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Militia Sanctæ Mariæ

The Postulant


Postulant Manual

Political and Social

Doctrine of the Church
1. When was the Political and Social Doctrine of the Church first applied?
It was first applied when the Church began to baptize individuals, with their families, as well
as princes, with their nations, thereby winning them to the Faith. Some of these leaders also received
the grace to die as martyrs for the Catholic Faith. Prominent among them were:
♦ Clovis, king of the Franks, baptized in 496 A.D.;
♦ St. Ethelbert, king of Kent, baptized in 597;
♦ Boris, king of the Bulgars, baptized in 864;
♦ St. Wenceslas, duke of Bohemia, martyred in 929;
♦ Mieska, duke of Poland, baptized in 966;
♦ St. Wladimir, grand prince of Kiev, baptized in 989;
♦ St. Stephen, baptized in 985, and crowned “Apostolic” king of Hungary on Christmas
Day, in the year 1001 A.D., by Pope Sylvester IInd.
The Social and Political Doctrine of the Church was well understood by Catholic princes.
The Union between Church and State, between the Priesthood and the Empire, was never stronger
than during the Carolingian Dynasty, the second Frankish ruling dynasty (751-987 A.D.), founded by
Pepin the Short, but named after his son, Charlemagne (Charles the Great). This Union and
cooperation between the Church and Christian Princes continued during the Ottonian Saxon Dynasty
(936-1024 A.D.), ruled successively by Otto Ist, Otto IInd, Otto IIIrd, and (Saint) Henry IInd. Pope Leo
IIIrd restored the Western Roman Empire, when he crowned Charlemagne Roman Emperor on
Christmas Day, in 800 A.D. In 962 A.D, Pope John XIIth restored the Roman Empire again, when he
crowned Otto Ist Emperor. The actual term “Holy Roman Empire” dates from 1254 A.D.

2. Was this doctrine always accepted by Christian princes?

No, it was not. Some German Roman Emperors even opposed it, in what became known as
the Struggle between the Priesthood and the Empire (1075-1254 A.D.). The following are notable
examples of this struggle:
• Pope St. Gregory VIIth deposed Henry IV th, because he wanted to appoint bishops himself;
• Frederick Ist (Barbarosa) of Hohenstaufen wished to restore the absolute power of the pagan
Emperors, even over religion;
• Frederick IInd of Hohenstaufen, nicknamed the Antichrist, because of his irreligious conduct, was
first excommunicated, then deposed, by Pope Innocent IV th;
• Henry IInd (Plantagenet), king of England, was very despotic towards the Church. In 1170 A.D.,
while offering Holy Mass, St. Thomas à Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, who was resisting
Henry, was assassinated in his own cathedral by someone who wanted to please the king. Henry
Plantagenet eventually did severe and sincere penance for that crime.

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• In the case of Philip IV th (the Fair), king of France (1285-1314 A.D.), he decided to completely
reject that doctrine of the Church, thereby opposing Pope Boniface VIIIth, who was dutifully
defending it. Philip then ordered the arrest of the Pope, following upon which Boniface soon died.
To make matters worse, only a few months later, partly due to the insecure situation in Rome and
partly due to the will of the French king, the new Pope, Clement Vth, moved to Avignon (France).
Successive popes remained in this exile from Rome, or captivity in the “golden cage” of Avignon,
from the 1305 election of the French Pope, Clement Vth, to 1377, when St. Catherine of Sienna
convinced Pope Gregory XIth to return to Rome. Subsequently, Anti-popes, supported by the
French kings, remained in Avignon until 1423. For a total of 118 years, the Papacy was more or
less at the mercy of the king of France.

