r
r L2
mk mk AL2

2
A cos o 1 cos
L L 2
mk
o

L2
mk p
r 2
(3)
AL 1 e cos o
1 cos o
mk
L2 AL2
p e .
mk mk
n 107

(3) . e
, p -
p 1 e2 . o

. -
( ) .

e=0
0 e 1
e=1
e 1

6)
m .
, .
.
. -
m
1 1
T Mx 2 dmy 2 (1)
2 2
0
-
dm y . -
y y .
y x,

y y y y
x x y x.
x x x x
,
m
dm dy . (1) :
x
x m
1 1 x2 1 1
T Mx 2 y 2 dy Mx 2 xx 2 x
2 2 x2 2 6
0

x 0.
V1 ( x ) Mgx .

x
1 mgx
V2 ( x ) (dm)gy g ydy gx 2 .
2 2
0

1 2
V3 ( x ) Kx o
2
o ( ). Lagrancian
108 5

1 1 2 mgx
L T V 3M m x 2 Kx o Mgx .
6 2 2

d L L d 1 mg
0 3M m x Kx K o Mg
dt x x dt 3 2
mg
3 K o Mg
mg 3K 2
3M m x 3Kx 3 K o Mg x x (2)
2 3M m 3M m

. .2 .
3K
. . : x x 0
3M m
2 3K 3K
0 i
3M m 3M m
:
3K 3K
x(t) C1 cos t C 2 sin t .
3M m 3M m
(2). (2) -
.
u(x) C u 0,
(2):
mg mg
3 K o Mg K Mg
3K 2 o
2 .
C C
3M m 3M m K
:
mg
K Mg
3K 3K o
2 .
x(t) C1 cos t C 2 sin t
3M m 3M m K

7)
-
. . . :
mx Kx F( t )
. .2 . -
:
F( t ) Fo cos o t
Fo o .
mx Kx Fo cos o t (1)
. . mx Kx 0 ,
n 109

2 2 K K
m K 0 1, 2 i .
m m
. . :
K
K K
x(t) C1 cos t C 2 sin t m
x(t) C1 cos t C 2 sin t .
m m
(1).
u ( t ) A cos t B sin o t (2)
2 2
u (t) A
t B o cos o t
o sinu (t) A ( o ) cos o t B( o ) sin
o o t.
(2) (1) :
2 2
m( A ( o ) cos o t B( o ) sin o t ) K (A cos o t B sin o t ) =
Fo cos o t cos o t mA ( o )2 KA sin o t mB( o )2 KB Fo cos o t
mB( o )2 KB 0 B 0
Fo Fo Fo
mA( o )2 KA Fo A 2
A 2
K m( ) K 2 m ( )2
o
m ( o)
o
m
:
Fo
x(t) 2
cos o t C1 cos t C 2 cos t (3)
m ( o )2
C1 , C 2 .
t 0 x xo x o (4)
(3) :
Fo Fo
x (0) 2 2
C1 xo C1 xo 2
.
m ( o ) m ( o )2
H x(t) :
Fo o sin o t x(t)
x(t) C1 sin t C 2 cos t
m 2 ( o )2

(4)
o
x (0) C 2 o C2 .
(3) :
Fo t
x(t) 2 2
cos o t
m ( o )

Fo o
xo 2 2
cos t sin t
m ( o)

( )
110 5

. -
. = (3) A . -
(1)
2 Fo
x x cos t (5)
m
, . i , i -
,
u(t) t 1 sin t 1 cos t .
u(t ) 1 sin t 1 cos t t 1 cos t 1 sin t
2
u(t ) 1 cos t 1sin t 1 cos t 1 sin t t 1 sin t 1 2 cos t
(5) u , :
2 2 2 2
2 1 cos t 2 1 sin t t 1 sin t 1 cos t t 1 sin t t 1 cos t
F Fo Fo t
= o cos t 1 0 1 . u(t) sin t .
m 2m 2m
Fo t
x(t) sin t C1 cos t C 2 sin t
2m
x (0) x o , x (0) o x (0) C1 x o
Fo Fo t
x (t) s in t s in t C1 s in t C2 cos t
2m 2m
o
x (0 ) C2 o C2

: x(t)
Fo t o
x(t) sin t x o cos t sin t .
2m

t
6. WRONSKI
2

6.1

Wronsky
n-
. . m n.
n :
(n) (n-1)
y + 1(x)y + + n-1(x)y + n(x)y=0
(1)
Ai(x) i=0,1, ,n :
,n , y1, y2, , yn . . (1)
W(y1, y2, , yn) 0
. .2 :
y + 1(x)y + 2(x)y=0 (2)
Wronskian :
y1 y2
W(y1,y2)=W(x)= =y1y2 -y2y1 (3)
y1 y2

.
: (3) :
W (x)=y1y2 -y2y1
y1, y2 (2), .
y1 + 1(x)y1 + 0(x)y1=0 (4 )
y2 + 1(x)y2 + 0(x)y2=0 (4 )
(4 ) y2 (4 ) y1 :
W (x)= y1y2 -y2y1 =- 1(x)(y1y2 -y2y1 )=- 1(x)W(x) W (x)=- 1(x)W(x)
A1 (x )dx
W(x)= e (5)

(2), y1, -
y2 :
y1 W(x)
(3) : y1y2 -y2y1 =W(x) y2 - y2 (6)
y1 y1
(6) . .1 y2 :

y1 y1 W( x ) 1 W( x )
y2=exp dx exp dx dx y1 dx
y1 y1 y1 y1 y1
112 6

W( x )
y2=y1 dx (7)
y12

1: (5) Wronskian -
, ( 1(x)dx),
Wronskian W(x) W(x0) x=x0 (5)
:
x
A1 ( x )dx
W(x)=W(x0) e x0
W (x)=- 1(x)W(x)
x
dW W dW x A1 ( x )dx
A1 (x) A1 (x)dx W(x) W(x 0 )e x0
(8)
W W0 W x0

2: (8) :
) W(x0)=0 x0 ( , ), W(x) 0 x ( , ).
) W(x0) 0 x0 ( , ), W(x) 0 x ( , )
x
A1 (x )dx
) : e x0

W(x) ( , )
W(x0).
( ( , ) y1,
y2, , yn (n-1) ).

1: Wronskian W(y1,y2) -
2 . ,
W(gy1, gy2)=g2W(y1, y2)
g(x) x, ' .
: W(gy1, gy2)=(gy1)(gy2) -(gy2)(gy1) =g{y1(g y2+gy2 )-y2(g y1+gy1 )}=
=g{gy1y2 -y2gy1 }=g2{y1y2 -y2y1 }=g2W(y1,y2)}

2: y1(x)=x . .:
2
xy -(x+2)y + 1 y 0 (9)
x
Wronskian .
: . . (9) ,( ), :
x 2 1 2
y- y y 0
x x x2
x 2
1(x)=- Wronskian :
x
x 2
A1 (x )dx dx
W(x)= e e x
ex 2ln x
x 2ex
x2e x
(7) : y2=x dx xe x
x2
6. H Wronskian 113

: y =c1x+c2xex

3: Wronskian . :
(n) (n-1)
y + 1(x)y + +An-1(x)y +An(x)y=0 (A)
A1 ( x )dx
: W(x)=W(x0) e W(x0) Wronskian x=x0.
: y1,y2, ,yn . . ( ), ' :
y1 y2 yn

y1 y2 yn
W(x)=

y1( n 1)
y2 ( n 1)
yn ( n 1)

,
x, n ,
.
W(x) , :
y1 y2 yn

y1 y2 yn

W (x)=

y1( n 2)
y2 ( n 2)
yn ( n 2)

y1(n ) y2 ( n ) yn (n )
( ) y1,y2, ,yn n
An-1(x), ,A0(x)
A1(x)y1(n-1)+A2(x)y1(n-2)+ +An-1(x)y1 +An(x)y1=-y1(n)
A1(x)y2(n-1)+A2(x)y2(n-2)+ +An-1(x)y2 +An(x)y2=-y2(n)
......................................................................................................................
A1(x)yn(n-1)+A2(x)yn(n-2)+ +An-1(x)yn +An(x)yn=-yn(n)
Krammer A1(x) :
x
W (x) A1 ( x )dx
A1(x)=- dW(x)=-A1(x)dW (x) W(x)=W(x0) e x0

W(x)

6.2 O y=gY

. . ,
,
:
114 6

y(x)=g(x)Y(x) (1)
(1) . .
y +P(x)y +Q(x)y = 0 (2)
: gY +(Pg+2g )Y +(g +Pg +Qg)Y = 0 (3)
:

I) g(x) :
g +Pg +Qg=0 (4)
g . . (2).
. . :
Y +P*(x)Y =0 (5)
g
P*(x)=P(x)+2 (6)
g
. . (5) . .1 Y =u
(5) :
g
u+ P 2 u 0 (7)
g
g P ( x )dx
P 2
g
dx Pdx
2ln g e W(x)
u(x)= e e e u(x)= 2
(8)
g g2
g(x) . . (2) y1(x). (8) :
W(x) W( x )
u(x)=Y = 2 Y= dx
y1 y12
W(x)
y=gY=y1Y : y=y1 dx
y12
,
,( ).

: y1(x) . . (2), -
:
W( x )
y =c1y1(x)+c2y1(x) dx
y12
II) g(x) : Pg+2g =0 :
1
P ( x )dx
2
g(x)= e W(x) (10)
. . (3) :
Y +I(x)Y=0 (11)
1 1
I(x)=Q(x)- P (x)- P2(x) (12)
2 4
.
(12) : (3) :
g g
g +(g +Pg +Qg)Y=0 Y+ P QY 0
g g
6. H Wronskian 115

Pg+2g =0 :
g P g 1 g P P2
) ) P g+Pg +2g =0 P P
g 2 g 2 g 2 4
P P2 P2 1 P 2 (x)
Y+ QY 0 Y+ Q P (x) Y 0
2 4 2 2 4
1 1 2
I (x) Q(x) P (x) P (x)
2 4

6.3.

. .
y +Py +Qy=0 (1)
y=gY
, .
g(x) , , :
1
P ( x )dx
2
g(x)= e W(x) (2)
. . (1) :
Y +I(x)Y=0 (3)
g g 1 1 2
I(x)=Q+P Q P P (4)
g g 2 4
:

: . .2
y=gY, ( g(x) -
' g= W(x) ), -
.
: . . y +Py +Qy=0 (5)
y=gY. . . :
* *
Y +P Y +Q Y = 0 (6)
g g g
P*=P+2 , Q*=Q+P
g g g
(5) (6) :
I*(x)=I(x)
.1
1 1
g1=exp P( x )dx g2=exp P * ( x )dx
2 2
2
1 1 *2 g g 1 g 1 g
: I*(x)=Q*- P * P Q P P 2 P 2
2 4 g g 2 g 4 g
116 6

2
g g 1 g g g2 1 2 g g
= Q P P 2 P 4P 4
g g 2 g2 4 g g
1 1
=Q- P - P2=I(x)
2 4

y=g
y +Py +Qy=0 +P* +Q*u=0
g=

y=g1Y1 u=g2Y2

Y1 +I(x)Y1=0 Y2 +I*(x)Y2=0

1 1 1 1
I(x)=Q- P - P 2 I*(x)=Q*- P* - P*2
2 4 2 4

I(x)=I*(x)

.1

: I(x) -
y=gY. . .2
I(x).
-
. .2 '
,( . . ),
.

: . y +2x3y +(x6+3x2-1)y=0 (7)


.
(7) -
.
6. H Wronskian 117

P P2
=Q-
2 4
P, Q= . (7) -
3 6 2
=2x , Q=x +3x -1 ,
:
1 1 6
I=(x6+3x2-1)- 6x2 4x 1
2 4
: Y +IY=0 Y -Y=0 :
Y=c1ex+c2e-x
1 x4
P ( x )dx 4
y=g(x)Y= W(x)Y e 2
Y e Y
x4
4
(1) : y(x)= e c1e x c 2e x

6.4 2

y1(x)
. . y +P(x)y +Q(x)y=0 (1)
, ,
y2(x) (1) y1(x)
y2(x) .
y =c1y1(x)+c2y2(x)
. .
y +P(x)y +Q(x)y=f(x) (2)
y (2) y ,
u (2) :
y =y +u
-
. :
u=g(x)Y(x) (3)
(3) (2):
gY +(Pg+2g )Y +(g +Pg +Qg)Y=f (4)
g(x) (1) : g +Pg +Qg=0 (4) -
:
gY +(Pg+2g )Y =f (5)
Y =h . .1 :
g f
h+ P 2 h h +A(x)h=B(x) (6)
g g
g f
A(x)=P+2 B(x)= (7)
g g
:
118 6

g g
A( x )dx A ( x )dx P 2
g
dx P 2
g
dx f
h= e e B( x )dx c1 e e dx c1 (8)
g

: u(x)=g(x)Y(x)=g(x) h(x)dx c 2 (9)

P ( x )dx
: W(x)= e Wronskian y +P(x)y +Q(x)y=0, (8)
(7) , c1, :
g g
P 2 dx
g
P 2
g
dx f
h= e e dx
g
g g g
P 2
g
dx Pdx 2
g
dx 1 W(x) P 2
g
dx g2
e e e W(x) e
g2 g2 W(x)
W g2 f W fg W fg
h= dx dx Y= hdx dx dx
g2 Wg g2 W g2 W
W fg
u=gY=g dx dx
g2 W
W fy1
g=y1 : u=y1 dx dx
y12 W

W y1y2 y1 y2 y2
y12 y 1
2
y1

fy1 y y2 fy1 y2 fy1


u=y1 dx d 2 y1 dx y1 dx dx
W y1 y1 W y1 W

fy1 fy 2
u=y2 dx y1 dx (10)
W W
(10) . . (2)
y1, y2 .

: (10) Wronskian W
W(x)=exp{- P(x)dx},
, ' W(x)=y1y2 -y1 y2 y1,y2 -
(10). y
.
7. L(D)

7.1

. .n :
y(n) + 1y(n-1) + + ny=f(x) (1)
: L(D)y =f(x) (2)
dk
L(D)= Dn + 1Dn-1 + + n Dk (3)
dxk
(1) :
y = y +y (4)
y (1) .
y(n) + 1y(n-1) + + ny=0 (5)
y ,( ), (1). , ( ) -
(2) y:
1
y= f (x) L 1(D)f (x) (6)
L(D)
L-1(D);
L(D) D, (3),
:
L(D)=(D- 1)(D- 2) (D- n) (7)
i i=1, ,n ( . ) (1).
:
1 1 1 1
L(D)-1= (8)
L(D) (D 1 ) (D 2 ) (D n )
1
f(x) :
(D n)

1
un= f(x) (D- n)u=f(x)
(D n )
1 , ,
nx nx
un= e e f (x)dx

un=(D- n)-1f(x) = e nx
e nx
f (x)dx
(D- n)-1
:
(D- n)-1= e nx
dxe nx
120 K 7

f(x). -
1
un :
D n 1

1
un-1= un (D- n-1)un-1=un
D n 1

1 :
1x 1x
un-1= e n
e n
u n (x) dx
n 1x n 1x nx nx n 1x x nx
un-1= e e e e f (x)dx dx e dxe n n 1
dxe f (x)
:
1x ( 1 )x ( 2 )x ( 1 )x nx
y =e dxe 2
dxe 3
dxe n n
dxe f (x) (9)
, (9),
.
(9) 1= 2= = n= :
(D- )-nf(x)= e x
dx dxe x
f (x)
n

(D- )-n :
-n x -n - x
(D- ) =e D e
D-n n , D-n= dx dx
n

1 x
dx dxe x
f (x) = (x t) n 1 e t f (t)dt Pn 1 (x) (A)
(n 1)! x0
n

n-1(x) n-1 , -
. :
ex x
(D- )-nf(x)= (x t) n 1 e t f (t)dt (10)
(n 1)! x0

: y " " (8)


A1 A2 An
: L-1(D)= (11)
D 1 D 2 D n

1x 1x nx nx
: y = A1e f (x)e dx A ne f (x)e dx (12)

(A). e- x

1 x
( ) : g(x)= dx dxf (x) = ( x t )n 1 f ( t )dt Pn 1( x ) ( )
( n 1)! x0
n

g(n)(x)=f(x). (A ) n
Leibnitz:
L(D) 121

d ( ) ( ) d ( ) d ( )
(t, )dt (t, )dt ( ), ( ), (B)
d ( ) ( ) d d
1 x
: g (x)= ( x t )n 2 f ( t )dt Pn-1 ( x )
(n 2 )! 0
x

1 x
g (x)= (x t) n 3 f (t)dt + Pn-1 (x)
(n 3)! 0 x

x
g(n-1)(x)= (n-1)
f ( t )dt +Pn-1 (x)
x0

g(n)(x)=f(x)
( ) , -
,( . . 8.3).

