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Variable-frequency drive

By- amit kumar

Electronic & communication
B.Tech 3rd year


Variable Frequency Drive

B.TECH 3rd YR.
14-6-2010 TO 14-7-2010

I am very grateful to the members of OPERATION

DEPTT. For all the guidance and help rendered in mapping this
vocational training a real learning experience.

This is to convey my special thanks to

MR.S.N.Srivastava, ASTT MANAGER (O), who as a leader of
this training has made their best efforts to provide the trainees
with all the relevant need in course of the training period.

I convey my gratitude to the dedicated team of staff

members who were kindly helpful and always available to
answer the queries.

I would also like to thank Mr.Nishant kr. gupta without

whom it would have been impossible to do my training in such a
renowned company, Hindalco industries limited.


Renusagar power plant

Renupower or Renusagar Power Division, Hindalco
industries limited was conceptualized by the great visionary late
MR. G.D. BIRLA in 1964, who predicted power shortage in
future for Hindalco Industries Limited. Renupower is driven by
internal customer orientation i.e., it meets the power
requirement of its parent organization and prime customer,
Hindalco, very effectively. Hindalco ranks as the largest
aluminium producer in India and contributes for more than 40%
share to total production of the country.

To be one of the best operated and maintained captive
power plant with enviable load factor, to supply uninterrupted
power to Hindalco at the lowest cost.

Renusagar power plant division is situated at about 35
KM. from Hindalco in dist. Sonebhadra of Uttar Pradesh. It is
located in the vicinity of Rihand Lake on the one side and
Singrauli coal belt on the other side providing the basic raw
materials coal and water for power generation.
The plant started in operation in 1966-67 with the
commission of two units of 67.5MW, each. Since the
Renupower has undergone subsequent expansion. The present
capacity of the plant is 760MW, with 10 turbo generator and 11

Renupower it will know in the power sector of India. It

has the reputation of consistently achieving around 90% plant
availability factors (P.A.F.) and plant load factor (P.L.F.) of its
installed capacity 760MW, in spite of odds like grade coal and
grid disturbances.



The centre has developed learning culture in the

organization. It is the first of its kind in India recognized by
central electricity authority, minority of energy and government
of India. The centre is equipped with the latest training aids and
facilities for theoretical, practical and on job training like lecture
halls, library, laboratories, workshops and well trained facilities
to provide technical, managerial and supervisory training.
A Hindalco industry limited, a flagship company of the Aditya
Birla Group, is structured into two strategic business-
Aluminium and copper –and is an industry leader in both. A
metal powerhouse with a turnover of US$ 14 billion, Hindalco
is the world’s largest aluminium rolling company and one of the
biggest producers of primary aluminium in Asia. Its copper
smelter is today the world’s largest custom smelter at a single

Established in 1958, Hindalco commissioned its aluminium

facility at Renukoot in eastern U.P. in 1962 and has today grown
to become the country’s largest integrated aluminium producer
and rank among the top quartile of low cost producers in the

With a strategic intent to achieve vertical integration in a copper

business, Hindalco acquired two captive copper mines in
Australia –Nifty and Mt. Gordon through Aditya Birla Minerals

Hindalco is the world’s largest aluminium rolling company and
one of the biggest producers of primary aluminium in Asia. In
India, Hindalco enjoys a leadership position in alumina, primary
aluminium and downstream products.

Hindalco’s major products include standard and speciality grade

alumina and hydrates, aluminium ingots, billets, wire roads, flat
rolled products, extrusions, foil and alloy wheels.

The integrated facility at Renukoot (U.P) houses an alumina

refinery and an aluminium smelter along with facilities for
production of semi fabricated products, namely redraw rods, flat
rolled products and extractions. The plant is backed by a co-
generation plant and a 742 mw captive power plant at Renusagar
to ensure continuous and consistent supply of power for smelter
and other operations.

What is a Variable Frequency

How does a VFD Work?
Do you have ac motors in your facility?
Do these motors need a variable output?
Do you use mechanical means to vary the output?
If you anwsered yes to these questions, you need to install
variable frequency drives on these ac motors.
If you are not using VFD's you are wasting energy and throwing
money out the window.

Many utilities are now offering rebates for the installation of

VFD's or retro-fitting existing equipment with variable
frequency drives.

What is a VFD?
You can divide the world of electronic motor drives into two
categories: AC and DC. A motor drive controls the speed,
torque, direction and resulting horsepower of a motor. A DC
drive typically controls a shunt wound DC motor, which has
separate armature and field circuits. AC drives control AC
induction motors, and-like their DC counterparts-control speed,
torque, and horsepower.

Application As An Example

Let's take a brief look at a drive application. In Fig. 1, you can

see a simple application with a fixed speed fan using a motor
starter. You could replace the 3-phase motor starter with
Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) to operate the fan at variable
speed. Since you can operate the fan at any speed below its
maximum, you can vary airflow by controlling the motor speed
instead of the air outlet damper.