3. What was the main reason for this change in the attitude of the princes?
The main reason for the change in attitude was a new doctrine, promoted by lawyers called
Jurists, experts in Law, who favoured the Pagan Roman Law over the Christian Customary Law, so
as to give more power to the prince they served. According to Pagan Roman Law, the Emperor was
seen as a god and his will became law! At the time of (Saint) Louis IXth of France and his first cousin,
(Saint) Ferdinand IIIrd, king of Castile and Leon, St. Thomas Aquinas explained, in a small book
entitled De Regno, or De Regimine Principum, various types of political regimes:
• A regime in which a prince is looking out for his own interests, rather than those of his people, is
a bad regime;
• A prince who does not abide by the fundamental laws of his kingdom, but rather seeks absolute
power, is a grave danger to the common good;
• Were the merchant class to gain too much power in the City, the chief motivation of people
would no longer be the practice of virtue, but the pursuit of money, which would lead to liberal
capitalism and a relaxation of morals.
Faithful to Catholic Doctrine, St. Thomas Aquinas was against absolutism. In one of his
libels, Philip the Fair explained that the Emperor did not have the right to intervene in French
political matters, nor did the king of France have the right to intervene in the Emperor’s political
affairs. He then went on to say that, in the same manner, he would not interfere in the spiritual
domain, if the Pope did not intervene in French politics, i.e., if the Pope would stop reminding kings
(especially the French monarch) of the Christian principles by which they should govern. Although it
would have been most improper for Philip to interfere in the Pope’s spiritual affairs, since he had no
authority in the spiritual domain, the Pope had the full right and duty to remind Philip of his Christian
obligations as a Catholic Monarch, especially where it concerned the good of souls.

4. Was that Church doctrine expounded in some kind of Pontifical document?

Yes, by Pope Boniface VIIIth, in the bull Unam Sanctam of November 18th, 1302. When
heresies developed, or when new theories, at variance with the Magisterium of the Church (teaching
authority), were expounded, it had always been the practice of the Church to clearly write down its
teaching. Unam Sanctam was nothing new, but merely a reminder of what great Popes and Doctors
of the Church, like St. Augustine, St. Bernard, Hugh of Saint Victor, and St. Thomas Aquinas, had
repeated many times.

5. Does this Doctrine have a specific name?

Since the time of St. Bernard and Pope Boniface VIIIth, the basic Political and Social Doctrine
of the Church has been referred to as the Doctrine of the Two Swords, in remembrance of Our Lord
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telling his disciples that now was the time for the man who had no sword to buy one. The Apostles
said they had two, to which the Master answered that it was enough (Luke XXII, 35-38).

6. What does the Doctrine of the Two Swords say?

The Doctrine of the Two Swords teaches us that Christ, being both God and man, is King of
the Universe, and as such, His Kingship, which includes both individual souls, as well the whole of
society, should be officially recognized by all nations. Accordingly, His Spouse, Holy Mother Church,
is Queen, while the Sovereign Pontiff exerts that Kingship on His behalf. He does so in two ways:]
• He exerts a Direct Power in the Spiritual Field, by means of the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy (bishops
and priests);
• He may apply an Indirect Power in the Temporal Field, which is entrusted to lay people,
particularly to the natural leaders of men, such as emperors, kings, knights, heads of state,
political leaders, magistrates, chiefs of tribes, heads of families. The Hierarchy doctrinally guide
these natural leaders, but will admonish them, and even condemn them, if necessary, as they did
to erring princes in past ages. By this Authority, and because Catholic leaders once respected this
Indirect Power, past popes were able to depose the two above mentioned German Roman
Emperors. This power was last used by Pope St. Pius Vth, when he excommunicated Queen
Elizabeth Ist, thereby relieving the English of all allegiance to her.

7. The Authority to doctrinally supervise the Civil Power is based upon what principle?
It is based upon the fact and principle that Holy Mother Church holds the Teaching Authority
and Power from Christ Himself, and that we are sinners, much inclined to error (in Latin, ratione
peccati). Every pope, be it Boniface VIIIth or Leo XIIIth, has based the Indirect Power on this
concept of the ratione peccati. Consequently, the mission of the Pope is not to appoint princes, but
to advise, punish, or even depose them, should this prove to be necessary for the good of souls.