: . .
5x
1) y -3y +2y=e
L(D) = D2-3D+2=(D-1)(D-2), 1=1, 2=2, f(x)=e5x
1 1 2 x 3x 1 5 x
: u2= f(x)= e2 x e 5 xe 2 xdx e 2 x e 3xdx e e e
D 2 3 3
1 1 5x x 1 x 4x 1 5x
y =u1 = u2=ex e e dx e e dx e
D 1 3 3 12
:
1 1 1
y = e5x e5x e x e 5 xe xdx e 2 x e 5 xe 2x
dx
(D 1)(D 2) D 1 D 2
1 x 4 x 1 2 x 3x 1 5 x
ee e e e
4 3 12

2) y +5y +4y=3-2x
L(D)=D2+5D+4=(D+1)(D+4) 1=-1, 2=-4, f(x)=3-2x
:
1
u2= f (x) e 4 x (3 2x)e 4 xdx 3e 4 x e 4 xdx 2e 4 x e 4 x xdx
D 4
3 1 3 1 1
2e 4 x x e 4 x dx 2e 4 x xe 4 x e 4 xdx
4 4 4 4 4
3 1 4x 1 4x 3 x 1 7 x
= e xe 4 x e
4 2 4 4 2 8 8 2
1 7 x x 7 1 x
y =u1= u2 e x e dx e xe xdx
D 1 8 2 8 2
7 1 x x 7 1 x x 7 1 1 11 x
= e xe e xdx e xe e x x
8 2 8 2 8 2 2 8 2
122 K 7

1 1
1 3 3
y = (3 2x) (3 2x)
(D 1)(D 4) D 1 D 4

1 x 1 4x 1 x
e (3 2x)e xdx e (3 2x)e4 xdx e (3x 2xe x 2e x )
3 3 3
1 4x 3 4x 1 4x 1 4x 11 x
e e xe e
3 4 2 8 8 2
f(x) . . (1) , y
L-1(D).

7.2 L(D)
x 1 ex
1) f(x)=e y = e x
L( ) 0 . -
L(D) L( )
. .
: : L(D)=Dn+ + n-1D+ n L(D)e x=( n+ + n-1 + n)e x= L( )e x

ex
L-1(D)L(D)e x=L( )L-1(D)e x
e x=L( )L-1(D)e x
L-1(D)e x=
L( )

2) f(x)=sin( x+ ) cos( x+ ) L=L(D2) . D2,


D, :
1 sin( x )
) y = sin( x ) L(- 2) 0
L(D2 ) L( 2 )
1 cos( x )
) y = cos( x ) L(- 2) 0
L(D2 ) L( 2 )

: L(D2)=(D2)n + + n-1D2+ n
L(D )sin( x+ )=((- 2)n+ + n-1(- )2+ n)sin( x+ )=L(- 2)sin( x+ )
2

L-1(D2) L(D2)sin( x+ )=L-1(-D2)L(- 2) sin( x+ )


sin( x )
L 1 (D2 )sin( x )
L( 2 )
( ) .

3) f(x)=xm m ,
1/L(D) L(D) D -
m Dkxm=0 k m.

4) f(x)=e xV(x) V(x) ,


1 1
y = e xV(x)=e x V(x)
L(D) L(D )
L(D) 123

: f(x)=e xV(x)
Df(x)= e V(x)+e xDV(x)=e x(D+ )V(x)
x

D2f(x)= e x(D+ )V(x)+e xD(D+ )V(x)=e x(D2+2 D+ 2)V(x)=e x(D+ )2V(x)


...................................................................
Dkf(x)=e x(D+ )kV(x)
L(D)=Dn+ 1Dn-1+ + n :
n n
L(D)e xV(x)= k Dn k
e x V(x) k e x (D ) n k V(x) e x L(D )V(x)
k 0 k 0
( 0 =0), L(D)e xV(x)=e xL(D+ )V(x)
V(x) :
1
V(x)
L(D )
x 1 1
: L(D)e V(x) e x L(D ) V(x) e x V(x)
L(D ) L(D )
1
:
L(D)
x 1 1
e V(x) e x V(x)
L(D ) L(D)

1 1 L (D)
5) f(x)=xV(x) y =
xV(x) = x V(x)- 2
V(x)
L(D) L(D) L(D)
: :
D(xV(x))=xDV(x)+V(x)
D2(XV(x))=xD2V(x)+2DV(x)

Dk(XV(x))=xDkV(x)+kDk-1V(x)
L(D)(xV(x))=xL(D)V(x)+L (D)V(x)
L (D) " " Dn+ 1Dn-1+ + n D.
1
V(x) : V(x)
L(D)
1 1
: L(D)= x V(x) xV(x) L (D) V(x)
L(D) L(D)
1
:
L(D)
1 1 1
x V(x) xV(x) L (D) 2 V(x)
L(D) L(D) L (D)
1 1 L (D)
xV(x) x V(x) V(x)
L(D) L(D) L2 (D)
124 K 7

: . .

1) y(3)-2y -5y +6y=e4x L(D)=D3-2D2-5D+6


1 4x 1 4x e4x e4 x
y = e e
L(D) L(4) 64 32 20 6 18

2) y(3)-2y -5y +6y=(e2x+3)2=e4x+6e2x+9


1 4x 1 2x 1 0x e4x e2x e 0x e4x 3e 2 x 3
y = e 6 e 9 e 6 9
L( D ) L( D ) L( D ) L( 4 ) L( 2 ) L( 0 ) 18 2 2

3) y(3)-2y -5y +6y=e3x


1 3x e 3x
y = e L(3)=0
L(D) L(3)
:
L(D)=D3-2D2-5D+6=(D-3)(D-1)(D+2)
1 1 1 e 3x 1 e 3x
y = e 3x
( D 3 ) ( D 1)( D 2 ) D 3 ( 3 1)( 3 2 ) D 3 10
1 1 3x 1 3x 3x 3x 1 3x
= e e e e dx e x
10 D 3 10 10

4) y(3)-5y +8y -4y=e2x+2ex+3e-x L(D)=D3-5D2+8D-4


1 2x 1 x 1 e2x ex e x
y = e 2 e 3 e x 2 3
L(D) L(D) L(D) L(2) L(1) L( 1)
2x x x 2x
e e e e ex e x
= 2 3 2 3
8 20 16 4 1 5 8 4 1 5 8 4 0 0 18

: L(D)=(D-1)(D-2)2
1 x 1 2x 2
y = e 2 e ex
6 ( D 1)( D 2 ) ( D 1)( D 2 )2
1 x 1 1 2x 2 1 1 x 1 2 x
e 2
e 2
ex e 2
e2x e
6 (D 2) D 1 (D 1) (D 2) 6 (D 2) D 1
1 x 1 1 x 1
= e e 2 x e 2 xe 2 xdx 2e x e xe xdx e xe 2 x 2xe x
6 D 2 6 D 2
2
1 x 1 x
=- e e 2 x e 2 x xe 2 xdx 2xe x e x e 2 x 2xe x
6 6 2

5) y +4y=sin3x L(D2)=D2+4 . : 1=2i, 2 =-2i


1 1 1
y = 2
sin 3x 2
sin 3x sin 3x
L(D ) 3 4 5
L(D) 125

6) y(4)+10y +9y=cos(2x+3) L(D2)=D4 +10D2+9 . . 1=i, 2=-i, 3=3i, 4=-3i


1 1
y = 2 cos( 2 x 3 ) 2 cos( 2 x 3 ) =
L( D ) ( 2 )2 10 ( 2 )2 9
1 1
cos( 2 x 3 ) cos( 2 x 3 )
16 40 9 15

7) y +3y -4y=sin2x L(D)=D2 +3D-4

: L D2 (2)
. ' :
1 L(D)=D2+3D-4=(D-1)(D+4)
:
1 1 ( D 1)( D 4 )
y = sin 2x sin 2x sin 2x
L( D ) ( D 1)( D 4 ) ( D2 1)( D2 16 )
D2 3D 4 1 1
2 2
sin 2 x (D2 3D 4)sin 2x 4 sin 2x 6 cos 2 x 4 sin 2x
( 2 1)( 2 16) 100 100
1
= 4 sin 2x 3 cos 2x
50
2 :
1 1 1 3D 8
y = 2 sin 2x 2
sin 2x sin 2x sin 2x
D 3D 4 2 3D 4 3D 8 9D2 64
3D 8 3D 8 1
= 2
sin 2x sin 2x 6 cos 2x 8 sin 2x
9( 2 ) 64 100 100
1
= 4 sin 2x 3 cos 2x
50

8) y +4y=cos2x+cos4x L=L(D2)=D2+4 . 1=2i, 2=-2i


1 1 1 1
y = 2 cos2x cos4x cos2x cos4x cos2x
D 4 D2 4 2
D 4 22 4
1 1 1
+ 2 cos 4x cos 2x cos 4x
4 4 0; 12
. -
:
1 :
1 1 1
2
cos (2 h)x cos (2 h)x cos (2 h)x
D 4 (2 h)2 4 4h h 2

1 1
=- 2
h( 4 h ) cos2x hx sin 2x 2 (hx ) cos2x
Taylor f(h)= cos[(2+h)x]

:
y =c1cos2x+c2sin2x
126 K 7

cos2x, Taylor.
:
1 1 1 1 2
hx sin 2x (hx)2 cos 2x x sin 2x hx cos 2x
h(4 h) 2 4 h 2
1
x sin 2x h 0
4
1 1
y = xsin2x- cos4x
4 12
2 :
1 1 1 1 1
2
cos 2x cos 2x i cos 2x
D 4 (D 2i)(D 2i) 4 D 2i D 2i
i
e 2 ix e 2 ix cos 2xdx e2 ix e 2 ix cos 2xdx =
4
i 1 x i 1 x i
= e 2ix sin 2x cos 2x cos2 2x e 2ix sin 2x cos 2x cos2 2x =
4 4 2 4 4 2 4
i 1 x i
= cos 2x i sin 2x sin 2x cos 2x cos2 2x
4 4 2 4
i 1 x i 1 1
- cos 2x i sin 2x sin 2x cos 2x cos2 2x = = cos 2x x sin 2x
4 4 2 4 8 4
1/8cos2x .

9) 2y +2y +3y=x2+2x-1 L(D)=2D2+2D+3


1 1
:
L(D) 3 2D 2D2
1 1 2 2 2
y = 2
(x 2 2x 1) D D (x 2 2x 1)
3 2D 2D 3 9 27
1 2 2 1 2 2 25
= (x2 2x 1) (2x 2) 2 x x
3 9 27 3 9 27

10) y(3)-2y +4y=x4+3x2-5x+2 L(D)=D3-2D+4


1
y = 3
x 4 3x 2 5x 2 =
4 2D D
1 1 1 2 1 3 3 4 1 4 1 3 3 2 5 7
D D D D ( x 4 3x 2 5 x 2 ) x x x x
4 8 16 32 64 4 2 2 4 8

11) y(3)-4y +3y =x2 L(D)=D3-4D2+3D


1 1
:
L(D) 3D 4D2 D3
:
L(D) 127

1 1 4 13 40 2 x3 4 2 26 80
y = x2 D 1
D D x2 x x
3D 4 D 2 D 3
3 9 27 81 9 9 27 81

128/81 . .
y y
.
( D-1f(x)= f(x)dx )

12) y -4y=x2e3x L(D)=D2-4


1 1 1
y = 2 x 2e 3 x e 3 x 2 x2 e 3x 2 x2
D 4 (D 3) 4 D 6D 5
2
1 6 31 2 x 12 62
e 3x D D x2 e3x x
5 25 125 5 25 125

13) y +2y +4y=exsin2x L(D)=D2+2D+4


1 x 1 1
y = e sin 2x 2
e x sin 2x e x 2
sin 2x
L(D) D 2D 4 (D 1) 2(D 1) 4
1 1 1 4D 3
=ex 2 sin 2x e x 2 sin 2x e x sin 2x e x sin 3x
D 4D 7 2 4D 7 4D 3 16D2 9
4D 3 ex ex
=ex sin 2 x (4 D 3)sin 2 x (8 cos 2x 3 sin 2x)
16( 22 ) 9 73 73

14) y -4y +3y=2xe3x+3excos2x L(D)=D2-4D+3


1 1
y = 2 2xe 3x 3e x cos 2x 2e 3x 2
x+
D 4D 3 (D 3) 4(D 3) 3
1 1 1
3e x 2
cos 2x 2e 3x 2 x 3e x 2 cos 2x
(D 1) 4(D 1) 3 D 2D D 2D
1 1 1 1 1 1 3 x D 2
= 2e 3 x x 3e x cos2 x 2e 3 x D x e cos2x
DD 2 4 2D D 2 4 2 D2 2 2
1 1 3 x 1 3x 2 3 x
= e 3x (2x 1) e (D 2)cos 2x e (x x) e (cos 2x sin 2x)
2 D 16 2 8

15) y(4)+ y(3)+y(2)=x3 L(D)=D4+D3+D2 =D2(1+D+D2)


1 1 1
y =L-1 (D)x 3 = 2 2
x3 1 D D2 x3
D 1 D D D2
1 3 2 x5 x 4
2
x 3x 6x 3x 2
D 20 4
8. LAPLACE

8.1 . Laplace

. . -
.
:
: f(x) I(f(x)) K(t, x)f (x)dx (1)
[- ,+ ), (- ,+ ] K(t,x) ,
(1).
( , ,K(t,x)) .

. . .
.
Laplace, (1749-1827), (0,
-tx
+ ,e ) :
F(t)=L(f(x))= e txf (x)dx (2)
0
o . .
F(t), ' . ..
. ., , -
F(t) f(x).
Laplace . . (2) .

Laplace f(x)
.

1: f(x) 0 -
,k 0 :
x
|f(x)| Me x k

e x.

1: f(x)=x2 0, :
lim x e x | x 2 | 0
, . . =1, ( -
), k :
- x 2
e |x | 1=M x k
130 8

2: f(x)=sin x 0
|sin x| 1 lim x e x 0 0
, . . =1, k
- x
e M x k
=0 e- x=1=M
e- x|sin x| e- x M x k

3: f(x)=e4x =4.
x 0 4
lim x e | e4x | lim x e(4 )x

1 4

=1, k, ( ),
:
e- x|e4x| M x k 4

2
4: f(x)= e x ,
2
x
e | ex |
x .

2: f(x)
( , ) :
) f(x) ( , ) -
x1, x2, , xn
) ' f(x)
:
lim x xj f (x) lim x xj f (x) j=1,2, ,n
x xj x xj

[ , ]
) ( , )
) f(x) x= x= .

1: .

