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2 8*
.-
OTHER WORKS
PRINTED
FOR THE USE OF THE ABYSSINIAN MISSION.

BY REV. C. W. ISENBERG:
AMHARIC SPELLING BOOK. 8vo. Is. 6d.
AMHARIC CATECHISM. 8vo. U.6d.
AMHARIC GEOGRAPHY. 8vo. 3s. cloth.
HISTORY OF THE KINGDOM OF GOD, in AMHARIC. 8vo. — Part I.
History of the Old Covenant, to the Destruction of Jerusalem, and the Death
of St. John. — Part II. History of the Church, from the Death of St. John, to
our Times. 8vo. cloth, 16s.
DICTIONARY of the AMHARIC LANGUAGE. 4to. £ 2.
UNIVERSAL HISTORY in AMHARIC. 8vo. 4s.
VOCABULARY of the DANKALI LANGUAGE. 12mo. 8d.

BY REV. J. L. KRAPF:
ST. MATTHEW'S GOSPEL in the GALLA LANGUAGE, fcp. 8vo. 6d.
ST. JOHN'S GOSPEL, Five Chapters, in the GALLA LANGUAGE, fcp. 8vo. 6<L
GRAMMATICAL OUTLINE of the GALLA LANGUAGE. 12mo. 8d.

WORKS IN THE PRESS:


BOOK OF COMMON PRAYER for the United Church of England and Ireland,
in AMHARIC, by Rev. C. W. Isenberg. 8vo.
VOCABULARY of the GALLA LANGUAGE, by Rev. J. L. Krapf. 12mo.
GRAMMAR

OF THE

AMHARIC LANGUAGE.

BY THE

Rev. CHARLES WILLIAM ISENBERG,


AUTHOR OP THE " AMHARIC DICTIONARY,"
AND MISSIONARY OF THE CHURCH MISSIONARY SOCIETY
IN EAST AFRICA.

LONDON:
PRINTED FOR THE CHURCH MISSIONARY SOCIETY.

1842.
BIBLIOTHECAf
KEG1A
MOFACENSISj

PRINTED BY RICHARD WATTS, CROWN COURT, TEMPLE BAR.


PREFACE.

In presenting this work to the Public, the Author offers his


humble thanks to God, for having enabled him to accomplish it.
He was aware, when he first set his hand to it, not only of its
importance with regard to Abyssinia — its character, religion,
history, and destinies— but also of the difficulty of the task which '
he had undertaken. There was previously no Amharic Grammar
extant, except Ludolf's*; which, however it attests the superior
talents of its author, considering the circumstances under which
it was compiled, is but a feeble aid in the grammatical exhibi
tion of the language. Nor was there any other literary source,
on which the Author of this Grammar could draw, except the
Amharic Bible, and those Amharic works which he himself had
prepared. Under these circumstances, he had very often to feel
out his way, by a recollection of the living language, in which
he conversed with the Abyssinian people while residing among
them. This recollection, however, was kept alive by the Author's
having been, without interruption, occupied with the Amharic
press, from his arrival in this country from Abyssinia up to this
day. The preparation and publication of the Lexicon, immediately
preceding his commencement of this Grammar, was peculiarly
suited to prepare him for this work ; for whilst, on the one hand,
it laid open to him the whole of the materials of which that
language is composed, as far as they are at present known, it
furnished him also with ample opportunities to investigate the
grammatical rules by which it is regulated. Every one, who has

* See Preface to my Amharic Dictionary.


IV PREFACE

a judgment in these matters, will discover, when comparing the


Dictionary with the Grammar, that the Author's own knowledge
of the language has improved as he has advanced in his editorial
labours. But although he is aware of the imperfections of his own
works, he feels confident that a diligent study of this Grammar
will, under the blessing of the Almighty, materially assist any
Student in acquiring an accurate knowledge of the Amharic Lan
guage.
Although there is, as yet, no literature in the Amharic Language,
its study is of considerable importance to Orientalists. Its Semitic
origin cannot be questioned : it is evident in every feature. A
little attention to what is said in this Grammar on the Nouns and
Verbs, shows that it possesses a vigour and flexibility capable of
expressing any idea ; and that it may be very useful in throwing
light on many subjects of difficulty in the cognate languages,
especially the Hebrew, Syriac, and Coptic. Such a language, it
is but reasonable to suppose, will be found rich in words. The
Dictionary, which gives only those words which we at present
possess, contains about 7000 ; and we may anticipate that a
longer and more intimate acquaintance with the people of Abys
sinia will furnish us with a great many more, and lead to
important results, not only in reference to the Semitic, but also
to the African Languages. With the latter the Amharic has
much mutual interchange ; as the Author has had opportunities to
observe, in respect to the languages of the Danakil * the Somal,
the Gallasf, the Argobbans, the natives of Harrar (or Ararge),
and those of Garague. But the advantages to be derived from the
study of this language, which should be accompanied by that of
its parent language, the Ethiopic, are not merely of a scientific

* See Dankali Vocabulary.


t See the Rev. J. L. Krapf's Galla Grammar, his Translation of St. Matthew's Gospel, and
his Galla Vocabulary.
PREFACE. V

nature. When the covetous Abyssinian offers his hidden treasures


to the speculating European—when he opens his barriers to the
travelling naturalist, to explore his Ambas and his K'wallas—when
that country, which stands single in the whole history of Eastern
Nations, as a Christian State that was not overwhelmed by the
sweeping floods of Islamism, attracts different and, in some mea
sure, conflicting interests of religion, philanthropy and politics —
the study of the living Abyssinian Languages, among which the
Amharic stands foremost, will become indispensable ; as is already
experienced by those whom various motives induce to travel in
Abyssinia.
With regard to the Church Missionary Society, the Author begs
to repeat the same expressions of sincere gratitude, respect and
solicitude, which he has uttered in the Preface to his Dictionary.
Whatever the result of the present movements concerning Abys
sinia and its future destinies may be ; whether that nation is still
to remain in its present uncivilized condition ; whether it be
doomed to fall a prey to that Spiritual Power which is assiduously
endeavouring to regain the influence which it formerly possessed
for a time, or whether it will open itself to the sound of the
Gospel and its accompanying temporal and eternal blessings, and
emerge into the light of truth and civilization; this Society has
been the first instrument, in the hand of God, to offer the hand
of Christian assistance and fellowship to them. If it pleases God
to prosper their labours of love, they will be amply rewarded for
all the difficulties and disappointments they have been subjected
to, or which may be still awaiting them. May His blessing be
upon them !
C. W. ISENBERG.

London, Jan 4, 1 842.


ERRATA.
Page Line from Read for
18 12 top, First Second.
28 11
31 12 . . .'
38 4 bottom,
39 11 • ■ > Form From.
42 11 ... Twelfth Eleventh.
48 17 top, Suffixes all Suffixes.
oiirj-'|-:
53 14
58 13 . . . i-fLm:
63 8 . ■ • III. 3.
,, 9 • • ■ IV. 4.
64 14 ■ • • AA-:
65 23 . . . Regular Triliteral Triliteral.
81 4 . . . conjugation verb.
83 5 bottom, ironC:
88 8 . . . £1*1111 A- : £fiq-fl£.A-:
. . 2 . . . £flTfl<.:
90 7 top,
93 17 . . . the peculiarities and the peculiarities.
,, 20 . ■ • Radical Conjugation.
119 10 . • .
129 4 . . . ?»A°1BA,ro: AA^A?":
133 6 . . . £"rt"flAA: "nTn-nAA:
139 10 . . . P"H.yi3: A
145 5 bottom,
146 11 ... thee them.
147 10 . . . nu-j-ntp.fJt.A:
. • • 1 . . . chapters chapter.
149 16 top, ■H9°: H9°:
>. . 26 . . .
150 9 , . . " without'1 " within."
152 6 ... Atro-i^:
158 20 . . . Y1-:
168 16 . . . AKK=
174 15 . . . show to show.
CONTENTS.

Introduction - page 1.

Part I. PHONOLOGY.
ON THE SOUNDS AND LETTERS OF THE AMHABIC ALPHABET.
Chap. I. On the Amharic Alphabet 3
Chap. II. Numerical Order and Names of the Letters - 4
Chap. III. Virtue, Organical Classification, and Pronunciation of the Letters, 6
Chap. IV. Seven Vocal Orders of the Abyssinian Letters 8
Chap. V. On Syllabification 11
Chap. VI. On Accentuation, and Interpunctuation - - - - - 13
Chap.VII. Various Changes of Letters :
1. Addition - - 16
2. Contraction - - - - 16
3. Elision - - - - 18
4. Changes produced and undergone by the letter P: and its cor-
responding Vowels, I and E - - - ■' - - 19
5. Changes produced and undergone by the letter (D : and its cor
responding Vowels, U and O - - - . - -20
6. Changes occurring with the Diphthongs - - - - - 21
7. Reduplication of Letters - - - 21
8. Exchange of Letters - •■ - - - - - -21
9. Changes occurring with the Liquid Letters - - - - 22
10. Transposition, and further Contraction of Letters - - - 22

Part II. ETYMOLOGY.


ON THE DIFFERENT PARTS OF SPEECH.
Preliminary Remarks ----------23
Chap. I. On the Nouns :
Sect. I. Formation - 24
Sect. II. Species 35
Sect. III. Gender ---------36
Sect. IV. Number 38
Sect. V. Declension - - - - - - - -40
Chap. II. On the Numerals - - - - - - - - - 41
b
CONTENTS.
Chai>. III. On the Pronouns :
Sect. I. Separable Personal Pronouns - - - - 43
Sect. II. Separable Possessive Pronouns - - - - - 45
Sect. III. Demonstrative Pronouns - - - - - 45
Sect. IV. Interrogative Pronouns - - - - . - - 46
Sect. V. Reflective Pronouns - - - - - - - 47
Sect. VI. Separable Distributive Pronoun - - - - - 47
Sect. VII. Indefinite Pronouns ------ 48
Sect.VIII. Inseparable Pronouns :
1. Personal Suffixes to Verbs - 48
2. Possessive Suffixes to Nouns - - - - - - 49
3. Prefixed Relative Pronouns ------ 50
4. Prefixed Distributive Pronoun - - - - - - 50
Chap. IV. On the Verbs :
Sect. I. Formation and Quality ------ 50
Sect. II. Various Derivations (Forms or Voices) - - - - 52
List of Conjugations (Derivations, Voices) of the Regular
and Perfect Triliteral Verb ..... 53
Other Classes :
I. Triliterals whose first Radical is a Guttural - - - 55
II. Geminant Triliterals ...... 56
in. Geminants whose first Radical is a Guttural - - - 56
iv. Perfect Biliterals ------- 56
v. Imperfect Biliterals of Prima fa - - - - -57
• vi. Defective Verbs :
1. Verbs with an Absorbed Guttural at the End - - 57
2. Verbs with an Absorbed Guttural in the Middle - - 58
3. Verbs with an Absorbed P: in the Middle - - 58
4. Verbs with an Absorbed Q): in the Middle - - 58
5. Verbs with two Absorbed Gutturals, derived from
Quadriliterals ------- 58
6. Verbs doubly Imperfect - - - - - - 59
vn. Quadriliteral and Pluriliteral Verbs :
1. Reduplicated and Transposed Biliterals - - - 59
2. Derivatives from Triliterals, having one Radical dou
bled and transposed ------ 60
3. Geminants - - - 60
4. Quadriliterals and Pluriliterals of different Radicals - 61
CONTENTS.
Sect. III. Flexion :
i. Moods - .- ..-.-61
ii. Tenses 62
in. Number - -- -- -- -63
iv. Persons -. --63
Sect. IV. Conjugation : i
Auxiliaries ?kA : 111^: and 1(D»: - - 64
1. Conjugation of the Perfect and Regular Triliteral Verbs 65
2. Conjugation of various Imperfect Forms of Triliteral
Verbs :
i. Triliteral Verbs whose first Radical is A (?»: or (JO. 93
ii. Triliteral Geminants - - - - - 96
in. Geminants whose first Radical is : - - - 102
3. Conjugation of Biliteral Verbs :
i. Perfect Biliterals 104
ii. Imperfect Biliterals prima radicalis J\ : - - - 108
in. Contracted Biliterals :
(a a) With Absorbed Guttural at the End - - 113
(66) With Absorbed Guttural in the Middle - - -116
(cc) With Absorbed P : in the Middle - - - 118
(dd) With Absorbed (D : in the middle - - - 120
iv. Doubly Imperfect Biliterals ;
(a a) Doubly Contracted - - - - - 123
(66) Beginning with 2\: and terminating with an
Absorbed Guttural - - - - - 124
(cc) Beginning with P: , which absorbs a Guttural, 126
4. Conjugations of Quadriliteral and Pluriliteral Verbs :
i. Reduplicated and Transposed Biliterals - - 128
ii. Derivates from Triliterals, having one Radical dou
bled and transposed - - - - - -131
in. Geminants - -- -- -- - 132
iv. Quadriliterals and Pluriliterals of different Radicals, 134
5. Defective and Anomalous Verbs - 135
Sect. V. Connection of Pronouns with Verbs - - - - 142
Chap. V. On the Adverbs - 148
Chap. VI. On the Prepositions - - - 153
Chap. VII. On the Conjunctions - - - - - - - -158
Chap. VIII. On the Interjections - -- -- -- - 159
CONTENTS.
Part III. SYNTAX.
Chap. I. Nature of Sentences 161
Chap. II. Subject and Attribute - - - 162
Chap. III. Uses and Construction of the Noun :
A. Construction of Substantives with Substantives - - - 164
B. Construction of Adjectives with Substantives - - - - 165
C. Number of Nouns - -- -- -- - 165
D. Cases of Declension - - - - --166
Chap. IV. Degrees of Comparison - - - - - - -170
Chap. V. On the Numerals --------- 171
Chap. VI. Syntax of the Separable Pronouns - - - - - 172
Chap. VII. On the Affixed Pronouns - - - - - - - 173
Chap. VIII. Construction of the Verb :
> Sect. I. On the Tenses ------- 174
Sect. II. On the Moods - - - - - - - 176
Sect. III. Construction of the Verb with the other parts of the
Sentence ----- --- 177
Chap. IX. Construction of the remaining Parts of Speech - - - - 1 78

Part IV.
1. Conversational Modes of Salutation 179
2. Exercises ---------- 183
AMHARIC GRAMMAR.

INTRODUCTION.

ON THE AMHARIC LANGUAGE IN GENERAL.


I. The Amharic Language Ch.9°^C^i - Sfljll ")> a grammatical deli
neation of which the following pages propose to give, is that Abyssinian
Dialect, which is spoken by the greater part of the population of Abyssinia :
it prevails in all the provinces of Abyssinia lying between the Taccaze
and the Abay or Abyssinian Nile, and in the kingdom of Shoa ; and enters
besides, extensively, into the languages of Argobba and Harrar. Its next
cognate dialect is the Tigre Language (ff^CjE* Sli"); which is spoken
by the inhabitants of Tigre or the N. K part of Abyssinia, and has its
modifications in the Dumhoeto Dialect at Massowa, and the coast N. of
that island, and in the language of Gurague. Both the Amharic and
the Tigre Languages are modifications of the Ancient Ethiopic or Geez
10H :), to which they bear nearly the same relation as some of
our Modern European Languages to the Latin ; viz. that of origin and deri
vation. •* However, the present language of Tigre has preserved a greater
similarity to the Ethiopic, and received much less mixture from other
languages than the Amharic ; the Amhara people being of a more change
able character, and having had intercourse with a greater variety of
foreign nations than their Tigre brethren.

II. The denomination " Amharic," which this language has received, is
obviously attributable to the province called Amhara, situate between
Shoa, Godjam, Bagammeder, Lasta, and Angot. That province, which is
now the seat of the Yedjows, Argobbans, and other Galla tribes—who partly
speak the Argobba dialect, partly the Galla language—must have been
considered the chief province of Abyssinia at the time the language
obtained that name : for not only have all the countries in which the
same language is spoken — excepting Shoa and Efat, i.e. all the N.W.
B
2 INTRODUCTION.

countries of Abyssinia to the W. of the Taccaze—been called Amhara, but


the natives also frequently apply it to their religion ; so that the appellation
Amharic is used synonymously with Christian, although at present the
greater part of the population of that province are Mohammedans. But
in what the superiority of that province consisted, and the time when it
was so pre-eminent, remains still a matter of inquiry: for the reasons
which Ludolf assigns, that Amhara was in the neighbourhood of Shoa,
from which the Royal Family of Solomon, which spoke this language, was
restored, after the downfal of the Zagaean line ; and that Amba Geshen
(better G&she), where subsequently the Princes of that family were con
fined, was situate in Amhara—seem rather unsatisfactory ; nor have we at
present to offer any thing better in lieu of them.

III. From the fact of the Amharic Language being a descendant of the
Ethiopic—which will be evident, from a superficial knowledge of both—it
claims the same affinity to the Semitic family as its parent ; although it has
adopted other forms and words from surrounding nations, which bear no
relation to that family. A knowledge, therefore, of any of the Semitic
Dialects, such as the Hebrew and the Arabic, facilitates, to a great extent,
the study of the Amharic. We shall, in the course of this work, have fre
quent occasions to refer to the Arabic and the Hebrew ; although it will
be our endeavour also to suit the capacity of those who may have had no
opportunity of learning any but European languages.

IV. According to the nature of a Grammar, this work will be arranged


under the following heads: 1. Phonology; 2. Etymology; 3. Syntax:—
treating, in the First Part, on the Sounds and Letters; in the Second,
on the different Parts of Speech ; and in the Third, on the Grammatical
Construction of Words into Sentences. There is, as yet, no occasion
to speak on Amharic Prosody ; but instead of this, we shall annex a
variety of Amharic expressions, and a few Exercises.
VI. lii VII.

Bohemian e, or ie, as Vowelless or short e, ; o usally sharp, as in


German jeder as in since, summer so, or like wo

) l/Wtl : hlmis (fifth) ■"I "■ sadis (siatfA) ^•flO: sabe' (seventh)

»i : he (Boh.) O: he, or h IP : ho or hwo


/V: le A: le 1 t)P : lo . . luo
fh>: he fh : he h fh : ho . . hwo
oq : me 9": me m qn : mo . . muo
ui: se M*: se s »|J : so . . suo
«5»: re Q: re r C, : ro . . ruo
ft: Be fl : se .. s |*" : so . . suo
she t\ : she . . sh f : sho . . shuo
ke *: k'e <f» : k'o . . k'uo

ft: be •fl: be ,.b p : bo . . buo


■t: te T: te ..t ■fl- : toe . . tuo
^: tshe ^f1: tsh" .. tsh ^ : tsho . . tshuo
t: he 1: he ..h ■f: ho ..huo
I: ne *J: ne ..n f : no . . nuo
"E: gne : gne ..gn f: gno ..gnuo
-m . a •W ■ "i —
x i—a—
( 3 )

Part I.—PHONOLOGY.
ON THE
SOUNDS AND LETTERS OF THE AMHARIC LANGUAGE.

CHAP. I.
ON THE AMHARIC ALPHABET.
The Amharic Language is written with the same letters as the Ethiopic ;
each .letter varying in seven different forms, in order to express different
sounds ; Vowels and Consonants not being separated. But besides the
Twenty-six Ethiopic, the Amharic Language has seven peculiar Orders of
Letters, which serve to express sounds not existing in the former : they are
the following :

il: ft: ft: ft: h:


!C: fc: *: *:
T: "F: X- V: *: 1: ?:
Tl: Tl-: Tl: "ft: ft,: ft: ft:
11- W: K: "W: h:: K:
*: £.= S= £:
GEL: Hlr: tQ.: ttl: tit1: :

These, added to the 26 Ethiopic orders, give to the Amharic Alphabet


the number of 33 orders of letters; that is, each order consisting of
7 forms or characters, 231 different characters. Add to these the 4 times 5,
i.e. 20 Diphthongs, you have 251; which, to commit to memory, call for
the close application of the student. The Alphabetical Table opposite
embodies them all ; giving a correct exhibition of the numerical arrange
ment of the letters, with their names and value ; and the phonical order,
power, and Ethiopical designation of the seven different orders, with the
pronunciation affixed in English to each character.

The Abyssinian Ciphers are as follow :


5*1. I! 2. C;3. o:4. £;5. %:6. £:7. w;8. E;9. 1:10.
IS: 11. II; 12. IE; 13. ISI 14. Id 15. H; 16. I£: 17. IS; 18. IE; 19. EI 20.
ffi\ 30. S[: 40. H; 50. 3; 60. mi 70. I; 80. 1; 90. E; 100.
IE: 200. IE! 1000. SEJ2000. EE; or E-E; 10000. IK; 100000.
4 PHONOLOGY. [CH. I. II.

Note.—A greater number of Diphthongs might have been added ; as the


Abyssinians, not being accustomed to write the language they speak, like
to contract several sounds together, and to express them by single charac
ters. Ludolf has given, in his Amharic Grammar, several specimens,
showing how they apply this to foreign languages. We observe, here, that
we have seen several instances of the same mode of proceeding in their
own language : especially do they like to combine the fourth with the
sixth form; e.g. twa, for 't-'P" fj.: fwa, for V?' mw^> for
tfn*p : &c. But as those figures have not been generally adopted, and the
number of characters is already large enough, and suited to express almost
any sound, we have abstained from mentioning them in the Alphabet ;
noticing them here only, in order to put those on their guard who may
happen, in their intercourse with Abyssinians, to meet such uncouth figures,
that they may not be frightened.

CHAP. II.
NUMERICAL ORDER, AND NAMES OP THE LETTERS.
1. For the general Order, in which these letters follow each other, no
reason can be assigned ; as it has no analogy in other languages, nor any
foundation in the natural developement of sound from the organs of speech,
but seems to have been arbitrarily put together. Exceptions are, the
succession of ft: and fi :: "T : and ^i: %:and"j"'-: Yl:and"Tl::
H : and H":: £: and|J:: 01: and QJ, :: and jft : (for the resemblance
of figure) X : and f| ::
2. The Names of the letters have been delivered to us from remote
antiquity ; and as most of them, if not all, are significant, we think it but
proper to preserve them. They must have been formerly in general use
among the Abyssinians, else it is not conceivable how they should have
been transmitted to Europeans : but the natives of the present day know
nothing about them, except from the schools of the Missionaries*
3. The signification of most of the names of the letters is clear : they refer
to the sound they express, adding the adjective termination awi, contracted
into at, or mis-spelled ot, for the masculine, and awit, out, ait, or at, for the

* This, however, is no reason to omit them ; because the Abyssinians do not at all
dislike to have names put to their hitherto unnamed letters ; many of which are the same
as those which they know, from the Psalms, to belong to the sacred language of the Old
Testament. Many of the most learned Abyssinians have applied to the Missionaries for
the express purpose of learning the names of their own letters; and thought to have gained
an invaluable treasure, when they had learned them. . •
CH. II.] NUMERICAL ORDER, AND NAMES OF THE LETTERS. 5

feminine gender. A short analysis of these names, as far as it can be


given, will establish this statement.
1. U r Hoi, Wg.: for or : the h letter.
2. A : Lawi', At : the I letter.
3. A : Haut, ^(D*^ (f0 for 'h<EJI* : the h letter.
4. on : Mai, mjJE, : for mjq> : the m letter.
5. *UI : Saut, Uf(D»^. : for Uf^^ : (fem.) the s letter.
7. f| : Sat, il't* : for fl^'f : the s letter.
8. fi : Shat, h1^ : for ^i^f : :
11. T: Tawi, ::
12. *P : Tshawi, ::
19. 0): Wawi, *p«l>::
21 H: Zai, H£: for H<£::
22. HT: Zai" (French j), ifg.: for if^:; '
27. ID: Tait, : for n^f::
28. CO. : Tsh'ait, CR,^^ : for ::
29. ft: P'ait, i^gsT '• for Aq^::

The following names are derived from the cognate Semitic Dialects,
probably from the Hebrew, since they have the names of the Hebrew
letters in the Psalms :
6, Re-es, Heb. «, Resh.
9. Kaf, 9&- •• P Kof.
10. n: Bet, . . a Bet.
16. ft: Alf, Alef.
17. In-. Kaf, • • 3 Kaf.
20. O: Ain, •• V Ain,
2C. 1: Geml, •• a GImel.
With regard to their significations, the student is referred to the
Hebrew Lexicon.
Concerning the rest, the signification of which is not so clear, we leave
them for the amusement of such as will take the trouble of searching in
the Ethiopic and the cognate dialects.
6 PHONOLOGY. [CH. III.

CHAP. HI.
ON THE VIRTUE, ORGANICAL CLASSIFICATION, AND PRONUNCIATION
OF THE LETTERS, CONSIDERING THEM AS SIMPLE CONSONANTS.
1. As to the virtue of the letters, we must state, first of all, that Conso
nants and Vowels are combined in the same characters ; and on this ac
count, each letter is able to present a syllable by itself. But laying aside,
for the present, the Vowel question, we proceed at once to classify the
letters according to the organs chiefly concerned in their pronunciation.

2. According to the organs, the letters are divided—


A. In Gutturals: U: <h:"f: Tls ft: U::
B. In Palatals: 1»: Yl: P: 1"
C. In Linguals and Dentals: ft: U): d.- 1*1: T: 'T: i- H-
H": £: £: ID: Eft: X: O"
D. In Labials: au: fl: <D: X: A.: T".
K Nasal: T"

3. In speaking on the pronunciation of these letters, we must refer to


the Ancient Ethiopic, the various dialects of Abyssinia, especially the
Tigre, and the cognate Semitic Languages.
A. The Gutturals.—In the present Amharic, U <h : and 1 : are pro
nounced alike, like h in horse, and are often exchanged for ft:, thus
entirely dropping the aspiration. The Tigre language shows us, however,
that each of these letters must have formerly expressed a distinct and
different sound ; for in it, U : sounds like our h in horse, and answers the
Arabic a, and the Hebrew n. <h: is pronounced with a pressure in the
lower part of the throat, like the Arabic XL ; "1 : like the Swiss ch, the
Arabic XL> and the Hebrew ft; and*Tl: like the Scotch and German
ch, in loch, nicht, and answering the Hebrew 3 without the Dagesh.
This pronunciation of the "Tl : is equally in use in the Amharic language. .
ft: and O : are both pronounced alike, as the Greek Spiritus lenis (');
but in the Tigre they are different among each other, ft: being like
Spiritus lenis, I, or N, and O : like the Arabic c and Hebrew y, with the
same pressure in the throat as the ^ , but without the aspiration.
B. The Palatals:
*p : corresponds with p in the Hebrew, and with j in the Arabic Lan
guage. On account of its peculiar pronunciation, we may call it an
explosive letter, such as fl): £Q,: and X: in the third, and fl: in the
CH. III.] VIRTUE, CLASSIFICATION, AND PRONUNCIATION OF LETTERS. 7

fourth class: it is a sudden explosion of breath from the palate, after the
latter has been spasmodically contracted. We have endeavoured to
represent this pronunciation, after the example of Ludolf, by writing K',
but it must be heard before it can be conceived. This pronunciation,
however, is not uniform, although general. In Tigre, it is besides often
pronounced like the Arabic c, often like s; in Shoa generally, like a mere
Spiritus lenis ('), similar to the Jf as pronounced by common people in
Egypt. Thus the word T^flA: is pronounced in three or four different
✓&**
ways: in good language, Tak'ab'bala ; in Tigre, Taghab'bala (J_juLj) and
✓ a**
TakaVbala (JujuU) ; and in Shoa, Ta-aVbala.
Yl : sounds like our k, or c before consonants.
P: is pronounced like y as consonant, or like the Germany &c. .
^ : is pronounced like our g before a, o, u, and before consonants.

C. The Linguals and Dentals :


A : like our I.
UJ: and |"|: may originally (perhaps answering fjo and D and to
have sounded differently from each other : at present, they are pronounced
alike, sounding like our s.
{ \ sounds like our r.
f| : formed in the Amharic by the accession of the i' sound to the ft :
and UJ :> is the same as ^jS, to, and sh.
•f : is pronounced like tiJ, and t.
tf: formed by combining a soft sibilation with "1", sounds like tsh, or
rather like t with a German j.
1: is the same as our n.
|| : is like z.
H": like the French/
J»: is the same with our d.
: sounds like the English j, or rather like the German dj : it is often
used to express the Arabic *-.
ID : CO.: and K: are the same sort of letters in this class as the <|>: in
the Second, which we call Explosive ; because they, as it were, explode
from between the fore-part of the tongue and the roof of the mouth or
the root of the teeth. We have in the Alphabet represented them by
writing f, tsfi, and ts\ But as some more or less hissing seems to accom
pany this explosiqn, fn : and X : frequently interchange.
0 : is pronounced like ts, or the German z.
8 PHONOLOGY. [CH. III. IV.

D. The Labials :
oo : is the same as our m.
[1 '. the same as our b. In Tigre, it generally sounds like v, 1, or the
Modern Greek j8 : and this pronunciation must have heen formerly more
general ; for otherwise it seems unaccountable, how it could have been
turned into a mere vowel o, as in oof£: ; whereas the soft b, our v,
being a mere condensation of that Vowel, was more liable to that change.
fl): is the same as w.
j( : the explosive letter of this class : the breath puffs off from between
the lips, before the vowel is heard.
i5_: is the same as D, i_J, and /.
T : our p, merely used for foreign words.

E. The Nasal T: is pronounced similar to the French and Italian gn, or


rather like the Spanish n.

4. The letters are to be further divided, as in other Semitic Dialeets,


into Radicals and Seniles. Servile letters are those which are employed
in the process of grammatical formation, derivation, and flexion: the
radicals are never so employed. The serviles are often radical, though
Radicals are never servile. The Servile Letters are,
A: ou: ft: n: T: \: ft: (D: \l: P.:

CHAP. IV.
ON THE SEVEN VOCAL ORDERS OF THE ABYSSINIAN LETTERS.
1. As the Abyssinian Languages differ from the other Semitic Dialects
(except the Coptic), in being written from the left to the right ; so they
are likewise different from them, as well as from most other languages, in
the manner in which the Voices or Vowels are expressed.