8. How have individuals sometimes failed to accept the Doctrine of the Two Swords?
• Some individuals have failed to accept the Doctrine of the Two Swords, by refusing any form of
control from the Spiritual Power over the Temporal Power, a practice known as Secularism.
• Sometimes, individuals mistakenly believe that clerics should also rule directly in the Temporal
Domain, a practice called Theocracy, which is supported by Islam, but not by the Catholic

9. When can the failure to apply this doctrine be observed in the daily life of Catholics?
• It can be observed in the attitude of some Catholics, whereby the priest is only seen as a dispenser
of sacraments, without regard for his teaching authority and advice. In fact, this is Anti-
clericalism, and it leads to Secularism.
• On the other hand, it can also be observed when the priest is regarded as being more
knowledgeable in all fields than, or understanding everything better than, lay people, based on the
premise that he has the highest vocation. This attitude is known as Clericalism, and it leads to

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Church Institutions
10. What did the Church do to save Her flock?
She founded a series of institutions that fostered the sanctification of souls, such as:
♦ Ecclesiastical institutions, for the sanctification of the clergy;
♦ Religious institutions, like the monastic orders;
♦ Lay institutions, like knighthood, workers’ guilds, Third Orders, for the sanctification of
society as a whole.
These Church institutions were based on the knowledge that one is more likely to save one’s
soul, when supported by a good environment, than when one has to heroically resist a bad
In some countries today, Conciliar Churchmen are telling us that they have fewer people
attending, but that it is the elite; they add that the others used to come for social reasons. Even if
some parishioners were coming for social reasons, these Churchmen do not understand that they
benefited greatly and were ready to call a priest in time of necessity. Holy Mother Church has never
been “elitist”, a “church” for heroes only. She wants as many as possible of Her sons and daughters
to be saved through the Cross of Her Divine Spouse.
Without these supportive institutions, the Church knows how much more difficult it would be
to save oneself. For this reason, the Church has established a good number of them.

11. What are the particular notes, or characteristics, of Church Institutions?

♦ Excellency: they are the best possible means to reach the end the Church has given them.
♦ Mission: they give an official mandate from the Church.
♦ Graces: they give appropriate graces to fulfil that mission.
♦ Universality: they apply wherever the Church extends.
♦ Perenniality: since they are the best means, there is no reason to change; they are lasting.

12. Can you give examples of long lasting Church Institutions?

Examples of lasting Church Institutions are:
• The Priesthood, which was founded by Our Lord, while the different degrees of the Hierarchy
were set up by the Church. The Apostles instituted the degrees of the Hierarchy for the salvation
of souls as follows: Deacon, Priest, Bishop. In the IInd century A.D., the Church added the
degree of Lector. By the middle of the following century, other minor orders of the Clergy were
established, namely: Porter, Acolyte, Exorcist, and Sub-deacon. The Ecclesiastical Hierarchy
has not changed much since that time.
• Special religious institutions were set up for the personal sanctification of the faithful. In the
IIIrd century A.D., the Monks (Coenobites and Hermits) would strictly follow the Evangelical
counsels. In the XIIIth century A.D., the Third Orders would make it as easy as possible to do
the same for people in the world. Both of these institutions still exist in our day.
• Other institutions were founded for the general sanctification, not only of individuals, but of
society as a whole, such as workers’ guilds, confraternities, the Truce of God, the Peace of
God, and particularly the four above-mentioned institutions for the promotion and defence of the

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Christendom: Christian Monarchy, Christian Knighthood, the Crusades, and the Military
Orders. Most of these institutions lasted a long time, or are still in existence. The Crusades did
not stop with the loss of the Holy Land in 1291. They were called until the XVIIth century, such
as the Crusade to defend Vienna besieged by the Turks. The galleys of the Order Malta protected
Europe at the Battle of Lepanto, and until the end of the XVIIIth century. Pope Pius XIIth himself
said, in his 1956 Christmas message, that he had been thinking of calling for a Crusade, as
Hungary was being invaded by the Communist Russians.

13. Has the Church mentioned the perennial aspect of Her Institutions?
Yes, on many occasions. More particularly, Pope St. Pius X, in 1910, did so in a very
significant way when he had to condemn a French progressive Catholic organisation called “le
Sillon”, because it wanted to find new bases and principles for society, a “New Christendom”, as
Maritain later called it. They admitted that it would have to be a pluralist liberal democracy. That
document of St. Pius Xth is known as the Letter about le Sillon.
It reads thus: “This has to be emphasised in our time of social and intellectual anarchy, when everyone
establishes himself as doctor and legislator: one will not build the city otherwise than God has built it; one will not
build up society if the Church does not lay its foundations and lead its construction; no, civilisation does not have to
be discovered, nor the new city to be built in the clouds. It has been, and it is; this is Christian Civilisation, this is
the Catholic City. One only has to build it and restore it unceasingly, on its natural and divine bases, against the ever
reviving attacks of pernicious utopias, revolt and impiety: Omnia instaurare in Christo [restore all things in
In 1979, Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre echoed that Pontifical admonition on the day of his
Priestly Jubilee, when he issued a call to the laity, and particularly to heads of families, using real “key
words”: “We have to launch a Crusade […] in order to restore Christendom, as the Church wants it […] with the
same principles.”
Again, in 1996, Bishop Bernard Fellay, Superior General of the Society of St. Pius X, used the
same “key words”: “It is to a real Crusade for the defence of Christendom that we are calling you. Once again, it
is a matter of liberating the holy places: Christendom, society, the family, Christian schools…”