1: f(x)
[0, c] c 0, ,
,k 0 R
|f(x)| Me x x k (3)
Laplace f(x) t .
: f(x) [0,k] -
1 0 :
|f(x)| M1 , x [0,k] (4)
(3) (4) :
k k
|L(f(x)| | f (x) | e tx dx | f (x) | e tx dx M1 e tx dx M e (t )x
dx
0 k 0 k
O LAPLACE 131

M1 kt M (t )k M1 kt M
= 1 e e 1 e t- 0
t t t t

2: 1 , .
, ,
Laplace, '
Laplace. . . :
1
f(x)=
x
1 f(x)
x=0. Laplace .
1
1
1 2
:L L x 2
1
x t t
t2
(x) :

(x)= t x 1e t dt
0

(gamma) .
:
1) (x+1)=x (x) x 0 x=n N :
(n+1)=n (n)=n(n-1) (n-2)= =n!
,
(factorial), .
2) (1/2)=
1
3) (p) (1-p)= 0 p 1
sin p
4) (n+1) 2 n nne-n n
Strirling.
[ " n"].
5) x 0 (x) :
(x 1)
(x)=
x

8.2 Laplace

1) : L 1f1 (x) 2 f 2 (x) 1L f1 (x) 2L f 2 (x) (1)

, -
Laplace :
132 8

tx tx tx
L 1f1 (x) 2 f 2 (x) e 1f1 (x) 2 f 2 (x) dx e 1f1 (x) dx e 2 f 2 (x) dx
0 0 0
tx tx
1 0 e f1 (x)dx 2 0 e f1 (x)dx 1L(f1 (x)) 2 L(f 2 (x))

2) : L(f (x))=tL(f(x))-f(0) (2)

(2)
F(t) t
f(0), . Laplace
. ' :
tx tx tx
L(f (x))= e f (x)dx e f (x) (e )f (x)dx f (0) t e tx f (x)d
0 0 0 0
= tL(f (x)) f (0) tF(t) f (0)
:
L(f (x))=L((f (x)) )=tL(f (x))-f (0)=t{tL(f(x))-f(0)}-f (0)=t2F(t)-tf(0)-f (0)

L(f (x))=t2F(t)-tf(0)-f (0) (3)

L(f(n)(x))=tnF(t)-tn-1f(0)-tn-2f (0)- -f(n-1)(0) (4)

: -
Laplace . . y(n)+ n-1 y(n-1)
+ + 1 y + 0 =0
y(k), k=1, ,n Laplace Y(t) -
y(x) y(x)
. . . .
' . ,
, . . Laplace
. . , .

x F (t )
3) : L f (s)ds (5)
0 t
(5)
Laplace F(t) t.
:
x
tx
x 1 tx
x
L f (s)dst e f (s)ds dx e f (s)ds dx
0 0 0 t 0 0

1 tx
x 1 1 F(t)
e f (s)ds e tx f (x)dx e tx f (x)dx
t 0
0 t 0 t 0 t

1:
.
O LAPLACE 133
n
d
4) : L x n f (x) F (t ) (6)
dt
(6) Laplace f(x)
Laplace xnf(x).
:
n n n
d d d
F(t ) e txf (x)dx e txf (x)dx
dt dt 0 0 dt
= xn e txf (x)dx L x n f ( x)
0

f ( x)
5) x: L F(u)du (7)
x t

f (x)
lim x 0
x
: g(x)=f(x)/x f(x)=xg(x). Laplace
:
d d dG(t ) t
F(t)=L(f(x))=L(xg(x))=- L g(x) G(t ) F(t ) G(t) F(u)du
dt dt dt
limt G(t)=0 :
t
0=limt G(t)=limt - F(u)du F(u)du F(t) 0 =

G(t)= F(u )du


t

f (x)
: dx F(t )dt F(t)=L(f(x))
0 x 0

sin x
dx
0 x 2
: :
f (x) f ( x)
L e tx dx F(t )dt
0 x x t

t 0 e-tx 1 .
1
f(x)=sinx F(t)=L(sinx)= 2 ,( ), :
t 1
sin x dt t
dx 2
tan 1 t
0 x 0 t 1 t 0 2

6) :
t
L f (x ) e F(t) (8. )
L e x f (x) F(t ) (8. )
: Laplace -
x 0 + x- 0.
f(x- ) x- 0 . :
134 8

tx
L f (x ) e f (x )dx x- =x :
0
t(x ) t tx t
L f (x ) e f (x )dx e e f (x )dx e F(t)
0 0
Laplace

1 t
7) : L(f( x))= F (9)

tx
: L f e f x dx . x=u :
0
t
1 u 1 t
L f e f u du F
0

8) Laplace .

f(x) , . f(x+T)=f(x),

T
e txf (x)dx
0
L f (x) tT (10)
1 e
:
T 2T 3T
L f (x) e txf (x)dx e txf (x)dx e txf (x)dx e txf (x)dx
0 0 T 2T

: x=u+T, x=u+2T . . .
T T T
L f ( x) e txf (x)dx e t (u t )
f (u T)du e t ( u 2T )
f (u 2T)du
0 0 0
T T T
= e tT f (x)dx e tT
e tu f (u)du e 2tT
e tu f (u)du
0 0 0
T
T e txf (x)dx
tT 2tT tu 0
= 1 e e e f (u )du tT
0 1 e
1
1+e-tT+e-2tT+ tT
1 e

9) .

Laplace f(x) g(x):


F(t)=L(f(x)) G(t)=L(g(x))
x
: F(t)G(t)= L f (x s)g(s)ds (11)
0

x
: f (x s)g(s)ds
0
, (convolution), f(x) g(x)
f(x)*g(x) :
O LAPLACE 135
x
f (x ) g( x) f (x s)g(s)ds (12)
0

(11), , :

F(t)G(t)= L f (x) g(x) (13)

(13) Laplace -
.
x
xt tx
: L f (x) g(x) e f (x) g(x) dx e f (x s)g(s)ds dx
0 0 0

:
xt
e f ( x s)g( s)dzdx
T1

1 .
u,w
: u=x-s w=s J 1 :
x,s
( u w )t
e f (u )g( w )dudw 2 u 0, w 0 :
T2

( u w )t ( u w )t
e f (u )g( w )dudw = e f (u )g( w )dudw
0 0
T2

x
T1
x=s = e ut f (u )du e wt
g( w )dw Lf (u ) Lg( w ) F( t )G( t )
0 0

1: f(x)*g(x)= g(x)*f(x)
: z=x-t

x 0 x
f(x)*g(x)= f ( x s)g( s)ds f ( z )g( x z )( dz ) g( x z )f ( z )dz g( x ) f ( x )
0 x 0

8.3 Laplace

1) : L-1 1F1 x 2 F2 x 1L
1
F1 x 2L
1
F2 x (1)

: L( 1f1(x)+ 2f2(x))= 1L(f1(x))+ 2L(f2(x))= 1F1(t)+ 2F2(t)

L-1( 1F1(x)+ 2F2(x))= 1f1(x)+ 2f2(x)


136 8

n
2) L-1 F n t 1 xn f x (2)

n dn n dn
: L xn f x 1 Ft xn f x 1 L1 F( t )
dt n dt n
dn n
L1 Ft 1 xn f ( x )
dt n

f (x)
3) : L-1 F s ds (3)
t x

f x f x
: L F s ds L1 F s ds
x t x t

f (x) f(0)= 0
-1
4) : L tF t (4)
f (x)+ f(0) (x) f(0) 0
(1
(x) Dirac.
: L(f (x))=tF(t)-f(0) f (x)=L-1(tF(t))-L-1(f(0))
0 f(0)= 0
L-1(f(0))=
(x) f(0) 0
f (x) f(0)=0
L-1(tF(t))=
f (x)+f(0) (x) f(0) 0
, .

Ft x
5) x: L-1 f s ds (5)
t 0

x x Ft
: G(x)= f ( sds LGx L f ( sds
0 0 t
Ft x
L-1 Gx f s ds
t 0

Ft x v
: L-1 dv duf u
t2 0 0

(1
0 x 0
(x) Dirac 1927 : (x)=
x= 0
(x)dx 1 0. -
.
O LAPLACE 137

x v x
: g( x ) dv duf (u ) . g (x)= duf (u ) g (x)=f(x)
0 0 0

g(0)=g (0)=0 : L(g (x))=t2G(t)-tg(0)-g (0)=t2G(t)


L(g (x))=L(f(x))=F(t)
x v F( t ) x v
F(t)=t2G(t)=t2L(g(x))=t2L dv duf (u ) L1 2 dv duf (u )
0 0 t 0 0

F( t ) x x x 1 x n 1
: L-1 n dx dx dx x s f s ds
t 0 0 0 n 1! 0
n

6) : L-1 e x f x F t (6. )
f x x
L-1 e t
F t (6. )
0 x

: ) L(e xf(x))=F(t- ) L-1(F(t- ))=e xf(x)


) L(f(x- )=e- tF(t) L-1(e tF(t))=f(x- )

1 x
7) : L-1(F( t))= f (7)

1 t 1 t
: L(f( x))= F f x L1 F

x 1 x
1/ : f L1 F t L1 F t f

x
8) : L-1 F( t )G( t ) f x s g( s)ds (8)
0

x x
: F(t)G(t)=L f x s g s ds L-1 F( t )G( t ) f x s g( s)ds
0 0

8.4 Laplace

n!
1) f(x)=xn F(t)=L(xn)=
tn 1
1 1 tx n 1
: L(xn)= e tx x n dx e tx
x n dx e x 0 e tx nx n 1dx
0 t 0 t t 0

n n!
= e tx xn 1dx
t 0 tn 1
138 8

2) f(x)=sin x F(t)=L(sin x)=


t2 2

tx
: L(sin x)= e sin xdx
0

1 tx 1 tx tx
= e sin xdx e sin x e cos xdx
t 0 t 0 t 0

2
tx tx tx
= e cos xdx e cos x e sin xdx
t2 0 t 2
0 t2 0

2 2
= L(sin x) 1 L(sin x) L(sin x)
t2 t2 t2 t2 t2 2

t
3) f(x)=cos x F(t)=L(cos x)= 2 2
t
: .

x 1
4) f(x)=e F(t)=L(e x)=
t
x tx 1 1
: L e e e x dx e (t )x
dx e (t )x
0 0 t 0 t

5) f(x)=sinh x F(t)=L(sinh x)=


t2 2

1 1 1 1 1 1
: L(sinh x)= L(e x ) L(e x
)
2 2 2t 2t t2 2

t
6) f(x)=cosh x F(t)=L(cosh x)= 2 2
t
: .

7) f(x)=e xsin x F(t)=L(e xsin x)=


(t )2 2

:
1
L(e x sin x) e tx
e x sin xdx e (t )x
sin xdx e (t )x
sin xdx
0 0 t 0

2
(t )x (t )x (t )x
= 2
e cos xdx 2
e cos x 2
e sin xdx
(t ) 0 (t ) 0
(t ) 0

2
= 2
L e x sin x L e x sin x
(t ) (t )2 2
O LAPLACE 139

t
8) f(x)=e xcos x F(t)=L(e xcos x)=
(t )2 2

: .

n!
9) f(x)=xne x
F(t)=L(xne x)=
(t )n 1

: L(xne x)=
(t ) n 1 (t )x 1 n
e x dx e xn e (t )x
nx n dx e (t )x
x n 1dx
0 t 0 t 0 t 0

n(n 1) (t )x n!
= e x n 2 dx
(t )2 0 (t )n 1

. . Laplace -
Laplace, F(t)
f(x). F(t)
Laplace ,
-1
f(x)=L (F(t)).

Laplace.
-
Laplace F(t) t.
t -
.

1: Laplace :
1
F(t ) 2
t (t 1)
1 1 1 1
: F(t) F(t ) 2 2
t (t 1) t t t 1
1 1 1
f(x)=L-1(F(t))= L 1 L1 L1 x 1 e x
t2 t t 1

2: ( ).
1
Laplace: F(t)=
t (t 2 4t 13)
: t2+4t+13 . F(t)
t2+4t+13 -
:

A Bt 1 1 4
F(t)= 2
A , B - , -
t t 4t 13 13 13 13
140 8

LAPLACE

1. L(c1f1(x)+c2f2(x))=c1L(f1(x))+c2L(f2(x))
2. L(f(n)(x))=tnF(t)-tn-1f(0)-tn-2f (0) -f(n-1)(0)
3. L(e xf(x))=F(t- )
4. L(f(x- ))=e- tF(t)
5. L(xnf(x))=(-1)nF(n)(t)
x 1
6. L f (x)dx F(t )
0 t
t
7. L-1(F1(t)F2(t))=f1(x)*f2(x)= f1(x x )f2 (x )dx
0

I
LAPLACE

f(x) F(t)

1 1
t>0
t
xn n!
t>0 , n 0
tn 1

sin x
t>0
t2 2

cos x t
2 2
t>0
t
x
e 1
t>
t
sinh x
t>| |
t2 2

cosh x t
2 2
t>| |
t
e xsin x
t>
(t )2 2

e xcos x t
t>
(t )2 2

xne x
n!
t>
(t )n 1
O LAPLACE 141

1 1 t 4
F(t)= 2
13 t t 4t 13
:
t
L(e xsin x)= 2 2
L(e xcos x)= 2
(t ) t
-
:
t 4 t 4 (t 2) 2 t 2 2 3
2
t 4t 13 (t 2)2 32 (t 2)2 32 (t 2)2 32 3 (t 2)2 32

1 1 t 2 2 3 1 2x 2 2x
F(t)= f ( x) 1 e cos 3x e sin 3x
13 t (t 2)2 32 3 (t 2)2 3 2
13 3

1
3: Laplace 2
t (t 4)
.
1 1 1
: 2 = F(t)=1/t G(t)=1/(t2+4)
t (t 4) t t2 4
1
f(x)=1 g(x)= sin2x. E
2
1 x
L1 2
L 1 F(t)G(t) f (x) g(x) f (x s)g(s)ds =
t(t 4) 0

x
1 1
= (1) sin 2s ds (1 cos 2x)
0 2 4

1: -
Laplace, . f(x) -
Laplace F(t)=Lf(x)
:
1 i
f(x)= e tx F(t)dt x0 t C
2 i i

, (complex inversion
integral) Bromwich. ,(
), t=
,( ,
), F(t). F(t) , :
n
1 i
f(x)= e tx F(t)dt = Res e tx F(t), k
2 i i
k 1
tx
k e F(t) Re( ) Res[etxF(t), k]
tx
e F(t), k .
( ).
142 8

8.5 . . -
Laplace

Laplace -
. . n :
(n) (n-1)
ny + n-1y + + 1y + 0y=f(x) (1)
:
y(0)=y0 , y (0)=y0 , , y(n-1)(0)=y0(n-1) (2)
Laplace (1) Y(t)
Laplace L((y(x)), :
(n) (n-1)
nL(y )+ n-1L(y )+ + 1L(y )+ 0L(y)=L(f(x)) (3)
L(y (x))=tY(t)-y(0)=tY(t)-y0
L(y (x))=t2Y(t)-y0t-y0

L(y(n)(x))=tnY(t)-y0tn-1-y0 tn-2- -y0(n-2)t-y0(n-1) (4)


(4) (3) -
Y(t). Y(t), :
y(x)=L-1(Y(t)) (5)
(1) (2).
:

L
y(x)
Y(t)=L(y(x))

Y(t)

L-1
y(x)=L-1(Y(t)) Y(t)

1: : y -5y=0 , y(0)=2
: Laplace . . :
L(y (x))-5L(y(x))=L(0) [tY(t)-y(0)]-5Y(t)=0 [tY(t)-2]-5Y(t)=0
2 2 1
Y(t)= y(x)=L-1(Y(t))=L-1 2L 1 2e 5x
t 5 t 5 t 5

2: y -5y=e5x y(0)=0
1 1
: L(y )-5L(y)=L(e5x) [tY(t)-0]-5Y(t)= Y(t)=
t 5 (t 5)2
1
y(x)=L-1(Y(t))=L-1 =xe5x
(t 5)2

3: y -5y=0 , y( )=2
O LAPLACE 143

: x=0 x= .
y(0)=y0 :
y
L(y )-5L(y)=L(0) tY(t)-y(0)-5Y(t)=0 Y(t)= 0 y(x)=L-1(Y(t))=y0e5x
t 5
y0 :
y( )=y0e5 =2 y0=2e-5
: y(x)=2e5(x- )

4: y +y=sinx y(0)=1
1 1 1
: L(y )+L(y)=L(sinx) [tY(t)-1]+Y(t)= 2 Y(t)= 2
t 1 (t 1)(t 1) t 1
1 1 1
t 1 3 1 1 t 1 1
( )= 2 2 2
2 2
t 1 t 1 t 1 2t 1 2t 1 2 t2 1

3 1 1 1 t 1 1 1 3 1 1
y(x)=L-1(Y(t))= L 1 L L e x
cos x sin x
2 t 1 2 t2 1 2 t2 1 2 2 2

5: : y +4y=0 , y(0)=2 , y (0)=2


2t 2 2t 2
: L(y )+4L(y)=0 [t2Y(t)-ty(0)-y (0)]+4Y(t)=0 Y(t)= 2 2 2
t 4 t 4 t 4
t 2
y(x)=L-1(Y(t))=2L-1 2 L1 2 2cos2x+sin2x
t 4 t 4

6: :
y -3y +4y=0 y(0)=1 , y (0)=5
: L(y )-3L(y )+4L(y)=0 [t2Y(t)-y(0)t-y (0)]-3[tY(t)-y(0)]+4Y(t)=0
t 2
Y(t)= 2
t 3t 4
, -
. :
x t
L(e sin x)= 2 2
L(e xcos x)= 2
(t ) t
-
:
3 7
t
t 2 t 2 t 2 2 2
Y(t)= 2 = 2
t 3t 4 9 9 3
2
7 3
2
7
2
t2 3t 4 t t
4 4 2 2 2 2
144 8

3 7
t
2 7 2
2 2 2 2
3 7 3 7
t t
2 2 2 2
:

3 7
t 2 t
y(x)=L-1 L1 2 7L 1 2
2 2
t2 3t 4 3
2
7 3
2
7
t t
2 2 2 2
3 3
x 7 x 7
= e cos
2 x 7e sin
2 x
2 2

7: :
y -y -2y=4x2 y(0)=1 , y (0)=4
8
: L(y )-L(y )-2L(y)=4L(x2) [t2Y(t)-y(0)t-y (0)]-[tY(t)-y(0)]-2Y(t)=
t3
8 t 3 8
[t2Y(t)-t-4]-[tY(t)-1]-2Y(t)= Y(t)=
t3 t 2
t 2 t (t 3 2
t 2)
5 2
t 3 1 8 1 3 3
y(x)=L-1(Y(t))=L-1 t 2 L L
t 2 t 3 (t 2 t 2) t 2 t 1

1 8
3 2 4 3 3 5 2x 2 1 2x 8
+L-1 e e x
3 2x 2x2 e e x
=
t t2 t3 t 2 t 1 3 3 3 3

=2e2x+2e-x-2x2+2x-3
n
d
1: L(xnf(x))= F( t ) ,
dt
. . y(x) x -
Y t.
. . , (n=1), . . Y(t)
, .