2. This is done in the Abyssinian Languages, not, as in the other


Semitic Dialects, by any smaller points or figures written above or below
the line ; nor, as in other languages, by a distinct sort of characters of
equal value with the Vowelless Consonants ; but by a system of changes
which the original letter itself undergoes ; each letter expressing Consonant
and Vowel in the same figure, and assuming seven different forms, according
to the Vowels which are attached to it; which forms (after Ludolf) we call
Orders of Letters.
CH. IV.] SEVEN VOCAL ORDERS OF THE LETTERS. 9
Note.—The terms " Consonant" and " Vowel " are not quite suitable to the
Abyssinian Alphabet ; as the Vowels themselves are but con-sonant, being
inexpressible by themselves ; and the Consonants being, as appears from
the Sixth Order, in form more independent than the Vowels : but to be
understood, we must use the expression.

3. The Seven different Voices or Vowels expressed by these Seven


Orders are these:
A. Short a, as in fat, lad, &c.; answering the Fat-ha (^) in the Arabic,
and the Patach (t) in the Hebrew. Like the former, it is modifiable,
approaching the e sound, or the short Hebrew Segol (~).
B. u, as in full, put, lucid ; or o, as in move ; or oo, as in fool, &c.
' C. i, as in pin, finger, hinder ; or ee, as in bee, see ; or ea, as in read,
sea ; or e, as in scene.
D. a, as in far, father, rather. <
E. e or e ; a sharp e, with a slight i sound before it, as in the Slavo
nian Dialects; as the German je, "ever,11 or the English yea.
F. e or y, as in liv-er, ber-ry. This order also is often mute or vowel-
less, as in the English and French Languages the mute e. In fact, it
completely resembles the Shwa simplex (—) of the Hebrew Language.
G. 6, generally sharp, as in so ; or with w before it, as in woe, wonder.

4. In order to express these seven sounds by each letter, the Abyssinians


have adopted the following plan :
A. The Original Form is used for the expression of the First Vowel (a).
It therefore is called, with its Ethiopic name, "I0"H: Ge-ez, which sig
nifies " original" ; and is therefore applied to the Ethiopic Language in
general (A "11 : ^0"H ■), in order to distinguish it from any translation.
In reference to the letter forms, it means the original, simple, unaltered
form, U : A '- (h : &c
B. The Second Vowel ( u ), which is called V| ()-fi : Ka-eb, i.e. " altered,"
"second," is expressed by the affixion of a point (») to the right-hand side
of the letter, generally in the middle (if- : «fe : oo- : A- 0 ; in four in
stances at the bottom (£: (D- : J^: J^:) ; and in one instance, under the
letter (£:).
C. The Third Vowel (i), which is called ufAft : Sales, i.e. "third," is
generally represented by a similar point annexed to the foot of the letter
on the right side, and below the line, (A.: II.: A.: In.: £.:). Where the
original has no foot (i.e. line going downwards), a foot is formed; and in
10 PHONOLOGY. [CH. IV.
order thereby not to enlarge the general size of the letter, the rest is
diminished where it has been thought necessary oq_: "I.: : *\:).
Where the original has a point below, that is turned upwards (6: &.z).
An exception is, PL : :
D. The Fourth Vowel (a), called £.-flO: Rabe' "the fourth;' effects
seven different changes :
(a) A foot line is made as in the preceding order, but without point:
M : aq : u| : q» : <4 : 9 : <j. "
(6) Foot lines on the right side are shortened : 4:<h:l|:^h*):3t;
*l:"¥l: H: "H": "I: «l: ft: ft::
(c) A short horizontal line with point, is added, to the left at the bottom :

(d) The same added to the right at the head : f: doubled


(e) Foot line broken : £,::
(/) F06t point to the left shortened: J»:
E. The change effected by the Fifth Vowel (e), called J9°fl- Hames
" fifth," is simple : it consists in adding a small circular line or eye to the
right side at the bottom, or in the middle : in instances where the letter
has received a foot line in the two preceding forms, at the bottom of that
line; e.g. H,: A: oq,: R: ttfe1: &c
F. The greatest diversity is presented by the Sixth Order (e or y)
flgtl: i.e. "sixth.1" Instead of analyzing it, we recommend the scholar
to examine that column himself in the Alphabet.
G. The Seventh Vowel (o) *VflO = sabe\ i.e. " seventh," effects the fol
lowing changes :
(a) A small circular line is formed at the top: IP: ftp: q):
-f: f: 6."
(b) Foot lines on the right side are shortened: |h: f«: f«: p:
■fr:"?1: H: 1*": £: I": to-: ft: 2*"
(c) Foot lines on the left side or in the middle are formed ; qo :
*F: (p: f»: P".
{d) Other forms are, p-: i: T-
5. As for the quantity of the vowels, it must be said, that those of the
First and Sixth Order are constantly short ; those of the Fourth and Fifth
constantly long ; and the rest are sometimes long, sometimes short.
Note. — Concerning the Diphthongs, as their pronunciation presents
no difficulty, nothing remains to be said except what has been mentioned
in Chap. I.
CH. V.] ( It )

CHAP. V.
ON SYLLABIFICATION.
1. In the Abyssinian Languages, each letter, being Consonant and
Vowel in the same figure, is able to constitute a Syllable ; e.g. Yld.-
na-ga-ra; ne-fa-k'e. Such syllables, formed by single letters, we
may call simple or open syllables.
2. But although this is the case, they can combine two or three letters
(not more) together, to form one syllable ; which will be called, if con
sisting of two letters, a closed; if of three, a compound syllable. Thus,
e.g. JfA: k'al, "word," is closed; AiH-fl: hezb, "people," is compound.
3. This is performed with the assistance of the Sixth Order ; the vowel
of which being short, and rather a semi-vowel,, or the same thing as the
Hebrew Shwa (t), is liable to become mute. Whenever this occurs, its
letter must be added either to the preceding or to the following letter, in
order to be pronouncible ; e.g. ga-r, "meek." •flAH't": bel-ha-t,
" dexterity."
4. The question then is, When is the letter of the Sixth Order mute or vowel-
less ? A few general rules, which will answer it, shall be laid down here.
A. Letters of the Sixth Order are mute at the end of words generally ;
e.g. UC: h5r> "silk"; g>A: k'al, "word"; YtQ' nagar, "word," "thing";
0»h£: tsa-hay, "sun"; C4A9° : a-lam, " world." •
Note.—Seeming deviations, but no real ones, are those Ethiopic words
which in the Amharic have been abbreviated : in such instances, the final
letter of this form is riot vowelless, reminding of the guttural letter,
which is no longer written, but still pronounced :
1*170 : sa-me', "wax." Eth. tl^oft". <r.j
•nC- bg-rS' "pencil." Eth. -nqo-
en-djy, " but." Eth. Vl :
A real exception is this, which occurs in Feminine terminations of Pro
nouns or Verbs, in the Second Person Singular of the Feminine Gender,
which are sometimes written in the third, sometimes in the sixth form,
and may be pronounced or not; e.g. KTft: better frl^: an-tshy,
"thou (female)!" : or q>$^: k'a-dj, or k'a-djy, "draw (thou female) ! "
B. The same letters remain mute, when the words to which they belong,
receive such additions at the end, by which their form is not changed :
e-g- tfC.: tshar, "kind." ^VCl*?' tshar-nat, "kindness." QA: ba-1,
"husband," "owner." HA't't": bal-tet, "widow."
Note.—An exception is k'a-le-tsha, "sorcerer," "soothsayer."
12 PHONOLOGY. [CH. V.

C. When two letters of this order meet together at the end of a vowel,
both are mute, unless want of organic affinity, or gemination, prevents
their being so ; but when such a word is augmented at the end, the last
letter of this order is sounded :
(a) KC*: da-rk\ "dry." AT"*: la-mts\ "leprosy."
an£n : ma-rz, " poison." J5" : k'a-nd, " horn."
a-yn, "eye."
(b) A0!?0 ■ le-gem, " superficiality." "l^H : ge-bez, " hypocrite."
2\^>9°: a-k'em, "measure." Acp«C: S-tsh'yr, " short."
(c) f| «yn 911 ; se-mem, "harmony." ">v A A: e-lel, "huzzah !"
Yl'I""!*: ke-tet, " perfection," "fulness."
(d) fc^-ftf: ked-se-na, "holiness." 'H^Jff: zem-de-na, "rela
tionship.11
D. When a letter of the sixth form commences a word, its vowel is
generally sounded :
ARrlr- le-dat, "birth." ke-fu, "bad."
ft ID*): se-t"ang, "give me." i"l£9nft*; ke-ramt

E. In triliteral words, where all the three letters are of the sixth
order, the first is generally sounded ; the two following art not :
fh*H*f1: he-zb, " people." R;Jf^: ts'e-dk', " righteousness."
J*"l^>: de-nk\ "wonder." "S^T0: e-rm, " a thing prohibited."
Cft't"1 re-st, " heritage." •iPfi'l": me-sht, " wife."

F. In triliteral words, where the two first letters are of the sixth
order, the first is sounded ; the second is not :
"l£inj : ge-r-ma, " majesty." e-n-dja, " I do not know."
: gg-m-dja, " muslin cloth."
But in many cases the second letter also is sounded :
T M*A : ge-se-la, "brown leopard." ^»7oi"j: k'e-me-sha, "a bit."
e-dje-ge, "sleeve."

G. In quadriliteral words, beginning with two letters of the sixth


order, and terminating in — 1f: feminine, the first letter is sounded; the
second is mute:
£A ffl : fe-l-t at, " megrims." GX/*^ : fe-r-hat, " fear."
ne-f-gat, "avarice." Tn^: ne-b-rat, "state."
CH. V. VI.] ON SYLLABIFICATION. 13
H. In quadriliteral feminine adjectives, whose letters are all of this
order, the first and second letters are sounded, whilst the rest are mute :
IRih't': ne-ts'^-ht, "pure." fyRtl^V: k'e-de-st, "holy." .
C^lfl't": re-ke-st, "impure." Jt£"4»^: ts'e-de-k't, "righteous."
I. In quadriliteral words, whose three first letters are of the sixth
order, the first and second are generally sounded, whilst the third is mute,
unless obviated by Lit C. :
"JiAAJ-: e-le-l-ta, "the shouting." IJtAjFr ne-ts'e-h-na, "purity."
J. In pluriliterals, beginning with three letters of this order, these are
generally formed into one syllable; either the first and third, or the •
second and third letters being mute:
JlCfl"Wl: Kre-s-tos, " Christ." ^.d^U.^ : fre-m-bia, "breast-bone."
Note. —These rules will meet most cases: we refrain from adding
more at this place, as it would swell this chapter to too large an extent;
while in the further course of the Grammar, especially in those parts
which treat on the Pronouns and the Verbs, the rest will be easily deduced.

chap; vi.
ON ACCENTUATION, AND POINTS OF DISTINCTION.
1. The Abyssinians have no marks for their accents. Some general
Rules for Accentuation are as follow :—
A. In words consisting of long and short syllables (long and short
either by the number of letters or by the quantity of vowels), the long
syllable generally has the accent :
*V£,V : tere, "raw," "genuine." «7d,x : gera, "left." f| 1X: bagb, "good."
T R.v : netsu, " pure." Tj» : bado, "empty." 4'^ : zare, "to-day."
In these two latter instances, the first syllable has the accent, because the
long a of the fourth order is the longest vowel :
Ij^go; gadam, "convent" "l^/lf: nefak'S, "heresy."
fakad, " will." *K.'fl = k'e^s, " holy."
oofv£: manor, "the dwelling." U"j^v9»J: hodam, "voracious."
""A^l 9": malkam, "good," "beautiful." "HfV'RT: zem'dena/'aflinity."

B. In Verbs, the radix without afformatives, as well as, with light


afFormatives (afformativa levia), has the accent on the antepenultima
(on the third syllable from the end) :
14 PHONOLOGY. [CH. VI.

Vll£: nabara, "he was." T4>'aii(n: tSk'a'mat'a, "he sat down."


TAJtlf-: ga'lats'hu, "I have revealed." V
See, however, more under the Verbs.
C. Feminine Adjectives and Substantives of the form ITM^'t: have
the accent on the last syllable ; e.g. CfW1?: regem't, " cursed."
D. Other Dissyllabic words with short vowels require the accent on
penultima :
A'S.*? : ledat, " birth." <D'V°nC.: wa'mbar, " a seat," " chair."
TlH-fl: ga'nzab, "property." "VIA: dengel, "virgin."

E. The heavier Suffixes (suffixa gravid) and Afibrmatives require the


accent directly to precede them :
q>'go n Q: •• the yoke." q>gn fl i.'"*?"! : k'ambaratshen, " our yoke."
•"•'Art: " he brought back." ooAfl'^Plh: malasatshehu, "you brought
back."
2. The Interpunctuaiion of the Abyssinians is very simple. A simple
colon (:) serves to divide words from words; and a double colon (::) to
separate sentences from sentences.
Note (a)—The colon, which is to prevent words running together, and
thereby creating confusion, was formerly a perpendicular line ( | ), as is
evident from inscriptions found at Axum ; but that line has been divided
into two points, as it was otherwise liable to have been mistaken for the
numeral T (10).
(b) The double colon (::) is, in Abyssinian manuscripts, generally
reserved for the end of paragraphs ; when five red points are inserted into
it in the form of a cross, in this manner,
<r
EXERCISE FOR READING.
(From " the Church History," p. 223.)
Bahawar'yat za'man babeta Cres ti yan en dehh yalatsh

In the Apostles' time in the Church such


a'n de nat na'baratshebat, hulatshau a'nde se ga an' dit

a union was in her, all of them one body one


nafsem es ki ho'nu de ras. Cres tiya natem luVlii ba Cres t6s
hGfw0 "Mtinxn.i XicfviyFtw: u-a-: nftcfrt-fh
soul and that they were the Christians and all in Christ
CH. VI.] EXERCISE FOR READING. 15

ka'to alta la' yum. hula'tshau ya A'danf ledjo'tsh enda


U-A^dh: PAR?":
never were separated, all of them of Adam children as
na'baru ba sega, hulatsha um larasa'tshau

they were after the flesh, all of them and (as left) to themselves
yala Crest os yat'a'fu hate-van en da na'baru en deh um
JPA: VlCfl-t-fl Pffl^.: 3*PA*1: 1 n<.: Vl&IW1:
without Christ lost sinners as they were, so also
baha'imanot hula'tshau bande Cre st^os danu.
U-A^CD*:
by faith all of them through one Christ were they saved,
hulatsh aum bande mats' rat tats'a'rfi. bande da' mem
ll-A:i,<D'9n:
they all and by one calling were called by one blood and
ts'adak'u ban de man'fa sem nats'u tak'a'dasum. Fet'ros em

justified, by one Spirit and purified sanctified and. Peter also


la mi ya men hu la a la : e lan te ya ma'n gestena
A"Il.P9n*l: U-A-: AA" 7»A^= p onanM'-l-r:
to believers all said : You of the kingdom (royalty) and
yakehenat wa'gan natshehu, yatama'rat'atahem
PfrUl*: (Dili f/rli-:
of the priesthood a people, are, which is elected and
yatak'a'dasatshem te u' lid, te^al tu zand

and sanctified a generation, you should manifest that


katsh'a'lama wada mi yas danek'au wada berhanu
YlEftA"1!:
from darkness unto marvellous unto his light
yats'ara'tshehun sera.
PX^U-T: fl£.::
of Him that hath called you the works.

IN ENGLISH CONSTRUCTION.
" In the time of the Apostles, there was such an union in the Church,
that they (the Christians) were all one body and one soul. Christians
were never (in no wise) separated in Christ. As all of them were Adam's
children, after the flesh, and as in themselves and without Christ they
LC PHONOLOGY. [CH. VI. VII.

were lost sinners, so also (now) by faith they were saved through one
Christ. They were all called with one calling; justified by one blood;
and purified and sanctified by one Spirit. Peter also said to all believers :
Ye are a royal and priestly people, a chosen and a sanctified generation,
that ye should shew forth the works of Him that hath called you out
of darkness unto His marvellous light."

CHAP. VII.
' , VARIOUS CHANGES OF LETTERS.
In order the better to comprehend the various euphonical changes
occurring in the constitution of words in the different parts of speech, it is
necessary to point out the rules by which the changes in the letters are
regulated.
1. Addition of Letters.
Speaking, in the first instance, of the addition of letters to words, we
regard them as they are joined either at the beginning, or in the middle,
or at the end,—prosthesis, epenthesis, and paragoge.
A. When a word commences with a liquid letter, esp. \: or the
"X: is often preposed; e.g. ">»rC,p: f°r f"CP: Narea.' The pre-
formative, also, to the First Person Plural of Verbs, in the Present
Tense Indicative and Subjunctive, has >/l— : for the Ethiopic "1— ::
>»"l<roA"C| AT : " we return " ; not "jooA1"! A"l :: 'K&.fi : for <5.f| :
«' head." "kcT-fl : for CV'fl : " wet."
B. In the middle and at the end after long vowels, (jy* : is inserted or
affixed; e.g. T.H,(D*: for 7.H.: "time." tl6.(D*V°: "and the work";
for f|£.9°::
Note.—This euphonical Q)*: must not be confounded with the suffixed
pronoun (D*:, which only by the context can be distinguished from it.

2. Contraction of Letters.
Contraction occurs most frequently to the vocal letters A: (O:) (D-
and P:, besides these to the gutturals 13 ■ th- and 1:: They answer the
^"inS! letters of the Hebrew Language, in their becoming quiescent This
is especially the case—
A. In verbs and words derived from them, which, originating in the
Ethiopic, on their transition into the Amharic have dropped the gutturals, as
not compatible with the character of the latter language. In compensation
CH. VII.] VARIOUS CHANGES OP LETTERS. 17
for this loss of the consonant, they have retained the vowel, and joined it
to the preceding letter :
Amharic. Ethiopic.
: for *JBih£: "to pity," " have mercy."
S<5.: Xrh<5/ "to write."
Toq^: .. T<n>U£: "to learn."
aofiz . . onAft: "to be full," "to fiir
11: •• "Ml ft: "to enter."
flki.: flCA- "to work."
W6. : • • UJCO : " to order," " to constitute."
KAji.' •• ft&£P: "to bring forth fruit."
: Xih^rf. "writing."

B. When a word beginning with ft: receives a preformative of the


first, fourth, or sixth order, the ft— : consonant is dropped, and the vowel
absorbed by the preceding letter. If ft— : stands in the first order, it
changes the preceding short letter to one of the fourth order; if the fourth
order precedes, no contraction takes place; if ft: is of the sixth order, it
sometimes changes the preceding short into a long letter, sometimes it
does not at all affect it :
ftYl't*: "the neck." ITl^ : "on the neck."
TFiC.?'- "a swine." ACJP : " to a swine."
ftK£*KD*: "he did h" JPK^lCD*: "he who did it."
ftlT: "he found." FllVttJ: "thou wilt find."

C. The same change, without loss of consonant, takes place with suffixes
commencing with a :
fli.^U-: "your work," from f|£.: and a ^Flt::
But when such suffixes are joined to letters ending in u or o, these
letters are changed into diphthongs :
rtfll^/t": from filUlh: and a'f : "I gave her."
When joined to letters of the fifth form, the suffix a, assumes the P:, as
similar to the fifth vowel ; and rendering that in the fourth form, deprives
the preceding letter of its vowel :
V'itl&y'Hrl: from gn^lA,: and efirl: "our likeness."
nCP^d)*: and fl^JP^d^: "their ox."

D. In those verbs which are called geminant, the two identical letters,
D
18 PHONOLOGY. [CH. VII.

i.e. second and third radicals, are, in several moods and tenses, con
tracted into one letter, which letter then is sounded as a double letter :
«I»AA : " it was light." £1>AA: for £<|>AAA : " it is light."
" ne sent-" P^rtJC": f°r P^lljf " he that sends."
Note.—The same change takes place in all languages. Cf. in the English,:
refer, referring ; compel, compelled ; man, manned ; stir, stirring ; stab,
stabbed; &c. In the Hebrew, letters so contracted receive a compensative
Dagesh (cf. rDD, ^j?) ; in the Arabic, a Teshdid ([J»b~, yc). In
the Abyssinian Languages they have no mark for this gemination ; but in
pronouncing the contracted syllable, the voice dwells on it for the same
length of time as it would on the non-contracted two syllables.
K The same change takes place in the conjugations of Verbs ending
in 1 : in the Second Person Plural, and in a few other instances; e.g.
"We became," for U*H:: «J«1(D* : OTJlCD* : &c.

3. Elision.
A complete Elision, i.e. ejection without compensation, takes place—
A. At the end of certain words, with letters of the sixth order, which
are not, or scarcely, pronounced; e.g. |*190: for fffofj'. "wax." -f|£:
for -fl^O: "pencil." ">klj£: "but," for the Eth. and Tig. "ftlK^::
B. With the P: Relative Pronoun, and the P: of the Genitive Case,
when Prepositions are prefixed to or precede the word; e.^.-IPf/t*:
fl(in<K'9DlJ: tlrf- "In the house of thy brother, which I have seen";
instead of Il.PP'J.'t-: nP(DlJ^9°«: ft^:: "XIR: JHHU:
instead of PJHUtJ: "As thou art commanded."
C. With the Preformative3 and in Verbs and verbal deriva
tions, beginning with ft: and T" e.g.
AU- : " I do " ; ftj«<i. All- : " I bind " ; ftft U- : " I order
to write"; instead of JSROAU": ftM'i.AU': and "AftRvJ.AU-: :
'T^nAAtJ: "thou receivest"; ■l-aoj-VFlh : "you will be beaten";
instead of Jt"JI*«|,nAAtI: and 'p^ou^A1!1!!*::
D. The Preformative *ps, with the negative ft :, is often suppressed
before T: 01: 00,: £: £: ft: ft: X: and 0:: e.g.
ft»6.: for ft'l-X'G.: "Do not write."
ftflWl*: "Do not observe"; &c.
Note.—To this rule may be reckoned J^-: before ft: in one instance:
ftft : instead of ftjfft : " sixty."
CH. VII.] VARIOUS CHANGES OP LETTERS. 19

4. Changes produced and suffered by the letter P : and its corresponding


vowels I and E.
Some of those changes have heen noticed in the preceding. Here is to
be added :
A. of the sixth order, as preformative to Verbs, resolves into the
mere vowel i, when any letter of the same order is prefixed ; e. g.
instead of , instead of
(1.000): •fl(£tro«l::

Yurie = tizmc."
">»filri.caci"i*: "kfrti.smci"i-:: &c. &c.
B. Under the same circumstances, _J» : not only remains, but, for the
sake of assimilation, changes the preceding letter into one of the third
order; e.g.

C. The Vowel I, when applied, changes the following letters :


A:intoP:: UJ : and |"| : into j"j :: T : into :: }:intoT"-:
H: into TT:: £: into j£:: 01: R: and 0: into EQ,::
FOB
ufji: "painter" . "IA."
Uil: "regent" 13"!,::
9DAfl: "answer" ^Art."
^oo^Afj : "thou (/.) wilt be beaten," 'fao-t^/vfi::
'VR'tAil : "thou (/.) wilt be saved," ■ft-£"Y,AAfi ::
jyt: "prince" JH.::
(DAg;: "parent" (DAR."
^|60»: "giver" A' 111.::
*N5.GB>: "piece" 4»*<J.K.: or «fNJ.m.: :
Otnjtp.: "rebel" 0°^^"
Note.—Under the same circumstances, _p: changes those letters into
the fourth order.

D. When words ending in i and & receive any of the heavy suffixes
(gravia), or the auxiliary AA : at the end, the third or fifth order is gene
rally changed into the sixth, and JP : follows :
n<5,: " ox." nCJ?^ and n^JP^CD-::
Ain't: "guardian," "protector." mi4»^i;'l: "our protector."
20 PHONOLOGY. [CH. VII.

JMll'fl^\J?Afi: "thou (fern.) observest,"«for ^flWrfc: ftAfi::


fll'fl'fc.PAlh'- " I observe," for m*fl<fc: AAU-::
R When letters of the fifth order are shortened, they are changed into
the third ; when they are prolonged, they are changed into the fourth ; and
the original vowel 8 or i is represented by P:: t
ch,K: "he went." Imp. <h„K*:go!
h>(Il: "he sold.*'
T^PUl: "he bought and sold," "carried on commerce."

5. Changes produced and suffered by the Letter (D: and its corresponding
Vowels U and O.
The letter (D : is often contracted into the vowel o, and still further into u.
A. fl): is contracted into o. This occurs,
(a) With the second radical in verbs :
*oo: for «KDO»" H<»: for H(Dd." JIOO; for X(D<n>:
(b) In substantives :
' fl*P(D3" "- " gift>" is contracted into f| (t* :
^Affl'T: "power," into ^A*"^"
A»^(D*: "life" into AiP-^f"
XAO)^: " prayer," into XA°^::
B. (D"- and o are further contracted into u.
(a) In the subjunctive, imperative, and constructive in verbs :
£«fc9*>: "let him stand." «fegn: "stand!" «fe9»<PA: "he is
standing."
(6) With the suffixed pronoun 3d person sing, masc, which, to
nouns ending in a letter belonging to the sixth order, is
attached as u; but after a long vowel, and in verbs as (D>:, except
after an u, where it is changed for 't*::
(Vis: " his house." T,;T(D*: "his master."
mn<l>(D': " he observed it." oo-ts^f: " they beat him."
C. o and u, when an a is joined to them, change the gutturals and
palatals into diphthongs of the fourth order, and put other letters into the
sixth order, adding «p::
•fl/V: "his saying." -flAYA: " he is saying."
fl CD U-: " I gave." |"| ffll^CD* : " I gave them."
iTil : " senate." fUjl/PO*: " their senate."
CH. VII.] VARIOUS CHANGES OP LETTERS. 21

D. fl): having been reduced to the vowel o in the radicals of verbs,


is restored again when the first radical is amplified:
T3>Q)OD: "he stood against," "resisted," from $od: "he stood."

6. Changes occurring with the Diphthongs.


Diphthongs of the first order («t»-: "t„: In-: T™:) are, when lengthened,
changed into the fourth (Jj: fy: 3.:) ; when shortened, into the sixth
(<!»*•: 1+: YT": T-=) order :
4*"»fn£: "he counted."
Lengthened Shortened
*t"SfIl<i: "he made accounts." JM^fllC1 " ^et him count."
7. Reduplication of Letters.
Reduplication of letters takes place in the formation of nouns and verbs,
generally with a design of giving intensity to the original meaning of the
word, when the second or third radical is repeated :
J-f fi : " small." > TffTl : " very small."
JA*!*: "great." J-AA*!*: " very great."
' 00Afl: "he brought back." T°°AArt: "he walked," i.e. "went
and returned," " went up and down."
1-€H»4\rtrt: "he returned."
! ft££l : " he did," " performed." ftg<5.«^ : " a great work."

8. Excliange of Letters.
The following letters are frequently changed one for another, as belong
ing to the same organ, or at least being similar in sound.
A. Gutturals.—Q: for ft:: ft: for U: di- and f :: If: fh: andf : for"ft "
They write :
ft^d.: "he rested," for ftnH: "Abyssinia," for rhnH::
ftHi: "he regretted," for diHl" ft<5,£: "he was ashamed," for "f<5.4::
U*l: "he became," for"T,l:: ih.K: "he went," for*ft,£::
^A: " behind," for"?j,A::
B. Gutturals and Palatals.— U: rh: and*Tfl: for Yl: e.g.
■Tri.JC'Yb: in vulgar language, for th.JpU': " I go."
mlTlA: and ooYiYlA: for tnrtlYlA: "the middle."
C. Palatals and Dentals.—«J>: interchanges occasionally with (II : QJ,:
and X :: VUfc'f : for "ftl CH? : " wood."
ftrt^3,:r<PAU-: for ftfllUU^TAlh:: " I will harass them."
Ps. xviii. 38.
22 PHONOLOGY. [CH. VII.

D. Palatals and Dentals.—1". and J»: and £:: e.g.


A^£: "to be old," for A£1"
"VYXX- for "nRTRT: "to rustle."
E. Linguals and Dentals.—A: and \ :: UJ: and |"| :: "I": and T::
(H: and If::) H": and £:: 01: and X:: X:andg:: e.g.
ATC: "pound," for WC," WO°d.'- "to please," for fiau£::
•PFATl-: "perhaps," for onfAfi^:: TITH": "to redeem,"
for Tflj^:: 1
&°d.(Il : " to cut," for «t»~£X :: X*fl : " quarrel," for fj-fl :
F. Linguals and Labials.—Where 1: precedes n= R: and it is, as
in the Greek and in other languages, exchanged for on : a liquid of the
same order.
"KVO-flAf : "flute," for Trf-flA?::
(D?0*^: "a sieve," for (DHL*?::
AT Ri: " a small tent," for the Greek \a/xw^v>;.
G. Labials.—od; and [1" tm- and (D" fl: and <D"
nr 9°: "rain," for Hf-fl"
(D*lflC: and (D^IlC: " chair," for onmC"
f£: " to remain," (the (D: resolved into the vowel o) from the Eth. lfl<£"
9. As for the liquids A: 00 : Y- d.- and the changes to which they are
liable, they having been embodied in the preceding remarks, nothing
further remains to be said concerning them.

10. Transposition, andfurther Contraction of Letters.


Takes place merely in low language.
000*1*1-: "light," "candle," for oo-fli,^ "
*f"n-"I: for *q*.°l: "nug-oil."
^"HIC: for V1H.C"- contracted from >»°IH.2vn(h.C: " God "
Vl f»f|: "Christ." ^lft^l: and TThfl^l: for friqfVt.P'l: "Christian "
( 23 )

Part IL—ETYMOLOGY.

ON THE DIFFERENT PARTS OF SPEECH.