14. What are the main Institutions set up by the Church for the promotion of
They are Christian Monarchy and Knighthood, with their three levels of consecration, one
for Emperors, one for Kings, and one for Knights. Anointing or coronation was conferred upon an
Emperor or a King, while the rite of liturgical dubbing was conferred upon a Knight.

15. What are the main Institutions founded by the Church for the defence of Christendom
on all its fronts?
They are the Crusades, as a temporary movement, followed by the Military Orders, as the
permanent order and defence structure of Christendom.

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The Concept of Order

16. What is the general meaning of an Order?
Generally speaking, an Order is a group of people who are “ordained” to a particular end, i.e.,
consecrated and working together toward the same goal, which could include service to the Church,
the extension of Christendom, or the Common Good. Some examples are: the Priestly Order, the
Royal Order, the Monastic Order, the Knightly Order, the Medical Order, etc.

17. Can you give a more specific meaning of that word?

More specifically, an Order can be a number of people belonging to the same group, following
the same Rule, and having the same Superior. Examples within the Monastic Order are the Order of
St. Benedict, the Cistercian Order, the Carmelite Order, that of St. Francis or that of St. Dominic.
Examples within the Knightly Order are the Order of the Temple, the Order of the Knights
Hospitaller or that of Calatrava.

18. What is a Religious Order?

Strictly speaking, a Religious Order, or “Religion” as an Order, is one in which at least a
number of its members take the Vows of Religion (poverty, chastity and obedience), as in the
Benedictine Order or the Dominican Order, for example.

19. Is there any other type of Order?

Yes, there are also Secular Orders, which are Orders made up of lay people, married or not,
who take only private vows, or make a simple commitment, as in the Franciscan or the Dominican
Third Orders.

20. What is a Third Order?

To be precise, a Third Order is an Order that is founded after a First Order for monks and a
Second Order for contemplative nuns or religious. Within a Third Order, we now have Secular Third
Orders for lay people, and even secular priests, and Regular Third Orders for active or semi-
contemplative nuns. The Teaching Dominican Nuns, for instance, belong to the Regular Third Order,
since they do not belong to the Second Order, which is made up of contemplative nuns.

21. What is the difference between a Movement and an Order?

A Movement is meant to face a particular problem hic et nunc (here and now), at a particular
moment in time, and in a given place. Once the goal has been reached, or if conditions have
changed, the Movement disappears. A Crusade is a good illustration of a Movement. On the other
hand, an Order is a permanent structure of society.

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Knighthood or Chivalry
22. After baptizing individuals, what institutions were founded by the Church in order to
“baptize” the political structures of society as well?
The Church had been working with previously existing institutions, such as the monarchy,
the military, and the administrative organisation of society, but decided to “baptize” them by
consecrating the men in charge through a sacramental. The coronation, or the anointing, of the
king was performed as early as the VIIth century, while that of the Emperor was performed on
Christmas Day, in the year 800 A.D. At the very beginning of the IXth century, the rite of liturgical
dubbing, or benediction of the new knight, was conferred by a Bishop, using the Benedictio Novi
Militis, found in the Roman Pontifical. In the latter case, the Church christianized a German tribal
rite, a tradition kept by the Franks and the Lombards, in which arms were solemnly bestowed upon a
boy who was quickly becoming a man and a warrior. Over the centuries, with the help of the Church,
it had gradually changed from a purely human rite to one having a more profound, Christian

23. How would you define Knighthood or Chivalry?

Knighthood is an institution founded by the Church for the promotion of a Christian Social
and Political Order, also known as Christian Civilisation, or Christendom, and which today is often
called the Social Reign of Our Lord, Christ the King.