8: : y +xy -y=0 y(0)=0


y (0)=1
: L(y )+L(xy )-L(y)=0
L(y )=t2Y(t)-ty(0)-y (0)=t2Y(t)-1
d d
L(xy )=- L(y ) tY(t ) y(0) tY (t ) Y(t )
dt dt
O LAPLACE 145

2 1
(t2Y(t)-1)+(-tY (t)-Y(t))-Y(t)=0 Y (t)+ t Y(t )
t t
2 1
. . 1 (t)= t B(t)=- .
t t
:
t2 t2
A ( t ) dt A ( t ) dt 2 ln t 2 ln t 1
Y(t)= e e B( t )dt C e 2
e 2
dt C
t
2 2 2 2
e t /2 2 t 2 /2 1 e t /2 t 2 /2 e t /2 t 2 /2 1 e t /2
= 2 t e dt C te dt C e C C 2
t t t2 t2 t2 t
limt tY(t)=y(0), ( ),
limt tY(t)=y(0)=0 C=0.
1
Y(t)= 2 y(x)=x
t
limt tF(t)=f(0)
d
tF(t)= te txf (x)dx e tx f (x)dx e tx f (x) 0 e tx f (x)dx
0 0 dx 0

= f (0) e txf (x)dx limt tF(t)=f(0)+limt e txf (x)dx f (0 )


0 0

2: Laplace
.

9: . . y(3)-3y +3y -y=x2ex


: .
: y(0)=A , y (0)=B , y (0)= :
L(y )-3L(y )+3L(y )-L(y)=L(x2ex)
(3)

2
[t3Y(t)-t2y(0)-ty (0)-y (0)]-3[t2Y(t)-ty(0)-y (0)]+3[tY(t)-y(0)]-Y(t)=
(t 1)3
2
[t3Y(t)-At2-Bt2- ]-3[t2Y(t)-At-B]+3[tY(t)-A]-Y(t)=
(t 1)3
At 2 (B 3A)t 3A 3B 2
Y(t)=
(t 1)3 (t 1)6
' , , , -
. :
k1 k3 k2 2
Y(t)= 3
(t 1) (t 1) (t 1)2 (t 1)6
2
x x 5e x x 5e x
y(x)=k1 ex+k2xex+k3ex+ c1x2ex+c2xex+c3ex+
2 60 60
c1=k1/2, c2=k2, c3=k3

3: -
,
146 8

4: Laplace
.

10 : . . y +9y=cos2x y(0)=1 ,
y( /2)=-1
: y (0) , y (0)=k :
t
L(y )+9L(y)=L(cos2x) [t2Y(t)-ty(0)-y (0)]+9Y(t)= 2
t 4
t
t k t
(t2+9)Y(t)-t-k= 2 Y(t)= 2
t 4 t 9 (t 2 9)(t 2 4)
t k t t 4 t k t
= 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
t 9 t 9 5(t 4) 5(t 9) 5 t 9 (t 9) 5(t 4)
4 k 1
y(x)= cos 3x sin 3x cos 2x
5 3 5
k, y( /2)=-1, . -1=-k/3-1/5 k=12/5.
4 4 1
: y(x)= cos 3x sin 3x cos 2x
5 5 5

11 : . . xy +2y +xy=0 y(0)=1 ,


y( )=0
: y (0)= :
d 2 d
t Y(t ) ty(0) y (0) 2 tY(t ) y(0) Y(t ) 0
dt dt
1
-t2Y -2tY+1+2tY-2-Y =0 -(t2+1)Y -1=0 Y= 2 Y=-tan-1t+k
t 1
1
Y(t) 0 t k= /2. : Y= -tan-1t=tan-1 (2
2 t
sin x ds 1 1 sin x
L 2 tan 1
: y(x)=L-1 tan 1
x t s 1 t t x

8.6 Laplace

( - , ( ), - -
)

(2 tan A tan B
( tan A B
1 tan A tan B
= /2 =-tan-1t)
O LAPLACE 147

, f(x) . .:
(n) (n-1)
(n-2)
y + n-1 y + n-2y + + 1y + 0y=f(x)
. . . f(x) -
, . -
, . .
" " .
, -
,( Heaviside), -
:
0 x 0
u(x) (1) (2
1 x 0 u(x)

(1) : 1
1 x
u(x) 1
2 |x|
O x
,
0, -
,
: u(x- )
0 x
u(x ) (2. )
1
1 x
1 x
O x
: u( x) (2. )
0 x
-
,
. u( -x)

1
:
0 x :
O x
1) f(x)=1-u(x-1)
2) g(x)=1-2u(x-1)+u(x-2)

(2
u(0) .
u(0)=0 u(0)=1 u(0)=c c . c=1/2.
148 8

:
1 0 1 x1
1) f(x)=1-u(x-1)=
1-1=0 x>1 1-u(x-1)
1
2) g(x)=1-2u(x-1)+u(x-2)=

1 2 0 0 1 x1 1
= 1-2 1+0=-1 1<x 2
1 2 1 1 0 2<x
1-2u(x-1)+u(x-2)
1

u(x), -
,
. . - 1 2
:
2 0 x3
-1
f (x) -4 3 x4
1 4 x

:H f(x) 2
x 3 -4, . –4-2=-6. -
2-6u(x-3), u(x-3) x 3 1.
x 4 -4 1, . 1-
(-4)=5. 5u(x-4). :
f(x)=2-6u(x-3)+5u(x-4)
f(x), 1, 2, …, n
:
g1 (x) x 1

g 2 (x) 1 x 2
f (x)
.....................................
gn 1 n x
f(x) :
f(x)=g1(x)+[g2(x)-g1(x)]u(x- 1)+ [g3(x)-g2(x)]u(x- 2)+ +[gn+1(x)-gn(x)]u(x- n)

f(x), ’ x= , ,( -
). f(x) -
g(x) h(x), « » x= ,
:
O LAPLACE 149

g(x) x
f(x)=g(x)u( -x)+h(x)u(x- )=g(x)+[h(x)-g(x)]u(x- )=
h(x) x

h(x)

g(x)

:
1 x 0
sgn(x)=u(x)-u(-x)=
1 x 0
, (signum function).
-
f(x) ,( ).
g(x)=f(x- ), ( g(x)=f(x+ )).
,( x
).

f(x- )
f(x)

x1 x x2 x1+ x x2+

g(x) x ,
g(x) -
u(x- ) : g(x)=u(x- )f(x- )
f(x) [ , ),
:
0 x
g(x)=f(x)[u(x- )-u(x- )]= f (x) x
0 x
150 8

f(x) , .
f(x+T)=f(x) x D (D= f(x))
f(x)
f (x) 0 xT
g(x)=f(x)u(x)-f(x-T)u(x-T)=
0 x T
Laplace G(t) g(x) Laplace
G(t )
F(t) f(x) : F(t)=
1 e Tt
:
G( x ) L g( x ) L f ( x )u( x ) f ( x T )u ( x T ) L f ( x )u( x ) L f ( x T )u( x T )
Tt Tt
F( t ) e F( t ) F( t ) 1 e
Laplace f(x)
, Laplace f(x) ' -
.

Laplace -
. Laplace
(1) (2) :
1 1
L(u(x))= e txu( x )dx e tx dx e tx
(3)
0 0 t 0
t
t
tx tx 1 tx e
L(u(x- ))= e u(x )dx e dx e
0 t t
Laplace g(x)=u(x- )f(x- ) :
tx tx
L u(x )f (x ) e u(x )f (x )dx e f (x )dx
0
x- =s :
t(s ) t
L u(x )f (x ) e f (s)ds e e ts f (s)ds e t
L(f (x))
0 0
:
t t
L u(x )f (x ) e L f (x) e F(t)
L1 e t
F(t) u(x )f (x )

1: Laplace :
f(x)=u(x-1)x2 .
:
f(x)=u(x-1)x2 u(x-1)f(x-1) . x2
x-1. x2
Taylor 1.
f (1) f (1)
f(x)=x2=f(1)+ (x 1) (x 1)2
1! 2!
O LAPLACE 151

f(1)=1 , f (1)=2x|x=1=2 , f (1)=2 , f(3)(1)=0 , f(n)(1)=0 n 3


2 2
x2=1+ (x 1) (x 1)2 1 2(x 1) (x 1)2
1 2
L(u(x-1)x2)=L(u(x-1)[1+2(x-1)+(x-1)2]=
=L(u(x-1))+2L(u(x-1)(x-1))+L(u(x-1)(x-1)2)=e-tL(1)+2e-tL(x)+e-
t e t 2e t 2e t
L(x2)=
t t2 t3

2: y"+y=f(x) :
1 0 x
y(0)=0 , y (0)=0 f(x)=
0 x
: f(x) -
: f(x)=1-u(x- )
. . : y"+y=1-u(x- )
Laplace :
1 e t
[t2Y(t)-ty(0)-y (0)]+Y(t)=L(1)-L(u(x- ))=
t
Y(t):
1 e t 1 t
Y(t)= 2 1 e t 2
1 e t L(1) L(cos x)
t(t 1) t t 1
t
= L(1) L(cos x ) e L(1) L(cos x )
: L-1(e- tF(t))=u(x- )f(x- ):
y(x)=L-1(Y(t))=(1-cosx)-u(x- )[1-cos(x- )]=
1 cos x 0 x
=
2cos x x
(
4 3.3,
)

1 : -

' k=1, -
1
.

3: :
1 0 x
y +2y +2y= y(0)=0 , y (0)=0
0 x
: Laplace . . :
152 8

t
1 e
[t2Y(t)-ty(0)-y (0)]+2[tY(t)-y(0)]+2Y(t)=
t
Y(t) :
t 1 t 1 1
Y(t)= 1 e
2t 2[(t 1) 1 2[(t 1) 2 1]
2

t1 1 1
= 1 e L e x cos x
L(1) L e x sin x
2 2 2
1 1 x 1 x
y(x)=L-1(Y(t))= e cos x e sin x
2 2 2
1 1 (x ) 1 (x )
u(x ) e cos(x ) e sin(x )
2 2 2

1
1 e x cos x e x sin x 0 x
2
y(x)
1 x
e (e 1)(sin x cos x) x
2

: -
-
.

4: :
x 0 x
y +3y +2y=f(x)= y(0)=0 , y (0)=1
x
: f(x)
u(x) :
f(x)=x-u(x- )(x- )
Laplace :
1 e t
1 e t t2
[t2Y(t)-1]+3tY(t)+2Y(t)= Y(t)=
t2 t 2 (t 2 3t 2)
t
1 1 e
(t)= t 2 ( t 2 3t 2) t 2 3t 2 t 2 ( t 2 3t 2)

:
1 3 1 1 1
2 2
t (t 3t 2) 4t 2t 2 4(t 2) t 1
1 1 1
2
t 3t 2 t 1 t 2
O LAPLACE 153

Laplace :
1 3 x 1
L1 2 2 e 2x
e x
t (t 3t 2) 4 2 4
1
L1 e x
e 2x
t 2 3t 2
1 1 x 2x
L e e
t 2 3t 2

t
e 3 x 1
L1 2 2 u( x ) e 2( x )
e (x )
t (t 3t 2) 4 2 4
: y(x)=L-1 (Y(t))=
3 x 1 2x x x 2x 3 x 1 2( x ) (x )
= e e e e u( x ) e e
4 2 4 4 2 4
x 5 2x x 3
2e e 0 x
4 2 4
y(x)=
x 1
2 e e 5 e2 e 2x
x
2 4

1. -
Laplace :
. y +4y=9x , y(0)=0 , y (0)=25/4 . y(x)=9x/4+2sin2x
. y -3y +2y=4x+12e-x , y(0)=6 , y (0)=-1 . y(x)=3ex-2e2x+2x+3+2e-x
. y -4y +5y=125x2 , y(0)=y (0)=0
. y(x)=25x2+40x+22+2e2x(2sinx-11cosx)
. y -y=ex , y(0)=y (0)=y (0)=0
154 8

1 x 1 x 1 x /2 3 3 3
. y(x)= e xe e cos x sin x
3 3 3 2 3 2

2. . . -
Laplace :
. y -3y +2y=4e2x . y(x)=c1ex+c2e2x+4xe2x-4e2x
. y +2y +5y=e-xsinx . y(x)=e-x[c1sin2x+c2cos2x]+1/3e-xsinx-1/6e-xsin2x
. y +9y=cos2x . y(x)=c1sin3x+c2cos3x+1/5cos2x

3. g(x)=f(x)[u(x- )-u(x- ]
f(x) .
9

9.1 1 1

. .1 F(x,y,y )=0, y n -
. . y y,(
), . . . .1 n . -
:
dy
=y =p
dx
. . F(x,y,p)=0 (1)
:

) F(x,y,p)=0 n p,

p f1 x, y p f 2 x, y p f n x, y 0 (2)
(2) . .1 :
dy dy
=f1(x,y), , =fn(x,y) (3)
dx dx
:
1(x,y,c1)=0, , n(x,y,cn)=0 (4)
(1) -
(4). :
1(x,y,c1) 2(x,y,c2) n(x,y,cn)=0 (5)

1: . . (y )2-(y2+xy)y +xy3=0
: y =p p2-(y2+xy)p+xy3=0 p
: p=xy, p=y2
dy dy x2 x2
) p=xy xy xdx ln y ln c1 y c1 exp
dx y 2 2
x2
1(x,y,c1)=y-c1exp =0
2
dy dy 1 1
) p=y2 y2 dx x c2 y2
dx y2 y2 x c2
2 1
2(x,y,c1)=y + =0
x c2
x2 1
: 1(x,y,c1) (x,y,c2)=0 y c1 exp y2 0
2 x c2
156 9

2: . . x(y )2-2yy -x=0


: y =p xp2-2yp-x=0 p
:
dy y y2 x2 dy y y2 x2
p= , p=
dx x dx x

y=xR y =R+xdR/dx
:
dR xR x 2R 2 x2
R x
dx x

dR xR x 2R 2 x2
R x
dx x
dR dR
x R2 1 (A) x R2 1 (B)
dx dx
dR dx
(A) c1 ln R R 2 1 =lnx+c1 R R2 1 cx
R 2
1 x
c 2 x2 1 c 2 x2 1
R2+1=c2x2+R2-2cxR R= y(x)=
2cx 2c

dR dx c
(B) c1 ln R R 2 1 =-lnx+c2 R R2 1
R 2
1 x x
c 2
2c c2 x x2 c2
R2+1= R2 R R= 1 y(x)= 1
x2 x x2 2c 2c x2
2
c x2
y(x)=
2c
c 2x2 1 c 2
x2
: y y 0
2c 2c
dR
:
R2 1
t2 1
R2 1 t R R2+1=t2+R2-2tR R=
2t
4t 2 2(t 2 1) 2t 2 2
dR= dt dt
4t 2 4t 2
t2 1 t2 1
dR 2t 2 2t 2 dt = dt
=
R 2
1 ( t 1)2 4t 2
2
( t 2 1)2 t
4t 2 4t 2
157

= ln t c ln R R2 1 c

3: . .: ( 2-x2)y 3+ x( 2-x2)y -(y )2- x=0


: y =p : ( 2-x2)p3+ x( 2-x2)p-p2- x=0
3 p, :
[( 2-x2)p3-p]+[ x( 2-x2)p2- x]=0 x[( 2-x2)p2-1]+p[( 2-x2)p2-1]=0
( x+p)[( 2-x2)p2-1]=0
dy
p x x y(x) x2 c1
dx 2

1 dy 1 x
p2 2 2
y(x) arcsin c2
x dx 2
x2

x
: y x2 c1 y arcsin c2 0
2

. .: x2y 2+3xyy +2y2=0


4:
: y =p :
(x2p2+2xyp+y2)+xyp+y =0 (xp+y)2+y(xp+y)=(xp+y)(xp+2y)=0
dy y dy dx
) xp+y=0 ln|y|=-ln|x|+c1 ln|yx|=c1
dx x y x
yx=exp(c1)=c2 0

dy 2y dy dx
) xp+2y=0 2 ln|y|=-2ln|x|+c3 ln|yx2|=c3
dx x y x
2
yx =exp(c3)=c4 0
: (yx-c2)(yx2-c4)=0

) F(x,y,p)=0 (1)
dy f f dp dp
y y=f(x,p) p=fx+fp
dx x p dx dx
1 p.
g(x,p,c)=0 x: x= (p,c), :

x= (p,c) y=f( (p,c),p)

(1) , p.