PRELIMINARY REMARKS.
In the Semitic Languages, it has been the custom (which also Ludolf has
followed, in both his Grammars, of the Ethiopic and of the Amharic Lan
guages) to class the different Parts of Speech under three heads ; viz. Nouns,
Verbs, and Particles ; beginning the Etymological part of the Grammar
with the Verb, as containing the roots of the whole language. But
modern Grammarians have, for important reasons, adopted another course ;
following the practice of some ancient Arabic and Hebrew Scholars : and
as that tripartition presents several inconveniences, especially to such as
are unacquainted with the other Semitic Dialects, we divide the Amharic
Language into Nouns, Pronouns, Verbs, Prepositions, Adverbs, Conjunc
tions, and Interjections. None of the Abyssinian Languages possess the
Article.
2. It will, in a great measure, facilitate the study of the language,
before we enter on each part of speech in particular, to premise a few
general observations on the original forms of words ; because it is in them,
and in the manner in which from them the various formations have
proceeded, that the peculiarity of every language consists. We must
observe, however, that the Amharic not being an original but a derived
language (see Introduction, I. III.), we must have frequent recourse to the
Ethiopic ; and it presents several formations which, in the present state of
its knowledge, cannot yet be accounted for.
3. Now the principal elements—as it were the skeleton—of words in
any language, consists in the Consonants, which are animated by the diffe
rent Vowels, according to the purposes of formation, flexion, and dialect :
and in speaking therefore of original forms, we must look, not to the
Vowels, but to the consonants.* This, when applied to the Amharic, where
Vowels are constantly attached to Consonants, signifies that the various
orders of a letter do not come into consideration, but the letter itself.
4. One characteristic feature of the Semitic Languages is the prevalence

* This is more clear in the Hebrew, Arabic, and Syriac ; in which the Vowels are represented
by certain marks above and below the line, which are more frequently omitted than written.
24 ETYMOLOGY. [CH. I.

of triliteral forms, which are partly derived from original biliterals, and
partly amplified to quadri- and pluri-literals ; but, for the greater part, are
original, and form the majority. This peculiarity applies also to the"
Abyssinian Languages ; although not to the Amharic with equal force, as
to its parent, the Ethiopic.
5. We do not intend to enter into any inquiry about the logical priority
of the Parts' of Speech ; although we believe, that, in the natural develope-
ment of the mind, the Noun has the precedence before the Verb ; but in
the grammatical formation of the Amharic Language, the Verb claims
the priority, since all its roots are reducible to the first order, called Geez ;
L e. " original." For the sake of convenience, however, we begin with the
Noun, and follow the order stated under § 1.

CHAR I.
ON THE NOUNS.
In speaking of the Nouns, we have to consider them according to their
Formation (termination, species), Gender, Number, and Declension.

Section I.
Formation of Nouns.
1. As to the formation of Nouns, they are either Simple, Augmented, or
Compounds ; either Primitive or Derived. Concerning their termination,
they may end in any of the seven orders, except the first. We consider
them, first, in respect to their forms, as simple, augmented, or compound ;
secondly, to theirformation, as primitive or derivative.
2. Simple forms ; consisting of two, three, or four letters.
A. Biliterals.
(a) Ending in the second order :
bad. •flH-: much. 9«A>: full.
TR.: clean. "fl*J.: clear. Jt<J.: pure.
A^Uf-: covetous, a miser. fl'p: spices.
Note.— Most of these forms are Ethiopic Verbal Adjectives, originating
from, or rather representing, the Passive Participle.
(b) Ending in the third order, generally signifying an agent:
workman, diligent oo£: guide. flA.' wide, spacious.
Hi- sower, seedsman. 4.4?" tanner. ebony.
"111.: the inside. current in trade.
CH. I.] ON THE NOUNS. 25

(c) Ending in the fourth order :


dJl: a corpse. rent, wages. Hj*! smell.
11$*: emptiness. HH: ransom. 113 : summer.
*1 i"| : equivalent. <PH: mockery, <P|3: price.
1A: body, fiaq: cloth. sole of the foot.
pif : betrothed. Q>»;J: water. ^■JEJ: dumb.
AH: thief, vessel, utensil. woi"| : dinner.
on 3-: evening. flesh. 4J.GR,: course.
tli.: work. knife.

(d) Ending in the fifth order :


A"A: servant ihft: the king's ma- S^%: poetry.
oort,: a certain mea- jesty. (Dd*: news.
sure. June. fT»A.: full-grown ele
^•11.: butter, oil. f| da' ox. phant,
P/E: disease. time. garment.
't£m' genuine.original. Q,da' fruit.
(e)Ending in the sixth order. These are the most numerous.
UC: suk- 'Pi: day- equity.
AT": cow. IfJ?"1 belly. AA: pearl.
AVl: measure. A*fl: heart. Art: law.
oo>^: warm. child. oij£: honey.
00% : coarse woollen oo»u : banana. u|£: grass.
cloth, qof ; death. f|OD: name,
£,*fl : hunger, fl-ao; governor.
<.-H: rice,
rt.'t* : woman. «tf|: priest.
fid*: man.
(/) Ending in the seventh order :
on A": a fillip, P p : a sort of bread. £*): curds, cheese.
hen. u^A: a third, *1»H: a day's march,
*J£* : small thatched ear. f* : cosso (a medi
house. *PtV : fried grain. cine).

B. Triliterals.
(a) Ending in the second order are rare :
"iVF: meeting. hoodoo": harmonious.
(6) Ending in the third order, the second letter being generally of the
26 ETYMOLOGY. [cH. I.

fourth order. The latter, if their first radical is of the first order, are to be
considered as Active Substantives or Adjectives ; if of the sixth, as Passive.
/\|J_o^: groom. A3>a^"- gatherer. od^: merciful.
OD*l£: counsellor. •rojUl.: steward. drunkard.
fl£.£: flying. : mason. speaker.
rapacious. -fo^d- scholar. AA4L: passenger,
passer-by.
To this class also belong those words whose third letter has been changed
from the third to the sixth order. troAfi: "the returner," "restorer";
9«Ah: "answer," "return"; <fr-6.fQ>: "cutter"; 4*^^.60.: "a cut,"
"piece," &c, for OD/\rt.: 9°AlV +-6'tU.: +^fll."
(c) Ending in the fourth order :
Aouf : entreaty. AI1-F: intellect. «"J|hA: oath.
oolf: twins. cro&,6.: bitter. °°Yl<5.: affliction.
onilH: sour, acid. 00*5 j>: sleeping-place. A;9n1: the lungs.
flfifi*'- place. htlA: potters earth. tyd^Jr: remainder.
HCJP: slave. TAT", linseed. 14^ "I: a spot
2^A3» : a chief. iTlfi/J": height. <DOnu sycamore-tree.

(d) Ending in the fifth order :


tlAU: substance, es- ^.8°^: perfection. y^A: similitude.
sence. AHIL: intellect. 4»^a^: Saturday.
A"AfL: trinity. fllR,: wheat. YlCH*: myrrh.
n-i.lTL: blessing. F*hI*L: August (month). 0$*n*l: age.
<D fll ITL: young he-goat. "Hoq^ : song. «yjp«fe : question,
cow's hide. *l-tHJ«*,: hippopotamus.
Note.—It will be observed, that those Nouns, whose first radical is of
the sixth, the second of the fourth, and the third of the fifth order, are
generally Abstract Nouns of Quality.

(e) Ending in the sixth order :


« Nouns whose three letters are of the same order, generally denoting
essence, quality, action, or concrete substances :
A*Hf|: cloth. A(D*T: change. T11"!^: fountain.
<hC9°: prohibition. 9nCcB': election. flAft: war.
A">kA: image. CTTT^fl: impure. "flCJS": coldness.
flA?": ornament. ^•frA: cookery. "XfJA: corn.
CH. I.] ON THE NOUNS. 27

"t"C^.: remainder. "JflC: eaS]e- H9°-n: a fly.


5igro£: a heap. a fold, time, turn. depth.
f£C*P- dryness. "ITn-fl : tower. d*lf|: pregnancy,
y7rC: addition. R,9n,K": a pair. foetus.
G.CK": judgment. £V*VC,: a pound.

/8 Nouns whose first letter is the first, and the second and third of the
sixth order, generally denoting qualities, concrete substantives, or adjectives :
A 9DJiJ": hide. tiqoR: leprosy. a,'AVl : form.
■ long. «!»'},£■: horn. ncjf : cold-
|l:t*C: a stick. TilA: a plant. W°C- leopard.
lentils. Tn-fl^t" : property. CD^J^■: a male.
09°^ : pillar. H(D*J£- coronet. KC^*: dryland.
"1-flfl : barley. X*hC: hair- <5,tA: thread.
7 Nouns whose first and third letters are of the sixth, and second of
the second order. They are of Ethiopic formation, being generally Verbal
Adjectives and Substantives, the same as § 2. A. a.
9nGV"T : dead. CjbO- fourth. ^»fl""i\: anointed.
*K,f|: holy. •fl^C^: silver. fPri*-ft": humble.
IT-JUJ; king. lX<<h: pure. avaricious.
IftTrhA: half, equal. <D**I"TI: execrated. CT-9° : cursed,
On-^: proud. 0<D-C: biind- "l^qna : majestic.

5 Nouns whose second letter is of the third order. They are of


Ethiopic origin, and generally Adjective.
ooiC- bitter. ■"Ml.Jt: sour. d/k^ '• thin.
^A. A: light. TniU^: heavy. <W.TT- mighty.
mil/fl:wise, XlVfl: narrow.
To the same class belong those Adjectives whose middle letter has been
changed from the third into the sixth order :
q>Eft>1: "thin"; ft^J»C: "short"; ^7°: long"; instead of
q»m.i: tiR.0 d.Wf°"-
Exceptions are :
iPA/fl: "mould"; «l>a^f|: "shirt"; 1HJ1: "prophet"; H ll/fl:
" grape" ; &c.
e Nouns whose middle letter is of the fourth order. They are gene-
nerally Substantives, though sometimes Adjectives.
28 ETYMOLOGY. [cH. I.

AOflJf: custom. A1TI: halter. A'J/T": reins, bridle.


Jhpqtfa : disease. ihV|*n:itch. thgi: infant.
00Aft: tongue. oolTJ: barren.
f Nouns whose middle letter is of the fifth order: ftATI: ih0^^:

17 Nouns whose middle letter is of the seventh order : JW'f "


0 Nouns Verbal, ending in the feminine —Jt*:: They will be men
tioned hereafter, when speaking of Derived Nouns.
(/) Nouns ending in the seventh order. They are all Substantives.
A4»ft: lamentation. 9°CP: exile. 9n"li"i: ague.
9n|*| ft: a pole. oortf : a canal. firhP: wire.
«l»nC: jackal. *$'?^,: girl> virgin. !!«*.£:hail.
IM^A": mule. "JiCft: leaven. *flIlC:drum.
(Dftfi^: awl. "^dWV": tempest. H1J*,: poisonous
Jf : a dergo. *) 90 p: water-jar. serpent.
*)CC: throat.
C. QuadriUterals :
There are none ending in the second order.
(a) Single Nouns ending in the third order. Such as are derived from
any derivation of Verbs are not included here.
ft'flftn.: gatherer. fll "VI*: a cleaver.
fno|«l>: a split. nC.*\i- a plunderer.
(b) Ending in the fourth order :
•"^JJU8^ UJ OA: beam, car- fl9n'fld.: a kind of
finA: deceit. riage. pulse.
a learned AA1*J: a whip. YV-flTrhl: grass-
man. T*-Aa9,*i: a young hopper.
man. "\$oijJ»: leather bag
(c) Ending in the fifth order :
A9DAtnl: verdure. oq'J'fA: a rabbit. ClfcS,' clemency.
fl^lA.: an elder. IlCn^",: Cayenne pep- 'I*C*la1l: translation.
J^'fl'^n.: bill of account. per.

(d) Ending in the sixth order :


A9DA9D: green. on"lg,C.- ^age. 9nft"fl."l: poor.
9nTHC: adultery. UJAftA: chain. d.l^l: mud.
CH. I.] ON THE NOUNS. 29

flTHC:asPan- tlGJkl'- sponge. +9°nC: yoke-


^"lJiJ"fl : eye-brow. *~lTrF-A: shrewdness. 2\FiYlC: a youth.
ftfOTfl: side. Jf^-flO frontier. Jgllii: virgin.
(e) Ending in the seventh order :
""lYj*: a harp. *Q^C: pewter. IW^SPAt1- religion, god-
(D^*HC: prince, or *H"lj£"C: monkey. liness.
princess. J£"^C: stuP^*
D. There are not many Simple Nouns of five and more letters : some
of those which exist, we will mention here :
*l£YXX,' green. fh00^01]^: vegetables.
T"iT£.fl: supporter of the head. InAIA: flame.
TWM^AA: egg. "SVi^Aq.: sleep.
T\(fr&*6tl ' rhinoceros. X"1*1TC: chamber-maid.
"WYY-C^Y-C.- chequered.
3. In speaking of Augmented Nouns, we do not refer to those casual addi
tions they receive by inseparable Prepositions at the beginning, or Pro
nouns at the end ; but we speak of those augmentations at the beginning,
in the middle, and at the end, by which their original signification is
modified. In order, however, not to fall into an unnecessary repetition,
we postpone this subject till we come to speak of Derived Nouns. (See 5. c.)

4. Compounds are formed (a) from the Ethiopic statm construclus ; the
nomen regens and the nomen rectum being combined into one word, as in
our "house-door" for "house's door,11 only the reverse of our order. In
the Ethiopic, as in the Hebrew, the word (nominative) which" precedes, and
which, according to our ideas, should have the nominative foriri, is changed ;
and the word (genitive) which follows, and which we should expect to be
changed, is not changed at all. As this peculiarity does not affect the
Amharic Language any further, we do not enter into it, but content our
selves with giving only a few instances.
Compounds. Analysis.
HAlVr: master of the house, self. HA: master, and ft*: house.
nA1$£"£.: fellow, associate. H A: • . ■ . >k*j£"£.: bread.
. (domestic, one belonging) . (Cl'fl : Eth. i.q. Amh.
IVttYllH , , c -i t ft*: house . .-I"" . _ 7
' I -to a house or family. J I fl<D': man.
n.TIT-M': state-room, parlour. ft*: house . . "YhW: king.
Thus are many Ethiopic words compounded, especially their Christian
names; e.g. 3,£A: °flC^91,: Haila Maryam, "the Power of Mary,"
commonly Hailu; 1-fld,: 'VlH.Mliti.C: or"Ml£: ft^A*!: Gabra
30 ETMOLOGY. [cH. I.

Egziabeher, or Gabra Amlak, contr. Gabramlak, commonly Gabru, or


Zaegziabher, or Zaamlak, " Servant of God," &c.
(6) From Amharic words, combining either noun with noun, or the
noun with any other part of speech :
Compounds. Analysis.
Id.^-: left-hand. °I<5.: and
"IMS": free-will, liberty. TH: (dominion?) & "S^J^": hand.
q^^: empty-handed. H£: empty, & >i^::
7^,1"$"- O my Lord! PI: mine, & "VJ". Lord, master.

5. Primitive Nouns, strictly speaking, are those whose origin cannot be


traced to any other source but to themselves. Now there are a good
number in the Amharic Language which are easily recognised as Primitive
in this sense ; but there are many others which can be called so only in
a relative acceptation of the word, because in the Ethiopic, from whence
they are taken, they are not Primitive ; although either the original word
is not current in the Amharic, or the mode of its derivation is not accor
dant with the idiom of that language. The first of these two latter clauses
induces us to consider a number of Amharic Nouns as comparatively Pri
mitive ; whilst the second constrains us to leave to others the same deriva
tive character which they have in the Ethiopic.
As the Primitive Nouns are found only among the simple forms, we refer
to the above exhibition, N°. 2.
A. Biliterals ':
Class (a) is entirely derivative.
Class (b) also.
Class (c) contains a number of Primitives; e.g. da^l' 11 HH:
nj: TJ: 1A: floq: CR,^: gj; JUJJ: aqj:
J?£: A.1:
(d) Primitives of the fourth class: /VA.: ihl: o^fh' fl%' 1H»:

(e) In the fifth class, the majority are Primitives.


(/) In the sixth class, ft- : •)£»: J»P::

B. Triliteral Primitives :
In-class (c), od-ij-: i"|9°n: flfJA: 1CP"- TA1: tnjflA:

In class (d), fl1£: lihft.: ih^A.: gig,: YlCft: (1)111 fit:

In class ((?), almost the whole of the first («) ; about half of the second (fi) ;
■A
PLURILITERALS.

*: filix mas. 1. ult. H::


kA: stairs, ladder. ftCl^l • a parasitic plant.
tfl: God. "XT J»^»A: kind of lizards.
9° : sort of gourds. £C9nn.^: breast-bone.
£: nail.
ou> Gfl>A tp> A : weasel.
;A: k'welqu'al.
": bedstead.
it: yolk of an egg. 2. ult. «£::
1: capricorn. Ud.VXZ.- green-
P : small elephants' *1> £»''■)£A: a certain bird.
tusk.
f: unfermented wine,
i^f : obelisk. 3. ult. "J::
[£: adultery. ft9*»f"HA"ll: saddle's crupper.
t>£: inquiry.
ftlYlA.fl: measles.
9°: yellow pigeon. <t»vTV£;t": a small handful.
•A: shrewdness,
q^m>p,9D6p.in^'"j': ankle-bone.
craftiness.
"ft*i.K,Ca^a^.'l": lap-wing.
1**1: moth,
h: span. f"AflTA: glutton,
1 : back-door. in AH A: flame.
acrimonious fruit. ft^flA^: white horse.
"ftl^AA: egg.
VlYlC£.E": a weed.
B°~l\\fl"i: chin.
t5. ult U"::
oo^AT11^: large knife.
: a certain qua
druped. fnmCS": game of chess.
• : flat basket, "ft1*A^.: sleep.
sort of beads. AYlflYlfl: light-minded.
tobacco, aDlY><i.Yl"-C: carriage.
raw flesh, «fr*TPC*VC: curled hair.
harp, lyre, >»91Dn.<PT-fl7n: martingal.
fnpt: an anthel
mintic.
<p: glass. 4. ult. U*::
: kind of marmots, ft'flCnllP,: sort °f plaited hair.
pewter. ft*n*flC: sort of bread.

To face page 30.


CH. I:] ON THE NOUNS. 31

none of the third (7); few of the fourth (5), 9>A."fl: 1»o^f|:
A6H: \0.^' Hfl.-n., and fifth (e), Alfl: A"XV°:; but none of the
sixth (f) division.
In class (/), the greater part are Primitives.
C. Quadriliteral Primitives :
(a) None.
(6) ooi^: UJ^A: fT"*0-!.*.: AA^= tMllTHl: K'flT<5.:
M>ai]j>::
(c) Few; e.jr. aul^A.: ftCSld. ::
(d) The majority.
(e) ODfn*: (D^HC: H^C: £1*C::
D. Those mentioned as simple pluriliterals are all Primitive.
6. Derived Forms take their origin either from Nouns, Verbs, or Par
ticles ; and are formed in various ways, either by contraction (elision), or
by change, or by augmentation of their letters.
A. By Contraction (see Part I. Ch. VII. 2.), and Elision (ibid. 3.), they
are changed more seldom within the limits of the Amharic than in their
transition from the Ethiopic Language into the Amharic. It takes place
most frequently in Biliterals :
Amh. Eth. Amh. Eth.
"JK-: pure, fromUWh:: gni^: dinner, from 9*J«"lfh::
fli: ox, .. -fl(t6.3Z: A9°: cow, AW"-
a*lQ: honey, .. ao*\C.:: uiO grass, .. "IOC:
jfrlL: butter, oil, .. 4»*fl>k:: sometimes Amharic.
Sometimes in Triliterals, derived from the Ethiopic Quadriliterals
Amh. Eth. Amh. • Eth.
'flC*!* : strong, from ■fl^'tsO :: f|oo*oo*: harmonious,
n<h£: essence, .. nthCp:: from f|<n»'0<n»»0::

B. By change of one, two, or of all the primitive letters, according to


the rules laid down in Part I. Ch. VII. 4, 5, 7. A few instances will
suffice for illustration :
Derivative. Primitive.
<I>£9u ; that which is before, \
'ttJ!lail: saddle's pommel, > from 9": the former time.
^>J£ml: Saturday, /
♦Ji.fl s holy, ^
^J^rt,: consecration, > from 1»JEjrt: to sanctify.
♦J^il : sanctifier, /
32 ETYMOLOGY. [CH. I.
Derivative. Primitive.
oo/\fj:a restorer,
I from iro All : to return, bring back.
9°Ail :return, answer,
■^""lA,:
likeness,
I from avflil: to resemble.
•jnrtJE:
kind, resemblance,
IT-JW: king,
I from 11UJ : to be king.
regent,
AJ^? : hunter,
> from ARl: to hunt.
ART"- game»

C. Augmentation of letters in the derivation of Nouns takes place either


in the beginning (preformation), or in the middle (reduplication), or at the
end (afformation).* The letters used for this purpose are 00 : |"|: "l": 1:
V- A: <D: .P- Of these, on; ft: T: 1"- A: d): Art: and Afl1*:
are prefixed; and 00 : *f: \z f : fl): and _P: are affixed. Reduplication
takes place by repeating any of the radical letters.

(a) Preformation:
bo ; is used for Infinitives, and retained in Nouns derived therefrom : ,
Offline*: the watching.
ODinn4,y : watch-house, from Ain't*: to watch.
1*: T"i: A: Aft: AftT: and AT: are retained in Nouns derived from
those derivations of Verbs which have these characteristic Preformatives:
Noun. Verbal derivation. Radix.
Tf"3£: speaker. tn^: to speak. 114 : to say> tell.
Tl'fV : trembler. TTPffi'fn) : to tremble. "Mlffll : to bruise.
A5.6.i*i: breaker. A<5.<£l"l : to break. 4L«£rt : to burst.
ArtJ"inl0,i: nurse for Art^T0000: to nurse sick
sick persons. persons. A<n>0D ::
Al^lj**!1: cheater. AllT'T: to cheat. ^1T"T: (non occ )
A: is prefixed to Verbs, and one of the radical letters doubled ; e.g.
Am-ll: A*«niooT: AE^d"!"
*t". and T : are prefixed to Verbs to form Nouns of action ; e.g.

Sometimes the A: or "1": is cut off, and |: retained in these Pre


formatives :

This ia analogous to the Hebrew ''fllENil and the Arabic UamJu Nouns.
CH. I.] ON THE NOUNS. 33
Nocn. Verbal Derivation. Radix.
IT\R"XK": thunder. Kif-Rl-S,- to thunder. "T-£TK: Eth- t0 beat-
IflMinWl: a drop. Timnmil: to drop. mnmfl: to trot
fl): occasionally interchanges with the oo: of the Infinitive, the Noun
being considered no longer as an Infinitive : e.g.
(D9°nC: (or aniTCO chair- o^iUCr the sitting, (Eth.)
Hid.'- to sit.
<D9n<S/I": (for onogn^s/t-:) or (Dlii/V: "sieve"; from to blow,
to fan, to make wind.
(b) Reduplication ; repetition of any of the radical letters :
Derivative. Primitive.
^rffl: very small. small.
^AA^* : very great. ;TA^» : great.
ODA'h1l9n: very beautiful. ol,A*l9n : fine, beautiful.
In Verbal Nouns, which take it from the Verb, Reduplication is retained :
Nouns. Verbal Derivation. Radix.
■t* ""AA fi : walker. T^AArt : to walk. o»AI*l: to return.
Reduplication with transposition :
TC«l£: doubt TlH<i.m£: to doubt. IT1<»£::
(c) Afformation of the letters on; -fz t: f : and
a The Afformation of §9° : to Substantives, forms Adjectives and Sub
stantives of Fulness, Intenseness, &c, similar to the Latin osus, and English
6ms and fid ; e.g.
Form in am. Origin.
a**£fyija: beautiful (formosus). OUAfa: form.
Ujjguj; glutton (man of a large stomach). Iff?'- belly.
^ygn: fertile. fruit.
thick. (DQ.C,- thickness.
/3 Afformative inj : forms Substantives :
ftJiT01!: mouse-coloured mule. ?i,£*F: mouse.
(D-flaq: fornicator. <D»«"I: dog.
7 The Afformative *|" : at, et it itu, at la, produces feminine forms :
Form in 'I" :: Origin.
ASrf ■ birth. <DA£: to bring forth.
't'^UCl': doctrine. mVmld.' to learn.
TJtrh't': (Jem.) pure." Tftrh: (masc.) pure.
A^J/l* : daughter. A^J": son.
t^Cy^-fear- £.6.: (Eth. <5,CU:) to be afraid.
fydal". remainder. q><»: to remain, to be left.
*H : lowness. "H : low.
34 ETYMOLOGY. [CH. I.

5 The Afformative I : a*J : forms Substantives of Quality, from Verbs


which in Latin frequently answer those ending in tas, in English in ty :
Forms in an. Verbs.
A"TJ : authority. ID A III : & III Ami : to have authority.
■flCHT : light, clarity. fid. : Eth. flC1* : to be or clear-
: covenant. Yl PR : T *l PR ■ ■
ty&^l'- delicacy, vanity. *I»Am: to melt,
•t^nl: offering, eucharist. 4*"^fl : to take the sacrament.
Exceptions are, "ant"; and 1.904,1 :" cough."
e f : and i^ : are affixed to Adjectives, Substantives, and Particles, in
order to form Abstract Substantives ; generally answering our ence, ance,
ness, cy, ty, hood, and ship.
Forms in f : and \*f Radices.
Afhf*: intelligence, sagacity. A*fl: heart, mind.
AOAf: highness. A OA: (Eth.) high.
APl^: difference, variety. AP: different, various.
AJfi't1: childhood, sonship. Aj£: child, son.
rhgii'l": infancy. ih^T: infant.
ODA*19nl;t": beauty, goodness. ou^lri 711 : beautiful, good.
avfO{}Q\tf;: teachership. aogrj{j£: teacher,
•fffflt": holiness. ^J^fl : h°ly-
>»(D*lT*5l,fl": veracity. >»<D*lTf: true.
?ifl«'q*t,s?l^": witchcraft. AI>lon"r?!: sorcerer.
f The Afformative is affixed to Nouns, to form Adjectives and Sub
stantives of Office, Habit, or Quality.
Forms in f: Radices. (
UYlTf : lazy, an idler. UYl/t": idleness.
"O^Tnn?3: sailor. oo^Yl'fl: ship.
They often assume a T: before the
fl£/t"^*: labourer. work, labour.
7%VanmTV- refractory. "^V"!!.: I will not.
t] The Ethiopic Afformative a*E : is affixed to Nouns Substantive with
the same effect as those formed by the Afformative f :: They, besides, form
Gentile Nouns. -
Form in a*E" . . Radix.
<D11A^: evangelist. (DTLA: gospel.
6 The letter y : is affixed,
N To Infinitives, to form Nouns of Agency, Instrumentality, Locality,
Object, &c. ; whereby it must be observed, that when the letter to which it is
AUGMENTED FORMS.

By Affirmatives, (e) f: and to Substantives,


to Substantives and Adjec- Adjectives, and Particles, form
foes, denoting fulness. Abstract Substantives of Quality,
beautiful. Stale, &c.
\fo-. fruitful. Alhf: intelligence, prudence.
: gluttonous. A(fA£ • highness, elevation.
"HWR £: relationship.
APl'T: difference, variety.
to Simple Roots, forming
AS'l'l*: sonship.
Substantives.
0,»A*19l,Vt": goodness, beauty.
: a certain fever. ■^dX-Vf ^I'f: verity.
: stallion.
ftfJ^AYi^l'T: divine nature.
9 : fornicator,
ifl: ash -coloured (lit. /. f": to Nouns and Particles,forms
mouse-coloured) mule. Adjectives and Substantives of
Office, Habit, and Quality.
at, et, it, tjt, ~p : and J* : UYvHE*: idler.
Feminine Forms. OT'ClTiniF navigator, sailor.
birth, nativity. Often assumes T"
: 0^A(D;t*:) power. ftHTT?': mournful.
Iih't": boasting, glorying. f|<£,T?*: workman, labourer.
: daughter. y**Jutl,'TV: unwilling.
I^f:
^1 majesty. (g) awi, with the same effect as the
V : fear, preceding.
t*: fornication. (DTlAi;: evangelist,
: the rest, remainder. d^^lt: Pharisee.
: lowness. French.
(h) y : expressed or implied,forms
Nouns ofInstrumentality, Agency,
to Simple Roots, forms Sub- Locality, Object, Individuality.
ives of Essence (Concrete
tantives), Power, Quality. a To Infinitives.
n : authority, privilege. •"UUCP: » tie-
light, clarity. ODAYl.^': measuring instru
ment.
: covenant, treaty.
BVA.lf!,: object of scorn.
infant.
il: delicacy. £ To Simple Roots.
J: offering, eucharist. «|>9DJP : spoil, booty.
CI: ant. bit, morsel, taste.
1: coughing, a cold. JfCiy : rubbish, sweepings.

To face page 34.


CH.I.] ON THE NOUNS. 35

to be joined, is one of those changeable Linguals or Dentals mentioned in


Part I. Ch. VII. 4 c, both _P : and the letter to which it was to be joined,
are dropped, and exchanged for such a cognate Lingual or Dental as com
bines the joint sounds. (See the above-mentioned paragraph.)
Forms with ^Z , the ,P Z being either expressed
or implied. Infinitives.
00A1T1..P : measure. 0,0AVl : the measuring.
ouy\l£* : object, means of scorn. ero/v*]j»» : the scorning,
tnjrt^y: passage, excellent ^Al}.: the passing,
mj^-fgroj» : printing-office. OWiftfOi the printing,
croon/\ H : place, or means of iroiro/\f| : the returning,
returning.
"flUJCP: a tie, band, bond. wiJUJ£: the binding.
2 To Simple Roots, with the same object and in the same manner as to
Infinitives:
Forms with £ Z Z Roots.
iptfay : booty. *1>0,J : to plunder.
^>«ror*j: a bit, taste. ^^fl : the tasting.
ijj. trail, train. "h,,;t"'J*: the dragging.
JtCU* : rubbish. RC.1: sweeping.

Section II.
On the Species of Nouns.
1. Nouns are to be considered, either as Substantives, names of things,
or as Adjectives, names of properties. In the Amharic, as in the other
Semitic Languages, they both belong together; and they have been
jointly treated in the preceding Section as to their Formation. It remains
now to say a few words concerning the Adjectives.
2. As to their Formation, but few of them, as the preceding Tables show,
are original : such are,
fl"i:good. well. >»ow*A: bad.
qo/\/\: oblong. K3/l: prominent. AC*1«:
Even these are but primarily Adjectives ; and when isolated, may be,
and are, used as Substantives. Most Adjectives are of derivative forms,
being derived either from Verbs (see Table II.) or from Substantives ; e. g.
1<.9°: A«P«£: «°<5C: ""AYl?: odA*!00: A1*!^"
Participial Adjectives, pon_t"l£: PJ-crol ::
3. As for Comparison, the Amharic Language, like the Hebrew, has no
36 ETYMOLOGY. [cH-

Adjective form to express the Comparative or Superlative : we therefore


must defer this subject to the Syntax.
4. The. Numeral Nouns will be treated in a separate chapter.
We now proceed to the consideration of the Gender of the Nouns.

