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ATM Networks

Submitted To:
Mr. Yash Pal
Submitted By:
Komal Chalotra
Reg No.: 5050070058
Roll No.: ROE115A54

Q1. Analyze and Discuss the Essential network performance parameters for ATM
A1. The various parameters that characterize the performance of ATM system are
as follows:
This can be defined as the rate at which the cells depart the switch measured in the
number of cell departures per unit time. It mainly depends on the technology and
dimensioning of the ATM switch. By choosing a proper topology of the switch,
the throughput can be increased.

Connection Blocking Probability

Since ATM is connection oriented, there will be a logical connection between the
logical inlet and outlet during the connection set up phase. Now the connection
blocking probability is defined as the probability that there are not enough
resource between inlet and outlet of the switch to assure the quality of all existing
as well as new connection.

Cell Loss Probability

In ATM switches when more cells than a queue in the switch can handle will
compete for this queue, cell will be lost. This cell loss probability has to be kept
within limits to ensure high reliability of the switch. In Internally Non-Blocking
switches, cell can only be lost at their inlets/outlets. There is also possibility that
ATM cell may be internally misrouted and they reach erroneously on another
logical channel. This is called Insertion Probability.

Switch Delay
This is the time to switch an ATM cell through the switch. The typical
values of switching delay range between 10 and 100 μsecs. This
delay has two parts .Fixed switching delay and queuing delay fixed
switching delay is because of internal cell transfer through the hardware.

Q2. How many ATM cells will be transferred if 1024 bytes of user data is to be
sent? Assume AAL3/4.Also calculate the Overhead bytes required.
A2. Since AAL3/4 organization of ATM Adaptation Layer divides the user data
into 44 bytes. So dividing 1024 bytes by 44 we don’t get the exact divisor. Adding
32 bits to 1024 bytes give us the exact divisor which is 24. It implies that 32 bits
are to be padded with 1024 bytes.
Now, calculating the over head:

Overhead=padded bits+ (divisor*header/trigger) + (divisor*ATM layer header).

Padded bits= 32.

AAL3/4 attaches 2 bytes header and 2 bytes of trigger, so 24*4= 96.

ATM layer attaches 5 bytes of header, so 24*5=120.

Therefore, Overhead = 32+96+120


Q3. Illustrate the Cell Terminology & Role Played by each layer of ATM.

A3. ATM network model consist of three layers

1)Physical Layer

2)ATM Layer

3)ATM Adaptation layer

Cell terminology and role played by each layer:

1)Physical layer: The function of the physical layer are:

1.Transmission Convergence: The functions of transmission control are:

a.Header Error Control: This is an 8-bit cyclical redundancy check

computed for all fields of the first 4 bytes of the ATM cell header
ONLY. It is capable of detecting all single-bit errors and some
multiple-bit errors. The HEC is compared by each switch
as the ATM cell is received and all cells with HEC
discrepancies (errors) are discarded. Cells with single-bit
errors may be subject to error correction (if supported or discarded.
When a cell is passed through the switch and the VPI/VCI values are
altered, the HEC is recalculated for the cell prior to being passed out the
The function of the TC is header error control which includes detection
and correction of errors that are single bit and multiple bit errors.
b. Cell Delineation: Header Error Control is used to know the cell
boundary. The receiver works in three states:

c. Cell scrambling:

d. Cell Rate Decoupling: It maintains constant cell rate over media.

Ideal cells are used over the network.

2.Physical Medium Dependence (PMD): The physical medium dependent

functions are:

a.Timing & synchronization: It implies that timing relationship should be

maintained over the network. Both the sender and receiver should work
on the
same clock frequency that can be explicit maintaining timing
relationship or it can be by using encoding scheme that maintains
constant time between source and receiver which is called implicitly
maintain timing relationship.
2)ATM Layer

a.ATM Cell Creation: The main function of ATM layer is cell creation.

Any cell created by ATM layer is of two types:

1.UNI: User Network Interface are the cells that move between ends and

2.NNI: Network Node Interface are the cells moving between nodes.

b.Cell Multiplexing:

c.Usage Parameter Control: It can change any bit from 0 to 1. The cell
loss priority bit should be 1 so that it can be easily discarded. It is used
when congestion has happened and tells that which bits should be

d.Multiple Quality of Service: Connection identifier can be mapped with

multiple quality of service.

e.Interpretation Of Pre-assigned Cells:

f.Explicit Forward Congestion Indication: It deals with the middle bit. If

the bit is o then it implies that there is no congestion on the net. If the bit
changed from 0 to 1 then it implies that there is congestion on the
network, and no other node can change it from 1 to 0.

3)ATM Adaption Layer: Whatever bytes of user data reaches AAL Layer it
has to be divided it into 48 bytes for ATM layer. This division of data into
fixed size bytes is called segmentation. The segmentation is done at the
receiver side.

There are five organization of AAL to satisfy the requirement of five

different services classes. These classes are as follows:





These service classes are made according to the following categories:

1.Bit rate: It can be constant or variable.

2.Timing Relationship: It can be Implicit or Explicit.

3.Connections: It can be connectionless or connection oriented.


Q4.In your views, what should be the main considerations for payload size? How
it can be optimized?

A4. The ATM cell is 53 bytes in length. The first 5 bytes are used for the header.
The payload portion of the cell is 48 bytes. Keep in mind as we discuss the
protocol that the payload is also used for the AAL overhead and any other
overhead from upper layers.
There are two formats for the ATM header. One header is used for the UNI, while
the other is used for the NNI. The difference lies in the Generic Flow Control
(GFC) parameter found in the UNI header. The GFC is not supported in the public
network, nor was it intended to be.