1: . : y=x(1+y )+y 2
: y =p :
158 9

dy dp dp dp
y=x(1+p)+p2 p= 1 p x 2p (x 2p) 1 0
dx dx dx dx
dx+(x+2p)dp=0
P Q
P=1 , Q=x+2p , 0 1 . . . .
p x
P Q A
= 1 , 1
p x p
:
1 p
1 =e
p
. . dx+(x+2p)dp=0 : epdx+ep(x+2p)dp=0 -
F(x,p)=c :
F F
dF= dx dp =epdx+ep(x+2p)dp=0
x p
F p
=e F=epx+c1(p)
x
F p dc (p) dc 1 (p)
=e (x+2p)=epx+ 1 2pe p
p dp dp
c1(p)= 2pe pdp 2pde p 2pe p 2 e pdp 2pe p 2e p
F(x,p)=epx+2pep-2ep=ep(x+2p-2)=c x=ce-p-2p+2
p :
-p -p 2
x=ce -2p+2 , y=(ce -2p+2)(1+p)+p
dy, dx
dy/dx=p. :
-p -p -p -p
dx=(-ce -2)dp, dy=[(-ce -2)(1+p)+(ce -2p+2)+2p]dp=[-(ce +2)p]dp dy/dx=p

) F(x,y,p)=0 x x=f(y,p)
dx f f dp 1 dp
fy fp
dy y p dy p dy
1 1 p.
g(y,p,c)=0 y:
y= (p,c)
:
y= (p,c) , x=f( (p,c),p)

(1) p.

1: . . xy 2 -2yy +4x=0
2yp
: p=y : x= 2 (1)
p 4
2 2
dx 1 2p p 4 2p dp p2 4 dp p2 4
2 2y 2p 2y
dy p p 4 (p2 4)2 dy p2 4 dy p
159

p 2 4 dp p2 4 1 dp 1 p 1
2y 2y dp dy
p 2 4 dy p p 2
4 dy p p 2
4 2y
2
1 1 p 4
ln(p2 4) ln y c 1 p2 4 cy y (2)
2 2 c
. . p
(1) (2) :
2p p2 4
x= y=
c c
p (3) -
2
x 4
: y(x)=c
4 c

9.2 n
. .n : F(x,y,y ,y , ,y(n))=0
:

) y(n)= f(x) n :

1 x
y(x)= dx dx dxf (x) (x t) n 1 f (t)dt Pn 1 (x)
(n 1)! 0
n

(1)
Pn-1(x) n-1

) . . x, . :
(n)
F(y,y , ,y )=0
dy
y =p(y) =p(y). ( p y
dx
x . . x).
d 2y d dp dy dp
p(y) p
dx2 dx dy dx dy
2
d 3y d dp d dp dy dp d 2p
p p p p
dx3 dx dy dy dy dx dy dy2

dny
n- p, p , , ,p(n-1) . -
dxn
:
dny
G p, p , , p (n 1)
p
dxn
160 9

. .
. . (n-1) p(y) y. -
. . , . .
.

1: . . y =4/y3
: :
dy d 2y dp
p(y) , p(y)
dx dx2 dy
. . :
dp 4 dy p2 2 2c1y 2 4
p pdp 4 c1 c1 p
dy y3 y3 2 y2 y
y 1
dy dx c2 2c1 y 2 4 x c2
2c 1 y 2
4 2c1

2: . . yy = (y )2+4
dy d 2y dp
: p(y) , 2 p(y)
dx dx dy
dp p dy 1
yp p2 4 2 dp c ln(p2 4) =ln|y|+c ln(p2+4)=ln(y2c1)
dy p 4 y 2

dy dy
p2=c1y2-4 ( c1y2-4 0) c1y 2 4 dx c 2
dx c1y 2 4
1
ln c1y2 4 c1y x c2
c1

: x2 t x -

dx
: ln x2 x
2
x

) . . y(x) k-1 ,
. F(x,y(k), y(k+1), ,y(n))=0 : y(k)=Y(x) . . . . (n-
k) :
F(x,Y,Y , ,Y(n-k))=0

1: . . y -4y =(y )2
: y =Y(x) y =Y (x)
161

dY 1 Y
Y -4Y=Y2 ( . .) 2 dx c1 ln x c1
Y 4Y 4 Y 4

Y e4x dy e4x
Ae 4 x Y(x) 4A 4A
Y 4 1 Ae 4 x dx 1 Ae 4 x
y(x)=-ln|1-Ae4x|+B 4c1=lnA

2: . . y(4)-y(2)=0 0
(2) (4)
: y =Y(x) y =Y (x) : Y -Y=0
2
: -1=0 = 1/
x x
Y=c1exp c 2 exp

x x
y (x) Y(x)dx = c1 exp c 2 exp c3

x x
y(x)= c1exp c2 exp c3x c4
4
: - 2=0
1=1/ , 2=-1/ 3,4=0, ( ). :
x x
y(x)=k1exp k 2 exp k 3x k 4

k1= c1, k2= c2, k3=c3, k4=c4.

3: . . 2x2y +(y )3=3xy


: y =Y(x) y =Y (x) :
3 1
2x2Y +Y3=3xY Y- Y Y3 (1)
2x 2x 2
. . (1) Bernoulli ’ :
3
1 1
1 2
Y(x)= u( x ) 1 3 u( x ) 2 Y u u
2
3 x c1
H . .(1) :u u 2 u( x )
x 2 x3
1/ 2 1/ 3
x c1 x c1
Y(x)= y(x) dx c 2
2 x3 2 x3
.

IV) F(x,y(n))=0 y(n), . (I),


(n)
x, . x=f(y ), :
y(n)=t x=f(t)
dy(n-1)=y(n)dx=tf (t)dt y(n-1)= tf (t)dt+c1=g1(t,c1)
:
dy(n-2)=y(n-1)dx=g1(t,c1)f (t)dt y(n-2)= g1(t,c1)f (t)dt+c2 y(n-2)=g2(t,c1,c2)
162 9

n
: x=f(t), y=gn(t,c1,c2, ,cn)

1:. . y +siny =x
: y =t x=t+sint
dy =y dx dy =t(1+cost)dt y =t2/2+tsint+cost+c1
t2
dy=y dx dy= t sin t cos t c1 (1 cos t )dt
2
t3 1 t2 3 t
y c1 t 1 c 1 sin t sin 2t cos 2t c2
6 2 2 8 4

x t sin t

2: . . ey +y =x
: y =t x=et+t
t2
dy =y dx dy =t(et +1)dt y te t t dt t 1 et c1
2
t2
dy=y dx= t 1 e t c1 et t dt
2
t2 t 3 2t t2 t2
y t 1 et c1 et t dt e 1 c1 e t c1t c2
2 2 4 2 6
x et 1
.

9.3 n

: . . F(x,y,y ,y , ,y(n))=0 (1)


k y, y , , y(n) , .:
(n) k (n)
F(x, y, y , , y )= F(x,y,y, ,y )=0 (2)
(1) k .
. . (1) :
u(x) u(x)
y(x)=e , y(x) 0 ( y(x)=-e y(x) 0)
:
y (x)=u (x)eu(x)
y (x)=[u (x)+u 2(x)]eu(x)

y(n)(x)=fn[u , u , ,u(n)]eu(x)
. . (1) :
163

F(x,y,y , y(n))=F x, e u , u e u , f2 (u , u )e u , fn (u , u , u (n ) )e u
=(eu)kF(x,1,u ,f2(u ,u ), ,fn(u ,u , ,u(n)))=0
G(x,u ,u , ,u(n))=0 (3)
(3) u(x) u (x)=z(x) . . (3)
, .

1 . . xyy +xy 2-yy = 0.


2 . :
y=eu(x) y =u eu y =(u +u 2)eu
: x(u +u )e +xu e -u e2u=0
2 2u 2 2u
x(u +u 2)+xu 2-u =0
u =z u =z
x(z +z )+xz2-z=0
2
xz -z=-2xz2 z -[1/x]z=-2z2
Bernoulli =2
1
1 1
: z(x) (x) 1 2 , z (x) 2
(x)
(x)
1 dx
: + 2 (x) exp 2 xdx c1
x x
1
(x)= (x2 c 1)
x
x du x 1
z(x)= 2 u(x)= ln x2 c 1 c 2
x c1 dx x2 c 1 2
y(x)=c3 x2 c1

2 . . x2yy -(y-xy )2=0.


2 . :
u(x) u
y=e y =u e y =(u +u 2)eu.
x2(u +u 2)e2u-(1-xu )2e2u =0 x2(u +u 2)-(1-xu )2=0
: u =z u =z
x2(z +z2)-(1-xz)2=0 x2z +x2z2-1-x2z2+2xz=0 x2z +2xz-1=0
.
2 1 c1 1 du c1 1 c1
z+ z 2
z(x) 2 2
u(x) ln x c2
x x x x dx x x x
c1
y(x)= exp ln x c2
x

3 . . yy -2y 2+x2y2
2 . :
y=eu y =u eu , y =(u +u2)eu
(u +u 2)-2u 2+x2=0 u -u 2+x2=0.
2 2
z=u z =z -x Ricatti. -
2
w w w (w )
: z z
w w2
164 9
2
w w (w )2 w
: x2 w x2 w 0
w2 w
2
, .
. . Ricatti: y = (x)y2+ (x)y+ (x)
1 u
y=-
(x) u
. 2 .

9.4

n :
P(x,y,y , ,y(n-1))+Q(x,y,y , ,y(n-1))y(n)=0 ( )
(n-1)
f(x,y,y , ,y ) :
df f f f f
y y y(n ) P Qy(n ) 0 (B)
dx x y y y(n 1)

2 . .
d 2y
P(x,y,y )+Q(x,y,y ) 0 (1)
dx2
f(x,y,y )
df d 2y
P(x,y,y )+Q(x,y,y ) 2 0 (2)
dx dx
y =z -
f(x,y,z), :
df d 2y f f dy f dz
P Q 0 (3)
dx dx2 x y dx z dx
y=y(x) (1), f(x,y,y )=c. f(x)
.
:
fx+zfy=P (4)
fz=Q (5)
(4) (5) fx fy . -
(4) z (5) x y :
fxz+fy+zfzy+Pz
fxz=Qx
fyz=Qy
:
Qx+fy+zQy=Pz
fy=Pz-Qx-zQy (6)
165

(6) (4) :
fx=P-z(Pz-Qx-zQy) (7)
(5), (6) (7) . .
:
Pxz+zPyz-Py=Qxx+2zQxy+z2Qyy
(8)
Qxz+zQyz+2Qy=Pzz
(8) :
fxy=fyx , fyz=fzy , fxz=fzx
(1) . .

1 . . (x+2xy)y +2xy 2+2y +4yy 0


:
P(x,y,y )=2xy 2+2y +4yy =2xz2+2z+4yz
Q(x,y,y )=x+2xy
. . (8)
Pxz= 2z 2 4z Qxx= (1 2y) 0 Qxz= (1 2y) 0
z x z
Pyz= 4z 4 Qxy= 2x 2 Qyz=0
z x
Pz=4z Qyy= 2x 2 Qy=2x
y

Pzz= (4 xz 2 4y) 4x
z
(8) 4z=4z 4x=4x
f (5), (6) (7):
fx =2xz2+2z+4yz-z(4xz+2+4y-1-2y-2xz)=z+2yz (1 )
fy =2xz+2y+1 (1 )
fz=x+2xy (1 )
(1 ) f=xz+2xyz+c1(y,z) (2 )
(2 )
c1
(1 ) f y 2xz 2xz 2y 1 c1 (y,z) y 2 y c 2 (z) (2 )
y
f=xz+2xyz+y2+y+c2(z) (2 )
(2 )
c2
(1 ) f z x 2xy x 2xy c2 (z) c
z
f=xz+2xyz+y2+y+c z=y :
(x+2xy)y +y2 +y=c (y2+y-c)dx+(x+2xy)dy=0
P Q
2y 1 1 2y
y x
166 9

f1
y2 y c
x
f1(x,y)=xy2+xy-cx-k
f1
x 2xy
y

xy2+xy-cx=k

. .1

1)

x.

-
R. Q
ˆ, , , ˆ
ˆ ˆ
.
ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ( ).
ˆ ˆ. :
2 tan
tan tan tan 2
1 tan 2

y 2y
x 1 (y ) 2
(1)
tan y . (1) . .1 2 . y p
y 2p
(1) y yp 2 2px yp 2 2px y 0.
x 1 p2
,
2x 2 x 2 y2
4x 2 4y 2 4 x2 y2 . p
2y
x x2 y2
p yp x x2 y2 yy x x2 y2
y
167

dy ydy xdx
y x x2 y2 ydy xdx x2 y 2 dx dx
dx x2 y2
d x2 y2 dx x2 y2 x C
:
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
x y x C x y x C 2Cx y 2xC C .
.

y 2p 2px
(1) y p y .
x 1 p2 1 p2
dy 2p 2(1 p 2 ) 2p( 2p) dp
p x p(1 p 2 )
dx 1 p2 1 p2
2
dx
2 2p 2 4p 2 dp 2p 2 2 dp p 2 1 dp
2p x p p3 2p x p 3 p 2x
(1 p 2 ) dx 1 p 2 dx 1 p 2 dx
p 2 1 dp dx dp dx dp
p(1 p 2 ) 2x 2
1 p dx 2 x p(p 2 1) 2x p(p 1)(p 1)
dx dp 1 dp 1 dp 1 dx dp 1 dp 1 dp
2x p 2p 1 2p 1 2 x p 2 p 1 2 p 1
1 1 1
nx C np n(p 1) n(p 1) n x C n p 1 n p 1 np
2 2 2
p2 1 C1 e C p2 1 C 2 ( C1 ) 2 p2 1
n x C n C1 x C2x
p p p2
1 1
C 2 xp 2 p2 1 p2 1 C2 x 1 p2 p .
1 C2x 1 C2x
y :
x 2x 4x 2
2
2px 1 C2x 1 C2 x 1 C2 x
y y2
1 p2 1 C2x C2 x 2
2
1
1 C2 x 1 C2x 1 C2 x
2

2
4x 2 1 C 2 x 4
y2 2 2
y2 2
1 C2 x .
1 C2x C2 x C2
2
C2
C3
2 2 2
y2 C3 1 x C3 2C 3 x .
C3
168 9

y 2p 1 p2
x y
x 1 p2 2p .
:

dx 1 1 p2 2p2p 2(1 p 2 ) dp 2p 4p 2 2 2p 2 dp
y 1 p2 y
dy p 2p 4p 2 dy p 2p dy

2 2p 2 dp dp dp dy
p2 1 y 2p(p 2 1) 2y(1 p 2 ) np ny A
2p dy dy p y

p By (B eA ) .
1 p2 (1 B 2 y 2 ) y
x y 2Bx 1 B 2 y 2
2p 2By
1
1 2 B
B2 y 2 1 2Bx y2 x C
y2 C2 2Cx .
B2 B

2) -

J.
Bernoulli.
,
. -
.

.. .

Fermat : -
n=n(r),
. Fermat Snell
: n1sin 1=n2sin 2
:
n1 n2 c
sin 1 sin 2 n
c c u
u . :
169

sin 1 sin 2
.
u1 u2

sin
. m (1).
u
John Bernoulli
. -

.
-

. :
1 1
0 0 mu 2 mgy mu 2 mgy u 2gy .
2 2

ˆ 1 1
ˆ sin sin cos
2 2 1 tan
2
dy
2

1
dx
.