24. What are the two different kinds of dubbing?

• There is a military or lay rite, which is a purely human rite: any knight may dub another knight.
• There is a liturgical rite, or Benedictio Novi Militis of the Roman Pontifical, which is a
sacramental conferred by a Bishop or a Prelate.

25. What is the effect of the rite of liturgical dubbing?

By the rite of liturgical dubbing, the Church, on behalf of Christ the King, gives an official
mandate to a layman, thereby authorizing him to act in the temporal field, as well as the
corresponding graces needed to help him fulfil that mission.

26. What did Christian Monarchy and Knighthood achieve generally?

The institution, concept and ideal of Knighthood, or Chivalry, gradually christianized the very
political and social institutions of society, by building up Christendom from the IXth and Xth centuries,
a period of political chaos, into its apex during the XIIth and XIIIth centuries.

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Orders of Knighthood
27. What is an Order of Knighthood?
An Order of Knighthood can also be called an Order of Chivalry or a Military Order, since the
Latin word miles means knight, and the Latin word militia means Knighthood or Order of
Knighthood. Consequently, an Order of Knighthood is a group of knights following the same Rule
and the same Master, or Grand Master, which in Latin is Magister Militiae.

28. When were the first Military Orders founded?

The first Military Order that was ever founded was the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ,
also known as the Order of the Temple, in the Holy Land about the year 1119 A.D. Subsequently,
various Orders of hospitallers, like those of St. John of Jerusalem, and later those of St. Mary of the
Teutons and St. Lazarus, were militarised, adopting the Rule of the Temple, or part of that Rule,
written by St. Bernard at the Council of Troyes (France) in 1129 A.D.

29. Were other Military Orders founded in regions other than the Holy Land?
Yes. Some knightly confraternities had started as groups of lay knights in Spain (Belchite,
Montreal) and in Portugal (Avis). They disappeared, merged with, or became Religious Military
Orders (Calatrava, Santiago, Alcantara, Alfama, Montesa, Avis, and the Portuguese Order of Christ).
All these Orders were inspired by the Cistercian monks, and/or copied the Order of the Temple, with
the exception of the Order of Santiago, which had three classes of members: canons, religious knights
and married knights.
On the Eastern European front, as a bulwark against local pagan tribes, or even the Mongols,
the Teutonic Order (Order of St. Mary of the Germans) developed in Prussia, while the Order of the
Sword-Bearers emerged from the Baltic region. On another front, in Lombardy, St. Dominic founded
the Militia Christi, i.e., the Order of the Knights of Christ, in order to protect the churches,
monasteries, and Christian people from the Manichees. The knights were laymen, and their spouses
were accepted as sisters of the Order. The Militia Christi gave birth to the Dominican Third Order.

30. What was the purpose of Military Orders?

The original goal of the Templars had been to protect the pilgrims on the roads, as they visited
the Holy Places. When the Military Orders grew, their task clearly became the defence of the frontiers
of Christendom on many fronts, just like the Crusades. However, the Crusades were temporary, and
the Crusaders were poorly trained and not used to the Orient and other fronts, while the Military
Orders were permanent, fully trained, and had an excellent knowledge of the terrain.

31. What are the main Institutions founded by the Church for the promotion and the
defence of Christendom?
From the beginning of the IXth century, Christian Monarchy and Knighthood started the process of
building up Christendom. From the XIIth to the XVIIIth century, temporary Crusades and permanent
Military Orders actually protected its borders and coasts.

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Theology of the Knightly

32. What is the mission of a natural leader?
The leader’s mission is to promote and protect the Common Good of his people, rather than
his own interests.

33. Who do you consider to be a natural leader?

It is any leader given by nature, including pagan kings, tribal chiefs, fathers of families, or
business entrepreneurs, be they Christian or not. As a natural leader, a knight is supposed to have
more or less influence on his environment and to act for the Common Good of those who are in his
charge. In this way, he would be applying the Doctrine of the Two Swords, which allows the Church
to intervene by reason of ratione peccati, i.e., by virtue of Her Indirect Power.