Section III.
On the Gender of the Nouns.
1. The Amharic Nouns have but two Genders, Masculine and Feminine.
We shall endeavour to point out a few general rules, showing what Nouns
belong to either of the two genders, and by which forms they are to be
recognised. We have to complain, however, that there is yet much confu
sion; both masculine and feminine forms being alternately applied to
words where the sex is not palpably distinguished.
A. Masculine are :
(a) The names of God, angels, and men ; also the names of nations, and
of all male animals :
■>k°lH.?vnfh.C: God, ft£«rj: Satan. «*<»*fl: an Arab.
the Lord. "MIC?*. A: Gabriel. U II ft : an Abyssinian.
?k9°AYl:God. fl<D"- man. a Frenchman.
Pfrft: Jesus. ' P-<h1ft: John. ?^in«l:alion.
«n»A?kfrl : angel.
(6) The names of the sun and the stars, of ranks and offices of men :
0<h£: sun. iT"9i>: governor. fllTfc: guardian.
YOrMl: star. I^: ruler. (VtU: servant.
B. Feminine are :
i
The names of women and female animals ; the names of the moon, the
earth, countries, towns, &c. ; plants ; the names of female ranks and offices ;
collective names ; and the names of several abstracts :
UT}Qyfja : Mary. TnT1"? : city, camp. (D^HO princess, lady.
gQ: hen. *nrj££: village. "Koon.'t-: mistress.
Cd^S*: moon. "ilRC.: Gondar. female servant.
•JDR"^: earth, country. HQ.: tree. "Ml^: assembly, society,
rhflh : Abyssinia. Mil : a flower.
And see 2.
C. Common, are several conditions of life ; as, " child," " slave," and others,
where the termination of the word does not distinguish the sex.
CH. I.] ON THE NOUNS. 37

2. The two Genders are distinguished,


(a) By the addition of distinct words denoting the Male and the Female.
These are: QTJ.K": and *I*n;t": for Males, and |Vt": and JVIfrt": for
Females : besides this, Fi(D"£»: for several male animals, who are without
this distinction considered as females ; as, goats, fowl, &c. : e. g.
(D'J.K-: a son, boy. iVf: a daughter, girl.
Plfl^: TH^t-: male of animals. P1f|i"| : ftTfl*!*: female of animals.
J\<D*«5. : £ PA : he-goat. frdMk : £C : (he-fowl).
In Shoa, they carry this distinction further; calling "clayish earth"
<ST\f£z or TH'T: *J°RC,' (male earth), and "loose earth'" Jk"lft*|»: or
iVt": ff°g^C- (female earth). They call wood which splits perpendi
cularly, (DIJ^*: "XlCEt't*: "male wood" ; and wood which splits trans
versely, it*!*: ">»TtCfe';t*: "female wood." Maria-Theresa dollars, which
have the requisite coinage, ?^flJt*: *flC: " female dollars" ; and those
which are any way deficient, being M. T. dollars, "f Q^: "flQ: "male
dollars." The latter distinction obtains in all Abyssinia.
(6) The Female is distinguished by the termination ^z and "f::
(See the Table of Derivatives, II. 4. c.)
(c) The same by f : and i^z (See Derivatives, II. 4. c.)
(d) The Primitives are mostly Masculines.
(e) As to the Derivative forms, the following rule obtains :
Classes I. 1. 2. 3. 6. and II. 4. /. g. are predominantly Masculine ;
and Classes I. 4. and IL 4. c. d. e. predominantly Feminine. The rest are
of Mixed Gender.
3. The remaining Nouns are undetermined as to the sex ; the Adjective
and Verb being promiscuously applied to them in the Masculine and in the
Feminine Gender.
4. Several Adjectives and Substantives, whose form is Masculine, are

Masculine. Feminine. .
IK.: "lJt«h+: pure.
•flCWl": clear.
"IQ^o^f : wonderful.
fllTtl5: guardian.
old.
(D<5.h : heir. <D6.\\.t>: heiress.
uTn,Tf: UYVfi'B.-t:: lazy.
Txdam^z heathen man. ft^aqq*^: heathen woman.
38 ETYMOLOGY. fcH. I.

Section IV.
On the Number of the Nouns.
1. The number is but twofold ; viz. Singular and Plural. We might add
the Collective; but that being considered either as a body, when it is Singu
lar, or as an aggregate of individuals, when it is plural, it constitutes no
particular form; and we therefore proceed to consider these two, the
Singular and the Plural ; there being no Dual in this language.
2. As the Singular is that form in which each Noun, before it is
changed, presents itself, we need not say any thing about it, but direct
our attention at once to the formation of the Plural Number.
3. The truly Amharic Plural is very simple ; it has but one form, and
that is the termination otsh (Tigre of) ; in which we recognise the Hebrew
Tv), the Arabic and the Ethiopic at; e.g.
Singular. Plural.
n.'T : house. houses.
(D*il: dog.
child, : children,
ftq't': father, ftn + 'f1: fathers.
mil;: guardian. fllH^I1: guardians.
Ill : good. n1¥ = good.
Note.—The Plural termination of several Nouns ending in the fifth order
is divided into two Consonants ; the original letter being put into the
sixth order, and a P* : being added, to which the Plural ^ : is affixed ; e.g.
•^■"lAP"^: similitudes, from gni"|/\,::
4. But besides this Amharic, we have the following Ethiopic Plural
forms ; which sometimes are applied, although the true Amh. Plural
always may be put
(a) Termination an.
For the Derivates, 1. 1. II. 4. g. and some other forms ; e.g.
Singular. Plural. Singular. Plural.
^KJfl : holy, 4>J£,'"l'i: saints. A,6^l*tl- Pharisee,
man: wise. mam- sinner,
rh.F(D*: living. poor.
oo>*t* : dead. 007*1 VI C: teacher,
Note.—Irregular : ft.JJU-J^li Jew." JiKU-J^: " Jews.
(6) Termination at.
The Feminines of the Plural Adjectives in an.
iEJP*: tbt^n^: oS^T*:
CH. I.] ON THE NOUNS. 39
The Derivative forms terminating in on. ,
A"A"n : authority. A"AHfJf " -flCHI : light. -flC^r*1: lights.
rhgT: infant. A»gf^: infants.
Besides these :
Singular. . Plural. , ,
rt01^^: heaven. rtoq^»Jf-: heavens.
goaf : cloud. goaf"^-. clouds.
letter. iS.EA't*: letters.
3*61: word. jfA't" : words.
9D/A'm.C: secret. ^^m.d.'T : secrets.
Some forms ending in the fifth order :
9»i"lA,: likeness. 9°,"lAJP,fl": likenesses.
7.H.: time. T.H,^+ : times.
Words ending in the servile *f "
froo^: year. ?i9n3";t": years.
I'lOTJO'T: martyr. l"lalJO;t*;t": martyrs.
Other forms :
tMPCF'- apostle. ih'PCP't*: apostles.
14.fl"- wind. *i4.'"l,ft": winds.
ch°l: law. ihXJ^t*: laws.
n.'T: house. MlJP'l* : houses.*
TriU'l: priest. *lUFJt": priests.
J%)^f|: metropolitan. ^A1"!"!": metropolitans.
7*.ftjTl*fcfl: bishop. h, R/l* £ «"l ^ : bishops.
R^JPtl: deacon. Si^mF*P£it"- deacons.
(c) Form 2VH1-Q::
MC= village. MJT<: villages.
(d) From ftm^::
(D^C : string. J\(D*;1*C: strings.
rhU-fl : people. TkihW-Il: people.
f*€i- hird. TiOVG.-- birds.
09nJt: pillar. fr">»aijj»-: pillars.
(e) IH^'I-::
Singular. Plural.
J^CE: wild- ft^/I^ : wild beasts.
IDCE: beam. UJi-t't*: army.

* Used only in ft-flJPT: YlCflt^f ^= "Churches," from WV: frCfTt.P'i:


' a Church."
ETYMOLOGY. [CH. I.

(/) w-ncjf.:
priest, ixICD'fl^: priests.
oiil^fl: spirit spirits,
Km*l: lion. ^f-nfl-l". lions.
o»Yl-n: judge- ^^XYVI*: judges.
YlfftC1 HP8-
tilMI: star. Yl«P*l*fl,st-: stars.
J\9"AVl: God. Ko^AVl'f: gods.
\9°C : leopard. ttf^Cff- leopards.
o«A?»Vl: angel. froA">»Vl,fI": angels.
oofrtfi'T: window. OOrf^YlNjl,5 windows.
A.^»: chief. A,3>(D*'l*t': chiefs.
ptyf)p: mule. pip/y'-f : and A1«rA"t"*i1: mules.
: demon. AjTTi'f: demons.
Rare forms :
IT-JUJ: king. njui^: and YIPU^^: kings.
RTJ1iYl*"rt,"- monk. qorVir1^: q"flrrfi;r: & qntfaTrrfi*:
monks.
5. It is well to attend to. these various forms, as they frequently occur
in the Amharic Bible as well as in conversation : but it must be borne in
mind, that they are all of Ethiopic origin, and superseded by the simple
Amharic form otsh ; and a beginner will never be mistaken in using the
latter, until he is sufficiently acquainted with the language to know where
he has to apply any of the other forms.

Section V.
On the Declension of the Nouns.
The Declension of Nouns is very simple and uniform. Nouns are
inflected through four Cases, equally in the Singular and the Plural, i.e.
the Nominative, the Genitive, Dative, and Accusative. One example may
suffice to show the whole mode of proceeding :
Singular. i Plural.
Nom. n/t" : a house. n,-f-^: houses.
Gen. Pn,*t*: of a house, a house's. Pll,+:^: of houses.
Dat. A n't*: to a house. AIVf"^r: to houses.
Acc. n»"l"~l: a house. l^-fl-Vp-}: houses.
Observations :
(a) The Genitive answers the Eth. H : , and is not to be confounded with
the Pronouns Relative or Distributive.
ch. r. ii.] THE NOUNS. THE NUMERALS. 41

The Accusative Case must not be confounded with the Interrogative


Adverb 1 : , nor with the termination 1 : of Nouns. On the Construction,
and on the various uses of the Accusative, see Syntax.
2. It occasionally happens, that they make use of the Ethiopic Genitive
or status constructus, i.e. that mode of construction which prevails in the
Hebrew, and which has been noticed in the First Section of this Chapter, § 4.
The two nouns, which stand in a genitive relation to each other, one of
which is the regens (Nominative), and the other the rectum (Genitive), are
so closely connected as to appear as one word. The Genitive follows the
Nominative, and receives the tone or accent ; in doing which, the preceding
Noun, the Nominative, is modified : in the Hebrew it is shortened : in our
case, the last letter, if it is of the sixth order, is changed into the first, and
the two words are considered as one compound, separated merely by the
(:) colon ; but even this, in the Amharic, is often dropped, especially when
the Genitive begins with a vowel consonant, or when it is a short word :
HA: flfV' and HAIl.'t*: "master of the house."
HA£: for HA: " owner of debts," i.e. "creditor" or "debtor."
Another change is produced by the affixion of Pronouns to Nouns, of
which we shall speak under the head of Inseparable Pronouns.
i

CHAP. II.
ON THE NUMERALS.
1. The Numerals are of two kinds, Cardinals and Ordinals. The Cardinals
specify the number of things which are the subject of speech : the Ordinals
exhibit the order in which they occur.
2. The Cardinal Numbers in the Amharic are as follow :
Cipher. Amharic. English. Cipher. Amharic. English.
1 f ™K ) One, a, mi 30. LUA""|: Thirty.
s:
If. KIR* : ) an. 40- { }
mi
b: 2. U-A^: Two.
C: 3. r-fl*: Three. * 2: 50. A9»"1: Fifty.
b; 4. ti&Sf. Four. mi 60. hj^'ThorfUH: Sixty.
£; 5. A^iVf: Five. m 70. fll: or frf1<%: Seventy.
Six. m 80. ftinny: Eighty.
s; 6. fljffin*:
zi T. Iln* : Seven. ii 90. Hmf: Ninety.
m 8. fl9n1'f. Eight. 100. ouT: Hundred.
@: 9. HOTS: Nine. Ip: 1000. flu: Thousand.
II 10. AJ^q: Ten. p_p; 10000. 7* Ten Thousand.
2:20. UJP: Twenty. •
G
42 ETYMOLOGY. [CH. II.
Compound Cardinals.
IS: 11. AM*£.: A"iJ?: Eleven. IZ; 16. AA«£.: fljf ft*: Sixteen.
IS! 12. A*"2.: U-A*: Twelve. I£; 17. AM\J.: ftl*: Seventeen.
ICl 13. ftft*: Thirteen. IW: 18. A*"£.: ftT0"**: Eighteen.
ID; 14. hJM&.: h<5.*: Fourteen. I@; 19. AJ*M.: HflT?: Nineteen.
IS; 15. YvV&*: K^ofi^; Fifteen.
The same order is observed with all the Tenths, to a Hundred ; e.g.
Uy : A1£-:: M»Aft: lhA*f" tiC*\ : Pft*: &c.
The numbers upward of a Hundred are joined to the Hundreds by Yl :
or "T : ; e.g.
E3- 106. od^: Iflftj^ft'*:: .... One hundred and six.
Pi!; 160. OD^: ■fftft: or tm-f-z Ylftft: One hundred and sixty.
E3H; 199. ou-t-: TriHAlF: Hm*!" . . One hundred & ninety-nine.
IE!; 200. U-A*: oo>f-: ...... Two hundred.
ISaS; 1841. fj«: l-fty"'**: o«-t":VlCn: KIR", or flVi^z.
on-fr: ^ICJI- A1Jf: One Thousand Eight Hundred and
Forty-one-
3. The Ordinal Numbers are formed by the termination f : affixed to
the Cardinals.
ft^ftT?5: the Sixth.
ftHTi*: the Seventh',
IhAfi8: the Second, ft 9° IT? : the Eighth.
ftftl"?: the Third. HmTf : and Hflll?5: the Ninth.
tt6.T¥: the Fourth. AJ"^?5: the Tenth.
M°tlTT- the Fifth. AJ1"^.: U-AT?: the Eleventh.
&c. &c.

The Simple Numbers, Twenty, Thirty, and upwards, scarcely admit of


the termination ?* : , but are generally given to the Cardinal form. In
compounds, the last number receives the termination f : ; as,
Uy-. AIR?: 9°0<5.G.: the Twenty-first chapter.

4. They have no particular form for the Distributive Numbers; but


they express them, either by reiteration, as,
Aljf: A1JC": (contr. AlJ^IJirO one-by-one, some, several, one or
other, singly, severally.
IhA*: U'A't': two-and-two;
CH. II. III.] THE NUMERALS. THE PRONOUNS. 43

Or by y^P: or J\,P: as,


ft.yiS.1g:: each, every. /i.PlhA't*: by twos, by pairs, two-and-
two, every two, every couple, &c. &c.
flPf'fl't': *fi: every three days.

CHAP. III.
ON THE PRONOUNS.
1. The Amharic Pronouns are, as to their logical character, divided, as in
other languages, into, 1. Personal ; 2. Possessive ; 3. Demonstrative ;
4. Relative; 5. Interrogative; 6. Reflective; and 7. Distributive Pro
nouns. As to their forms, they are classed, as in other Semitic Languages,
into Separable and Inseparable Pronouns. We begin with the Separable
Pronouns. They are Personal, Possessive, Demonstrative, Interrogative,
and Reflective.
Section I.
Separable Personal Pronouns.
They are Three for the Singular, and Three for the Plural. The
Singular has some peculiarities. The First Person has not the Gender
expressed : the Second and Third have distinct forms for the Masculine
and for the Feminine Gender: the Second Person has, besides, three
distinctions of honour, as the following Paradigm shows :
SINGULAR. PLURAL.
Com. Fern. Com.
lPers. ~M.il. "ftV-- we.

PersftTf: ''} thou. ^A"!*: you.

|;}you.
3 Pers. "ftCXp '• ne» >»Cf'<P : she> **• 'KC.tl'Ta*: they.
Note, (a) On the application of the three different forms for the Second
Person : A"iT: and ^1^: are applied to inferiors, to God, to intimate
friends ; and in universal address, where you need not pay any regard to
rank, &c. ATI*: is used for a lesser ; "KCl"l(p: for a higher degree of
honour. These two forms resemble the German Ihr (in Switzerland Er),
and Sie, and the Italian Voi and Lei, for the Second Person Singular.
(6) In speaking of a distinguished person, the form of the Third Person
Plural is used, as a mark of honour.
6 KH>< 2C ft
?ft4y.
|ofyou>your,
fofjofher.her,
hipcrig):
mj^..
.it,PCn«P-|
1
V
*
^,r-t
une.yours<
his,its.
herg
itg
him'AC
{*?
D.
her'
At.:
\
tAl¥
to
thee,:you..nim,
thee.
me.
me,
to
ACl"lfl>
Aqfr:
ATf
::0:
to
f|<P: ^(
::you,it.
her
itA.
i^i1:me.
fcT^I:
WH::
thee.
>.Cl"l<p-*:
^^1:
him,
it.
*C/|«n:
you.
it
her,
"fcCflV:
she,
it.

PCof
them,
"their,
theirs.
!5!*©*:

Fem.
Thus
far
Separable
the
Personal
PThe
IrnPersonal
oPronouns
sneothose
puanaresr.able

Pers,
3d ACI^d)*::
them.
to ■fcC^®"*!"
them.
"fcC'VP®""
they.
>»Cl"t":
it
he>

Verbal
Swhich
will
ube
min
ftheir
eplace.
nitxiproper
oensed
Masc.
The
2.
Dwith
the
is
eNouns.
the
csame
lasension Pers.
3

PATt"::
ofyou,
your,
yours.
"KC.fl<p:
ATI*::
you.

SINGULAR. PLURAL.
Com. "H^ATt":
ye,
you. ATI*::
A
toyou.
"XAi'ri:
you.

P2ers.

Pers.
2d thee: thine.
(of
KIT.:
2WE:
thou
pf::
Gen.
ofus,
our,
ours.
Fern.
Masc.

A?:
Dat.
to
us. "fr^l:
Acc.us.
>kf
Nom.w:e.
P1ers.

Pers.
1st *AzL
N.
Com.
CH. III.] ON THE PRONOUNS. 45

Section II.
Separable Possessive Pronouns.
They are formed by the Genitive of the Personal Pronouns ; and are as
follows :
Singular. Floral.
P\: my, mine. P^*: our, ours.
yTV. m. yifrif. thy, thine. PAT'T: your, yours.
JP*i1»:: PCtfKD: your, yours.
PCfl*: m- nis* PCflT: /• her, hers. PC^^®*" their, theirs.

Section III.
Demonstrative Pronouns.
They are two in number ; one for near, and one for remote objects.
1. Demonstrativefor Near Objects.
£U : masc. £{J*P : or J£^f: fern. " This."
Shoa Dialect : ">>H,{J: masc. "XftU^:fern.

DECLENSION.
COMMON FORM, IRREGULAR.
SINGULAR.
Mase. Fem.
Nom. £U :: JSU^p: contr. JE^fV: this.
Gen. PH.O" PK«^= ■ PH/F: of this.
Dat. ARU" AH.U'F: • • Ati^F: to this.
Acc. £in: & £UVi:: JBXfin: jtfFi: this.
PLURAL.
Common Gender.
Nom. >»AH.«: or >riH.U: contr. 'XA.fJ: these.
Gen. PAH.U: P1H.U: PA»fJ: of these.
Dat AAH.U: A1HU: • • AA.U: to these.
Acc. "AAH.U"!: IfcAfJI: these.

SHOA FORM, REGULAR.


PLURAL.
Masc. Fern. - Common.
N. >»H,U *hlUfr: this. >kAH.fJ: or >k)H>U:
G. PH.U PHU^of this. contr. fxA.tl: &c. the same as above,
D. MUJ AIM*?1: to this. but the H,: prevailing throughout
A ">»H,U-1: ?UUfr<1: this.
46 ETYMOLOGY. [ch. nr.
ANOTHER REGULAR FORM, OCCASIONALLY USED IN SHOA.
SINGULAR. I PLURAL.
Masc. Fem. Com.
N. £{J: contr. g??:: >»AP«: contr. PAU:
G. P£U: P£U^: . . Ptff:: PAP«: • • PAU:
D. A£U: A£tPF: . . AtfF:: AAPU: . • AA.U:
■>»APin:
>»Atn:

2. For Remote Objects.


SINGULAR.
Masc. Fem. Common.
N. ytf-z that. >»AH.P = & >*W.y ■ contr- >»A.P: those.
G- PKy= PK^: of that. PAH..P: & P1H.J?: • • PAJP: ofthose.
D. AK^ = AH.JP¥: to that. AAH.^: & MH.y - • • AAJP: to those.
A. ?Yi: JP^I: that. "fcAK.P1 : & "fclHS7 ■ • • ">» : those.

FORM OCCASIONALLY OCCURRING IN SHOA.


SINGULAR. PLURAL.
Masc. Fem.
N. >»H: "KH^: that. Like the ahove, only contracting
G. PH: PKH1: of that H.JP: toH::
D. AH: AH^F: to that.
A. "fcHI: "KH^I: that.
Note.—The Demonstrative Pronouns form Adverbs ; which see, under
the head of Adverbs.
Section IV.
Interrogative Pronouns.
There are four : One Personal, o»j"} ; pi. A01!*! : "who ?" " which ?"
" what sort of ?" One Impersonal, V\ : " which ? " " what ? " One Com
mon, p^ : " what ? " " which ? " One Universal, 9" IJfC : " what ? "
The Personal is aq'j : " who ?" " which ? " e.g.
: = = Who did this ?
£{J: 1(1>: (or oqfti),:) Who is this ?
In U-AT : Which of both ?
The Impersonal is go -\ : « which ? " " what ? " e. g.
^I: AK^IiJ: ^A<rf hast thou done?
9°*}: iVf: W^icfe house?
CH. III.] . ON THE PRONOUNS. 47

The Universal Interrogative Pronoun is *Joif£C- " what ? " e.g.


£{J : 9°"5J?C: i®*: What is this ?
uiJT : and : are declinable, thus :
SINGULAR.
Pers. topers.
Nom. injl : who ? which ? 9«T : what ? which ?
Gen. poiJ*l : of whom ? whose ? of P 9°T : of what ? of which ? whose ?
which ?
Dat. A°^n: to (for) whom? to AT""*: to (for) what? to (for)
(for) which? which? wherefore?
Acc. «njTJ: whom? which? •JD-j-j; what? which?
PLURAL.
Nom. "^A^Tl : who ? which ? "AA^T: which?
Gen. PA^n : whose ? of which ? PA9°T: of which? whose?
Dat. AA0T1: to whom? to AA9n1 : to which ?
v which ?
Acc. 1r»AOfln: whom? which? >kA9irn: which?

9°T.K"C: nas no Pmral ; and is defective in the Singular, having no


Accusative Case. -
Besides the preceding, they have the Interrogative Pronoun P't*: or
Euphonic P*|*: "what?" "who?" "which?" It is indeclinable, and
used chiefly in forming Adverbs, by joining with Prepositions; as, ^1$^:

Section V.
Reflective Pronouns.
They are three, HA[l/t"" £»ft: and lfj.f|: with the signification
of self. They assume the Suffixes of the Possessive Pronoun, as in the
English myself, thyself, &c. So is in all Abyssinia <5.f|: with Suffixes
i.fl,- 6.fl«: <5.flH: &.fl<J>: iff: £.flT : ' MfrTi ■ ^"Y^U-:
i.«1:P(D': " myself," " thyself," &c. qAftl1 : , with Suffixes, is not used
in Shoa; but in N.W. Abyssinia, it is common. MJ.fl: with Suffixes is
used in all Abyssinia, though not so often as <5,f|:: But the reflective
mode of speaking is more frequently used in Verbs, without these Pronouns,
as will be shown afterwards.
Section VI.
Distributive Separable Pronoun.
This is th.yijlJIR: "each," "every," with Suffixes. As it is composed
of a double ftlJJ: and the distributive A..P:, it has been numbered
already among the Distributive Numerals.
48 ETYMOLOGY. [CH. lit.

Section VII.
Indefinite Pronouns.
These are the following :
otj19° : any, each, every one, whoever, whosoever.
allf:f(D,^ m- aflt*5'JE"l:: fem. whosoever.
If.A: all, each, every, any.
^A : other.
AIS^F : some, something.
1. oij-}fjn: oi]f ^ptf)*: and HW^PLIs: are used only in the Singular,
nor receive they any Suffix. When used with the Verb in the negative,
they adopt the reverse to their natural signification, "none," "none
whatever."
2. U-A*: is rather the Substantive U«A: "totality," with Suffixes.
It assumes all Suffixes, and is declinable ; but has no Plural.
3. A.A: is used in both the Plural and the Singular Numbers, and is
declinable.
4. A^JS^P: is declinable, and used only in the Singular.
5. A.P/V: "some" "several," is declinable, and has but one number.
Besides this, the words, "some" and "such," are circumscribed by Verbs;
e.g. "Some men like it," P«ni(DR/I* : AA-: ' lit. "There are men who
like it." " Such : " TtTi^iJ : .PA : or pL >»1 : fA : : " who is," or
" who are so."

Section VIII.
Inseparable Pronouns.
They are, with regard to their character, Personal, Possessive, Relative,
and Distributive ; and with regard to their position, they are either Pre
fixes or Suffixes.
1. Personal Suffixes to Verbs*
They consist partly in modifications of the Personal Pronoun ; and are
annexed to any part of the Verb except the Infinitive ; for that Mood,
being considered in this respect as a Noun, assumes Nominal Suffixes.

* We do not speak of those personal designations the Verbs receive at their beginning or end ;
because they are so intimately connected with the Verb, that we cannot consider them
separately.
CH. III.] ON THE PRONOUNS. 49
The following Table contains them all :
SINGULAR PLURAL.
Masc. Fein. Com. Com.
3. adh: Jl*: him. art*: her. a^fl)*: them.
2. II : thee. fl : thee.
. . honorif. 1 a^U* : you.
j- a^f U>: you.
2. . . . . . afl) : you.
1 ^ : me. 1 : perfect. 'J : pres. &c, us.
SINGULAR. PLURAL.
Suff. 1 . fl) fl fl*^ : he protected me. 1. ffilTM: he protected us.
.. 2. fnn*tl:i he protected flVfin : (imp.) protect its .'
... mni»fi:J thee. 2. fllfl^^U": he protected you.
.... hon. nin^^PU":) he protect-
(nnttp: ' edyou.
. 3. mn^oh: {hX°teCted
3. fMliP^CD*: he protected them.
fnn3»Jt* : he protected her.
Note.—Suffix 3d pers. sing. masc. to Prepositions has 't*: ; e.g.
fit": in him. A*l" : to, or for him.

2. Possessive Suffixes to Nouns.


They are, to a qertain degree, similar to the preceding.
SINGULAR. PLURAL.
Masc . Fem. Com. Com.
3- u, or a(D* : his. *P:her. 3. aTCD*: their.
.. hon a'Pfl)*: his, her.
2. com. IJ : thy. fj: thy. 2. a^U-: your.
. . hon. 1 a^U*: your.
.... 2 afl): your.
1 e : my. 1. a^l: our.
Ex.—n.^: "House," with Suffixes.
SINGULAR. PLURAL.
Masc. Fem. Com. Com.
3. fL't' : his house. At^P : her house. n,3":T<D»: their h.
. . hon. n.^Tfl)' : his (her) h.
2. fl/MJ: n/ffi: thy house. n.J'^U": your h.
.. hon. 1 flJ-^U": your h.
.... 2. fl."t"fl) : your house.
1- fl/t:my; O^K-fl: our h.
50 ETYMOLOGY. [CH. III. IV.

3. Prefixed Relative Pronouns.


There are two; i.e. P: for the Preterite, and P9°: for the rest;
e. g. poor*): fifl)*: " the man who came." paijiroflrt : ^f: " The day
which comes"; i. e. " the coming," " following day." See more under the
Verbs.
4. Prefixed Distributive Pronoun.
There is but one, which has been mentioned already, under the Nu
merals: it is, "XP: or 7\J?" ft.Pf'fl't": *PT: "Every three days."
Prepositions have the power of absorbing the first letter ; when care must
be taken not to confound the remaining P — with the Relative Pronoun ;
bearing in mind, that the Relative itself would be absorbed by the Prepo
sition : nor stands it, except before Verbs.

CHAP. IV.
ON THE VERBS.
The Verb being, next to the Noun, the most essential part of speech, we
are to give it our fullest consideration. In entering upon it, we treat,
1. On its Formation and Quality; 2. On the Derivations, or different
Forms or Voices of Verbs ; 3. On their Flexion ; 4. On their Conjugation ;
5. On the Affixion of Pronouns to Verbs.

Section I. "
Formation and Quality of Verbs.
1. The Verb, in general, seems to represent the chief developement of
those roots of the language which are contained in the Noun. The original
idea of the Noun is exhibited as a thing of time, found in a certain condi
tion, and undergoing or producing various actions and changes. This
consideration implies, that the Verb, in general, originates in the Noun.
In the Hebrew, we can trace its course from the Primitive Nominal Form,
through the Participle (in Kal), to the 3d pers. masc. preterite ; the latter
being, in all the Semitic Languages, the grammatical root of the Verb. In
the Amharic, the Constructive Mood, of which we shall speak afterwards,
seems to be the medium of transition from the Primitive Noun to the 3d
pers. masc. preterite of the Verb.
2. Now the latter, the 3d masc. pers. sing, of the preterite in the Simple
Forms of Verbs, constitutes, as has been just now alluded to, the origin of
all the other Verbal Forms ; the same as, in our languages, the Infinitive ;
or in the Greek, the Latin, the Italian, and others, the 1st pers. sing, of the
present tense : on this account it is put forward, for grammatical and
CH. IV.] ON THE VERBS. 51

lexical purposes, as the radix, or rather (because the true radices of the
Verbs are contained in the Noun) as the stem, from which all the other
forms branch off. In the Amharic, it presents various formations, as well
as the Noun—bilitera, trilitera, quadrilitera, and plurilitera : but in it, as
well as in the Noun, the majority consists of triliteral forms ; which majo
rity is still augmented, whenever the present contracted biliteral forms,
and many pluriliterals evidently amplified, are restored to their original
fulness or simplicity.