(1) :
1
2
dy
1
sin dx 1
m m m 2gy
u 2gy dy
2

1
dx
2 1 2
k2
1 dy 1 2 m 2g dy k2
2
2gm 2 y 1 1
dy dx 2m 2 gy dx y
1
dx
170 9

2
dy
y1 k2 (2)
dx
. .1 2 . y p, (2)
k2 k2 y p 0 k2 y
y 1 p2 k2 1 p2 p2 p
y y y
dy k2 y k2 y
dy dx (3)
dx y y
( p ).
2 2 2
y k sin t dy 2k sin t cos tdt
(3)
k 2 1 sin 2 t cos t
2k 2 sin t cos tdt 2 2
dx dx
k sin t sin t
dx 2k 2 sin 2 tdt dx k 2 1 cos 2t dt dx k 2 1 cos 2t dt C
1 k2
x k2 t sin 2t C x 2t sin 2t C.
2 2
2t :
x 0
k2 k2
x sin C. t 0 y 0 C 0. x sin (4)
2 2
0
2
k
y k 2 sin 2 t k 2 sin 2 1 cos (5)
2 2
(4), (5) .

1)

2 .
y .
171

p( x )
. . : y( 4) ( x ) . () -
EI
po x
y (I 4 ) ( x ) (1)
EI
0 x , ( ) :
po
y (II4 ) ( x ) (2)
EI
0 x . (1) 4 .
po x po x 2
y (I3) ( x ) dx C1 y (I3) ( x ) C1
EI 2EI
po x 2 po x 3
y (I 2 ) ( x ) dx C1 dx C 2 y (I 2 ) ( x )
C1x C 2
2EI 6EI
po x 3 p o x 4 C1 2
yI (x) dx C1 xdx C 2 dx C3 yI (x) x C 2 x C3
6EI 24EI 2
po x 4 C1 2 po x 5 C1 3
yI (x) dx x dx C 2 xdx C3 dx C 4 yI (x) x
24EI 2 120EI 6
C2 2
x C3 x C 4 .
2
( ):
2
po x po x po x 3 C5 2
y (II3) ( x ) C5 , y (II2 ) ( x ) C5 x C6 , y II ( x ) x C6 x C7
EI 2EI 6EI 2
p o x 4 C5 3 C6 2
y II ( x ) x x C 7 x C8 .
24EI 6 2
:
y I (0) y I (0) y II ( ) y II ( ) 0
y(I ) ( ) y(II ) (0) 0,1,2,3
( -
, ).
y I (0) 0 C4 0
y I (0) 0 C2 0
p o 4 C5 3 C6 2
y II ( ) 0 C7 C8 0
24EI 6 2
po 3
y II ( ) 0 C5 2 C6 C7 0
6EI
po 5 C1 3 C2 2
y I ( ) y II (0) C3 C4 C8
120EI 6 2
po 4 C1 2
y I ( ) y II (0) C2 C3 C7
24EI 2
172 9

po 3
yI ( ) y II (0) C1 C2 C6
6EI
po 2
y (3)
I ( ) y (3)
II (0) C1 C5
2EI

po 4 C5 3 C6 2
C7 C8 0
24 EI 6 2
po 3
C5 2 C6 C7 0
6 EI
po 4 C1 3 C2 2
C3 C4 C8
120 EI 6 2
po 3 C1 2
C2 C3 C7
24 EI 2

po 2
C1 C2 C6
6 EI
po
C1 C5
2 EI
714 p o 228p o 3
: C1 , C3 ,
1920 EI 1920 EI
246p o 394 2 p o 49 3p o 125 4 p o
C5 , C6 , C7 , C8 .
1920EI 1920 EI 1920 EI 1920EI
C2 C4 0 .
po
yI (x) 16 x 5 119 x 3 2 228x 4
1920 EI
po
y II ( x ) 80 x 4 41x 3 197 x 2 2 49 x 3 125 4
.
1920 EI
M EIy .
po
M I (x) EIy I 160 x 3 357 x 2
960
po
M II ( x ) EIy II 480 x 2 123x 197 2 .
960

2)
:
1 T 2 A
T (1)
t k
.
,
173

k
k ( -
C
,C ). -
T
0 (1)
t
2 A
T 0 ( Poisson)
k
2
=0 T 0 ( Laplace).
:

T
1 T 2 A 0, A 0
2
T t
T 0 (2)
t k
(2) :
d 2T dT
0 C1 T( x ) C1 x C 2
dx 2 dx
T1 C1 x 1 C2
T( x 1 ) T1 T(x 2 ) T2 .
T2 C1 x 2 C2
T2 T1 T1 x 2 T2 x 1
C1 , C2
x2 x1 x2 x1
T2 T1 T1 x 2 T2 x 1
x1 x x2 T( x ) x .
x2 x1 x2 x1

3)

:
E (1)
o

E 0 (2)

E (3)
(1) :
174 9

2
( Poisson).
o o
Poisson
. , , -
(3) .
2
0( Laplace).

Poisson
, -
d
( ). ( )=0, ( )= .
2
x 3
.
E( x 0 ) 0. (x) -
.
Poisson :
2
d 2
x 3
.
dx 2 o o

1 4
d x3 3 x3 9 4
C1 (x) C1x C 2 (x) x 3
C1 x C 2 .
dx o 1 3 o 4 3 4 o

C1 , C 2 . :
d 3 1
(0) 0 C2 0 E( x ) C1 x 3
E (0) 0 C1 .
dx o

9 4
(d ) 3 .
4 o
4
9 4 x 3
(x) x 3
.
4 o d
:
d 4 1
E( x ) x̂ 4
x 3 x̂ .
dx 3d3

1)

g .
, ( ) m( -
) y
175

Mm
F .
y2
d
Newton F m
dt
Mm
F 2
my y2y M 0 (1)
y
. .2 ,1 .
dy d 2 y dp dp dy dp
y p( y) p( y ) 2
p (1) :
dt dt dt dy dt dy
dp dp M dy dy
y2p M p 2
pdp M 2 pdp M 2 C
dy dy y y y
p2 1 p2 M 2 M C1 2 C 2 M
M C C p2 2C p2 C1
2 y 2 y y y
( p )
1
2 M dy 2 M dy y 2 dy
p C1 C1 dt dt .
y dt y 2 M 2 C1 y
C1
y
2 2
2 M C1 y 2 M C1 y C1 y 2 M
2
2 M 2 d
y dy .
C1 C1 C1
:
2
2 M
1
2 d
y dy 2 C1 2 2
3
2 Md .
2 M C1 C1 C1 2

1 sin
2 M d 2 M d
cos cos 2
2 2
3
2 Md
C1 2

2 1 sin 4 M 1 sin
3
2 M 2 M 2 M d 1 d .
C1 2 cos cos 2 C1
3
2 cos 2 cos 2

3 1 sin 1 1
cos d n tan
2 cos 2 2 cos
1 1
cos d n tan
cos
176 9

4 M 1 sin 1 1
: 3
n tan t C2
C1 2 2 cos 2 2 cos

1 2 M
cos .
2 M C1 y

2)

m ,

ds 2
1 2 1 ds
: E (A) E (K ) 0 0 m mgy dt
m mgy 0
2 2 dt
2
ds ds ds
2gy 2gy dt .
dt dt 2gy

xB
ds
t .
0 2gy
(ds) 2 (dx ) 2 (dy) 2 ds 1 ( y ) 2 dx
xB
1 1 (y ) 2
t dx .
2g 0
y
t :
d F F
0
dx y y
1 1
Euler-Lagrance F 1 (y ) 2 2
y 2
. Euler-Lagrance

2 2 2
F F F F
2
y 0.
y y y x y y
:
3 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 3
1 (y ) 2 2
(y ) 2 y 2
1 (y ) 2 2
y 2
y 1 (y ) 2 2
(y ) 2 y 2
1 (y ) 2 2
y 2
0
2 2
1 1 3 1 3 1 3 3
yy 2
(y ) 2 y 2
y 2
0 2y y 2
(y )2 y 2
y 2
0
2 2
2y y ( y )2 1 0 (1)
. .2 x.
177

d2y d dp dy dp
y p( y) p( y) p .
dx 2 dx dy dx dy
(1) :
dp 2p dy d p2 1 dy
2 yp p2 1 0 dp 0 0
dy 1 p2 y 1 p2 y
n 1 p2 ny nb ( b ) n 1 p2 y nb
b b b y b y
1 p2 y b 1 p2 p2 1 p2 p
y y y y
( ),
dy b y y y
p dx dy x dy C
dx y b y b y
y b sin 2 dy 2b sin cos d :
2 2
b sin b sin
x 2b sin cos d C x 2b sin cos d C
b b sin 2 b cos 2
b
x 2b sin 2 d C b 1 cos 2 d C 2 sin 2 C.
2
:
b b
x 2 sin 2 C, y b sin 2 1 cos 2 .
2 2
.
b
(0,0) 0 b sin 2 0 0 2 0 0 C C 0 . :
2
b b
x 2 sin 2 y 1 cos 2 .
2 2
b
2
2
x sin , y 1 cos
( )
(x ,y ). .

3)

x= ( -sin ), y= (1+cos ) 0 2 . . . -
. :
1
m x 2 y2 ( x sin
2
x ( cos ), y (1 cos ) y sin ).
2 2
m 1 cos
178 9

V mgy mg (1 cos ) . Lagrance -


2 2
: L T V m 1 cos mg 1 cos .
d L L
: 0
dt
d
2m 2 1 cos m 2 sin 2 mg sin 0
dt
2m 2 1 cos 2m 2 2 sin m 2 2 sin mg sin 0
1 2 g
1 cos sin sin 0 (1)
2 2
d dp d dp
p( ) p( ) p .
dt d dt d
(1) :
dp 1 g 1 g
1 cos p (sin )p 2 sin 0 1 cos pdp (sin )p 2 sin d 0 .
d 2 2 2 2
. . -
. ,( -
). (1). -
(1)
d2u g
u 0 (2)
dt 2 4
cos u (3)
2
(3)
du du d 1 1 d2u d 1
sin sin sin
dt d dt 2 2 2 2 dt 2 dt 2 2
d2u 1 1 2 d 1 1 2
sin sin sin cos
dt 2 2 2 2 d 2 2 2 4 2
(2)
2
du g 1 1 2 g 1 2 g
u 0 sin cos cos 0 sin cos cos 0
dt2 4 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 2
1 2 g
cot cot 0 (4)
2 2 2 2
cos 2 sin cos
2 2 2 sin
cot
2 2 sin 2
sin 2 sin 2
2 2
cos 1 2 sin 2 2 sin 2 1 cos .
2 2
sin
cot .
2 1 cos
(4) :
179

1 2 sin g sin 1 2 g
0 1 cos sin sin 0
2 1 cos 2 1 cos 2 2
(1). . .
d2u g
u 0
dt 2 4
. .2 .
2 g i g
0 .
4 2
g g
u C1 cos t C 2 sin t cos
4 4 2
1 g g
2 cos C1 cos t C 2 sin t
4 4
.

4) .
x .

xy b
. (0,0).
t ( t,0) (x,y).
,
.
2
dy y y y dt y yy
y x t 1 2
(1).
dx x t x t y dx y
dt dt ds
.
dx ds dt
ds
(ds) 2 (dx ) 2 (dy) 2 ds 1 y 2 dx 1 y 2

dx
dt dt ds 2
1 y .
dx ds dx b
(1) :
2
2 y yy 2 yy r
2 yy
1 1 y 2
1 y b
r 1 y
b y b y2 y2
. .2 x.
dp
y p( y) y p
dy
dp
yp
dy y dp dy dp
r 1 p2 r 1 p2 r
p2 p dy y p 1 p2
180 9

dp dy 1 1 y
r n 1 r ny C r n C r n C1
p 1 p2 y p p2 C1
r r 2r r
1 1 y 1 y 1 1 y 1 2 y
1 1 1
p p2 C1 p2 C1 p p2 C1 p2 p C1
r 2r r r r r
2 y y 2 y y dx y y
1 2
p C1 C1 p C1 C1 dy C1 C1
r r 1 r r 1
1 y y 1 C1 y C1 y
dx dy x C2
2 C1 C1 2 1 r C1 1 r C1
1 r r 1
C1 1 y 1 y
x C2 .
2 1 r C1 1 r C1
O C1, C2 .

1) .
, -
xy y
:
dy y t
xy y t.
dx x
x
dt
y xy y (1)
dx
dt dt ds 1 2
1 y .
dx ds dx b
r
b
2
xy r 1 y
. .2 y.
y Y( x ) y Y (x) ,
dY
xY ( x ) r 1 Y2 x r 1 Y2
dx
dY dx dY dx
r r
1 Y2 x 1 Y2 x
r C1 eC r r
n 1 Y2 Y nx C Y2 1 Y C1 x Y2 1 C1 x Y
2
2r r (C1 ) r 1 r
Y 2 1 (C 1 ) 2 x Y2 2C1 x Y Y x x
2C1 2C1
181
r r 1 r 1
dy C1 r x C1 x x
x y C2
dx 2 2C 1 2 1 r 2C1 ( r 1)
r
C1 x 1 x
y r
C2 .
2 x (1 r ) (C1 ) 2 (r 1)
O C1, C2 .

2) .
.
.
, -
y=y(x).
.
) ,
) T
) W=s (s=( ), ).
:
Tsin =W=s , Tcos =H
s
. tan ,
H
dy dy s d2y ds 2
tan 1 y
dx dx dx 2 dx
. .2 y.
y Y( x ) y Y (x)
dY dY
Y (x) 1 Y2 1 Y2 dx
dx 1 Y2
nY 1 Y2 x C1 .
x 0, Y y 0 C1 0

nY 1 Y2 x nY 1 Y2 x sinh 1 Y x
x x x x
e e dy e e 1 x x
Y sinh( x ) dy e e
2 dx 2 2
1 x x
y C2 e e .
2
1
(OK ) C2 0.
1 x x
y e e .
2
10. EULER
: ,
x , -
Euler.
. . Euler n :
n (n) n-1 (n-1)
nx y + n-1x y + + 1xy + 0y=0 (1)
n (n) n-1 (n-1)
nx y + n-1x y + + 1xy + 0y=f(x) (2)
(2) :y =y +y y
(1) y (2), . .
, y .
Euler (1) y=xs
s
x 0, ( y=(-x) x 0), x ' ,
xs. s
, (1). -
Euler 2 :
x2y + xy + y = 0 y=xs (3)
x s(s-1)x + xsx + xs=0
2 s-2 s-1
[ s2+( - )s+ ]xs=0
2
s1 s2 s +( - )s+ =0, (3) -
:
y (x)= c 1xs1 c 2 xs 2 (4)

1: . . x2y -xy -3y=0 x 0


s
: y=x . . :
2 s-2 s-1 s
x s(s-1)x -xsx -3x =0 [s(s-1)-s-3]xs=0 s2-2s-3=0 s1=-1 , s2=3
y (x)=c1x-1+c2x3
x 0
x -x :
y (x)=c1(-x)-1+c2(-x)3

2 : . . 2x2y +xy -y=0 x 0


: xs . . xs(2s2-s-1)=0 : s1 =-1/2,
s2 =1 . . . :
1
y c1 x c 2 x 0
x
x 0
x -x. :
1
y c1 ( x) c 2 x 0
x

1: s1=s2=s :
184 10

s=- ( - )2-4 =0 (5)


2

y=xsY :
y=xsY(x)
y =sxs-1Y+xsY (6)
s-2 s-1 s-1 s s s-1 s-2
y =s(s-1)x Y+sx Y +sx Y +x Y =x Y +2sx Y +s(s-1)x Y
(6) (3) :
[xs+2Y +2sxs+1Y +s(s-1)xsY]+ [sxsY+xs+1Y ]+ xsY=0
xs+2Y +[2 sxs+1+ xs+1]Y +[ s(s-1)xs+ sxs+ xs]Y=0 (7)
xs (3) :
s(s-1)xs+ sxs+ xs=0
(7) :
xY +(2s + )Y =0 ( 2 s= - ) xY + Y =0 xY +Y =0
Y (x)=h(x) :
h(x) dh dx 1
h (x)=- ln h(x) ln x h(x)
x h x x
Y (x)=1/x dY/dx=1/x dY=dx/x Y(x)=lnx
y=xslnx :
y =c1xs+c2xslnx

3: x2y -xy+y=0 x 0
s
: y=x
s(s-1)x -sxs +xs=0
s
s(s-1)-s+1=0 s2 -2s+1=0 (s-1)2=0 s1,2=1
y1=x y2=xlnx.
y =c1x+c2xlnx=x(c1+c2lnx)

4: . . x2y +5xy +4y=0 x 0.


s s 2
: x . . x (s +4s+4)=0 s2+4s+4=0 s1=s2=-2 (
). . . :
y =x-2(c1+c2lnx) x 0

1: . . (2)
y=xs, s1 , s2 , , sk k1
,k2 , ,km, (k1+k2+ +km=n), si ki
:
x si , x si ln x, x si (ln x)2 , , x si (ln x) ki 1 x 0
:
y = x Pk1 1 (ln x) x s2 Pk2 1 (ln x)
s1
x sk Pk m 1 (ln x) (8)
Pki 1 (ln x) ki -1 lnx.