Figure 1, Fixed Speed Fan Application

A drive can control two main elements of a 3-phase induction

motor: speed and torque. To understand how a drive controls
these two elements, we will take a short review of AC induction
motors. Fig. 2 shows the construction of an induction motor.
The two basic parts of the motor, the rotor and stator, work
through magnetic interaction. A motor contains pole pairs.
These are iron pieces in the stator, wound in a specific pattern to
provide a north to south magnetic field.
Figure 2, Basic Induction Motor Construction

Figure 3, Operating Principles of Induction Motor

With one pole pair isolated in a motor, the rotor (shaft) rotates at
a specific speed: the base speed. The number of poles and the
frequency applied determine this speed (Fig. 4). This formula
includes an effect called "slip." Slip is the difference between
the rotor speed and the rotating magnetic field in the stator.
When a magnetic field passes through the conductors of the
rotor, the rotor takes on magnetic fields of its own. These rotor
magnetic fields will try to catch up to the rotating fields of the
stator. However, it never does -- this difference is slip. Think of
slip as the distance between the greyhounds and the hare they
are chasing around the track. As long as they don't catch up to
the hare, they will continue to revolve around the track. Slip is
what allows a motor to turn.

Motor Slip:
Shaft Speed120 X F
- Slip
= P
Slip for NEMA B Motor = 3 to 5% of Base
Speed which is 1800 RPM at Full Load
F = Frequency applied to the motor
P = Number of motor poles
120 X 60
Shaft Speed
Hz - Slip
Figure 4, Induction Motor Slip Calculation

We can conveniently adjust the speed of a motor by changing

the frequency applied to the motor. You could adjust motor
speed by adjusting the number of poles, but this is a physical
change to the motor. It would require rewinding, and result in a
step change to the speed. So, for convenience, cost-efficiency,
and precision, we change the frequency. Fig. 5 shows the
torque-developing characteristic of every motor: the Volts per
Hertz ratio (V/Hz). We change this ratio to change motor torque.
An induction motor connected to a 460V, 60 Hz source has a
ratio of 7.67. As long as this ratio stays in proportion, the motor
will develop rated torque. A drive provides many different
frequency outputs. At any given frequency output of the drive,
you get a new torque curve.
Figure 5, Volts/Hertz Ratio

How Drive Changes Motor Speed

What is a Variable Frequency Drive?

How does a VFD Work?
How Drive Changes Motor Speed

Just how does a drive provide the frequency and voltage output
necessary to change the speed of a motor? That's what we'll look
at next. Fig. 6 shows a basic PWM drive. All PWM drives
contain these main parts, with subtle differences in hardware
and software components.
Figure 6, Basic PWM Drive Components

Although some drives accept single-phase input power, we'll

focus on the 3-phase drive. But to simplify illustrations, the
waveforms in the following drive figures show only one phase
of input and output.

The input section of the drive is the converter. It contains six

diodes, arranged in an electrical bridge. These diodes convert
AC power to DC power. The next section-the DC bus section-
sees a fixed DC voltage.

The DC Bus section filters and smoothes out the waveform. The
diodes actually reconstruct the negative halves of the waveform
onto the positive half. In a 460V unit, you'd measure an average
DC bus voltage of about 650V to 680V. You can calculate this
as line voltage times 1.414. The inductor (L) and the capacitor
(C) work together to filter out any AC component of the DC
waveform. The smoother the DC waveform, the cleaner the
output waveform from the drive.

The DC bus feeds the final section of the drive: the inverter. As
the name implies, this section inverts the DC voltage back to
AC. But, it does so in a variable voltage and frequency output.
How does it do this? That depends on what kind of power
devices your drive uses. If you have many SCR (Silicon
Controlled Rectifier)-based drives in your facility, see the
Sidebar. Bipolar Transistor technology began superceding SCRs
in drives in the mid-1970s. In the early 1990s, those gave way to
using Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) technology,
which will form the basis for our discussion.

Switching Bus With IGBTs

Today's inverters use Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors

(IGBTs) to switch the DC bus on and off at specific intervals. In
doing so, the inverter actually creates a variable AC voltage and
frequency output. As shown in Fig. 7, the output of the drive
doesn't provide an exact replica of the AC input sine waveform.
Instead, it provides voltage pulses that are at a constant

Figure 7, Drive Output Waveform

The drive's control board signals the power device's control

circuits to turn "on" the waveform positive half or negative half
of the power device. This alternating of positive and negative
switches recreates the 3 phase output. The longer the power
device remains on, the higher the output voltage. The less time
the power device is on, the lower the output voltage (shown in
Fig.8). Conversely, the longer the power device is off, the lower
the output frequency.
Figure 8, Drive Output Waveform Components

The speed at which power devices switch on and off is the

carrier frequency, also known as the switch frequency. The
higher the switch frequency, the more resolution each PWM
pulse contains. Typical switch frequencies are 3,000 to 4,000
times per second (3KHz to 4KHz). (With an older, SCR-based
drive, switch frequencies are 250 to 500 times per second). As
you can imagine, the higher the switch frequency, the smoother
the output waveform and the higher the resolution. However,
higher switch frequencies decrease the efficiency of the drive
because of increased heat in the power devices.