3. In reference to Quality, then, the Verbs present two grand divisions ;


i. e. Perfect and Imperfect Verbs, which again may be sub-divided in other
classes. Perfect Verbs are those which are flexible in, at least, several
Derivations, and throughout all the Moods, Tenses, and Persons in Conju
gation, without losing any of their Radicals. Imperfect Verbs are either
Defective, Augmented, or Irregular.
Note.—(a) Perfect Verbs may be divided into Primitives, i.e. whose
origin cannot be traced to any further root ; and Derivatives, which have
for their origin either a Noun (Denominatives), or another Verb (Verbals).
We subjoin here a few specimens of each.

PRIMITIVES.
1*n£: he buried. •tUlrfS.: he chastised,
•*°Al"l: he turned, returned. fid.): he covered.
tflS. '• he worshipped.

DENOMINATIVES.
Original Noun.
Yin*^: he was honoured. Vl'TlC" h°nour'
he revealed. 1A>fr: the public.
ani"|Yl<£: he testified. ^flYlC1 witness.
rtlflT: he remained. A*}ftit*: Sabbath.
fl«^lriT: was flatulent. fl^lTl'I*: blessing.
ftoufi^A: crucified. "^fll'A: cross, crucifix.
VERBS DERIVED FROM VERBS.
Original Verb.
°°rt"Ils he was glorious. i 11 : it flourished, he was glorious.
°°UJ£*t": he laid a foundation. | W6.- he built
(6) Under Defective Verbs, we mean, (l) Those which occasionally lose
some of the Radicals ; and (2) Such as have not all the Moods or Tenses,
or Persons in conjugation. They will be mentioned in their proper places.
52 ETYMOLOGY. [CH. IV.

(c) Irregular Verbs are of various kinds :


A. Such in which the Afibrmatives are irregular.
B. Such as have either the first or second, or second and third
Radical Letters contracted.
C. Geminants.
D. Reduplicated and Transposed forms.
All these will be exhibited, with their respective Conjugations, after the
Regular or Perfect Verb.
Section II.
Various Derivations, or different Forms or Voices of Verbs.
1. In every language, the original idea of a Verb must be determinable
by the relation of the subject to the object ; and those various relations
must be in some way or other expressible by the form of the Verb. The
state of any subject of speech, or its action, is either confined to itself, or
it exerts an influence on an object, or is itself the object of extraneous
influence. This circumstance renders, in every language, three classes of
Verbs, or three conditions of the same verb, necessary; i.e. neutrality
(immanence), action upon other objects, and suffering. In the English
Grammars, these qualities are called Voices ; in the Semitic languages,
Conjugations, or better, Derivations.
2. The ways to express these Voices are different in different languages,
according to the pliability and vigour the latter possess.
The more original and vigorous a language is, we conceive, the more
will it be able to derive all it requires, for the purpose of expressing the
various relations of the verb, from the original verb itself, without the
assistance of auxiliaries, and without circumscription : and this seems to
show the superiority of the Semitic over the European Languages ; because
the former fully possess that power, while the latter are deficient in it.
In the English, the Passive Voice is not expressible, but by the Auxiliary
To be. The Greek language has the power of expressing it by a change
of the Active in the termination, converting w in o/xou, &c. The Transitive
is, in a few instances, formed by a change of the vowel, as "to fell"
(i.e. make fall), from " to fall"; sometimes by Prepositions, as " to enforce,"
" to ftelabour," &c. ; but, on the whole, European languages are deficient in
this respect.
3. In the Semitic languages, the form of the original verb is altered,
either by the mere change of vowels in the same radical consonants, or by
an addition of servile letters with a suitable change of vowels, in order to
express the various determinations and modifications, i. e. Voices or Con
jugations, of which the verb is susceptible. Of these derivations, the
CH. IV.] ON THE VERBS. 53
Hebrew Verb has seven ; the Arabic, thirteen ; the Ethiopic, ten different
forms. For the Amharic, Ludolf has assigned but four Conjugations ; but
an attention to the following will show that there are many more.
i. As the Triliterals are the most numerous and the most perfect
words, we present the reader, first, with a list of all the Forms of Conju
gation, to which the perfect Triliteral Verb is liable. And since all these
forms do not proceed from any single stem, we take several stems together.
The Verbs which will serve us for this purpose are the following :
""•Art: act. he returned. fl fl d. : he burst
ne was glorious, respectable. (Rd.1'- non occ.)
fl£fl: he reviled. A^***]: he did.
hid.: he said. R\H : was blunt.
ol,T,Jt*: he contradicted. <5TA: spun.
twflfl'- he resembled. tldfr: he fulminated.*
G)£K: he descended.
LIST OF CONJUGATIONS OF THE REGULAR AND PERFECT TRILITERAL VERB.
i. act. "he returned," "repeated." YHI^: neut. "he was
respectable."
ii. ^£11 : intern, "he scolded exceedingly."
nr. ftYin^: trs. "he honoured."
iv. TOOA ill: pass, "was returned." refl. "returned."
v. Af*l<» : trs. & cam. "he made speak," "caused to speak."
vi. Tf"l«£: contin. "he spoke." intent. T^KH: "reviled," "blas
phemed;" i.q. i^JJIl" "V^Yld."' recipr. "he counselled,"
" gave and took advice."
vii. T9D<PT T: recipr. "he disputed."
viu. Aflo^Art: cans, "he caused to return."

* These are the known forms of each ofthese Verbs :


TooAArt: TOOArtrt:: YlH^: MUld.'- AflYin^:: tiRtt: Ip:
Art^n : TrtKn-. MRn t^kii ltd, hfv : t fid.-- -vr^id.-.
R11<»: ARll^.: A<Diln<:: oni-f: To»>T : TgnVIT::
«roilA:-ro"rtA: Afl^ClA: Afl""*TiA:: (Dd.R : AO>d£: A«P£K:
TT^R: TWdS.'. <D&.d,R:: find.- Allll^: tftnd.- fllfld.'
tfimd." (&ttO TRd.li KtlRd.1-- AK&O- WH:
h£iH : K1H H : AK1H H «5TA : T<5.TA : AftdTA: <5.TATA :
T<5.TATA" Il^T: AIXn^T::
54 ETYMOLOGY. [cH. IV.
ix- ftflOI,*,lA: cans. & intens. "he caused to resemble," "dissimu
lated," "flattered."
x. ?iflTYJ4: cam- "he made speak." ?kflTl"l^P: "procured for
giveness." TxtWh&fi : reiter. " he inhaled and exhaled," " he
respired," " breathed."
xi. T*P*P4K: intens., pass., & refl., "he was completely humbled,"
" humbled himself completely."
xn. fin n i, : infem. " broke into pieces."
xm. ft£<J,<^l ' intens. " he performed great things."
xiv. •foii/VAi'i: reiter. "he returned repeatedly;" i.e. "walked."
*t*ODlr|Tri£: recipr. "he consulted with others," " took and gave
advice."
xv. "TfJl<^: reiter. & recipr. " conversed with another," "spoke fre
quently."
xvi. £)HH: intens. & intrans. "to be blunt," " stiff," >< obdurate."
xvii. ftglHH: trs. " to blunt," " stiffen," " obdurate."
xviu. fao/yi"| |"i : refl. & pass. " he returned," " was returned."
xix. Thoqcnm: "he reviled."
xx. ?i£f"l£: intens. " he talked one out of any thing," " dissuaded."
xxi. ftfflfin^: "he folded his hands."
xxi. i.TA'TA: "he rubbed thin between his fingers."
xxn. T<5.TATA : pass. " it was rubbed thin between the fingers."
xxiii. A~JXn<i<l>: diminvt. "it shone," "glittered," "sparkled," "re-
splended."
These Forms are not of equally frequent occurrence. Those occurring
most frequently, are, Nos. i. m. iv. v. vi. vin. x. xiv. and xv. The rest are
more rare.*
5. Observations on this List :—Most of the forms it contains are analo
gous to the forms of derivation in the Hebrew, the Arabic, and more
especially in the Ethiopic Verb ; which will be evident from the following
remarks :
i. 0DAI*l: comprises the Ethiopic and Arabic i. and n. forms, and the
Hebrew Kal and Pitt.

* We beg to observe here, that, on account of the haste in which the Dictionary was prepared
for press, the Forms xvi. to xxiii. were not arranged in it under their roots ; as the Author was
not then aware, that they were simple derivations from the Triliteral Verb. To this conviction
he arrived when drawing up this Grammar. . ,
CH. IV.] ON THE VERBS. 55
n. tlRIl '., of rare occurrence, answers the Ethiopic and Arabic hi. form,

ui. 2\Yin<i: answers to the Ethiopic iv. and v., and to the Arabic iv.
iv. *rooArt: corresponds with the Eth. vi. and vn., and with the
Arabic v. .
v. Af"l£: "he made speak," answers the Arabic xi.
vi. tF14: "he spoke," answers the Eth. vn. T^JIl^- and Arabic vi.

vii. T^TTt" : seldom occurs, and has no correspondent in the other


languages.
vm. ix. and x. answer the Ethiopic and Arabic x. Aft'TIIl^"
JacuLmI.
The rest are peculiar to the Amharic ; although modifications of the
same forms occur, especially in the Arabic.
6. Before we proceed, we notice the Conjugations of the other classes of
Verbs:
I. TRILITERALS WHOSE FIRST RADICAL IS A GUTTURAL.
They are affected by the rules laid down in Part I. Ch. VII. 2. B. 3. C.
The following list contains their several conjugations :
Radices, A00! : "he believed" ; and AA<5.= "he passed."
i. ftOD): " he believed."
ii. y-ao\z "he was believed," "creditable," "trustworthy"; "he en
trusted."
hi. A1"!00!: "he persuaded" " he made believe."
iv. Afl^*"1*!: "he entrusted," "accredited," "attested."
v. TAAiS.: " he trespassed," "varied."
vi. AflTAA<5.: recipr. & trs. " he made pass in different ways."*

* Other Verbs of this class: A£"»: A^fi: hd/t". A£H: A££: A£T.
A£01: U<!U5.: A1»<S.: Afl£: AflK". AIMD: AT"": Alii: All's
A1X: AYlA: A(D*: AfflYl: AHA: AH1: A£A: AR™: A^d;
ARCl: AK1: AK1: A£<5.: A19»: A1H: Am*: AX<: ACDl:
ACO.K: AX<S,: AXfl: A<5.£: OOP: O^*:: The Dictionary shows, that
•the original Forms of these Verbs are not all of prima A: ; but in the Amharic, tbey may be all
comprised in this form.
56 ETYMOLOGY. [CH. IV.

II. GEMINANT TRILITERALS.


They are originally Biliterals, whose second radical letter has been
doubled. See Part L Ch. VII. 2. D.
List of Triliteral Geminants.
i. Al*"!*: intrs. & act. "went away," "dismissed."
ii. Tid&ty • trs. " he thinned," " rarefied."
in. *TA1"1>: pass, "he was dismissed"; refl. "he abandoned himself."
iv. AA«M>: intern, "he yawned." A^XK1 "ne persecuted."
v. T^KX1 int. "he was persecuted."
vi. Af!0"**^: cam. "he embittered," "exasperated."
vii. A"l'"i"t"t': "he glided down" on his posteriors; "he cheated."
viii. TllTI": pass, "he was pushed down," "was cheated."
T1JAA: "he fornicated."
IX' i2HJf*^,! I " stretched himself." * ": "

III. GEMINANTS WHOSE FIRST RADICAL IS A GUTTURAL, t


L }\aDOO : intrs. " was painful" ; trs. " gave pain."
ii. y-aa aoi pass, "felt pain."
in. Ai^ootro: cam. "gave pain," "made sick."
iv. Afl3*u"uu: sympathetic, " nursed sick persons."

IV. PERFECT BILITERALS. J


i. H : " was beautiful." £T : " was great."
ii. All : " beautified," " praised." ART : " he grew."
in. *Tl"lfll : " was given."

* These Verbs are very numerous. Cf. in the Dictionary Al'l' • AYlYl: A mill
Ou££: roll: ODHH: ""XX: 44»1>: HAA: l"lAA: tWjlj fl«M>
flRR: rt4«5.-- HAA: fi*^: ilTT: 4»AA: «I>X£: HH
3*AA: inn: fHH: \RR: Ifllffl: Yl^: tini"l: lTinn: tlTT
Yl-»: <D<X: ©KK: H<5.<5.: J»nn: R**: 1AA: T-AA:
>lT1,:lKK:T-KK:7i.&: mouon: (!.£.£.: XnH: mnn: XAA
X11:<5.HH:
t A"""": AAA: Ann: AllYl: AHH"
t IV. RT. "«h: ilil: ^Cft: nfll: .".<»: hT: *£: *T:
nm-. TT: ira,: mm::
CH. IV.] ON THE VERBS. 57

iv. hflll: " he beautified," "glorified."


v. A'TiRT : " made grow," " trained," " educated."
vl 111: "flourished."
vit. "made to flourish."
viii. "TrtTim: "to betray each other."

V. imperfect bilitkrals. Prima ft::


i. ftp: "he saw."
n. J*P: pass, "was seen," "appeared."
hi. AA" P : trs. " made to see," " showed."
iv. ftfl^TP: trs. "made to be seen," "brought into sight."
v- "pyP ■ recipr. " looked at each other," " was over against each other."
" made look at each other."

VI. defective verbs ; i.e. Verbs which have dropped one or two
Radical Letters, either in the middle or at the end.
1. Verbs with Absorbed Guttural at the end.
i. 11: intrs. "he entered." Eth. I'll ft:
ii- All : trs. " he introduced."
in. "fiq : " it was proper," " becoming," " it belonged."
iv. ftJJQ : act. " he married."
v. T : pass, "was married."
vi. ftfin : oaus. " made go in," " introduced."
vii. intern, "was quite sufficient"
viii. Aim : reiter. "used to marry," "frequently cohabited," "behaved
properly."
ix. ftHFI" : intens. " he comforted."
x. TXff: pass, "was comforted." •fYl^^: recipr. "quarrelled with
each other."*

* Of the same cUss are the following : 11: In *j_= "l<f.: l«j,: XA: K6.' '.
juf: A01!: A^l: «*oA: OA: °°f: aatw\: 1V| : 1«I>: oof: o»*l:
«J<5.: fl6.: UJT: 4*1: £1: 4jhs ££: ££: |"IA: tV**i: Ul"l:
ClH: rt*l: ft4,: 1>A: 1>n: «I>j»: 4"*): fl£.: Il^li n?»:
n*l: nK: ITH": n"l: TA: T^: T4.: 1£: IX: 1J: ft"^: Ylrt:
Tnjr;: <DJ>: (DH: <D<5.: <D^: <D"1: H«»l: H<5.: Htf: K<t= I1*
Id.: 1H: <5.<5.: &c. f
58 ETYMOLOGY. [cH. IV.

2. Verbs with Absorbed Guttural in the middle.


i- °^IA: Eth. <TOihA: "he swore."
ii. A01!A : fr* " made swear," " administered an oath."
in. "fo^A: pass. " was sworn."
iv. Afto^A: tfS' " made swear."
v. A"I'llA : frequentat. " distributed by casting lots."
vi. T^^A: recipr. " mutually swore," "conspired."
vh. T°SAA: iniens. "besought," "adjured."*

3. Verbs with an Absorbed P : in the middle, t


i. n»fll: act. "he sold." ih,£: neutr. "he went."
n. Aih.K : <rs- " he made go," " drove the threshing oxen."
hi. TfLrtb: pass, "was sold."
iv. *filPm : "he traded." f*l pg :" made a treaty."
v- ftflih.£: cans, "made go."

4. Verbs with an Absorbed fl) : in the middle t .


i. <foo; neut. "he stood.
A^™: trs. " made to stand," "erected."
in. "T^oo : pass. " was erected.
iv. "TJ-fl)00: intern, "he withstood," "resisted."
v. Afl*t»P: caus. " he detained," " caused to wait.

^"7 ^ " t intern. " ultimately resisted."


vn. TJfcjl;00: ) '
5. Verbs with two Absorbed Gutturals, derived from Quadriliterals. They
are but few in number, and only three Conjugations have been discovered § .
i. y\A: "to be loose," "lax." :
n. AAA: act. "to loosen," "slacken."
in. t,3Kl>: inten*- "to stamp," "pound," "clapper," "to chatter."

* See also the following Verbs: AiV. A1»: AYl = AID: A<5.: "flA:
o^rt: f«l>: ""H: "90: «IA: 6&: t5.ll: *"IA: rtoij: |-|«t>: i*in:
•Vf: Of: !"1A: flT: 3PA: fR: *lrts <PA". Tft: TT:
«Pm:m: £rt: J"l: 3A: 3T". JH: "1A-
t ftm: ih.£: (Tn.K-> AA: m,lV. <*,H::
t IT*: qn'f: q°T: Cfll"- f,OD- *P= tW^: H<»: Jl™::
§ AA: '■"I: 11:: T£::
CH. IV.] ON THE VERBS.
59
6. Verbs doubly imperfect.
(a) Beginning with an A: and having an Absorbed Guttural at the
end. There are but few (AP: and AA: not being included): A°l:
A01!: A«l::
i. negat. "to want."
n. neg. pass, " io be wanted."
in. A^l"!: caus. "to deprive.'"

(h) Beginning with P: which absorbs a Guttural.


i. JPH: Eth. AlH:: act. "to seize."
ir. A^*H • trs. " caused another to seize."
in. "t\PH: pass, "was seized."
Jv. AflJ?H: caws, "caused to seize," "betrayed."
v. "TyjfH- pass, frequentat. & recipr. "was frequently or alternately
seized," " seized frequently," " completely," or '* reciprocally."

(c) Various forms of the Verb AA : " To say."


Not to be confounded with the Auxiliary AA : " To be." Its forms are
partly derived from AA : . partly from -flUA : Eth.
r. AA: "he said."
n. AflA: " to deceive by talking."
1*HA: "to be said," "called."
iv. : " to be deceived."
v. TIAs "to rumour in public."

vin. AnnA: "he persuaded."


ix. J-AA: "he was talked into any thing," " was persuaded.'
x. A3"AA: "he persuaded," "cheated by talking."
(d) Conjugation of the Verb T(D" and aun\::

VII. VARIOUS CONJUGATIONS OF QUADRILATERAL AND PLUUILITERAL VERBS.


1. Reduplicated and Transposed Biliterals.
Stems: AOUAOO; "to be green." A4*A1»: "to bedaub." I1»M»:
"to shake." nEflR: " to cudgel." tyfl&ftt "to excavate." •Pfll'Pfn:
« to bruise." (tl^Yl^:: )
i. f\qo/\ao : neut. "it was green," "fresh."
it. AA^A00: trs. "he made green," "verdant," "refreshed." .
GO ETYMOLOGY. [cH. IV.

nr. fA^Afl1 : pass. " he was bedaubed."


iv. 7*k\$?YP : act. intern. " he shook."
v. TA^A*!*: refl. "bedaubed," "washed himself."
vi. AflAfl'AI': caus. " he caused bedaubing."
vn. AHl£nK: act. "beat," "shook."
viii. •fTPfM'iTi' : pass. & neutr. "trembled."
ix. AT1"Tl1>ri: act. "he stirred," " moved."
x. "T"11»'1<|>A : pass. & neutr. " was moved," " moved."
xi. MfW'l 4» 1*1 : trs. " he moved." *

2. Derivates from Triliterals having one Radical doubled and transposed.


i. RtlPRV3- neut. " it was blunt."
it. AJiA0^"!0: trs. "he blunted." ;
nt. T^A?0/!0: pass, "was blunted."
iv. ftVlf(D): trs. "he gave success."
v. *l*TnF(Di: neut. "he succeeded," "prospered."
vi. A"i1£Hl: neutr. " it became knotty."
But few verbs belong to this class.

3. Geminants.
We rank under this class only such forms' as cannot, with our present
knowledge of the language, be considered to belong to Form XVI. cf the
regular Triliteral Verb. This class is but small :
i. Tn~IlAA: intrans. "he fled," "escaped."
ii. TSP^flfl: pass, "was destroyed."

* The Verbs of this class are very numerous. The following do belong to Ihein :
0D<roo^: 00)00} : ^n^Il : 1*1 n 1*1 n: «t»A«l>A: «fr-£4»-£: *-fi«fr-rt:
n^n^-- nilnrt: m""moo: •wii-n: minti: nmnm= t^t^:
mi>mi»: -rnrn: TTn-rTn-. m^m*i: T&.T&.-. mnmn:
*1H1H: md.m<S.: T-RT-R: Iftlft: 1H1H: 1A1A: YlAYlA:
fllAmA: fl^Yl^: ll-^lri-^: "to-RXt-g.- (DA(DA: (DH(DH:
£0,0000,00: cancan: (t,AT"A: <D^(D^: HnHH: H<5.H<5.:
KARA: K^K^: Kngn: IUY..UX/..: K<5.K<5.: = £*£<5.: I01*
lOO; ")~«»T-<»: nfnfl: d.A<5,A: <5.£<5.£: And the Augmented Forms :
AhYi^Tn^: (for AnYi^Tri^.) TfcnmiH::
CH. IV.] ON THE VERBS. 61

m. T")°flA A: neutr. "walked nimbly," "affectedly," "proudly.'"


iv. Aflffli*!'^". trs. "he warned," "cautioned."
v. AlTmAA: net "he rolled about."
vi. "l*"lYinAA: pass, "was rolled about"

4. Quadriliterals and Pluriliterals of different Radicals.


i. ODft*)|: neutr. "was glorious."
it. ftouiYli: trs. "he glorified."
in. *foort*|5: pass, "he was glorified."
iv. JiftFIlT: intern, "he dismissed."
v. TClfnt": pass, "he was dismissed," "took his leave",
vi- Afttn,rtH: caus. "he caused to glorify."
vii. lAind): intern, "he overthrew completely."
viii. *|* 1AHfl fll: pass, intens. "he was completely overthrown."
ix. TrtflllT: recipr. & reiter. " took leave from each other." *

Section III. ,
On the Flexion of Verbs.
The Flexion of Verbs treats on their Moods, Tenses, Numbers, and
Persons.
1. Moods of the Amharic Verb.
The Amharic Verb has Seven Moods : (a) the Indicative ; (b) the Con
tingent ; (c) the Subjunctive ; (d) the Constructive ; (e) the Imperative ;
(/) the Infinitive ; (g) the Participle.

* 1. This class is most numerous, and comprises a great variety of Verbs, as the following
List will show: oo^H: oafiYl^: oufilrKD: ooVr>ft: oolHU:
ftDTA: ftttlA: tim£: miA: ftlffl*: M"<nA: iliYl^: ilVlA:
tAIlft: 4»A(Dm: fAflliS,: 1»«n»mA: «£-£m»": tnfll^ n^lTlT:
T^T-od: Ttt>A: ^lYl^: A""a1t1: AlYlft: Wllll'l: <Dl£A:
((DnAOHlnA: Hil-d.: RYIH: glllD: T-Aonft: T-i«I»-A:
•hinrt: "M^A: "MX<5.: OlW*i mf(DT: IUVM.: X(1)AT-
<5.VT£: <5.M>A"
2. Most of the forms comprised in this List are Derivative ; either from Nouns, as uu ft Yl ^ !
or, as most of the rest, from Triliteral Verbs. The use
of the liquid \ '■ in this amplification of forms, is remarkable ; e.g. Alfl) ft • is from the Arabic
U-iac, ft WIT: from the Hebrew FOX}, film*: from the Eth. ftm*"
ftlH<^: from the Eth. ftH^: &c.
ETYMOLOGY. [CH. IV.

A. The Indicative Mood has nothing particular. It has two Tenses,


the Preterite and the Present (or Future); besides which, other Tenses
are formed by the Contingent and the Constructive, in connexion with
Auxiliaries.
B. The Contingent is the simple verbal form with the Personal Pre-
formatives and Terminations, and serves for the Indicative as well as for
the Subjunctive, according as it is either, (1) Simple ; or (2) has Conjunc
tions prefixed, and what the nature of those Conjunctions is ; or (3) whe
ther any, and what sort of Auxiliary, is attached to it (See pp. 66, 67.)
C. The Conjunctive or Subjunctive Mood is not used in the Amharic,
except for the purpose of expressing a desire, or request, or obligation.
Its peculiarity consists in its Radicals, after the prefixion of the Personal
Serviles, assuming the form of the Imperative. (See pp. 68, 69.)
D. A curious Mood, and peculiar to the Amharic and Tigre languages,
having its beginning undeveloped in the Ethiopic Infinitive, is the Con
structive. It is formed by the simple root of the verb with Personal
Afformatives ; and has four forms ; one simple, one augmented, and two
compound forms. (See pp. 70, 71.)
E. The form of the Imperative (its nature being the same as in other
languages) is short. (See p. 71.)
F. The Infinitive, or Verbal Substantive, is formed by the prefixion of
po : to the Simple Form.
, G. The Participle presents five ; viz. three Simple, and two Compound
Forms. The three former, partaking of a nominal character, have been
exhibited in the Table of Derivative Nouns : the two latter are formed by
the Finite Verb Preterite and Contingent, to which certain Preformatives
are prefixed ; and they retain their flexibility, i.e. capability of being con
jugated. Besides this, they are all declinable. (See pp. 72, 73.)
We come now to speak,
II. Of the Tenses of the Amharic Verb.
They are not so exactly distinguished in the Amharic as in our European
Languages : in fact, the Abyssinians have not, strictly speaking, more
than two divisions of time; i.e. the Past and the Present; the Present
being used also for the Future. The Past is subdivided into the Perfect,
and Imperfect or Pluperfect ; the Perfect being rendered by the simple
Preterite form, and the Imperfect or Pluperfect, (which are not distin
guished from each other) being composed either of the Contingent or the
Simple Constructive, with the Preterite Auxiliary ifld."- The Present,
which might be, perhaps with propriety, called Aorist, because it is appli->
CHAP. IV.] ON THE VERBS. 63

cable to the Future as well as to the Present Tense, is a form composed of


the Contingent and the Auxiliary ?»A" In order to distinguish the
Future from the Present, where the context is not in itself clear enough,
certain phrases are adopted which leave no doubt that the time is yet to
come in which the action &c. of the subject is to take place. But more of
this afterwards. (See p. 66.)
3. The Number of Conjugation is but twofold, Singular and Plural.
4. The Persons.
There are, in reality, not more than three for each Number ; viz. the
person speaking, the person spoken to, and the person spoken of ; but the
grammatical forms are more, as has been shown under the article of Pro
nouns, Chap. III. ; namely, seven forms for the Singular, and three for the
Plural. Now the Semitic Languages have this in common, that the per
sonal distinctions in the Conjugations of Verbs are expressed by certain
letters affixed or prefixed, or both, to the Radicals of the Verb ; and in so
doing, the act of Conjugation is accomplished. We call the prefixed letters
Preformatives, and the affixed ones Afformatives. The following List ex
hibits them.
(a) Preformatives.
SINGULAR. FLURAL.
Com. Gender.
3d pers. masc. 3.
.. . . fem.
2d .. m.&f.
. . . . hon. 1.
2.
1st . . com. 1.

(b) Afformatives.

Pret. Pres. Snbj. Constr. Com. Pret. Pres. Snbj. Constr.


3
3. masc. none. none. 3. —u, —v, —a(D':
..fem. —'*f-z —a.
2. masc. —U: —aU: a^Plh: —u, —u, —s£fU-:
. . fem. —fj : —all:
. . hon. 1. —u —a(D*:
.. . . 2. —sfif-lf: —a^U-:
1. com. — —e. —1: none -al::
What hitherto has been said, may suffice for the preliminaries : we
therefore now proceed to the Conjugation of the Verbs.
64 ETYMOLOGY. [CH. IV.
Section IV.
Conjugation of Verbs.
Before we enter upon the conjugation of the Regular Verb, we give the
conjugation of the two Auxiliary Verbs :
AA: he is. lfl£: he was;
and of the Irregular and Defective Verb Substantive, 1(D*: "he is."
A. ftA: Eth. UA(D: contr. UA-: "he is," "there is" (French, il y a),
is used only in the Present ; but that has a Preterite form.
SINGULAK. | PLURAL.
Common.
Fern. Common.
(they are,
3d pers. AA: he is. AA^F:sheis. AA":Ue(hon.)is.'
2d.. AA{J: AAfi : thou art. AA^iHJ-: you are.
. .. hon. 1 AA*: )y°u
2 AA^U*:) are.
1st.. AAll*: lam. | AA"J: we are.
Note 1. — This verb is not to be confounded with the Irregular Verb
AA : " he said"; which will be given, when we treat of the Irregular Verbs
in general.
2. The 3d pers. sing, and plur., combined with Suffixed Pronouns, have
the same signification as " est" and "sunt" in the Latin, with the Dative of
the Personal Pronoun ; e.g. Mihi est, " I have." So in the Amharic,
■flC" ^A^: I have (possess) money.
A^^f1: AA-'I*: he has (possesses) children.
3. As Auxiliary, the 3d pers. sing. masc. is changed into AA : e-g-
£AA: for JEA: A A: he says.
f4>9D«p<pA: for f1»9nf11: AA: he is sitting.
B. 1114: "he was," is used as Auxiliary for the Past Tenses in the
Indicative and Subjunctive. It has only the Preterite.

Fern. Com. Common.


W£: lhe 111^: they were*
Ill she was.
3' (incOi was.
2. wiqu MM.**: C
. . hon. 1. . : you were,
(you
2 III&HW-:-} were.
WClf: I was. inO' we were.
CH. IV.] ON THE VERBS. G5

Note.—When used as an Auxiliary, WC: serves often for any person


Singular or Plural ; e.g.
T«l>9l,ITKD*: lflC: they were sitting.
•■j-otnTj : if)C: thou wouldest come.