2: +i
Euler 185

-i k, -
y :
x Pk 1 ln x cos ln x Qk 1 ln x sin ln x
k-1(lnx), Qk-1(lnx) k-1 lnx.
: +i
+i -i
-i . ’ : y1=x y2=x .

. :
y1=x =x xi = x ei (lnx)= x [cos( lnx)+isin( lnx)],
+i

y2=x -i =x x-i = x e-i (lnx)= x [cos( lnx)-isin( lnx)]


Re(y1,2)=x cos( lnx) Im(y1,2)=x sin( lnx)
:
c1x cos( lnx)+c2x sin( lnx)= x [c1cos( lnx)+c2sin( lnx)]
.

5: . . x2y +xy +y=0 x 0.


s
: x . . xs(s2+1)=0 s1=i, s2=-i . =0 =1. -
. . :
y =c1cos(lnx)+c2sin(lnx) x 0

3: Euler -
. x=et t=lnx . .
. x2y + xy + y=0 . . :
dy dy dt 1
y=y(x)=y(et) y= y xy y (9)
dx dt dx x
d d 1 1 1 d 1 1 d dt
y = y y y 2 y y 2 y
dx dx x x x dx x x dt dx
1 1 1 y y
=- y 2 y 2 x 2y y y (10)
x x x x x2
t. (9)
(10) . . :
(y y) y y 0 y ( )y y 0 (11)

6: . . x3y +3x2y -2xy +2y=0


. . , ) x 0, ) x 0.
t
: ) x=e :
2
dy dy d y d 2y dy 3
3 d y d 3y d 2y dy
x , x2 2 , x 2
dx dt dx dt 2 dt dx3 dt 3 dt 2 dt
. . . .
3
d y dy
3 2y 0
dt 3 dt
. . . :
t t -2t
y =c1e +c2te +c3e
186 10

. . :
y =c1x+c2xlnx+c3x-2 x 0

) x 0 x=-et ,
dx dt
et e t
dt dx
( ) . .
s1=1 ( ), s2=-2.
. .
y =c1et+c2tet+c3e-2t
et=-x t=ln(-x), . .
y =(-x)[c1+c2ln(-x)]+c3(-x)-2 x 0

4 : . . Euler
:
) ,
n
. . , . . nx .
f x
n
. . . . . Euler 2 : x2y + xy + y=f(x)
nx

: y (x)= c1 y1 x c2 y2 x .
:
y =v1(x)y1(x)+v2(x)y2(x)
:
v1 y1 (x) v 2 y 2 (x) 0
f x
v1 y1 (x) v 2 y 2 (x) n
nx
) . . Euler . .
.

7: . . 2x2y +3xy -y=5x


: . . 2x2y +3xy -y=0. -
xs . . 2s(s-1)+3s-1=0 2
2s +s-1=0 s1=-1, s2=1/2.
. . :
1
y =c1 x c2
x
1
y1(x)= x y2(x)=
x
1
, y =v1(x)y1(x)+v2(x)y2(x)= v1 x x v x 2
x
:
Euler 187

1
v1 x v2 0
x
1 5x 5
1
v1 v2 2
x
2 x x 2x 2 2
5 1 5 2
: v1 x , v2 x x
3 x 6
10 5 2
v1 x x , v2 x x
3 6
1 10 51 5
y = v1 x x v x 2 x x
x 3 6x 2
1 5
y =y +y = c1 x c 2 + x
x 2

: . . Euler
3 2
1) x y +3x y"-2xy +2y=0 . y=c1x+c2xlnx+c3x-2
2) 2x2y"+3xy -y=0 . y=c1 x+c2[1/x]
3) x2y"+xy +y=0 . y=c1cos(lnx)+c2sin(lnx)

. . Euler

1)

p(r) r .
.

2 1 1 1
. .: w ( 4) w w w p( r ) .
r r2 r3 N
p( r ) r . . . :
2 1 1 r r5
w ( 4) w 2
w 3
w r 4 w ( 4 ) 2r 3 w r 2w rw (1)
r r r N N
. . Euler. . .:
4 ( 4)
r w 2r 3 w r 2 w rw 0 .
w rk w kr k 1 w k (k 1)r k 2
188 10

w k (k 1)(k 2)r k 3
w ( 4) k (k 1)(k 2)(k 3)r k 4 .
. . Euler :
k (k 1)(k 2)(k 3)r k 2k (k 1)(k 2)r k (k 1)r k kr k
k
0
k
k (k 1)(k 2)(k 3) 2k (k 1)(k 2) k (k 1) k r 0
k (k 1)(k 2)(k 3) 2k (k 1)(k 2) k (k 1) k 0
k (k 1)(k 2)(k 3) 2(k 1)(k 2) (k 1) 1 0 k (k 3 4k 2 4k ) 0
2 2 2
k (k 4k 4) 0( ) k 4k 4 0 k 2( ).
w . C1 C 2 nr C3r C 4 r 2 nr
2

. -
:
u (r ) r2 ao a1r a 2 r 2 a 3r 3 a 4 r 4 a 5r 5
u (r) a or 2 a 1r 3 a 2r 4 a 3r 5 a 4r 6 a 5r 7
u (r ) 2a o r 3a1r 2 4a 2 r 3 5a 3r 4 6a 4 r 5 7a 5 r 6
u (r ) 2a o 6a1r 12a 2 r 2 20a 3r 3 30a 4 r 4 42a 5 r 5
u (r ) 6a 1 24a 2 r 60a 3r 2 120a 4 r 3 210a 5 r 4
u ( 4 ) (r ) 24a 2 120a 3r 360a 4 r 2 840a 5 r 3 .
(1) :
24a 2 r 4 120a 3r 5 360a 4 r 6 840a 5 r 7 12a1r 3 48a 2 r 4 120a 3r 5 240a 4 r 6
420a 5 r 7 2a o r 2 6a1r 3 12a 2 r 4 20a 3r 5 30a 4 r 6 42a 5 r 7 2a o r 2 3a1r 3
4a 2 r 4 5a 3r 5 6a 4 r 6 7a 5 r 7 r5 N
r 7 840a 5 420a 5 42a 5 r 6 360a 4 240a 4 30a 4 6a 4 r 5 120a 3 120a 3
20a 3 5a 3 r 4 24a 2 48a 2 12a 2 4a 2 r 3 12a1 6a1 3a1 r2 2a o
5
2a o r N a1 a2 a4 a5 0 , ao a3
: 120a 3 120a 3 20a 3 5a 3 1N a3 1 225 .
ao 0, (1) :
2 2 5
w (r ) C1 C 2 nr C3r C 4 r nr (1 225) r .

2)
.

Poisson:
2
V
o
, =0 ( =0 V=0,
,
2
) . . Laplace: V 0.
Laplace :
Euler 189

2
1 V 1 V 1 V
r2 sin 0 (1)
r2 r r 2
r sin r sin 2
2 2

.
(r, , ) R (r ) ( ) ( ) (1) :
2
1 1 1
2
r2 R 2
sin R R 0
r r r r sin r sin 2
2 2

2
R R R
r2 sin 0.
r2 r r 2
r sin r sin 2
2 2

R :
1 d 2 dR 1 d d 1 d2
r sin 0.
Rr 2 dr dr 2
r sin d d r sin 2
2
d 2

r 2 sin 2 , :
sin 2 d 2 dR sin d d 1 d2
r sin 2
0
R dr dr d d d
sin 2 d 2 dR sin d d 1 d2
r sin 2
.
R dr dr d d d
r, .
m2 . :
1 d2 sin 2 d 2 dR sin d d
m2 , r sin m2 (1)
d 2 R dr dr d d
(1) :
1 d 2 dR 1 d d m2
r sin
R dr dr sin d d sin 2
1 d 2 dR m2 1 d d
r sin .
R dr dr sin 2 sin d d
r, .
, . :
2
1 d 2 dR d R dR
r 2
2r r2 R 0 (2)
R dr dr dr dr
m2 1 d d
sin .
sin 2 sin d d
R (r ) (2) . . Euler:
2
d R dR
r2 2r R 0.
dr 2 dr
dR d2R
R (r ) rs sr s 1
2
s(s 1)r s 2 (2) :
dr dr
r 2 s(s 1)r s 2
2rsr s 1
rs 0 s(s 1) 2s rs 0
2
s(s 1) 2s 0 s s 0.
1 4 :
190 10

1 1 4 1 1 4 1 1 4
s1, 2 s1 , s2 (1 s1 ) .
2 2 2
:
B
R (r ) Ar s1 Br s 2 Ar s1 Br (1 s1 )
Ar s1 s1 1
.
r
r 0
s1
R (r ) Ar .
B
, R (r ) s1 1
r
.

3)

b.
0 V. ,
-
r
.
. (r),E(r) r b. -
Poisson

2
V (1)
o

r. Poisson
d2V 1 dV 1 d 2 V 1 dV
(2)
dr 2 r dr o r dr 2 r dr o r
(2) r2 :
2
d V dV
r2 2
r r (3)
dr dr o
(3) . . Euler, .

d2V dV
r2 r 0
dr 2 dr
(4)
2
dV d V
V rs sr s 1 2
s(s 1)r s 2 (4) :
dr dr
s(s 1)r s sr s 0 s(s 1) s r s 0 s2 s s 0 s2 0 s 0
( ). . . Euler :
0
V . r nr nr .
(3).
V . A Br V . B V . 0.
Euler 191

(3)
rB r B .
0 o
(3) :
V C nr A r C1 C nr A r.
o o
C, A . -
:
V( ) 0 C n A
o
A n Vo ( b) n ,
b
V ( b) Vo C nb A b o o

C n Vo ( b)
b

4)

. . :
div V 0
t
V . V grad ,
div grad( ) 0
t
-
.
div grad( ) 0.
div grad( ) 0. -
Laplace.

Vc x.
. ,

Laplace -
2 2
1 1
r 0,
r r r r2 2
z2
192 10

2
0,
z2
2
1 1
r 0 (1)
r r r r2 2

,
(r, ) R (r ) ( ) . (1) :

1 1 2 d dR R d2
r R R 0 r 0
r r r r2 2 r dr dr r2 d 2
dR d 2R R d2 r dR r 2 d 2 R 1 d 2
0 0
r dr dr 2 2
r d 2
R dr R dr 2 d 2
2 2 2
1 d r d R r dR
2
.
d R dr 2 R dr
, r. -
2
-
, .
2
d 2
2
0 (2)
d
. .2
d 2R dR
r2 r 2
R 0 (3)
dr 2 dr
. . Euler.
(2) ( ) C1 cos( ) C 2 sin( ).
(3) R rs R sr s 1
R s(s 1)r s 2
. (3)
:
r 2 s(s 1)r s 2
rsr s 1 2 s
r 0 ss 1 s 2
rs 0 ss 1 s 2
0
2 2
s 0 s .
R (r ) C 3 r C4r .
:
(r, ) C 3 r C4r C1 cos( ) C 2 sin( )
C1,C2,C3,C4 .
:
1. V grad V ˆr grad ˆr Vc cos
r r

2. r Vr 0
r
1
3. r V 0
r
Euler 193

4. (r, ) r, ,
r 0 2 . 4 C3=0.
(r, ) C 4 r C1 cos( ) C 2 sin( ) .
1
: C4r C1 cos( ) C 2 sin( ) ,
r
:
1
C4 C1 cos( ) C 2 sin( ) Vc cos
r
C 4 C1 2
C2 0, 1, 2
Vc C 4 C1 Vc .
2
Vc
(r, ) cos .
r
11.

11.1

,
-
,
Euler, ( ).
Wronsky -
2 , ( ),
.
y1(x) . .:
y (x)+P(x)y (x)+Q(x)y(x)=0 (1)
, :
W( x )
y2=y1 dx
y12
P ( x )dx
W(x)= e , y1(x) y2(x),
. . (1):
W( x )
yo (x)=c1y1(x)+c2y2(x)= c1y1(x)+c2 y1 dx
y12
Wronsky
:
y (x)+P(x)y (x)+Q(x)y(x)=f(x) (2)
fy1 fy 2
: u=y2 dx y1 dx
W W
(2) :
W( x ) fy1 fy 2
y =y +u=c1y1(x)+c2 y1 dx + y2 dx y1 dx
y12 W W
2 -
-
.
, -
, .
: -
-
.
.
194 11

. -

. -
, , 2
.

,
:
1) Bessel (1784-1846)
2 2 2
x y +xy +(x -p )y=0
2) Hermite (1822-1901)
y -2xy +2py=0
o Schrödinger :
2 1
mr 2
2m 2

3) Legendre (1752-1833)
2
(1-x )y -2xy +n(n+1)y=0
2
: k2 0

4) Laguerre (1834-1886)
xy +(1-x)y +py=0
5) Airy (1801-1892)
y -xy=0
6) Chebyshev (1821-1894)
(1-x2)y -xy +p2y=0
7) Gauss (1777-1855)
x(1-x)y +[ -( + +1)x]y - y=0

11.2 . . y (x)+P(x)y +Q(x)y(x)=0

:
y (x)+P(x)y (x)+Q(x)y(x)=0 (1)
-
:
)
) .
195

: y(x)= c n (x )n (2 )
n 0

x= P(x), Q(x) ,
2 (1
1/(x- ) 1/(x- ) , 1
P(x) 2 Q(x),
: y(x)= x c n (x )n (2 )
n 0
-
,
P(x) Q(x).
11.6.

P(x) Q(x) ,
, .
P(x) Q(x) Taylor
, .
:
A(x) = (x- )P(x) (3 )
B(x) = (x- )2Q(x) (3 )
Taylor ,
. (x), B(x)
Taylor ,
. ’ -
(2 ).
-
.
. . (1) =0, ( -
0 t=x- , x= t=0).

. .

1: ,( ), , . . (1)
|x- | R, :
n
y(x)= cn x =c0y1(x)+c1y2(x) (4. )
n 0

c0 , c 1 y1(x) , y2(x)
. . (1).

(1 g(x)
n f(x) f(x)= g( ) 0
(x )n
196 11

P(x) Q(x) -
(x) , Q(x)

P(x) Q(x)
A(x) B(x) -
Taylor Taylor

A(x) , B(x)

Taylor

R (4. ) -
. ,
R (4 ) x.
cn , ,
:
1) . . (1) (4 ) :
y (x)= nc n (x )n 1
(4 )
n 1

y (x)= n(n 1)c n (x )n 2


(4 )
n 2
:

n(n 1)c n (x )n 2
+P(x) nc n (x ) n 1 +Q(x) c n (x ) n =0 (5)
n 2 n 1 n 0
197
(2
2) (5) :
ko+k1(x- )+k2(x- )2+ +kn(x- )n + =0 (6)
ki , i=0,1,2, cn
(4 ). (6) x ki
:
k0=0 , k1=0, k2=0, , ki=0, (7)
cn -
(4 ) . . (1).
3) (7) cn , n=2,3,
c0 , c1
4) c0 y1(x)
c1 y2(x) (4. ) :
y(x)=c0y1(x)+c1y2(x)

1: . y -xy +2y = 0 (8)


=0.
: =0 . . :

y(x)= c n xn y= ncn xn 1
y = n(n 1)cn xn 2

n 0 n 1 n 2

. . : n(n 1)cn xn 2
-x ncn xn 1 +2 cn xn =0 (9)
n 2 n 1 n 0

x,
n,
n
:
n n 2
n(n 1)cn xn 2
(n 2)(n 1)cn 2xn
n 2 n 0

(9) :
(n 2)(n 1)cn 2xn - ncn xn +2 cn xn =0
n 0 n 1 n 0

« » 1 n -
. -
n=0,
n=0 ncn|n=0 =0.
:
(n 2)(n 1)cn 2xn - ncn xn +2 cn xn =0
n 0 n 0 n 0

(2
P(x), Q(x) Taylor
198 11

(n 2)(n 1)cn 2 ncn 2cn xn 0


n 0
xn
:
(n 2)
cn+2= c n=0,1,2, (A)
(n 2)(n 1) n

n :
n=0 c2=-c0
1
n=1 c3=- c
3 2 1
n=2 c4=0
1 1
n=3 c5 = c3 c
5 4 5! 1
2
n=4 c6= c 4 0
30
3 3
n=5 c7= c5 c1
76 7!

c4=0, , -
(3
2. ci -
y= c n xn
n 0

: y=c0+c1x+c2x2+c3x3+c5x5+c7x7+ =
1 1 3
=c0+c1x-c0x2- c1x 3 c1 x 5 c1 x 7
3! 5! 7!
1 3 1 5 3 7
= c 0 1 x 2 c1 x x x x
3! 5! 7!
1 3 1 5 3 7
: y1(x)=1-x2 y2(x)= x x x x
3! 5! 7!
. . (6) :
y =c0y1(x)+c1y2(x)
x R, ( ;)
, -
. :
(n 2)
cn+2= c
(n 2)(n 1) n
n 3 :
1
n=3 c5 = c3
5 4
(3
’ .
199

3
n=5 c7 = c5
7 6
5
n=7 c9 = c7
9 8

n 2
n=n cn+2 = cn
n 2 n 1

cn+2 c1 .
1 3 5 n 2
cn 2 c3
5 47 69 8 n 2 n 1
1
c3=- c , :
3 2 1
1 1 3 5 n 2
cn 2 c1
3 25 47 69 8 n 2 n 1
To n . n=2k-1 k 2 -
:
13 5 2k 3
c 2k 1 c1 k 2
2k 1 !
:
1 3 13 5 2k 3 2k
y(x)= c0 1 x 2 c1 x x x 1

3 k 2 2k 1 !