Q5. Find the SNP field for SAR-PDU if the SN(Sequence Number) is 6 using
Generator Polynomial x3+x+1 in AAL1.Also write the Parity bit if CSI bit is 0
and even parity is to be maintained.

x3+x+1= 1011
6= 110
1011 | 110000 |111
- 1011
Now appending the remainder with the dividend, we get

Now again,
1011 | 110001 |111
- 1011

Q6. Compare and Contrast the layered structure of ATM with ISO-OSI model.
A6. OSI Model
The Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model) is a product of the Open Systems
Interconnection effort at the International Organization for Standardization.
Layer 7: Application Layer
The application layer defines the interfaces for communication and data transfer.
This layer also provides and support services such as job transfer, handles network
access, e-mail, supports user applications and error recovery.
protocol are operated on the application layer.
Network Devices: Gateway network device is operated on the application layer.
ayer 6: Presentation Layer
The presentation layer presents the data into a uniform format and masks the difference
of data format between two dissimilar systems. It also translates the data from application
to the network format. Presentation layer is also responsible for the protocol conversion,
encryption, decryption and data compression. Presentation layer is a best layer for
Network Devices: Gateway Redirector is operates on the presentation layer.
Layer 5: Session Layer
Session layer establish and manages the session between the two users at different ends in
a network. Session layer also manages who can transfer the data in a certain amount of
time and for how long. The examples of session layers and the interactive logins and file
transfer sessions. Session layer reconnect the session if it disconnects. It also reports and
logs and upper layer errors.

Layer 4: Transport Layer

Transport layer manages end to end message delivery in a network and also provides the
error checking and hence guarantees that no duplication or errors are occurring in the data
transfers across the network. Transport layer also provides the acknowledgement of the
successful data transmission and retransmits the data if no error free data was transferred.

Layer 3: Network Layer

The network layer determines that how data transmits between the network devices. It
also translates the logical address into the physical address e.g computer name into MAC
address. It is also responsible for defining the route, managing the network problems and
addressing. Router works on the network layer and if a sending device does not break the
data into the similar packets as the receiving device then network layer split the data into
the smaller units and at the receiving end the network layer reassemble the data.
Layer 2:Data Link Layer
Defines procedures for operating the communication links. The packets are made into
frames. Detection and correction of packets transmit errors.

Layer 1: Physical Layer

Physical layer defines and cables, network cards and physical aspects. It defines raw bit
stream on the physical media. It also provides the interface between network and network
communication devices. It is also responsible for how many volts for 0 and how many for
1. Physical layer also checks the number of bits transmitted per second and two ways or
one way transmission. Physical layer also dealing with the optical, mechanical and
electrical features.
Protocols: Protocols that work on the physical layer are ISDN, IEEE 802 and IEEE 802.2

Network Devices: Hubs, Repeaters, Oscilloscope and Amplifier works on the network
ATM Layered Architecture

ATM operates with a layered structure that is similar to the OSI 7-layered model.
However, ATM only addresses the functionality of the two lowest layers of the OSI
model: the physical layer (Layer 1) and the data link layer (Layer 2).
All other layers are irrelevant in ATM, as these layers are only part of the encapsulated
information portion of the cell which is not used by the ATM network.
In ATM, the functionality of the two lower OSI layers are handled by three layers (shown
here below the double line):
| Application Layer |
| User Layers |
| ATM Adaptation Layer : Convergence Sublayer |
| -----------------------------------|
| Segmentation & Reassembly Sublayer |
| ATM Layer |
| Physical Layer : Transmission Convergence Sublayer |
| ----------------------------------------|
| Physical Medium Dependent Sublayer |
The Physical Layer defines the medium for transmission, any medium-dependent
parameters (e.g., rate, quality of service required), and framing used to find the data
contained within the medium.
The ATM Layer provides the basic 53-byte cell format, by defining the 5-byte ATM
header for each 48-byte payload segment handed down by the AAL.
The ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) adapts the higher-level data into formats compatible
with the ATM Layer requirements, i.e., this layer segments the data and adds appropriate
error control information as necessary. It is dependent on the type of services (voice,
data, etc.) being transported by the higher layer.
Several AAL protocols have been defined for specific types of data. These are loosely
associated with various classes of data. However, no AAL is restricted to a specific data
class or type; all types of data could conceivable be handled by any of the AALs.
Constant bit rate, connection-oriented, synchronous traffic (e.g., uncompressed
Definition never completed undefined, but envisioned to be for variable bit rate,
connection-oriented, synchronous traffic (e.g., compressed video)
AAL 3/4
Variable bit rate, connection- oriented, asynchronous traffic (e.g., X.25 data) or
connectionless packet data (e.g., SMDS traffic) with an additional 4-byte header
in the information payload of the cell
Similar to AAL 3/4 with a simplified information header scheme that requires
only one header per data unit and uses the PTI bit (see below) to indicate the last
cell in a transmission Examples of services that use AAL 5 are Classic IP over
ATM, and LAN Emulation (LANE). AAL 5 is the most widely used ATM
Adaptation Layer Protocol.
When the End User sends traffic over the ATM network, the higher-level data unit is
passed down to the Convergence Sublayer of the AAL Layer, which prepares the data for
the ATM Layer according to the designated AAL protocol (when appropriate). The data
is then passed down to the Segmentation and Reassembly Sublayer of the AAL Layer,
which divides the prepared data unit into appropriately sized segments.
These segments are then passed down to the ATM Layer, which defines an appropriate
cell header for each segment and encapsulates the header and payload segment into a 53-
byte ATM cell.
The cells are then passed down to the Physical Layer, which streams the cells at an
appropriate pace for the transmission medium being used, adding empty cells as needed.