C. He is.
This verb is singularly anomalous. It consists of merely one radical
letter \z, to which the Verbal Suffixes are attached, instead of Personal
Afformatives. Is used only in one form, which we may call the Preterite
of the Indicative, because it resembles that more than any other form.
SD,GUtAB- MURAL,
Fern. Com, Common. . ' ..
3d pers. 1(D*: he is. f"^: she is. If'Pflhithey are
2d pers. KI : thou art. iH : thou art. f^PU*: you are
,. .. hon.l r^U-:)
2. ....... . i(p: }y°Uare
1st pers. - » : I am. | H : we are.
This is the regular form of this anomalous verb. Deviations are these;
1<P : , for the 3d pers. sing. masc. interrogative, " Is he ? " In the Shoa
Dialect, 1(D£: for the regular ftlKl: e.g. " I.
TTIR.+'-VP: How is it? for YTJjJ'r ! *<D*::
A second deviation is in the Shoa Dialect, " She is," for f^ ::

1. Conjugation of the Perfect and Triliteral Verbs.


A. FIRST CONJUGATION.
Simple form lriil^: neut. "He was honourable." o«Al"l: act. "he
turned." intrs. " he answered." rt£fl : trs. " he scolded," " blasphemed."
(a) Indicative Mood. . . ..
a. PRETERITE.
SINGULAR.
Masc. Fern. Com.
. . (he was ho- . (she was ho-
3d pers. Vin^: { nourable.

2d. Yincu: .
Yincfi: {(thouwast
nourable>ho- .
..hon.l ••...«••»• .... Ylfl*J.: 1 you were
.... 2. . . . . . . . lron£.*FU': f honourable.
I. . . . . — . . . - . , .... YlIlCU": I was honourable.
Common. PLURAL'
3d pers. TflfltJ.; they were honourable.
2d .. Yl II <J.*FU*: you were honourable.
1st .. YlllO: we were honourable.
66 ETYMOLOGY. [CH. IV.
/8. PRESENT AND FUTURE.
SINGULAR.
Fem. Common. "\
he is, (she is,
3dp.£Tn*Il«5.A: will be tfl-fl&A^: {will be
{ hon. ( hon.
(thou art,
2. tfl-fl&AU: 'Mn-flCJPAh : ] wilt be
' hon.
hon. 1. ... .pYl-fl^A-: you are,
or will
..2 Jt-lniicJ.A,f1u- be hon.
( I am,
"KYl-nr5.AU-: {shall be
V hon.
PLURAL. "
Common.
3d pers. JEYl-flrJiA*: they are, will be honourable.
2d .. ^YlfltSA^Ih: you are, will be honourable.
1st .. ^"iYVfl£.A"i: we are, shall be honourable.
Note 1.—Whether this form, when it occurs, is intended for the Present
or for the Future Tense, generally depends on the context. In order,
however, to leave no doubt when they speak of future things, they use the
simple contingent form with additional particles ; e. g. "XYl*flC: H"JJJ*:
hftl : " I have (am) to be honourable." "KYl-flC: HIJE^ : 7.H.: hftl :
" time is for me (to come) that I am to be honourable," &c.
2. Personal Suffixes, and sometimes the Conjunction 9<>:, are infixed
between the Simple Form and the Auxiliary.
(6.) CONTINGENT.
a. Simple.
SINGULAR. PLURAL.
Masc. Fem. Common. Common.
3d pers. .gh'flC: Jt",h*nC"-
2d ^YlUC: ^Hl-flti:
..hon. 1. . . ^;YM1<.:
.... 2. . *Yrn&
1st pers. ... . TvYl-flO .
As this form is used for both the Indicative and the Subjunctive, as well
as for the formation of Participles, we have given no translation of it ; but
shall present a few instances here, to illustrate its use:
CH. IV.] ON THE VERBS. 67

^Yl*llC: H'iR"- in order that be may be honourable.


A.Yl'flC: tflat ne may he honourable.
"K"3£-Yl'flC:. *hat he is honourable.
aYl-flC: °r JttlUC- "hTiRWi- if he is (be) honourable.
Tn.lrWK^: than that he should be honourable.
rt.ln*flC: w^Ue he is honourable.
P^YMIC1 he that is honourable^
fr^YlUC?0: he is not honourable.

The Present and Future of the Indicative, also, is a composition of the


Contingent with the Auxiliary ftA: which is omitted whenever the word
receives any augmentation at the beginning or at the end, except Suffixes
or Copulative Conjunctions.

/3. COMPOUND.
> SINGULAR.
'Masc Common. Fern.
( he was, ( she was,
3d p. JiTnuC: WO { had been 'Mri-flO MM?!4: {had been
( hon. { hon.
/ thou wast,
2. *Mri-flC: tnCtl: "t-Tn-fli: \ttC.ti : \ hadst been
( hon.
hon. I. - ^Yl-fl<^: (you were,
*Ylfl<.: :HI£.*U-:{ had
" ad bee
b6en
hon.
( I was,
i. ...... : \ had been
"MifiCincu-:;
pldbal. "• \*■ hon.
j Common.
3d pers. £Yl"fl*£,: ifl<£,: they were, or had been honourable.
2d .. "t*Tn*fld^U*- llli.^U': you were, or had been honourable.
1st .. .7/lYVflC: we were, or had been honourable.

This form is used for the Subjunctive, as well as for the Indicative,
(c) Subjunctive Mood.
Is characterized by having the form of the Imperative Mood with the
Personal Preformatives.
68 ETYMOLOGY. [CH. IV,

SINGULAR.
Masc. Fem. Com.
3dperS. *HnC= ft fcS. ^"C'iLta
. .Vmayest
2. ■t-*ini:< thou
(be hon.
hon. 1 {may you
..2 "1*^1 * be hon.
■x*inr-lletme,may
1.
PLURAL.
Common.
3d pers. JEYlfl^.: may they, let them be honourable.
2. .. ^Vin<J,: may you be honourable.
1- •• "i»"lfcinC: may we, let us be honourable.
Note 1.—As the Subjunctive is so nearly related to the Imperative,
always expressing a wish, a request, or indirect command, it is natural that
the Second Person Singular, in its direct form, and the same person in the
Plural, is less frequently used than the remaining forms ; for they use
more generally the Imperative.
2. Several verbs are destitute of this form, and they use the Simple
Contingent. It may therefore be of service to the Student, to give a list
of those verbs of this class which have this form ; and another of those
which have not.
VERBS WITH THE SUBJUNCTIVE FORM. VERBS WITHOUT IT.
A"10!!!: A4>OU AlMI: Afim: Alo» A"Dl: AOD^: Alii:
AH*I: Alg: Aim: ""Aft: i«>Afn Al»oo: Afflll: A(Dm
au£i: 0114m: "oflA: woYl^: w»Yll AHn: AT'OD; ""All
»»mV. UJAfn: Wood.- Ul^l*: UI^O 00 ^H:
DU^P: UJmoo: dOMl: <1n-rt: tfl-H o«Hl: o»lA: oum
^Hoo: £juaz ^jm: ^mn:^<5.K ooT^f: fiM.:
llAn: flo*16,: fl£<p: fl£P ilAoo:
*V<5.: rt4»A: fill*: llnYl nni: rti>n: h>^:
flTn^: flSn: fllK: rt<5.<i: h«"»1» q>AOD: 1»An:
ilool: fiYl^: ffin^: ilTT: fi<5.fll 4»-A<5.: •P'fA: *£l1:
1»AOl: 1»ODrt: «l>U)m : 4>IU<5.: 4*-4l"l +-£.£: n*A:
*^0: *-£fl: *^01: *-<fll: 4>«!U5. n^A: n«4=
CH. IV.] ON THE VERBS. 69
VERBS WITH THE SUBJUNCTIVE FORM. VERBS WITHOUT IT.
*-l"lA: 1»n£: tyHY- <!>H<5.: <pg,ao TTfl-rt: TlTlH: :PlfWY
1»mA: ^m^-. «Nm4: ♦mi: nAtn 1(001
n<1»: nClA: n«I>A: (grow) nTi <D1»l"l: <D1R: <D«
nmill: T^lli: T<iH: T4<5.: TYlA HA<5.: HO =
i*A: M»ft: M>H: M»«5.: ttl^". ttlrt
El*
ittl*: 1X4: 1X<5.: i<U K<DA: KT-ft: K"K
Yl£«o: Yin£: TnnK: IriKi
1n<5.A: Yl<5.1": Yl<5.1: <DAfi: (DAR laafi: 1UJX: 7-nT
<Ddrt= <D^: (Dill: <Dl"lK: (D*#i m.-.
<D1>m: (DYlA: <DRrt: <DK*: <D1*i mnft: flint: nipt
<D1H: HA*: H™^: H""K: H<;<5, mil : IttA00 : ULAOl
HYl^: mo"; Hl\: HIV: H«5.£:
X^*: Kn*: K1H: £i<5.: gin"" : oxnm : Oft**: calrii
R&.\: lAfll: 1"°^: 1»»K:'l£0»:T-<»l'l x""K
i^<5.: im.: mw. T-nm: *1T£: X^n:X£1:XP<5.: XIII
UT: HH: 1H£: *1HT: IRA: >£A <5.A1

nm<5.: m""«i>: m^*: m*"": m^n


XK*: XR«5.= <5.A4»: <Am: <5.4rt= <5.<iK
d/fg: d.TA: «5.T1: <5.Tl: <5.fll£: <5.fM
<5.X««J::

' 3. In verbs whose first radical has a diphthong, the latter is shortened
into that diphthong which answers the sixth vowel order; e.g. g^-d/V'
" let him cut," from £fll " A'T'bKA : " do not be deficient."

4. The Subjunctive is so nearly related to the Imperative, that it yields


all its forms to serve the latter, where that is deficient. So in the nega
tive orders, prohibitions or warnings, where the Imperative cannot be.
used for having no Servile Preformatives ; e. g.
MrHC' do not tell. Ti'ND'K*: do not fall.
A'TIKA: do not kill. MrV-t/V: do not cut.

(d) Constructive Mood.


This is a singular Mood, which has nothing corresponding, either in
our European or in the other Semitic Languages ; although its form, as
70 ETYMOLOGY. [CH. IV.
far as the Simple one is concerned, answers the Ethiopic Infinitives
and 1'flQ:; but this Mood is not an Infinitive. It has nothing of a Sub
stantive character ; whereas the Infinitive is the first Verbal Substantive,
possessing both the characters of Substantive and Verb. Nor is there any
other Mood to which it exactly corresponds : neither Participle nor Gerund(
nor Finite Verb, will answer it ; although it may be occasionally translated
by either, and sometimes by an Adverb. It occupies an intermediate
station between the Infinitive and the Finite Verb ; has four forms, one
of which is Simple, one Augmented, and two Compound ; and is flexible,
like the Finite Verb, having Afformatives resembling the Suffixed Pronouns,
partly of the Noun, and partly of the Verb. The Simple form is used for
amplifying ; the other forms, on account of the auxiliaries which are at
tached to them, for constituting sentences. When the nature of this Mood
is understood, we hope the designation Constructive will be justified; not
having been able to fix upon any better. >
The Simple form Yl'IlC: (a modification of the radix YlflC1 "honour"),
which may be considered as containing the idea of an agent, and of an
action, or a concrete being, and an abstract state or condition, &c, assumes
peculiar forms of Pronouns ; which must not be taken as Possessive (Nomi
nal), but as Personal (Verbal) ; nor as the other Verbal Suffixes which are
in the Accusative; but they are Nominatives. Here it is :

«. FIRST FORM OF THE CONSTRUCTIVE MOOIX .


Simple Form.
SINGULAR. PLURAL.
Masc. . Femv Com Com.
3d p. Yl'flC: | honeing frl-flci.: she being honourable. Yl-fl^O^: they CD
I*
2. Yl'fliilJ: TnHiiil: thou being honourable Yl'fli.^U-: you p
'O
..hon. 1. . .. . . lTi"fl*i(D*: ryoube- §
Yl-fldl: we
... .. 2. . . . . Yl'fli.'^F'U': tinghon. bp
1 '. . . Yl-fl«£,: I being hon. 53
The Augmented form has become Finite by the Auxiliary A: being
attached to the Simple form ; but not in the same manner as it attaches
itself to the Contingent, in constituting the Present and Future Tense.
It serves for the Past and the Present Tenses.
CH. IV.] ON THE VERBS. 71

A SECOND OE AUGMENTED FORM OF THE CONSTRUCTIVE MOOD.


Constructive Aorist (Present and Perfect).
SINGULAR. PLURAL.
Masc. Fern. Com. Com.
(he is }
3. Tn-nCTA: < (was) V YlH&A^F' : she is (was) hon. Tn-n4*PA: they
( hon./
!
2. Yl-fl^HA: Tri'Il^hA: thou art (wast) hon. frfl&'fftA'- you s
J
,.hon.l. .-' . . . . Yl-fl^TA: Won
_ < were S
E
• • 2 Yvn£.¥3.A'.(hon.
o
1jYl-flC^AU*:
for Yi-fi^: YlHi$£A: we
1.
05
?iAU*: I am (was) h.

y. COMPOUND CONSTRUCTIVE FORMS.


N Constructive Perfect.

Masc. Fern.
he was, fsne was, or
had been
hon.

Common.
-hon.l lTlfl^:in<.: f^n'

ti'fldB: illCU"- 1 was, had been h.

PLURAL.
Common.
3d pers. \Vfl£.(D*i M<.: they
2d . . Trifl^^U": YlHsf-lfr: you ^ were, or had been honourable,
1st .. Tn-fl^T: in CI: we }
This form is used merely for the Indicative. Observe, also, that MO
may be used throughout, without any change, as remarked in the Note to
the conjugation of in^: p. 65.
72 ETYMOLOGY. [CH. IV-

1 Constructive Form of Uncertainty.


SINGULAR.
3d masc. 1ri'flC: he may
.. fern. Yl«fl£>: 't'UTA^4: she may
2d masc. ln-fl^U: WfAU: l ^ ma
..fern. n-n^Tl: *ir?Af|:J °U mayeS
\ probably be honourable.
. hon.l. Yl-fl^tD': i m&.
• . .2. Yl-fl^U- : WFA^PU- : ) y°U

1st com. TrMl^: "fcUTAU-: I may

3d masc. Yl-fl^CD*: ^UTA-: they


2d . . Yl'fli.^U": 'MfFA^U': you ^ may be honourable.
1st com. TlfW»"i:>»HJTA*I: we

(e) Imperative.
The Imperative has two forms ; one which has the first Radical in the
sixth, and the second in the first order ; and another which has the first
Radical in the first, and the second in the sixth order. All those verbs
which have the Subjunctive form, have the Imperative in the first ; and the
rest have it in the second form. As a specimen of the first, we take the
Imperative of Yllli£:; and of the other, that of mil 4*:: It is used only
in the Second Person Singular and Plural.
a. Form fJUfJ::
SINGULAR. PLURAL.
Masc. JrinC:), i Com. Yind.- be honourable.
_, ~" > be honourable. ^*
Fern. nn£: J
Diphthong form: «|*-mC: ^ttii : sing, ^fll^,: pi. "count1'
jS. Form UtKJ::
PLURAL.
Masc. fnH*:|dotnoubbserve- Com. fIl'fl'fe : do you observe.
Fem. nvn't-
(/) Infinitive Mood.
Is formed by prefixing OD; to the Simple root; and it presents the
two fortns: ouJrinO "to De honourable" and 00(11114*: "to observe."
With Prima Rad. Diphthong : oo^r-fHO: " to number." «nn^o<5_q: " to
till," "dig."
(g) Participles.
a. Simple: act. Y\H' °ne who is honoured. . .
pass. Tan4> : any thing dipped.
Eth. pass. \\ft-C,' honoured.
CH. IV.] ON THE VERBS. 73

/8. Compound Part., Adjective, or Relative Participle.


N For the Preterite—Is formed by prefixing the Relative Pronoun P:
to the Preterite.
SINGULAR.
S.masc. PYin<i: he 1 who was
..fem. PYin^f: she] hon. 3. PYl n<J,: they who were hon.
2.masc. PtlllCtJ: ) thou who
.. fem. PYl flCfl : ) wast hon. 2- PTnilili^U*: you who were hon.
.. hon. 1. pYin^: 1 you who
.. •• 2. PYin^.^U-:) werehon.
1. com PYl flCU" : I who was hon. 1. PYlIlCt: we wno were hon.

2 For the Present — Is formed by prefixing the Relative Pronoun


pgo— : to the forms of the Contingent Mood.
SINGULAR. PLURAL.
3.masc. po^Yi-fl^: he \ who is 3. POUYl'flfJ.: they who are hon.
..fem. P9n;t,ln'flC:shef hon-
2. masc. P9™;t,Yl,flC: ) thou who 2. P9«ffYl Tl <J, : you who are hon.
. . fem. Pl0^ Yl*fl£: ) art hon.
. .hon.l. po^Yl'fliJ.: ) you who
.. .. 2. P9n^Yl'fl^i:i are hon.
1. com. P9nYl*flC : Iwho am hon. 1. P9I^Yl'flC: we who are hon.

OBSERVATIONS.
1. The Simple Participial forms are used in their verbal as well as in
a nominal character. This is evident in Active Verbs; e.g. Oll^t'
" observing," watching," guarding"; and " guardian," "observer": which
may have its object connected with it either in the Genitive Case, when it
is considered as a Noun, e.g. Pn°l: fllHj: "a keeper, guardian, of
sheep," "shepherd"; or in the Accusative Case, flinflj1 "one
keeping, watching the sheep." The Passive forms are resolvable by the
two compound forms (N) and (2) of the Passive Conjugations.
2. The two compound forms of the Relative or Adjective Participle
evince their Participial character (which consists in partaking—partici-
piendo—of the properties of the Verb as well as of the Noun, and forming
a connecting link between both) by the position in which they stand when
connected with Nouns, as Adjectives ; by the treatment they experience
from other Transitive Verbs, when being put into the Accusative Case ;
and by the influence they themselves exercise on Nouns and Pronouns.
As this subject, however, belongs more properly to the Syntax, we shall
leave it for the present.
ETYMOLOGY. [CH. IV.
Before we leave this subject, we beg to present to the Student those
regular deviations which take place in those verbs whose third radical
letter is liable to change, by the accession of the vowels i and e, according
to the rule laid down Part I. Ch. VII. c. This occurs in verbs ending in
A: Ills ft: 1": 1: H: Rs ID: R: and 0:, with (1) the Feminine of the
2d pers. masc. in (a) the Present Indicative ; (6) the Contingent Simple
and Compound ; (c) Subjunctive ; (d) Imperative ; (2) with the 1st pers.
sing, in the Constructive Simple and its Compounds. Instances :

1. <5_TA: "He span." FOB


^i/t-JFAfi: thou (fem.) spinnest . . JI"<5/fA.PAfi' "
^A/t-?.-- "t-iS/l-A.:
,fi-d.;t-1p:incfi:thou(/)wastsPinmng' ^^A.: incil:
,1-<5.,t*^'t*U"?!Afi:thou(/.)wiltbespinmng,^<5>^A.: *NTi,: AAft:
<1T.£ : do thou (/.) spin <i.TA. :
thou (/.) shalt, mayest thou spin, ^Q.TA.:
<5/I"R: I spinning . ....... #5/t-A.:
<5/I*J?Alh: I spin, span &/Vti*i AAU«:
d/ff!.: WQlb: I was spinning . . . i/fti,: WIQU-:

2. nilJ: "He was king" (queen). ""Aft: "He returned." (act.)


Vlrfitiitli thou art queen .... tHW,: tkilft'-
+V1"!.:
^^All: incH : thou was returning' ■I'00Al\: iflC.fi :

+9"Afi: ^An^^J^} +ooAa:+lfrAn::


^Tlh: mayest thou reign as Queen . sf¥lui,i
nil: be queen Tl"!,:
""Ail: ""Art,:
""AhAU-:&ooAh^Alh:"»Ai,L:| (""AI1.PAIJ-: ""Art,: IflC
10CU-: ""AfLr^lffAlh: > I U*: ""Art,: "KUTAlh:

3- 1n<5,*r: "He opened."


^MnftbFAh: thou openest .... ^Ylfct^Ail:
**!£¥: • • 't'YlQ.-t;:
CH. IV.] ON THE VERBS. ,7$
FOR
^YlQ.^: IflcH - tho« wast opening, ^■Ylftl;: \OiC,tt :
+Yi^:^Ah = {th:;ji^be} Mirt.+ufetllt-

't'YldS/ff': mayest thou open .... 'FlrliS/I;:


Yl&yf"- do thou open Jli/t'
Yl&f:: I opening Yl6.*t:
"h^AU-iIopen . YlG/WAU-:
YlS/I?: \nQU-: & YlG/E: TOFFAll-: Yl$.t: "fcUTAU-: & Ylfct:
WC.U-::
4. A*»"l: "He begged."
'tVUHpAfh thoubeggest .... 'TA'jni^Afi :
^A^^&c . . 't-A?0^:
tWB?l : do thou beg A9°i,:
A9°"E: I begging A9°k:
ATnfAlh: I am (was) begging . . . A^IJPAlh-:

5. ood.H' "He poisoned."


foo^-if/til: thou poisonest . . . . ^""CH-PaH :
Jfonc;^: &c l-ooCH.:
"^O^: and tnJ£H£: do thou poison, on^H.:
tro^fC: I poisoning ....... "»CH,:
""CH'Alh: I poison (poisoned) . . . oo^ny/vU*:

6. (D^R: "He descended."


'ffflC^Afi : thou descendest .... ^(DCJfJPAil :
'KDCS""- &c 'I'CDCR.:
^(D'Z^'- mayest thou descend . . I'd)**^^:
(D»4|*": do thou descend <D*£J^:
<DCS: &c-> 1 descending <DC5i:
(DC^All-: I was, am descending . . (DCJ?JPAU-:

7. (Dim: "he pounded."


^(DIKlAil: thou poundest .... ^(DTP^All :
^(DIEB': &c ^KDIfD,"
^(D'ltP": mayest thou pound . . . ^OKHn,:
OKlGfl.: do thou pound ...... OMiD,:
76 ETYMOLOGY. [CH. IV.

antEf: I pounding &c (Dim.:


<mOR.AU' = I am (was) pounding . . (DITJPAU*"
8. 1UI R : "he reproved," " chastised." Ul£0 : " he proceeded.1 The
changes are the same as in No. 7.

B. SECOND CONJUGATION,
whose characteristic is a prolongation of the first radical, by which it
is changed from the first into the fourth form. Its force is intensity of
the idea of the original form.
■TiKfl: he scolded exceedingly.
Its difference in form, from the First Conjugation, is as follows :
1. It retains the first long radical throughout ; on this acccount, it
2. Has no peculiar form for the Subjunctive, but is served by the
Contingent Mood.
3. In the Imperative, the first radical is long, of the fourth : the second
short, of the sixth order.
' 4. In the Infinitive, the first radical is of the fourth ; the second, as in
all the conjugations, of the first order.
The mode of conjugating being the same as in the first species, we
shall give only the Third Person, Singular and Plural, in those Moods
and Tenses which have it.
1. INDICATIVE.
Preterite.
3d pen. singular. | 3d pers. plural.
flg.fl "■ he scolded exceedingly &c. ' flgfb'. they scolded exceedingly &c.
Present and Future.

2. CONTINGENT.
Simple.
XftR-fl: I gfiRn--
Compound Preterite.
he scolded, had
scolded, was scold
Z^R-fl: in*;: ing, would scold, £.*iRfbm- W£"-he scolded, &c.
would have scold
ed exceedingly.
Compound of Uncertainty.
Jfc'lJT'fl:} he may (perhaps) scold
&tlRIt-: JiUTA-:
SLIT?A: i exceedingly &c.
CH. IV,] ON THE VERBS. Ti

3. subjunctive.—None.
4. CONSTRUCTIVE.
Simple.
SINGULAR. PLURAL.
^JJP: he, scolding exceedingly &c. | ^J^fKD*: they scolding &c.
Augmented Present and Perfect (Aorisf).
^£"flTA- |he SC°ldS (scolded) ^JfllYA: they scold, &c
' \ exceedingly, &c.
Comp. Preterite.
. f he scolded,was scold- «ljfIl(D*: 111 they scolded, &c.
K ' * jng exceedingly, &c.
Comp. of Uncertainty.
flRP'- he may (perhaps) scold exceedingly, &c.
5. IMPERATIVE.
f^SE?) ^ thou scold. flRI*.: \A° /°U ■BoM
Fem. iTl^n.: ) . I &c.
6. INFINITIVE.
tro,1lK*fl: to scold, the scolding.
7. PARTICIPLES.
1. Nominascens.—H^fl.: "a scolder," "one who scolds exceedingly."
2. Adject.— Poiq,0l1R"fl: "one who scolds exceedingly," &c.
Of course, there is no Passive Participle of this form.

C. THIRD CONJUGATION.
Active and Transitive Voice.—The characteristic is an fa: prefixed to
the radix ; which puts the Personal Preformatives, excepting "fa : , into the
fourth order.
Form ?kYin<i: " he honoured."
1. INDICATIVE.
Preterite.
SINGULAR. PLURAL.
hiring: he honoured, &c. asTnn<£: | fa\} fl they honoured, &c.
Present and Future.
F\}-tl6'£%.' he honours. JPYl'Il^A*: they honour, &c.
J'Yl'fli.A^: she honours, &c.
• i 2. CONTINGENT.
Simple.
78 ETYMOLOGY. [dl. IV.

singular. Compound Preterite. plural.


^Yl-flC: Hl£: &c | jrtMI<.: ifl<.: &c
Compound of Uncertainty.
JPYl'IlC: 3L\Tf£%. ■ he may (perhaps) honour, &c.
3. SUBJUNCTIVE.
^11I1C: mav ne (*et n™) honour, &c. as ,J»JinC: &c.
4. CONSTRUCTIVE.
' Simple.
Ml-flQ- he honouring. | ftYl-fl^a)*: they honouring.
M\-fi&*- she honouring.
2\%l'fld.5f;U": you honouring.
U|JJJ*J|V} thou honouring-

MYfl } you honouring.

Ml-ndo- I honouring. ?\Vl'fl£"l: we honouring.


Augmented Present and Preterite.
_ . (he honours (ho- I _ . m, (they honour (ho-
?v*"lCTA: i noured) &c. ! MWU**: { ^ ^
Compound Preterite.
Ml*flC:M<: he honoured, Sec. | ?»ftfl£(D*: ln<.: they honoured, &c.
SINGULAR. 5. IMPERATIVE. PLURAL.
Fem° hVini-} d° th°U nonour- do ye honour.
6. INFINITIVE.
°^JlllC: to honour, the honouring.
7. PARTICIPLES.
1. Nominal, the honourer, one who honours.
( P^JPTriHC1 he who honours.
2. Adject. I . .
^Tin<£: he who honoured.

D. FOURTH CONJUGATION.
TrtRH: "he was reviled."
Its nature is pre-eminently Passive (objective), and reflective. Its
characteristic is the Preformative f : to the original form in the Preterite,
Constructive, and Imperative, which, in the same manner as in the cognate
languages, gives way to the other Preformatives in the process of conju
gations. The second radical remains unchanged in all the moods, tenses,
and persons, except in the Constructive Moods. So does also the first
radical in the Infinitive Mood. These two remarks serve to distinguish
this and the other Passive Conjugations from the rest.
CH. IV.] ON THE VERBS. 79

1. INDICATIVE.
Preterite.
3d.pers. masc. "Tflgfl ' he was reviled. | •t'ClRfb: they were reviled,
&c. &c, the same as In II *£:

Present and Future.


PLURAL.
. ( he is (will J'they are
3dpe„.™SC.JIrtj:1A: | to) reviled. 3d p. c. ^rtKHA*: ) (will be)
'reviled.

....«*
2d per. masc. ^FflKHAU: )thou art . .„ ( you are
.. ..fem. ■frnK-fl^Ai1:i"(wiltbe)
.. .. hon. 1. gflgltp: I you are \-|
2. -t-rtKHA^lh:/ (will be) ' *
( we are
1st., com. 'XrtKnAlf*: I am (shall be)
;l(shall be)

2. CONTINGENT.
Simple.
SINGULAR. PLURAL.
3dper.masc. ,^l*IJ»^*fl : fem. Jt,|"l£'fl:
2d .. tflK-fl: fern, ^rt^n.:
.. .. hon.l. jLflgfl-: 2. 'fl'lXn-:
1st .. com. ">»l"lX"fl:
Compound Preterite.
3d pers. masc. singular.
_grt£"fl: Iflt^: he was (would be), had been (would have been), reviled,
&c. &c.

JCrtKn-: lll*^.: they were (would be), had been (would have been),
reviled, &c. &c.
Compound of Uncertainty.
! singular; plural.
3d pers. masc. /he may (per- /they may (per-
.EllR-fl: tfUTA: j haps) be re- JEftEI>: JElffA-:] haps) be re-
' viled, &c. &c. ' viled, &c. &c.

3. subjunctive. —None.
80 ETYMOLOGY. [CH. IV.

4. CONSTRUCTIVE.
singular. Simple. PLURAL.
3d p. masc. •fl'ljjp: he being reviled, Tl'l.K'IKD*: they being
fem. TlTiJf1 : she being reviled,
2d .. masc. fl*!Jf fltJ : ) thou being re- Trt.K'n^FU'S y°u being "9
fem. Trtjfnfi:) viled-
hon. 1. f flJfn<D* : } you being &
. . 2. frtj^n^flh : S reviled,
1st.. com. TrtjCft: I being reviled. Tftjfm: we being

Augmented Aorist.
SINGULAR. PLURAL.
3d p. m. they
f. "Trtj^nA^i1: shej (was)
2d.. m. Tll^-nHA: 1 thou art Tfl£«1^3/t: you
are
f. TrtJE^nHA:) (wast)
1 (were)
hon. 1. Trtjf11VA : ) you are
reviled.
.2. T rtJ^H^lA: ) (were)
1st. com. Tl"l1E-fl.PAll-:{I(am Trtjtnra: we
was)
singular. Compound Preterite.
he was (had Tftj?IHD,n they were (had been)
3d p. m. been) reviled, ) reviled, &c. &c.
&c. &c. &c.
IMPERATIVE.
. f do thou be (sub . f do you be (submit to
Mascrrtfi-fl:! ! TnKn-: K being) reviled.
mit to being) re
Fern. -rftKIvl ™
viled.