34. Is the consecration of a king, or the dubbing of a knight, of any use?

Yes, for two reasons:
• Being sinners, they cannot fulfil their mission properly, without the help of the graces received in
the liturgical dubbing or consecration;
• Because they are Christians, they receive, in addition to the Natural Mission submitted to the
Indirect Power of the Church, a Spiritual Mission by virtue of the Direct Power of the Church,
since it is not linked to the ratione peccati principle. This Spiritual Mission is directed at giving
to Christ the King the homage of an official and public cult, to help the Church in the exercise of
Her Sacred Duty, to protect Her against the wicked, to imbue legislation with the principles of
the Gospel, and finally to organise the Earthly City with a view to the Celestial City.

35. What is the difference between a sacrament and a sacramental?

The Sacraments were instituted by Our Lord Himself, and have within themselves the power
to give grace (ex opere operato) to those who receive them with the right disposition. Sacramentals were
instituted by the Church, and they operate through Her impetrative virtue (ex opere operantis). Both
sacraments and sacramentals are administered by a bishop or a priest.

36. What are the various kinds of sacramentals?

Some sacramentals are objects, like blessed water or medals. Other sacramentals are actions,
among which can be found invocative ceremonies (i.e., solemn blessing of a new Abbot, a Church, or
a Chalice) and constitutive ceremonies (i.e., consecration of a new knight to the service of the

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37. What is the efficacy of the consecration of an Emperor, a King or a Knight?

These consecrations, being sacramental actions, are always efficacious, since they are carried out
through the impetrative virtue of the Church Herself. (Emmanuel Vicart, in Le Sel de la Terre, No. 17,
Summer 1996, and Rev. Fr. de Cacqueray, in Le Sel de la Terre, No. 23, Winter 1997-98).

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The Order of the Knights of

Our Lady
38. When was the Order of the Knights of Our Lady, or Militia Sanctae Mariae, founded?
After seriously reflecting on it for a couple of years, Gérard Lafond founded the Order of the
Knights of Our Lady in 1945, receiving the full support of Benedictine Abbot Dom Gabriel Gontard
of St. Wandrille, in Normandy. The following year, Gérard Lafond entered the Benedictine Abbey of
St. Wandrille, immediately followed by two knights and a little later by a third one.

39. When was the traditional branch of the Order formed?

At the end of 1969, after the original Order had accepted the new Mass and reformed the
Rule, a group of knights left, or were expelled, from the Order, because of their resistance to these
changes. In 1970, Brother Jacques de Moustiers and Brother Raoul de Beaunay, among others,
organised a Catholic Fraternity of Secular Knights, whose new members were all dubbed by
Archbishop Lefebvre. He knew the Order quite well, as some of its members had received seminary
training from him in Rome, Fribourg and Ecône. Some Swiss knights, who had purchased the House
of St. Bernard in Ecône, where several international chapters of the Order had taken place, decided
to donate it to the Archbishop, thereby making it possible for him to have a permanent home for his
On March 18, 1989, the Order was consecrated to the Immaculate Heart of Mary and a
Charter of Restoration was signed by four knights: one from the original Order, two from the Catholic
Fraternity of Secular Knights, and one who had successively belonged to both. A traditional
obedience was set up, based on the pre-conciliar Rule of 1958, and called the Order of the Knights
of Our Lady, Observance of the Holy Hearts of Jesus and Mary.

40. On what is the legitimacy of the Order based?

The legitimacy of the Order is based on:
• Being sinners, they cannot fulfil their mission properly, without the help of the graces received in
the liturgical dubbing or consecration;
• Because they are Christians, they receive, in addition to the Natural Mission submitted to the
Indirect Power of the Church, a Spiritual Mission by virtue of the Direct Power of the Church,
since it is not linked to the ratione peccati principle. This Spiritual Mission is directed at giving
to Christ the King the homage of an official and public cult, to help the Church in the exercise of
Her Sacred Duty, to protect Her against the wicked, to imbue legislation with the principles of
the Gospel, and finally to organise the Earthly City with a view to the Celestial City.
• The sacramental of the Benedictio Novi Militis;
• The 1965 “imprimatur” of the Rule;

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• The canonical approbation given in the diocese of Chartres (France) in 1964, followed by the
canonical approbation given in the diocese of Regensburg (Germany) in 1968, then in Sion
(Switzerland) in 1969, in Braga (Portugal) in 1975, and in Santander (Spain) in 1983.