Shrinking cost and size

Drives vary in the complexity of their designs, but the designs

continue to improve. Drives come in smaller packages with each
generation. The trend is similar to that of the personal computer.
More features, better performance, and lower cost with
successive generations. Unlike computers, however, drives have
dramatically improved in their reliability and ease of use. And
also unlike computers, the typical drive of today doesn't spew
gratuitous harmonics into your distribution system-nor does it
affect your power factor. Drives are increasingly becoming
"plug and play." As electronic power components improve in
reliability and decrease in size, the cost and size of VFDs will
continue to decrease. While all that is going on, their
performance and ease of use will only get better.

Sidebar: What if you have SCRs?

With the large installed base of SCRs, you might want to know
how these operate. An SCR (originally referred to as a thyristor)
contains a control element called a gate. The gate acts as the
"turn-on" switch that allows the device to fully conduct voltage.
The device conducts voltage until the polarity of the device
reverses-and then it automatically "turns off." Special circuitry,
usually requiring another circuit board and associated wiring,
controls this switching.
The SCR's output depends on how soon in the control cycle that
gate turns on. The IGBT output also depends the length of time
the gate is on. However, it can turn off anytime in the control
cycle, providing a more precise output waveform. IGBTs also
require a control circuit connected to the gate, but this circuitry
is less complex and doesn't require a reversal of polarity. Thus,
you would approach troubleshooting differently if you have an
SCR-based drive.
Trip logic:-

6.6 KV Breaker
 Feeder protection realy
 Transformer temp. High
 Transformer door interlock
 Transformer Trip/Reset switch

415 volt Breaker(DOL)

 Motor protection realy-SPAM
 Motor Trip/Reset switch
 Inter tripping

415 volt Breaker (VFD)

 Motor protection (in build)
 Motor Trip/Reset switch
 Emergency trip
 DC link under voltage - 80%
 DC link over voltage
 Heat sink over temp
 Inverter O/L

Principle of vector control:-

 Vector control is a dynamic closed 100p which allow a
controlled dynamic performace.
 Hence the motor current is not just processed as scaler or
 It is broken down in to component as below
Flux generating component
Torque generating component
 This means that the current is sensed and controlled as
current as current vector.
 This drive can be early adjusted to accelerate/ de-
accelerate alone the torque or current level so on
undesirable over-current.
 Oscillations are effectively damped and suppress which
otherwise are many times unavoidable in the open loop
 Limitation: - the vector control drive cannot use for multi-
motor configuration.

The concept:-

The vector control means to and improves the motor current

required the particular load or torque, to the motor flux, so that
the necessary torque can be achieved. This makes it possible to
implement to require set point changes very fast without any

Fly Restart:-

During restart up of motor, drive first check the actual speed of

motor through applying the signal of low voltage and full
frequency (50 Hz) and reduce the frequency slowly –slowly in
step mode and observe the current, when current is minimum it
sense the actual speed and giving the speed raising signal to the
VFD Controls:-
1. V/F
2. Vector control
I-SLVC (sensor less vector control)
a- Tacho generator
b- Encoder

V/F control: 415/15 =8.5

100% =50 Hz
10%=5 Hz

Below 10% V/F does not work properly.

Below 10% voltage does not develop proper magnetising
current to the pole because of winding resistance.
Min. 40 volt required for magnetic the stator.
In initial approx 16 volt= 16* 2.55= 40 volt.

Fly Restart:
SLVC: during restart up of motor, drive first check the actual
speed of the motor through applying the signal of low voltage
and full frequency (50hz) and reduce the frequency slowly-
slowly in step mode and observe the current, when current is
minimum it sense the actual speed and give the speed raising
signal to the motor.

VC: during restart up of motor, drive first check the actual

speed of motor with the help of encoder when speed signal and
actual speed is matched then give the speed raising signal to the

OFF Commands in vfd:

 OFF1 Command: controlled stop –drive fully control the
stopping of the VFD motor as per the ramp –up & ramp-
down time after completion of process.
 OFF2 Command: uncontrolled stop (emergency stop)-
used during severe electrical emergency. Input AC breaker
tripped and VFD motor stopped as per the inertia of the
 OFF3 command: breaking or quick stop- it required to
stop quicker. there are 3 types of breaking :

-DC Injection breaking

-Dynamic breaking
-Regenerating breaking
Stopping the motor:

OFF1-through ramp down time.

OFF2-power off, stopped in normal mode.
OFF3-with breaking power.

1.DC Injection breaking:

Sequence of stopping:
-First remove 3-phase AC input supply.
-then apply DC supply to any 2 winding of the stator.
-as per Lenz law, emf will induced in the rotor in such a
direction that resultant force/torques will oppose the movement
of rotor and thus stops quickly.

Disadvantage of dc breaking:
-heat loss in rotor.
-energy loss and thus poor breaking.