6. INFINITIVE.
""rtK"!!: to be reviled, the being reviled.

7. PARTICIPLES.
(a) Nominal, "TflSHjn.'- one who is reviled.
(i>) Relative, a. Perf. PTflRIl: he who was (has been) reviled.
^. Pres. PO^,fl£*fl: he who is reviled.
CH. IV.] ON THE VERBS.

E. FIFTH CONJUGATION.
Yxtli,' He made (caused to) speak.
The nature of this verb is doubly transitive, or causative. It combines
the characteristics of both the second and the third conjugations; the
prolongation of the first radical giving intensity to the transitively (by ft:)
augmented form.
1. INDICATIVE.
Preterite.
SINGULAR. PLURAL.
3d p. masc. ftf**I£: \ he made hfl^i they made
.. ..fern. ftfUil4: )i i she made
2d . . masc. ftfl^lh: yori made
^n;}thoumadest
.... fem.
f to
.. ..hon.l. ftt"l<.: 1 .
2. you made
1st . com. ftF"lCU": I made : we made

Present and Future.


3d p. masc. jniA: he) makes yfl&.tf: they
.. .. fem. JfldAf: she J (will make) Ma
2d., masc. J-nd.AW: >thou makest a
.... fem. 3*nC^Ai1 : J (will make)
J
.... hon. 1. JPf"7<5^*: ) you make / CO
2. jhn*.A¥U-: J (will make) Q

1st., com. ftn&Alh: (I make


1 (shall make) we
2. CONTINGENT.

3dpers. JPfTIC;: fem.^nq:


2d .. JHC: fem.3-n^:
.. hon. 1. .PF-I^,: 2. J-F^:
1. AflC:

Compound Preterite.
SINGULAR.
{he made (would
make) had made
(would have made)
to speak, &c.
ETYMOLOGY. [cn. IV,

Compound of Uncertainty,
3d pen. masc. SINGUIAR. PLURAL.
he may (per- /•they may (per-
JPF°IC: JElfFA:|haps) make to JElfrA-:Jhaps) make to
speak, &c. (. speak, &c.

3. NO SUBJUNCTIVE.
4. CONSTRUCTIVE.
Simple.
3d p. masc. ^n^: he Mldja*"- they
.... fern, ftfli.: she C3ID
2d . . masc. ftFldU: &<
thou making
. ... fem. ftn^tl ;} )* to
bO
.... hon.l. frFl^d* s
you
i
1st., com. ftFli: I Wl^: we
Compound Jorist.
Mpers-masc. rhe makeS (made)
he makes (m to 4 they make (made) to
wic«pa-J speak)&c. speak, &c.
Compound Preterite,
i he made (had frFl^d* : ( they made (had made)
Af°IC: in^: \made)tospeak,&c. Ml<.: * to speak, &c.

5. IMPERATIVE.
Masc. hf1C: jdo thou make to ?kF°IiJ,: do ye make to speak.
Fem. ?kF"|<J r speak.
6. INFINITIVE.
°^F1C: to make or cause to speak; the causing to speak.
7. PARTICIPLES.
(a) Simple, ?iFJ£ : one who makes to speak.
(6) Relative,
a. Perfect, ^F"l<£ : he who made to speak, &c.
fi. Present, pot^JPF1C: ^e ma^es to speak, &c.

F. SIXTH CONJUGATION.
TF*1£: "He spoke."
The nature and force of this species is intensity, continuation, some
times reciprocity, either of the original, or of the Fourth Conjugation. It
CH. IV.] ON THE VERBS. 83

combines the properties of the Second (long first radical) and Fourth (Pre-
formative 1*0 Conjugations. The "T: is found in the Preterite, Impera
tive, and Constructive Moods : the first radical is long throughout : the
second is of the first order, in all moods, tenses, and persons, except in the
Constructive.
1. INDICATIVE.
Preterite.
3d pers. masc. singular. plural.
■fffc^: he spoke, &c. | "t"f"l<J.: they spoke, &c.
Present and Future.
£f"l<5.A: he speaks (will speak) &c. | J^*: ^

2. CONTINGENT.
3d pers. masc. Simple.
WIC.: fem. WlQz &c, | £F*1<.: &c &c.
Compound Preterite. •1 ■ ■ ■' •
£f"lC: 1I1C: he sPoke &c- I £F*1<.: in<.: they spoke &c.
Compound of Uncertainty.
j they may (per-.

.. 3. NO SUBJUNCTIVE*
4. CONSTRUCTIVE.
3d pers masc. Simple.
THC= he speaking &c. " | Tn^CD*: they speaking &c.
Compound Aorist.
TnC*PA : he speaks or spoke &c. | Tf"7<il*PA: they speak or spoke &c.
Compound Preterite.
( they spoke (had'

.5. IMPERATIVE..
Masc. tnC:l . ' '. ' '
Fem. Tf^:} P TFl^: do ye speak.

6. INFINITIVE.
oofl^ to speak, the speaking.
7. PARTICIPLES.
Simple, ff^16- a speaker, speaking.
Relative (a) Perfect, PTfl£: he who spoke.
(6) Present, pof^flC.' he who speaks.
ETYMOLOGY. . [CH. IV.
G. SEVENTH CONJUGATION.
1"9D€PYl£: he tried. T9°YTr: he disputed.
No other instances of this conjugation present themselves to us, except
these two. The peculiarity of this conjugation, i.e. the change of a radical
of the first or of the fourth order into two letters, into the radical of the
sixth, with the «p: of the fourth order, is so frequent in Shoa in other
instances, that we apprehend the use of this conjugation itself may be of
no small extent. Its force differs not from the sixth conjugation, with
which it is identical, except in the change of the first radical.
1. INDICATIVE.
Preterite.
3d pers. masc. singular. plural.
T^WtlZ'- he tried, &c. | T^Yln^,: they tried, &c.
Present and Future.
J£9n<PYl6.A: he tries (will try) &c. | J£9n<Pln<5.iV: theytry(will try)&c.
2.
CONTINGENT.
Simple.
j^vlnc- &c- I .E^Yln^.: &c.
i Compound Preterite. >
.P^VYlC1 he tried, &c. | £9««Pln<.: they tried, &c.
Compound of Uncertainty.
3LV°V\\C.- f he probably has I fLV°V\l^,- fthey probably have
JEUTA: 1 tried, &c. I JElff I tried, &c.
3. NO SUBJUNCTIVE.
4. CONSTRUCTIVE. . ,'
3d pers. masc. Simple.
T9°VYlO he trying, &c. | T9n«Phti<D': they trying, &c.
Compound Aorist.
tWYlCVA: he tries or tried &c. TTnYfi^YA: ^7 tryortrled'
(. &c.
Compound Preterite.
TWlnQ'She tried, had tried, | 1*9n<PYi<!L<l>: (they tried, had
Ml**: J &c. I 1 tried, &c.
5. IMPERATIVE.
Masc. ^VlC: i do thQU I T90«PYl<.: do ye try.
Fern. f9n«pYi^:}u" U1

6. INFINITIVE.
OD9D<pTn^: to try, the trying, trial.
CH. IV.] ON THE VERBS. 85
7. PARTICIPLES.
Simple, "l"9n<P*li : one who tries.
Relative (a) Perfect, PT9n<PYl£: he who tried, &c.
(6) Present, PB*W°VYlC,: he who tries, &c.

H. EIGHTH CONJUGATION.
?ifl1nfl£: He caused to honour, caused to be honoured.
This is the most frequent form for the causative voice. Its characte
ristic is the prefixion of the two letters Aft: to the original form, with
which it has nearly the same mode of conjugation. The second radical is,
in the Contingent and all other forms derived from it, put into the sixth
order. But it has no Subjunctive form. The Imperative has the Con
tingent form of the radicals. The Infinitive has the first and second
radicals in the first order. The Personal Preformatives are put before the
Aft: absorbing the A"
1. INDICATIVE.
Preterite.
3d pers. maoc. singular. 3d pers. PLURAL.
. .. ( they caused to be
AftYlflt^: he caused to be hon. &c. ?krrtlll<,:{ honoured, &c.
Present and Future.
3dp. masc. ^frtl*fi<5iAi he causes &c. ^flVl-ni.A': they 0)u
.... fern. 3*Yl^^'fli■A1¥■: she causes &c. s
0)u o
2d . . masc. ;TflYlfl*5.AiJ : a-fiYi-n^A^u-: you ao
| thou causest &c. O
.... fem. jr-ftYvncPAFi ) <n
.... hon. L .PflYl-fl^: 1 & I* Q
2. 3-fllriHi.A^U.:) y t>03
o
l8t..com. AftYl'fl&.AU': I cause &c. CSsu
A«*ftln-116.A*1: we
2. CONTINGENT.
Simple.
SINGULAR. •
3d p. masc. JPflYl-flO fem• FftYVflC ^fiTn-fi^--
2d.. .. 3-flTn-flC: fem. J-flYl-fli 3-flYl-fl<.:
.... hon.l.iPf)lrifl<i: 2d 3-flYl-n<.
1st. . Aftlrno
3d pers. masc. Compound Preterite.
.PflYl'flC: 1 he caused, &c. to be I .pfllnH^,: 1 they caused, &c. to be
ln<£: J honoured, &c. I 1114,: f honoured, &c.
86 ETYMOLOGY. [CH. IV.

Compound of Probability.
3d pers. masc. singular. plural.
^fllTI-flO) he (probably) may ^flYl'fl^."- (they (probably) may
£UTA: J cause to be hon. &c. JSUTA-: t cause to be hon. &c.
3. NO SUBJUNCTIVE.
4. CONSTRUCTIVE.
3d pers. masc. Simple.
< noured, &c. iuniiit,u» | honoured, &c.
Compound Aorist.

I to be hon. &c. { to be hon. &c.


Compound Preterite.
AFITI'flQ: (he caused (had caused) . . » „ _ /they caused (had
IDC: 1 to be honoured, &c. j caused) to be ho-
' noured, &c.
5. IMPERATIVE.
Masc. 2\flYl"flC "■ )} do thou cause to , ,
, , , 2\rlTl*fl<!L: dove cause to be hon.
Fern. Yttitl-fli: be honoured. ^™
6. INFINITIVE.
°flflYlIlC: to cause to be honoured, the causing to be honoured, the
procuring honour.
7. participles. J •
Simple, 2\flYin£: one who causes to be honoured. . •
Relative,
(a) Pret. ^fllTUlf*: he who caused &c.
(6) Pres. ^onJPflYl'flO he who causes to be honoured, &c.

/. NINTH CONJUGATION.
Kf|OOf|/\ : He caused to resemble ; he nattered, dissimulated.
The difference of this conjugation from the preceding is so slight, that
we do not find it necessary to give its flexion : it consists merely in the
second radical being constantly long, except in the Constructive : in all the
rest it is similar to the preceding ?kflYlfl<^: As to the third radical f\:
we refer to the deviations marked under the First Conjugation, No. 1.
This conjugation, by the way, is very rare.
CH. IV.] ON THE VERBS. 87
J. TENTH CONJUGATION.
J»flTI*l«£: He made to speak.
The force of this conjugation is Causative, as the two preceding ones.
The difference consists in the form being augmented by three letters,
2\flT= instead of the two t%tl"

1.
INDICATIVE.
Preterite.
3d pers. masc. singular. I plural.
?»flTV14: ne made to speak, &c. | KflTl"l<£: they made to speak, &c.
Present and Future.
f he makes &c. to _ | they make &c. to
speak, &c.
2. CONTINGENT.
3d pers. masc. Simple.

Compound Preterite.
„.»..___.__ « o (he made &c. n.^,_ ,„ (they made &c.
yflTMOW*&c {tospeak &c yflTW^:»n<,:{ to speak) &e.

Compound of Probability.
yflTWC: I ^e may probably ytl'VYl^: fthey may probably
JLlffA'- } make to speak, &c. ,£UTA»: * cause to speak, &c.
4. CONSTRUCTIVE.
3d pers. masc. Simple.
hfl-TMC: he causing to speak, &c. | hflTM^®-: the? a^j°8 *°

Compound Aorist.
^ (he causes (caused) . (they cause(caused)
WHTIC»A={ to speak, &c. W>«WA:{ ^peakUa

Compound Preterite.
XfM>*n«" in> (he caused &c. fcfrt*TO£(D*: (they caused &c. to
A"T1 ^ ! ^ X to speak, &c. in<,: I speak, &c. .

3d pen. masc. 3. SUBJUNCTIVE.


„. . I/may
• he cause
, to speak,
r „. . _„ ' (may
■ . they cause to

5. IMPERATIVE.
Masc. ?kflTnC: (do thou make . - J__ , , , ,
1 J hfttTId! do you make to speak.
Fem. ?kflTT16: I to speak.
88 ETYMOLOGY. [CH. IV.

6. INFINITIVE.
°1lfl'iH"nC: to cause (the causing) to speak.
7. PARTICIPLES.
Simple, JiflTJPi : one who causes to speak.
Relative Perfect, ,^f|*t*H£: he who caused to speak.
Present, PO^JPflTMC1 he who causes to speak.

JT. ELEVENTH CONJUGATION.


T*P*P«*K: He was entirely humbled; humbled himself entirely.
The force of this conjugation is intensity added to forms D and F:
its characteristic is reduplication of the prolonged first radical with the
objective T: prefixed. As its conjugation is the same as "Vfl^z we
abstain from detailing it.

L. TWELFTH CONJUGATION.
|*nn<£: Broke to pieces.
The force of this conjugation is intense action, represented by a redu
plication of the second radical.

1. INDICATIVE.
Preterite.
3d pers. masc. singular. i plural.
1*11 fl£: he broke to pieces, &c. | |"inil<J.: they broke to pieces, &c.

Present and Future.


„. „_ _ (he breaks, &e. to - _ (they break, &c. to
J pieces&c. StoMtHi p^ces&c

3d pers. masc. 2. SIMPLE CONTINGENT.

Compound Preterite.
„. . (he broke, &c. i . ^ ._ ( they broke, &c.
SLfinno m* { to pieces &c | xfinno in* { t/pieceS; &c.

Compound of Probability.
CH. IV.] ON THE VERBS.

3. SUBJUNCTIVE.
SINGULAR. PLURAL.
3d p. m. ^fin-fiC1 may he ^fin-fl<.: may they
.. . ^fn«flC: paay she
a
2d p.m.
r -t-fia-nc1 >> mayest .r-i<D break
thou Oh 'I'fln'fl^,: may you
Q } to
hon.l. JZfm-fl<.: ■a pieces.
may you
. hon. 2. ^fll-fl^.:
■>»^fl^•fl^;: may wfc J
ist.. . 7kfin-fiC: may 1
4.
CONSTRUCTIVE.
Simple.
rtH-flC: he breaking to pieces, &c. |"l1'fl<!l(D»: breaking to

Compound Aorist.
ftn-nrvA ■ I he breaks (broke) tm-nsvA ■ I break (broke)
nnHCTA.j to pieces, &c. . mH<«PA. | to pieces> &c.

Compound Preterite.
. „ _„ . (he
[he broke, &c. to _ ,„ ( they broke &c.
rtn-noin^-l pieces
pieces, &c. Aq-n«D-:in«:{ 4iect£&c.

5. IMPERATIVE.
Masc flH-flC^ do tnou hreak to
fn*fl<^: do ye break to pieces, &c.
Fern, Rn-fl£:> pieces, &c.
6. INFINITIVE.
orofinnC1 to break to pieces.
7. PARTICIPLES.
Simple, rtni£: one who breaks to pieces.
Rel. Pret. Pfnfl^: he that broke to pieces.
Pres. po^rtH'flC: he that breaks to pieces.

M. THIRTEENTH CONJUGATION.
"\ : He performed great works.
The force of this conjugation is an addition of intensity to the Third
Conjugation: this is represented by a reduplication and prolongation of
the second radical, with the Preformative ft::
1. INDICATIVE.
Preterite.
3d pers. masc. SINGULAR.
1\R&.Cl- {he performed great (they performed great
ft£6.d>: \ works &c
works, &c.
90 ETYMOLOGY. [CH. IV.

SINGULAR, ■*Present
' and
\*iv\m Future.
m. wuwi w plural.
njuttaju.
f they perform great

2. CONTINGENT.
Simple.
I &c-
Compound Preterite.
vv/ ri ms fhePerformed&c- (they performed
i.w<. |great workSj &c< JPK^-CT* : 1 n<^: } &c great works,
I &c.
Compound of Probability.
ygd.Q'l: (he may probably per- pp/ fn,. ( they may probably
" ^ -(perform great works,
}LWFA: X form great works. .gUTA-: ( &c.

SUBJUNCTIVE.
pp.,r„.j may he perform great (may they perform
I. | workg) &a .P^d-CT-: | great workSi &c_
4. CONSTRUCTIVE.
,' • Simple.
ihe performing great n_. jthey performing
| works. W<;*1' l(D^- tgreat works, &c.
Compound Aorist.
{he performs (per /■they perform (per-
formed) great works CTPA : < formed) great
&c. (. works, &c.
Compound Preterite.
f he performed,
?»J?£.C"1: ^n^:< &c. great works
*"<.'• [ &c.

5. IMPERATIVE.
KA11VJS.
Masc. : (do thou perform xp.^n. id°ye perform great
Fern, ftjf&£TL: 1 great works. ftJT^t,*--! works.

6. INFINITIVE.
oqj^-^,^"!: to perform (the performance of) great works.
7, PARTICIPLES.
Simple, T\.R&*&\- one who performs great works.
Rel.Perf. ^££.£1: he who performed great works.
Pres. P^iyK^.C"!: he who performs great works.
CH. IV.] ON THE VERBS. 91
. ... N. FOURTEENTH CONJUGATION. "
T«oiiV|Yl^: He . counselled with others, gave and took advice, advised
frequently.
•t*ODy\Art : He went and returned, went to and fro, i.e. walked.
The force of this conjugation is double intensity, reciprocity, and re
petition of the action expressed in the verb. This is represented by
reduplication and prolongation of the second radical. Its flexion and
conjugation is quite the same as in the Sixth Conjugation.

O. FIFTEENTH CONJUGATION.
"VFPId." He conversed with another, spoke frequently.
The nature of this conjugation is the same as the preceding ; and as to
form, it differs only in having the first radical long, in conformity with the
sixth species, which it resembles entirely in flexion and conjugation..

P. Q. R. S. SIXTEENTH, SEVENTEENTH, EIGHTEENTH, & NINETEENTH


CONJUGATIONS.
£1HH: "To be stiff," "obdurate.'" Intransitive.
&X1HH: "To stiffen." Transitive. ■
■f-ow/\rt "He returned," "was returned." Passive, & Reflective.
Til01? HI ffl : " He reviled." Intensitive.
The chief peculiarity of these four species consists in doubling "the third
radical, or gemination.—As we shall have an opportunity of treating more
fully upon the Geminant Verbs, we merely mention these forms here ; and
pass on to the remaining forms of the Regular Triliteral Verb.

T. TWENTIETH CONJUGATION.
A5",f"l£: He talked one out of any thing, dissuaded.
This and the Twenty-first and Twenty-fourth species are rather remark
able for their singular Preformatives, which are not in use in the cognate
dialects. The conjugation of AJjF"li£: is similar to that of hg&^li
we therefore proceed.

£7. TWENTY-FIRST CONJUGATION.


2\(Dhn*i: He folded his hands.
In what the peculiar force of this species consists, we cannot determine.

V. TWENTY-SECOND CONJUGATION.
<5.TATA : He rubbed thin between his fingers.
The reduplication of the second and of the third radical, which consti
92 ETYMOLOGY- [cH. IV.

tutes the peculiar character of this species, serves to express, as a sort of


diminution, a peculiar modification of the original action.
1. INDICATIVE.
Preterite.
3d pen. masc. singular. i plural.
f[herubbedthinbetween
he rubbed thm bet | they mbbed thin, &c.
«5.TATA:j ^ fingers, &c.

Present and Future.


£<5.TATAA : he rubs thin, &c. | ,£<5.TATAA : they rub thin, &c.
2. CONTINGENT.
3d pers. masc. ' Simple.
JEd.TATA: &c. | £«J.TATA-: &c.
Compound Preterite.
.£<5.TATA:i he rubbed (&c.) thin, Ml-Atfr:) they rubbed (&c.)
) &c. lfl<.: ■» thin, &c.
Compound of Probability.
JE<5.TATAn he may probably ^<5,1"A;1'A,:1 they may probably
.£1/1*A: i rub thin, &c. &c. ,£UTA*: * rub thin, &c.
3d pera. masc. 3. SUBJUNCTIVE.
,Ji",£i.TATA: may he rub thin, &c. | £<^TATA:maytheyrubthin,&c.
3d pera. masc. 4. SIMPLE CONSTRUCTIVE.
<5.TATA°: he rubbing thin, &c. | <5.TATA(1>: they rubbing thin &c.
Compound Aorist.
{"eCrbbed) fE"^

Compound Preterite.
iS/TATA*1: (he rubbed (was rub- I <5.TATA(D*: J they rubbed (were
I bing) thin, &c. | 7tIl<J,: l rubbing) thin, &c.
5. IMPERATIVE.
Masc. fifATA: (do thou rub I . _ . , ,4l. „
t? ~T ' "L " „ { ... o tTATA-: do you rub thm, &c.
Fern. Q.TAT£: I thin, &c. I '
6. INFINITIVE.
00 IJTATA: to rub thin, the rubbing thin between the fingers.
7. PARTICIPLES.
Simple, <5,TAT£: one wno rubs thin, &c.
Relative Per/. P<5TATA: he who has rubbed thin, &c. ]
Pres. PO^.d.T ATA: he who rubs thin, &c. &c.
CH. IV.] ON THE VERBS.
W. TWENTY-THIRD CONJUGATION.
■t"<5/rATA: was rubked thin between the fingers.
This is a Passive derivation from the preceding conjugation, to be
treated entirely as the Fourth Conjugation.

X. TWENTY-FOURTH CONJUGATION.
2VlXIl«i<I>: It shone, glittered, sparkled, resplended.
This form seems to be derived from Ilii*!*: " to fulminate,'1 " to lighten";
and the Preformative ^^^X— : appears to have either a diminutive or a
frequentative effect.

2. Conjugation of various Imperfect Forms of the TrUiteral Verbs.


Having thus exhibited the conjugation of the various forms of the
Regular and Perfect Triliteral Verb, we now proceed to the considera
tion of the Imperfect Forms of Triliteral, of Perfect and Imperfect Forms
of Biliteral, and of the various forms of Pluriliteral Verbs. We shall
endeavour to point out, especially by paradigms, where it is necessary,
and the peculiarities in the flexion and conjugation of each ; not in order
to accumulate materials for the memory, but to facilitate the comprehen
sion of the structure of this part of the language. We notice,

L TRILITERAL VERBS whose First Conjugation is A (ft: or O")


The chief peculiarity of these verbs consists in the liability under
which they are to have the first radical contracted with every Pre
formative acceding to the Verb, according to the rule laid down in Part I.
Chap. VII. 2. A.B. For the purpose of exemplifying, we select the two
Verbs h.ou\i "he believed," and AAd,: "he passed."
A. FIRST CONJUGATION.
Simple Form, A°°l: He believed.
1. INDICATIVE.
Preterite. Regular, as Yl II
Present and Future.
SINGULAR. PLURAL,
masc. _P9«fA: he ) ... ...
r Z.mr* . t. she)i r believes, will JP^FA-: they believe, will
fem. TgnfA^:

fern. ^yn^Afl : ) th°U behevest> wUt ^ J J-gofA^jFU*: you believe, will


hon. 1. jpgofrt,: i
.. 2. jgorA¥lh:Houbelieve'wl11
com. A9°FAlh: I believe, shall "KF^FAI: we believe, shall.
94 ETYMOLOGY. [CH. IV.

2. CONTINGENT, . ,
As the Indicative Present, without the Auxiliary ftA :
SINGULAR. 3. SUBJUNCTIVE. PLURAL.
3d p. masc. £oi»T : may he jjoo^.: may they believe.
.. ..fern. 'Too*}; may she
2d .. masc.
, '• 'foo'J: )> mayest thou ^-oot>: may you believe.
.. fern. ^00=5:) J
.. .. hon. 1. eooy.; y
.. .. .. 2.*ouu\m*yy0U
1st. . com. ">»ou"j: may I ■^■joii*} : may we believe.

3d pens. masc. 4. CONSTRUCTIVE.


fr^F: he believing, &c. | 2\9ni(D»: they believing, &c.
Regular; as, YlflC1
IMPERATIVE.
PenT 'jfcwo'I " } ^° t'10U ^e^eve ' '^»ODl' : d° ye believe !

6. INFINITIVE.
Injun*): to believe, the believing, faith, trust.
7. PARTICIPLES.
Simple, K1^^ : one who believes, a believer.1
Relative Perfect, ^»oul: he who believed. jptroj>p: she who believed, &c
Relative Present, pon^9D"j; he who believes, &c.
PQD-fgii'} : she who believes, &c.

B. SECOND CONJUGATION.
Objective Voice.
J"OU|: He was believed, accredited, was trustworthy, faithful,,
entrusted himself.
Flexion and Conjugation according to the Fourth Conjugation of the
Regular Triliteral Verb ; with the exception, that the characteristic T :
because it has joined to itself the vowel of the first radical, is not dropped,
but retained in all the forms.
1. INDICATIVE.
Preterite.
3d pers. masc singular. PLURAL.
•J-au\: he was trusted, &c. jouj.: they were trusted, &c.
Present and Future.
JZJ*oofA: he is trusted, &c. | ^J-ODfft.: they are trusted, &c.
CH. IV.] ON THE VERBS. 95

SINGULAR. 2. CONTINGENT. PLURAL.


j£j«mrj: &c. I £:l-ooi.: &c.
3. NO SUBJUNCTIVE.
3d pers.mare. 4. CONSTRUCTIVE.
J"9«F: he being trusted, &c. | 3-9°HD*: they being trusted, &c.
5. IMPERATIVE.
Masc. a-ooT : \ ^ thou feithfaL I 5^^.. be ye faithful.
Fern. foo^ii I
6. INFINITIVE.
an 3* 00*): to be believed, faithfulness, &c.
7. PARTICIPLES.
Simple, 3*0^*5 : one who is believed.
Mel. Pret Py-ooJ : he who was believed, faithful, &c.
Present, P au^on*!: he who is believed, &c.

C.THIRD CONJUGATION.
Transitive Voice.
ft ft; on): He made believe, persuaded.
This form corresponds with the Eighth Conjugation of the Perfect Verb
ftfllnn^" The first radical ft: is absorbed by the characteristic Pre-
formative ftf|:: No Subjunctive form.

. D. FOURTH CONJUGATION. .
Transitive Voice.
Kfl3*°°l: He accredited, attested, entrusted.
This form, which joins the characteristics of the Objective and of the
Transitive Voice in nature and form, answers the Tenth Conjugation of
the Perfect Triliteral Verb.

£. FIFTH CONJUGATION.
Intensive Voice.
"I"AA<5.; Passed and repassed, trespassed, varied.
In this form, which corresponds with the Fourteenth Conjugation of
the Regular Triliteral Verb, the first radical, ft:, is dropped; but the 1*:
is retained when Prefixes are joined ; e.g. Contingent, JlTAACJ." Infini
tive, o»TAA£»."
96 ETYMOLOGY. [CH. IV.
F. SIXTH CONJUGATION.
Causative and Intensive Voice.
Afl*t"AAd.: He made pass in different ways.
In this form the Causative Af|: is joined to the preceding Conjugation.

II. SECOND CLASS OP IMPERFECT TRILITERALS.


TrUtteral Geminants.
(See page 56, II.)
These verbs seem to have been derived from Biliterals which are lost,
but whose second radical has been doubled. (See Part I. Ch. VII. 2. D.)
In conjugating these verbs, the geminant letters are often contracted into
one ; but that letter, although the Abyssinians have no mark for distin
guishing the accent, shows its origin, by having the tone.
It will be observed, that there are, among the ten different Conjugations
of this class, four which have the 1:, either with the Transitive or
the Intransitive f : prefixed.
In looking at the numerous verbs of this class, mentioned in the note,
page 56, it will be seen that all classes of letters, except the gutturals
and the vowel letters, are subject to gemination.
The general mode of conjugating being the same in this as in all other
classes of verbs, attention is to be paid especially to those forms which
have gemination, and to those which have the contraction.
After these preliminary remarks, we proceed to give the Paradigms.

A. FIRST CONJUGATION.
/\<p<|> : neut. He went away ; act. He dismissed.
Gemination exists in this Conjugation—in the Indicative, Preterite, Sub
junctive, Imperative, Infinitive and Simple, and Relative Preterite Parti
ciples : Contraction in the remaining Moods and Tenses.
1. INDICATIVE MOOD.
Preterite.
SINGULAR. PLURAL.
3d p. masc. Al**!*: he dismissed. A'P'fc: they dismissed.
.. . . fem. A'P't'^F' : she dismissed.
2d ..masc. At*0:) x, . , A
* ^ f thou dismissedst. A<p<p^U»: you dismissed.
.. . . fem. Afl'Tn : >
.. . . hon.l. A*«ft: 1 . ,
2. AfS^U-:*
. t you dismissed.

1st . . com. A<£4*U*: I dismissed. /Y<f>4>): we dismissed.