2: . . y -(x-2)y +2y=0 (10)


=2.
: =2 . t=x-2 :
2
dy dy dt dy dy d dy d dy dt d 2y
dx dt dx dt dx2 dx dt dt dt dx dt 2
. . (8) :
d 2y dy
t 2y 0
dt 2 dt
. . :
1 3 1 5
3 7
y=c0(1-t2)+c1 t t tt
3! 5!
7!
t=x-2 . . (10):
1 3 1 5 3 7
y=c0 1 (x 2)2 c1 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2
3! 5! 7!

3: . .
(x2-1)y +3xy +xy=0 (11)
200 11

=0.
: =0 . .
P(x)=3x/(x2-1) Q(x)=x/(x2-1)
x=0 , :
y(x)= c n xn y= ncn xn 1
y = n(n 1)cn xn 2

n 0 n 1 n 2
. . :
n(n 1)cn xn - n(n 1)cn xn 2
+3 ncn xn + c n xn 1
0
n 2 n 2 n 1 n 0

n
. , xn. -
n-2
. , x ,
2: n n+2
, :
n n+2
n(n 1)cn xn 2
(n 2)(n 1)cn 2xn
n 2 n 0

:
n n-1
c n xn 1
cn 1xn
n 0 n 1
:
n(n 1)cn xn - (n 2)(n 1)cn 2xn +3 ncn xn + cn 1xn 0
n 2 n 0 n 1 n 1

n=0 1
n=1 , :
2c 2 n=0
n
(n 2)(n 1)cn 2x
n 0
3 2c 3x 6c 3x n=1
n 1
3 ncn x n 3c1x
n 1

x
-2c2+(c0+3c1-6c3)x+ (n 2)(n 1)cn 2 n(n 2)cn c n 1 xn 0
n 2

’ cn n=0,1,2,
-2c2=0
c0+3c1-6c3=0
-(n+2)(n+1)cn+2+n(n+2)cn+cn-1=0 n 2
:
1 1
c2=0 , c3= c 0 c
6 2 1
201

n(n 2)cn cn 1
: cn+2= n 2 ( )
(n 1)(n 2)
:
8c 2 c 1 1 15c c 2 1 3
c4= c 1 , c5 = 3 c0 c ,
12 12 20 8 8 1
. . =0 :
c c1 3 c1 4 c 0 3c 1 5
y(x)=c0+c1x+ 0 x x x
6 2 12 8 8
1 3 1 5 1 3 1 4 3 5
y(x)=c0 1 x x c1 x x x x
6 8 2 12 8
|x| 1 ( ;).

1: . .
y (x)+P(x)y +Q(x)y=0
, . .
y (x)+P(x)y +Q(x)y=R(x)
, , R(x) -
, :

4: . .
y -(x+1)y +x2y=x (12)
y(0)=1, y (0)=1
: =0 ,
. . .
y(x)= c n xn y= ncn xn 1
y = n(n 1)cn xn 2

n 0 n 1 n 2
. . :
n(n 1)cn xn 2
- ncn xn - ncn xn 1 + c n xn 2
=x
n 2 n 1 n 1 n 0
n x, :
(n 2)(n 1)cn 2 xn - ncn xn - (n 1)cn 1xn + cn 2xn =x
n 0 n 1 n 0 n 2
x.
(2c2-c1)+(6c3-c1-2c2-1)x+ (n 2)(n 1)cn 2 ncn (n 1)cn 1 cn 2 xn 0
n 2
’ :
2c2-c1=0 c2=c1/2
6c3-2c2-c1-1=0 c3=(2c1+1)/6=c1/3+1/6
(n 1)cn 1 ncn cn 2
: cn+2= n 2 ( )
(n 2 )(n 1)
:
202 11

c0=y(0)=1 , c1=y (0)=1


c2=1/2 , c3=1/2 , c4=1/8 ,
:
2 3
x x x4
y(x)=1+x+ x R
2 2 8
, -
.
:
1
c1 c1 c0
3c 3 2c 2 c0 2 1 1 1
n=2 c4= c1 c0
4 3 12 6 12 24
1 1 1
c1 c c1 c1
4c 4
3c 3 c 1 2 3 0 2 1 1 1
n=3 c 5= c c
5 4 20 40 1 60 0 40
y=c0+c1x+c2x2+c3x3+c4x4+c5x5+ =
1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 5
=c0+c1x+ c 1x2 c x c c x4 c c x
2 3 1 6 8 1 12 0 40 1 60 0 40
1 4 1 5 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5
=c0 1 x x c1 x x x x x
12 60 2 3 8 40
1 1 5
+ x3 x c0y1+c1y2+y y . .
6 40

5: . .
y +(sinx)y +exy=0 (13)
=0.
: . . sinx ex x R
=0, -
:
y(x)= c n xn y= ncn xn 1
y = n(n 1)cn xn 2

n 0 n 1 n 2

x2m 1 xm
sinx= ( 1)m , ex = x R
m 0 (2m 1)! m 0m!
x.
. . :
x 2m 1 xm
n (n 1)cn xn 2 + ( 1)m ncn xn 1 + cn xn =0
n 2 m 0 (2 m 1 ) ! n 1 m 0 m ! n 0

x :
c0 c1 c0 3
(2c2+c0)+(6c3+2c1+c0)x+ 12c 4 3c 2 c 1 x2 20c 5 4c 3 x 0
2 3 2
x :
c2=-c0/2 , c3=-c1/3-c0/6 , c4=(c0-c1)/12 , c5=c0/20+c1/20 ,
:
203

1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 3 1 4 1 5
y(x)=c0 1 x x x x c1 x x x x x R
2 6 12 20 3 12 20

sinx ex .
:
n n
u n xn vn xn wn x n wn u k vn k un k vk .
n 0 n 0 n 0 k 0 k 0

2:
. . , ( ),
. :

6: . .
2
y +k y=0 k R (14)
=0.
: . . (1) :
y = Acoskx+Bsinkx (15)
:
y(x)= c n xn y= ncn xn 1
y = n(n 1)cn xn 2

n 0 n 1 n 2
. . (1) :
n(n 1)cn xn 2
+k2 cn xn =0
n 2 n 0

(n 2)(n 1)cn 2xn +k2 cn xn =0


n 0 n 0

(n 2)(n 1)cn 2 k 2c n x n 0
n 0

k2
cn+2=- cn n 0 ( )
(n 2)(n 1)

n :
2 2
k k
n=0 c2=- c c
2 1 0 2! 0
k2 k2
n=1 c3=- c c
3 2 1 3! 1
k2 2(k 2 )2 2 2
2 (k )
n=2 c4=- c ( 1) c ( 1) c
4 3 2 4 3 2 1 0 4! 0
k2 (k 2 )2 (k 2 )2
n=3 c5=- c ( 1)2 c 0 ( 1)2 c
5 4 3 5 4 3 2 1 5! 1
204 11

(k 2 )m k 2m
n 2m-2 c2m=(-1)m c 0 ( 1)m c m 1
2m (2m 1) 2 1 (2m)! 0
(k 2 )r k 2r
n 2r-1 c2r+1=(-1)r c 1 ( 1)r c r 1
(2r 1)(2r ) 2 1 (2r 1)! 1
, -
:
y(x)= c 0 c 2 x2 c4 x4 c 2m x2m c 1x c 3x 3 c 5x5 c 2r 1x2r 1

k2 2 k4 4 k 2m 2m
= c0 1 x x ( 1)m x
2! 4! (2m)!
c1 k3 3 k5 5 k 2r 1 2r c1
+ kx x x ( 1)r x 1
c 0 cos( kx ) sin( kx )
k 3! 5! ( 2r 1)! k

3:
. :
I) ,( ),
( ) ( ), -
.
. . .
II) ,
( ) ( ) -
.
(I) -
, (II).

: . .
=0.
1) y -xy=0 . y(x)=c0y1+c1y2
1 3 1 6 x 3n
y1 = 1 x x =
6 180 n 0
( 3n )( 3n 1) 3 2
1 4 1 7 x 3n 1
y2= x x x =
12 504 n 0
( 3n 1)( 3n )( 3n 3 ) 3 2

2) y +xy=0 . y(x)=c0y1+c1y2
1 3 1 6 x 3n
y1= 1 x x = ( 1)n
6 180 n 0
( 3n )( 3n 1) 3 2
1 4 1 7 x 3n 1
y2= x x x = ( 1)n
12 504 n 0
( 3n 1)( 3n )( 3n 3 ) 3 2
205

11.3 H Schrödinger ermite

. ., , -
V(x)(4 :
2 2
d (x)
V(x) (x) E (x) (1)
2m dx 2
=h/2 h Plank, m ,
(5
(x) . . . (1) Schrödinger
, , .
:
1
V(x) m 2x2
2
d 2 (x) 2m 1 2 2
. . (1) : E m x (x) 0 (2)
dx 2 2
2
m
(2) = x :

d2 ( ) 2E 2
( ) 0 (3)
d 2
(3) ,(
x). ±
2
2 / , . . (3) :
2
d ( ) 2
2
( ) 0 (4)
d
( )=exp(± 2/2). ,
( ) :
d ( ) d2 ( ) 2
( ) ( ) ( )
d d 2
( )
2
( ) ± . ( ) -
±
2
, exp(- /2).
:
( )=exp(- 2/2)Y( ) (5)
. . (3). (5) (3)
. .:
2E
Y -2 Y + 1 Y 0

4)
5)
(x) -
. | (x)|2dx
x x+dx.
206 11

2E
1 2p :

Y -2 Y +2pY=0 (6)
Hermite.
. . Hermite . -

, x Y y
(6) :
y -2xy +2py=0 (7)
: y(x)= c n xn (8)
n 0

: n (n 1)cn xn 2
-2x ncn xn 1 +2p cn xn =0
n 2 n 1 n 0

(n 2)(n 1)cn 2 2ncn 2pcn xn 0


n 0
:
2p n
cn+2= c n=0, 1, 2 (9)
(n 2 )(n 1) n
:
2p
n=0 c2 = c
2 1 0
2( p 2 )
n=2 c4 = c2
43
2( p 4 )
n=4 c6 = c4
65
2( p 6 )
n=6 c8 = c6
87

2( p 2n 2 )
n 2n-2 c2n= c
2n( 2n 1 2n 2

:
n
2 p(p 2) (p 2n 2)
c2n=(-1)n c0 n=1,2, (10)
(2n)!
:
n
n 2 (p 1)(p 3) (p 2n 1)
c2n+1=(-1) c1 n=1,2 (11)
(2n 1)!
:
2n 2n 1 2n p( p 2 ) ( p 2n 2 ) 2n
n
y(x)= c 0 c 2n x c1x c 2n 1x c0 ( 1) c 0x
n 1 n 1 n 1 ( 2n )!
n
2 ( p 1)( p 3 ) ( p 2n 1) 2n
c1x+ ( 1)n c1x 1
c0u1(x)+c1u2(x) (12)
n 1 ( 2n 1)!
207

2n p( p 2 ) ( p 2n 2 ) 2n
u1(x)=1+ ( 1)n x
n 1 ( 2n )!
2n ( p 1)( p 3 ) ( p 2n 1) 2n 1
u2(x)= x+ ( 1)n x
n 1 ( 2n 1)!
(12) x R . . (1) .
u1(x) u2(x)
:
u1(0)=1 , u1 (0)=0
u2(0)=0 , u2 (0)=1 (13)

1: . . Hermite, ,
Schrodinger . Schrodinger, (x),
, u1(x) u2(x)
. . Hermite, (x)=exp(-x2/2)Y(x)=exp(-x2/2)[c0u1(x)+c1u2(x)].
,( ), x u1(x), u2(x) -
2
exp(x ), x -
(x) :
(x) exp(-x2/2)exp(x2)=exp(x2/2) x
(x), , -
,
*
(x) (x)dx
, .
. . Herimite u1(x) u2(x) , -
.
:
: p , p=2k k N
p-2n+2 = 2k-2n+2 = 2(k-n+1)
To k-n+1=0 n=k+1
n k c2n=0 n=1,2, ,k c2n 0
k n
2 2k ( 2k 2 ) ( 2k 2n 2 ) 2n
: u1(x)=1+ ( 1)n x
n 1 ( 2n )!
k
( 1)n 2n n k
( 1)n 2 2n k! 2n
1 2 k ( k 1) ( k n 1)x2n x
n 1 ( 2n )! n 0 ( 2n )!( k n )!
k
( 1)n 2 2n
u1(x)= k! x2n
n 0 ( 2n )!( k n )!

: p , p=2k+1 k N
p-2n+1 = 2k+1-2n+1 = 2(k-n+1)
k-n+1=0 n=k+1
n=1,2, ,k c2n+1 0
n k c2n+1 =0
, , :
208 11
k
( 1)n 22n
u2(x)=k! x 2n 1

n 0 (2n 1) !(k n) !

2E 1
2: -1=2p : E= (2p 1) p=0,1,2,
2
.

HERMITE: Hermite -
. . Hermite :
k (2k )! k
k
( 1)n
H2k(x)=(-1) u 1(x) ( 1) (2k ) ! (2x)2n
k! n 0 (2n ) !(k n) !
k 2(2k 1) ! k
k
( 1)n
H2k+1(x)=(-1) u 2 (x) ( 1) (2k 1) ! (2x)2n 1
k! n 0 (2n 1) !(k n) !
:
H0(x)=1 H3(x)=8x3-12x
H1(x)=2x H4(x)=16x4 -48x2+12
2
H2(x)=4x -2 H5(x)=32x5+x3+140x-160
:
15 .0 0

H3( x)

10 .0 0 H2( x)

5 .0 0
H1(x)

Ho (x )
0 .0 0

0 .0 0 0 .40 0 .80 1.20 160 2.0 0


X

- 5 .0 0

:
dn n x22
1) Hn(x)=(-1) e e x
dxn
2) H2n+1-2xHn(x)+2nHn-1(x)=0
x2
3) e Hm (x)Hn (x)dx 0
x2 2
4) e Hn (x) dx ð 2n n !
209

11.4 Legendre

: (1-x2)y -2xy +p(p+1)y=0 (1)


.
2x p(p 1)
(1) : y - 2 y + y 0
1 x 1 x2
2x p(p 1)
: A(x)= 2 B(x)=
1 x 1 x2
-1 x 1. x0=0 .
(1) : y(x)= c n xn (2)
n 0

: y= ncn xn 1
y = n(n 1)cn xn 2
(3)
n 1 n 2
(2) (3) (1) :
(1-x2) n(n 1)cn xn 2
-2x ncn xn 1 +p(p+1) cn xn =0
n 2 n 1 n 0

(n 2)(n 1)cn 2 n(n 1)cn 2ncn p(p 1)cn xn =0 (4)


n 0
(4) :
(n p 1)(n p)
cn+2= c (5)
(n 1)(n 2) n
(5) :
p(p 1)
n=0 c2=- c
1 2 0
p(p 2)(p 1)(p 3)
n=2 c4=(-1)2 c0
4!

p(p 2) (p 2n 2)(p 1)(p 3) (p 2n 1)


n 2n-2 c2n=(-1)n c0 d 2n c 0