41. On what is the legitimacy of its traditional branch based?

The legitimacy of the traditional branch of the Order is based on:
• The keeping of the true end of Knighthood, which is the social and political reign of Our Lord,
now denied by the Conciliar Church and her followers;
• The example set by traditional branches of religious orders, as well as of lay organisations;
• The fact that two knights of the Order have been amongst the four founders of its traditional
• The canonical approbation of its Constitutions given by Bishop Bernard Tissier de Mallerais, as
President of the Canonical Commission of the Society of St. Pius X;
• The rite of liturgical dubbing conferred by Bishop Alfonso de Galarreta and Bishop Bernard
Tissier de Mallerais;
• Bishop Alfonso de Galarreta agreeing to become our Protector-Bishop.

42. What is the general aim of Knighthood and of the Order of Our Lady?
• The general aim of Knighthood is: “To expand here on earth the boundaries of the kingdom of God”
(Léon Gautier), that is to say, by restoring and extending a Christian Social and Political Order; in
short, by restoring Christian Civilisation and extending the frontiers of Christendom;
• Consequently, “The Order of Our Lady consequently works for the coming of the Social Reign of Our Lord
Jesus Christ” (Rule, I, 4).

43. What are the three particular ends of the Order of Our Lady?
The three particular ends of the Order are:
• To “serve the Faith” (Rule, I, 4 & XX, 1);
• To “defend” “the Church” (Rule, I, 4);
• To restore and extend “Christendom” and “the Peace of Christ” (Rule, I, 5-6).

44. What are the three vows taken by a Knight of Our Lady?
The three private vows are:
• “Conversion of life, a commitment to live henceforth according to the laws of Chivalry and the Rule of the
• “Fidelity to the Order, i.e., obedience to the leaders of the Order, within the limits of the Rule, and the duty of
fraternal aid toward all members”;
• “Defence of the Church, a special commitment, similar to the vow of Crusade, to defend the Church” unto
blood. (Rule II, 6).

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Postulant Manual


45. What are the two basic principles of the knight’s action?
The two basic principles are:
• “One is a Knight of Our Lady before all, in all, always and everywhere”;
• “It is first within the Order that one is a knight” (Rule, XX, 1).

46. What is the Code of Honour of the Knights of Our Lady?

1. The Knight battles for Christ and His reign.
2. The Knight serves his Lady the Blessed Virgin Mary.
3. The Knight defends the Holy Church unto blood.
4. The Knight maintains the tradition of his Fathers.
5. The Knight fights for Justice, Christian Order and Peace.
6. The Knight wages war without truce or mercy against the world and its Prince.
7. The Knight honours and protects the poor, the weak and the needy.
8. The Knight despises money and the powers of this world.
9. The Knight is humble, magnanimous and loyal.
10. The Knight is pure and courteous, ardent and faithful (Rule III, 1).

47. What are the emblem and motto of the Order?

• The emblem of the Order (its coat of arms, or “heraldic achievement”) is “Argent a cross patonty
Azure”, i.e., white (silver) with a blue eight point cross, in honour of Our Lady, whereas it was
“gules”, or red, for martyrdom in the Order of the Temple. In our traditional branch, the
Observance of the Holy Hearts of Jesus and Mary, the two red, united, heraldic Hearts have been
added to the centre of the cross, in honour of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart
of Mary.
• The motto of the Order is: “Opportune, importune”, which means, “In season and out of season” (Rule,
III, 11 & XVIII, 1).

48. Can you explain:

• The degrees in the Order? – see Constitutions, Art.6-8.
• The hierarchy of the Order? – see Constitutions, Art. 2-3.
• The role of the Chaplains? – see Constitutions, Art.9 & Rule, II, 9; VI, 3; XV, 2.
• The observances of the Order? – see Rule, Appendix.

Document n° 20.003 30.01.2008 Page 13

Political and Social Doctrine of the Church 1
The Concept of Order 6
Knighthood or Chivalry 7
Orders of Knighthood 8
Theology of the Knightly Dubbing 9
The Order of the Knights of Our Lady 11


The following answers to the Postulant Manual questions should be known by heart:
- 6–9
- 10 paragraph 1
- 11
- 14 – 15
- 23 to 26
- 34 to 37
- 42 to 47.