CH. IV.] ON THE VERBS.
singular. Present and Future. PLUBAl.
3d p. masc. JEA*A: he ) JEAjfA-: they dismiss.
\~ , } dismisses.
. . . . fern. 't'AjfAT1: she)
2d . . masc. 'TAJAU: 1}• thou dismisse
. 'I'AlfA^U": you dismiss.
;
.... fem. TAfc.PAn:)
.... hon.l. RA3»A': _ 1}■ you dismiss.
j- •
.... hon.2. ^A^A^PU-: >
1st., com. YkAjAlf*: I dismiss. "SV^AJfAl: we dismiss.
2. CONTINGENT.
3d p. masc. JJA*!': fem. ^A^: £A«li:
2d .. . . "TA^*: fem. JTA*t: ^AH:
.. ..hon.l. £A«|5: 2. ^AU:
1. >»A*: VIA*:
3. SUBJUNCTIVE.
3d p. masc. 1PA'I>4>! may he JiA'fc'fe: may they dismiss.
. . . . fem. : may she
2d . . masc. 'I*Al'l* = ) CO Jt*A'l,<fc: may you dismiss.
^ r mayest thou
. . . . fem. 'I-A«P^: J 1ft
hon.l. £A "Mi:)
> may you
.. . . 2.^*^:
1st . . com. "XA** : may I ^iA*!'^'- may we dismiss.
4. CONSTRUCTIVE.
Simple.
3d p. masc A$: he A'I'CD* : they dismissing.
.. . . fem. A3*: she
2d . . masc. A*MJ: a A3»^1U-: you dismissing.
thou
. . , . fem. A^fi
. hon.l. A«WD*: ) .a
■a
}you
2. AJ^lh:
1st . . com. A4?: I A"!*"!", we dismissing.
Compound Aorist
st.
3d p. masc. AJA : he dismisses, &c. Afl'TA: they dismiss.
. . . . fem. AjPA^F: she dismisses.
2d . . masc. A'PWA AJ^P^A : y°u dismiss.
| thou dismisses!
. . . . fem. A'f'lA
.. . . hon.l. A'fTA:
| you dismiss.
2 Ap'^A
1st . . com. A^^AU*: I dismiss A«M"A: we dismiss.
98 ETYMOLOGY. [CH. IV.
Compound Preterite.
3d pers. masc. singular. plural.
A*: ifld.- he dismissed, &c. | A^CD*: ln<J,: they dismissed, &c.
5. IMPERATIVE.
m. £i<p*p:fem. A«M; : do thou dismiss. | A'P'ii: do ye dismiss.
6. INFINITIVE.
00A'P*!' : To dismiss, the dismission, dismissal.
7. PARTICIPLES.
Simple.
Simple Act. A3*^ : one who dismisses.
Pass. A3"lj : one who is dismissed.
Rel. Perf. PA^M*: he who has dismissed.
Pres. putJLtlfy : he who dismisses.

B. SECOND CONJUGATION.
Active or Transitive Voice.
ft£«J><|> : He thinned, rarefied, refined.
We need scarcely to mention, that this form corresponds with the Third
Conjugation of the Perfect Triliterals. Gemination prevails in the Pre
terite, Subjunctive, Infinitive, Simple, and Preterite Participles ; Contrac
tion in the Indicative Present, the Contingent, and Rel. Part. Present ;
both Gemination and Contraction in the Constructive and Imperative.
Having presented a pretty full view of the preceding conjugation, it will
suffice in the present one to give merely the leading types ; i. e. 3d person
masc. sing, and common plural of those paradigms which have all the
Persons, besides the more simple Moods.
1. INDICATIVE.
Preterite.
3d pers. masc. singular. plural.
fr^<p«l>: he refined, &c. A<i1"ft: they refined.
Present and Future.
JP^jfA: he refines. | JP^JA-: they refine.
2. CONTINGENT-

3. SUBJUNCTIVE.
.PCt^: may he refine. | JPCf*1 may they refine.
4.CONSTRUCTIVE.
Simple.
ftCF©*: and)
hC/P '• and AC^*^ : ne refining.
CH. IV.] ON THE VERBS. 99
Compound Aorist.
3d pers. masc. singular. plural.
ACSA : andl I hC^TA : and)
*C*SA = * I AWTA : J 7 "* C'

Compound Preterite.
AC*= M<£: and AC**= IH^:: AC*®': *n<.: and AC**®':
he refined. W<J." they refined.
5. IMPERATIVE.
Masc. A<1%: and AC**: ) do thou I . , ^ ^-^^ , £
Fem. A^:andAC*U:!refine. I ^**! do ?e ^

6. INFINITIVE.
ui]C** : to refine, the refining, rarefaction.
7. PARTICIPLES.
Simple, AC**: a refiner.
Rel. Per/. yd/P'p: he who refined.
Pres. P0^.^* : he who refines.

C. THIRD CONJUGATION.
Passive or Objective Voice.
*A**: He was dismissed.
This conjugation has no peculiar form for the Subjunctive. Contrac
tion takes place only in the Constructive Mood. Besides this, it is
regularly conjugated, after the manner of the Fourth Conjugation of the
Perfect Triliteral Verbs.

D. FOURTH CONJUGATION.
Active and Intensive Voice.
AA**: He yawned. A"lKE: He persecuted.
Both in nature and form, this conjugation resembles the Fifth of the
Perfect Triliteral Verb. It preserves gemination in the Indicative Pre
terite, the Imperative, Infinitive, and Simple and Perfect Participle. In
the other Moods and Tenses, it is contracted.
1. INDICATIVE.
Preterite.
3d pers. masc. singular. plural.
A"1,KK: he persecuted. | A"1iKK,: they persecuted.
Present and Future.
JP'^A: he persecutes. | j?i^^A": they persecute.
100 ETYMOLOGY. [cH. IV.

2. CONTINGENT.
3d pers. masc. singular. plural.

3. NO SUBJUNCTIVE.
4. SIMPLE CONSTRUCTIVE.
J\i^£: he persecuting. | ?*i"iX(l>: they persecuting.
Compound Aorist.
2\1iJK"<PA: he persecutes. | ftlgTA: they persecute.
Compound Preterite.
ft""^: lfl£: he persecuted. | ?i«lK(D»: they persecuted.
5. IMPERATIVE.
Masc. ?ki'bP,P-:l do thou perse- . .
Fem. Mj&zi cute. fc^R.: do ye persecute.

6. INFINITIVE.
oqi^^^«: to persecute, the persecuting, persecution.
7. PARTICIPLES.
Simple, ft'lJ^jEJ": a persecutor.
Rel. Perf. J?f|X£: he who persecuted.
Present, Po^y^lR- he who persecutes.

E. FIFTH CONJUGATION.
Passive and Intensive Voice.
1*|"IKR: He was persecuted, habitually persecuted.
This form is conjugated after the Sixth Conjugation of the Perfect Verb ;
has no peculiar Subjunctive ; and geminates and contracts after the third
form of this class.

F.
SIXTH CONJUGATION.
Causative Voice.
ftfiao^: He embittered.
Corresponds with the Eighth Conjugation of the Perfect Triliteral Verb,
and is conjugated like the first form of this class.

G.SEVENTH CONJUGATION.
Intensive Voice.
Yvi h*t" T : He cheated.
A peculiar form, of which, as we have not hitherto had a similar one,
we give here an outline.
CH. IV.] ON THE VERBS. 101

1. INDICATIVE.
Preterite Regular.
3d pers. masc. singular. PLURAL.
.ftli^TT: he cheated. | ft'i^l'V't1: they cheated.
Present and Future.
JPI^i^A: he cheats. | yiflfft: they cheat.
2. SIMPLE CONTINGENT.

3. subjunctive.—None.
3d pers. masc. 4.
SIMPLE CONSTRUCTIVE.
ftin-f": he cheating. | ?W"l«"iT(D*: they cheating.
Compound Aorist.
frin^TA: he cheats. | ftllTVA : they cheat
Compound Perfect
hliM*: Wl<»: he cheated. | ^ih-rdh: Wl<,: they cheated.
5. IMPERATIVE.
Fem° d° th°U °heat' do ye cheat

6. INFINITIVE.
"Tl'"!'!"'!*: to cheat, the cheating.
7. PARTICIPLES.
Simple, frlilirH1: a cheater.
Rel. Per/. yi^Tt"- he who cheated.
Present, Po^jpifj't" : he who cheats.

H.EIGHTH CONJUGATION.
Passive Voice.
TI^TI*: He was cheated.
This is the Passive form of the preceding derivation ; and, in gemination,
is regulated by the Third Conjugation of this class.

/. K. NINTH AND TENTH CONJUGATIONS.


Reflective Voice.
him and *?1(fl&&.: He stretched himself.
The peculiarity of these two forms, the power of which seems to be the
same, consists in the length of both the geminating letters. On account
of their length, they cannot be contracted. They assume, therefore, no
Subjunctive form ; and the Geminants retain their length, except in the
102 ETYMOLOGY. [cH. IV.
Constructive, which retains the last radical short, and enters a ■f|" : which
servile, also, is as a paragoge added in the Infinitive ; thus :
SIMPLE CONSTRUCTIVE.
SINGULAR. PLURAL.

INFINITIVE.
mnni<5.d.;t": the stretching, to stretch, oneself.

III. THIRD CLASS OF IMPERFECT TRILITERALS.


Geminants whose first radical is ft::
This class numbers only a few Verbs. They combine the imperfections
of contraction in the beginning and at the end, i.e. the imperfections of
both the preceding classes. For an exhibition, we select the Verbs
ftHtf: "he commanded," and ftcroon : "it was painful."
This class has but four Conjugations ; the first of which is Intransitive
or Active ; the second, Objective, Intransitive, or Reflective ; the third,
Causative ; and the fourth, Intensive.

A. FIRST CONJUGATION.
ftHH: He commanded.
1. INDICATIVE.
Preterite.
3d pers. masc. singular. \ ' plural.
ftHH : he commanded. | ftHH*: they commanded.
Present and Future.
_PHA: he commands. | they command.
3d pers. masc. 2. SIMPLE CONTINGENT.

3d pers. masc. 3. SUBJUNCTIVE.


JJHH : may he command. | ,J»HH-: may they command.
4. SIMPLE CONSTRUCTIVE.
3d p. masc. ft|4: he commanding. ftH(D*: they commanding.
.. ..fern. ftl-I: she commanding.
2d ..• masc.
■ n w« IftHfl:
k. 1 ft %J ■ .7 1• ftH'fll*: you commanding.
fern ftH fl " U comman"inS"
.. .. hon. 1. ftH Oh: )
- ..hon.2.ftH^U.:}y°UCOminanding

1st., com. ftTE: I commanding. ft HI: we commanding.


CH. IV.] ON THE VERBS. 103

Compound Aorist.
3d p. masc. Mi«PA: hel ?kH*PA : they command.
fern. AHA*: she}COmmands
2d., masc. AH1!A: \ . , , ±
fern. fcHnA:fthou commanded AH^iVXA: you command.

.. .. hon.l. hHTA:
AH*PA" )
."?kH¥lA:/yOUCOinmand-
.. .. hon.2
1st., com. A*HTAU*: I command. AHf"A: we command.
5. IMPERATIVE.
Masc. 7»HH : 1 do thou command. "AHH-: do ye command.
Fem. XHK;)
6. INFINITIVE.
nqHTl '■ to command, the commanding, command.
7. PARTICIPLES.
Simple, AHJ£: one who commands, a commander.
Rel. Pret. ^HH: he who commanded.
Present, PO^^H : he who commands.

B. SECOND CONJUGATION.
Passive, Reflective, and Intransitive.
jooou : He felt pain, was sick . H : He was commanded, he obeyed.
In this conjugation, the is retained throughout; and contraction of
the second and third radical takes place in the Constructive Mood only.
No Subjunctive. Second radical is treated as in all the Objective forms.

C. THIRD CONJUGATION.
Transitive and Causative Voice.
AH0000: He made sick, gave or caused pain.
The first radical A:> absorbed in the Prefonnative i"| :, undergoes no
further change. Gemination prevails in the Preterite, Indicative, Impera
tive, Infinitive, and Simple and Preterite Participles ; Contraction in the
Indicative, Present, and Constructive; and both Gemination and Con
traction in the Contingent. Respecting the latter, we think, that when it
stands by itself, it is geminated ; but when it receives any addition at the
beginning or at the end, it is contracted.
104 ETYMOLOGY. [CH. IV.
D. FOURTH CONJUGATION.
/ Intensive Voice.
ft ft3*oooij: He nursed sick persons.
This conjugation corresponds with the Tenth of the Perfect Triliterals,
and with the Fourth of the First Class of Imperfect Triliterals. Contraction
takes place only in the Constructive Mood.

3. Conjugation of Biliteral Verbs.


Biliteral Verbs are, in the Amharic Language, exceedingly numerous ;
owing especially, as will be seen hereafter, to the many contractions from
Triliteral Verbs, by which they became Biliterals. In treating on these
Verbs, it will be best to divide them into four distinct classes ; namely,
(a) Perfect ; (b) Imperfect ; (c) Contracted ; (d) Irregular and Anomalous
Biliteral Verbs.

I. FIRST CLASS.—Perfect Biliterals.


These are Verbs which have the two radical letters in the first form,
do not begin with any vowel letter, and are conjugated regularly. They
have this resemblance to some of the Contracted forms, that the paragogic
*fr • is added to most of its Infinitives, and enters into the Constructives.
They are conjugated through Eight different Species or Conjugations.

A. FIRST CONJUGATION.
Intransitive, Active, and Transitive Voice.
H: He flourished. £1: Was great. f*ICH : He gave.
1. INDICATIVE.
Preterite.
SINGULAR.
3d p. masc. |*|fTI : he gave. rtfll-: they gave,
. . . . fem. rtm^: she gave.
2d ..mase. fldlU:} ,
.. -fem. rtmfi:rh0UgaVeSt ftn^tf.: you gave.

.. . . hon. 1. fiat-. )
2.rt^U.:}y°UgaVe"

1st . . com. |*ltni>: I gave. ft All: we gave.


CH. IV.] ON THE VERBS.

Present and Future.

3d p.masc. £1*1 "1A: he gives. P-ftiM*: they give.


.. ..fem. *l"lTinlA^I1: she gives.
2d ..masc. ^rt'HAtJn thou ^rtniA^lh: you give.
. . ..fem. 'ffiniArhi givest.
.. ..hon. 1. £fl"1A-: ) you
2. 'ffiniVFU-:' Sive
1st . . com. ^fi^lAlf-: I give. ">k"in«lA"l: we give.
2. CONTINGENT.
3d p. masc.
2d . . masc. ^flT: fem. ^llep.:
.. . . hon. 1.
1st , .
3. SUBJUNCTIVE.
3d p. masc. : may he give. Jifim-: may they give.
. . . . fem. 't'flT : may she give.
2d . . masc. ^tlf: \ mayestthou ^flfll-: may you give.
• . . . fem.
. . . . hon. 1. SttUSbn may you
• 2
1st . . com. "XflT : may I give. >^flT : may we give.
4. constructive with if :
3d p. masc. flT-fr: he giving. rt*VT(D*: they giving.
.. ..fem. she giving.
2d ..masc. ftfTO:| thou rtTJ-^U-: you giving.
. . ..fem. rtTTfi: ) giving.
.. ..hon. 1, flTTCD*: \ you
2.
1st . . com. flT^: I giving. fl*?T1: we giving.
Compound Aorist.
3d p. masc. tlVfVA.: he gives. ClTTTA: they give.
. . . . fem. flTJ"A^F" : she gives.
2d . . masc. rtTTHA: l thou rtTjOpiA: y0U give.
. . . . fem. flTT^A:' givest.
. . . . hon. 1. flTtTA: lyou
■ 2. rtTS-¥lA:> give.
1st . . com. rtTaPAlh: Igive. rtT-TFA: we give.
106 ETYMOLOGY. [CH.

Simple Form without "f : (rare).


PLURAL.
3d p. masc. ") : he being great. Jfl(D*: they being great
.... fem. J : she being great.
2d . . masc JfKJ : ) thou being
JfJ-J^f U-: you being great.
great.
.... hon. 1. JJ^Q)*: ) you being
2. ^■^^fU-:) great.
1st. . com. J^"T»: I being great we being great.
O. IMPERATIVE.
Masc. f|T: tlV: \,A A^ ,
. m .„ \ do thou give. flflh: rlfll-: do ye give.

6. INFINITIVE.
oufim't": to give, the giving. trofl]*p : to drink, the drinking.
7. PARTICIPLES.
Simple, |"| Eft.: and i"lfcft.: a giver.
Pe/. Pre*. Pflfl) :.he who gave.
Pres. po^rt*P: he who gives.

B. SECOND CONJUGATION.
Active, Transitive Voice.
Kfti He beautified, praised. He grew.
1. INDICATIVE.
Preterite.
PLURAL.
3d p. masc. : he grew. hiS."b: they grew.
. . fem. ftKl^p: she grew.
2d . . masc. ftgltJ : ) thou
. . fem. ftKltl : ' grewest.
. . hon. 1. ?iKT": ) y°u
grew.
1st. . com. ?kR1U*: I grew. KR^l: we grew.
3d pers. masc. Present and Future.
JP«K"3A: he grows, &c. ' | .PJt^J/t*: they grow
2. CONTINGENT.
&c. | ^.R-T-: &c.
3. NO SUBJUNCTIVE.
CH. IV.] ON THE VERBS. 107

4. constructive, with ^ iZ
SINGULAR. PLURAL.
MlS""f": he preparing. | MljJ"t"(D*: they preparing.
Without Jt*::
he growing. | ?\Jf1(D»: they growing.
5. IMPERATIVE.
Masc. ^k1K•^n , , „ ^n ,
„ > do thou grow. AJ2"T>: do ye grow.
Fem. K.R1'i
6. INFINITIVE.
rnj£T: to grow, the growth.
all'fl£'I" : to prepare, the preparing, preparation.
7. PARTICIPLES.
Simple, one who grows. ftiltp.: one who irrigates.
Rel. Pret. £K,1 : he who grew.
Pres. pun^Mfl: he who grows.

.C. THIRD CONJUGATION.


Objective Voice.
Tl"lffl: He was given.
. This has notmng peculiar. It is treated like other objective forms, and
has the paragogic *f : uniformly.

D. FOURTH CONJUGATION.
Transitive or Causative Voice.
Yvt\1\z He beautified, glorified.
Has the paragogic •fzz
1. INDICATIVE.
Preterite.
3d pers. masc. singular. plural.
ftflU: he beautified. | hill*.: they beautified.
Present and Future.
yttlFAz he beautifies. | JPfTlFA-: they beautify.
2. CONTINGENT.
JFftTI: \ytnihi
3. SUBJUNCTIVE.
ytllli : may he beautify. | .pfHi*: may they beautify.
4. CONSTRUCTIVE.
2\flTi-f-: he beautifying. | ftflTiT©*: they beautify.
5. IMPERATIVE.
Fem '£S7r} do thou beautify* I *fr,l': do ye ^^fy-
108 ETYMOLOGY. [CH. IV.
6. INFINITIVE.
mJfni't*: to beautify, beautifying.
7. PARTICIPLES.
Simple, ftfl^l*?: beautifier.
Rel. Pret. ytTlY- he who beautified.
Present, P^fm: he who beautifies.

E. FIFTH CONJUGATION.
Transitive or Causative Voice.
A^K*1: He caused to grow, trained, reared, educated.
Differs only in form from the preceding conjugations. It has no para-
gogic and is conjugated like A^ou^: in the Third Conjugation of
the first class of Imperfect Triliteral Verbs.

F. G. H. The Sixth, Seventh, and Eighth Conjugations are treated


like Triliteral Geminants.

II. SECOND CLASS.


Imperfect Biliterals, which have 'h.'for the first Radical Letter.
The first radical A : undergoes the usual changes, as shown in the pre
ceding conjugations. The paragogic 1*: prevails through all the conjuga
tions of this class, which contains but few verbs. The verb AP : " He saw,"
containing all the different forms of Conjugations of this class, we have
selected for exhibition.

A. FIRST CONJUGATION.
Subjective, Intransitive, and Transitive Voice.
AP: He saw.
1.INDICATIVE.
Preterite.
AP: he saw, &c, like flfl) "
Present and Future.
3d p. masc. JP.PA : he sees. JP^A*: they see.
.. .. fern. J-JPA5!1: she sees.
masc. FJPAU: 1
thou seest. J^A^lh: you see.
fem. J-JPAfi:)
.. .. hon.l.p^A.: 1
.. ..hon.2.:rjPA*lh:fyOUSee-
1st., com. AJPAlh: I see. ■XrjP/Vi: we see.
CH. IV.] ON THE VERBS. 109

2. CONTINGENT.

3d p. masc. yg.: tern. ;J"£:


2d .. masc. J"^: fem. ^-p.: TV-
.... hon.l.,FP: 2. J-g:
1st., com. ?vg:
3. SUBJUNCTIVE
NCTIVE.
3d p. masc. may he see. £P: may they see.
.... fem. 't'JE: may she see.
2d p. masc. £' 1 'pp: may you see.
fem -|,^. J" niayestthousee

.. ..hon. 1. t»P:l
2. ^.p.}mayy°usee.

1st . com. "Jyg: may I see. *fk"lJZ: may we see.

4. CONSTRUCTIVE.

3d p. mpsc. 2"»JE"f" : he seeing. ?k£T(D*: they seeing.


. . . . fem. YxSLJr- she seeing.
ft.gF^U': you seeing.
2d p.
r masc. ?kETlJ:)il
^. y thou seeing.
.. -fem. hJKI-ft:) S
.. ..hon.l. ^i<E■^(D: 1
2. ^J-^U*:!
. }• you seeing

1st., com. ft^^: I seeing. ftJELTI: we seeing.


5. IMPERATIVE.
Masc- j£: I do thou see. ! -^p. do ye see.
Fem. >»&:) I
6. INFINITIVE.
nflP"t': the seeing, sight, aspect.

7. PARTICIPLES.
Simple, None. Relative Preterite, ^»P: he who saw.
Present, PU^Fg.: he who sees.

5. SECOND CONJUGATION.
Passive, Reflective, or Intransitive Voice.
J"P: He was seen, appeared.
110 ETYMOLOGY. [CH. IV.
1. INDICATIVE.
singular. Preterite. tldral.
3d p. masc. J"P: he was seen. ^tPi they were seen.
. . . . fern. JPH1! she was seen
2d p. masc. 3*P{J:
.... fem. J-Pfl :
. . .. hon. 1. jhP:
2. J'.P'FU-:
1st., com. J-PU-: I J"P1:
Present and Future.
3d p. masc. £;T,PA: he is seen. SLfyt*: they are seen.
e .u. (she is seen,
.. ..fem 'l-a'.PAT: { ^

2. SIMPLE CONTINGENT.
3d p. masc. JSJ-^: fem. ^J-^: | £:TP::
3. NO SUBJUNCTIVE.
4. CONSTRUCTIVE.
3dp.masc. he appearing, &c. | ^-.^TCD*: they appearing.
5. IMPERATIVE.
Masc. J-e: ) . .. ,
Fem. JE.: J appear. J-p : do ye appear.

6. INFINITIVE.
(m-j~p;\- : to be seen, the appearing, appearance.
7. PARTICIPLES.
Simple, None. Relative Preterite, PJ"P: he who appeared.
Present, P&H he who appears.

C. THIRD CONJUGATION.
Transitive and Causative Voice.
P : He made to be seen, caused to appear, showed.
1. INDICATIVE.
Preterite.
SINGULAR. PLURAL.
3d p. masc. p: he showed. ft""lP-: they showed.
.... fem. tifl p>p : she showed.
2d p. masc. MPV: f. p fj :
.... hon. 1. MP: 2. Mp^U-:
.... com. A^PU*: MPY.
. CH. IV.] ON THE VERBS. Ill
Present and Future.
| PLURAL.
3d p. masc. Jpi"|JPA: he shows. .P'l.PA': they show.
.... fem. ^"•Ti.PA^: she shows.
2d p. masc. ;J*i"|^AlJ:
.... fem. FilyAfi:
.. .. hon.l. .prtJpA-:
2. F^JPA^U-:
1st. . com. A'l.PAlh: ■kflJPA'*:
3d pers. masc. CONTINGENT.
ytiy.: fem. Ifflg.: &c. I &e.
SUBJUNCTIVE.
3d p. masc. J?fl£: may he show. I ytlE: &c.
.... fem. "Ftlg.'. &c may she show j
4. CONSTRUCTIVE.
3d p. masc. Al^^f": he showing.
. . . . fem. A>"|£;1" :: she showing.
5. IMPERATIVE.
Masc. ftilg.:
| do thou show. AflR: do ye show.
Fem. Af|£:
G. INFINITIVE.
<nji"|P;T: To show, the showing.
7. PARTICIPLES.
Simple, None.
Rel.Pret.. y^lP: he who showed.
Pres. POU^'I.J!: he who shows.

D. FOUETH CONJUGATION.
Transitive and Causative Voice.
AflJ*P: He made to be seen, brought into sight
1. INDICATIVE PRETERITE.
3d pcrs. masc. SINGULAR. PLURAL.
ftf|;J"P: brought into sight AflJB; &c.
Afl3"P^: like the preceding.
Present and Future.
yfl^"JPA: he brings into sight | yil'J'yfr: they bring into sight
2. CONTINGENT.
¥tlT!Z: fem. ?ft3-£;: &c. | JPflJ-p: &c
3. surjunctive.—None.
1 12 ETYMOLOGY. [cH. IV.

4. CONSTRUCTIVE.
SINGULAR. FLOHAL.
3d pere. masc. . . f they bringing into
Mlfy/t • he bringing into sight. Ml J'^TCD-: j sight

5. IMPERATIVE.
Masc. ftfl^JE : \ do thou bring
2\fl3"P: do ye bring into sight.
Fem. ^fl3*PL:j into sight.
6. INFINITIVE.
°1lfl3"P;t" : to bring into sight.
7. PARTICIPLES.
Simple, None.
Rel. Pret. JPfl^"P: he who brought into sight.
Pres. PO^JPflJ"^: he who brings into sight.

E.
FIFTH CONJUGATION.
Reciprocative Voice,
^•y P : He was with another in reciprocal sight ; Looked at each other.
As this is not used in our languages in the Singular, we shall omit the
translation, and give merely the requisite forms in Amharic.
1. INDICATIVE.
Preterite.
3d pen. masc. SINGULAR. PLURAL.
F.PP: fem. ^-J?P^: | :t\PP:
Present and Future.
SLpyyti-- fem. I"???A¥: I .W.P.PA-:
2. CONTINGENT.
W.P£: fem. TfXii: | £?yp:
3. subjunctive.—None.
4. constructive.
?FZf~. fem. •J-yyjr: \ l-ypTO*:
5. imperative.
Masc. 3\P,£: fem. | J".PP:
6. infinitive.
ao3"^PJt": the being in sight of each other ; relation to each other.

7. PARTICIPLES.
Simple.—None. Rel. Pret. PyyP:: Pres. po^^JPJE".:
CH. IV.] ON THE VERBS. 113
F. SIXTH CONJUGATION.
Causative and Seciprocative.
_fl3".P P : He made look at each other ; placed over against
each other.
Is not, in form, different from the preceding ; save the prefixing of J\f| :
and the changes which that undergoes ; and* that in the Imperative it has
hfl;t\P£:: _____

III. THIRD CLASS.—Contracted Biliterals. "


This very numerous class is derived from Triliterals ; which, in the Ethi-
opic and Tigre Languages, have either a Vowel letter _ : O : P: or Q) : ,
or a Guttural U: di- "f : or "Tl: contracted with the preceding letter.
The letter to which their vowel has thus been joined has heen made long ;
whilst the verb itself has become a biliteral one. In some few cases of
Quadriliterals, two contractions have been made ; and we have therefore
Biliteral Verbs of two long radicals. Verbs contracted from Triliterals
differ, as to whether the lost letter stood formerly in the middle or at the
end ; and this materially determines their form of conjugation.
(a a.) Verbs with an absorbed Guttural at the end.

A. FIRST CONJUGATION.: .
Intransitive and Active Voice.
11: intrs. He entered (went in). Eth. *1*H_::
The second radical is always long; except in the Constructive Mood, and
in the Simple Participle.
1. INDICATIVE.
Preterite.
SINGULAR. | FLORAL.
3d p. masc. in : he went in. Ill-: they went in.
. . . . fem. n^p: she went in.
2d . . masc. In{J . .
thou wentst in. in^U*: you went in.
. . ..fern, nfl:)
. . . . hon. 2.
1. Ithz _■: l) you in. went

1st.. . . in lh: I went in. | 111: we went in.


3d pers. masc- Present and Future.
5S.11 A: he goes in, &c. | ^Hft-: they go in, &c.
2. CONTINGENT.
£11 z fem. ffll: \ &1fb:
Q
114 ETYMOLOGY. [CH. IV.

3. SUBJUNCTIVE.
SINGULAR. PLURAL.
3d p. masc. : may he go in. ^in-: may they go in.
.... fern. *l"in : may she go in.
2d p. masc. +"11 : i mayest thou 'fin-'- may you go in.
, , ..fem. go in.
.... hon. 1. gin*: 1 may you go
2.tf*m-:> in.
1st. . com. : may I go in. "Skill • may we go in.
4. CONSTRUCTIVE.
RUCTIVE.
3d p. m. "I'fl'fl": he entering. l-flTA*": they entering.
• • • • f- I'll J": she entering.
2d..m. *MliU: fem.'Mrril: Tflll-^ll-:
. . hon. 1. l-flT©*: 2- *M1S"^U':
1st com. l-fl^: 1-flTI:
5. IMPERATIVE.
Masc m :l , A x „ ,
_. _ > do thou enter.
Fem. 1fl.:> 1I>: do ye
J ; <enter.

6. INFINITIVE.
OQainff : to go in, the going in, the entrance.

7. PARTICIPLES.
Simple, ^n. : intrt. one who enters in.
that which is entered into, i.e. the interior.
Rel. Pret. P1H : he who entered.
Pres. P*njin : he who enters.

B. SECOND CONJUGATION.
Transitive Voice.
: He made go in, introduced.—(Is quite regular.)
1. INDICATIVE.
3d pers. masc. singular. , Preterite. plural.
JVIH: he introduced. | 2\lfl": they introduced.
Present and Future.
^TIA: he introduces. | JP1HA-:
2. CONTINGENT.
.PIT: fem. J*
CH. IV.] ON THE VERBS.

3. SUBJUNCTIVE.
3d pere. masc. singular. PLURAL
JPT1 : may he introduce. | y*ffl-: may they introduce.
4. CONSTRUCTIVE.
2V7*fl+: he introducing. | JVl-flTG)*: they introducing.
5. IMPERATIVE.
Muse ?\ain ■ i
n —w, " f do th°u introduce, 2VH1-: do ye introduce.
Fern, ft-lll.:)
6. INFINITIVE.
aq«iqJ|-: the introducing, introduction.

7. PARTICIPLES.
Simple, ftjll.: one who introduces.
Rel. Per/. ^11: he who introduced.
Pres. PO^JPln : he who introduces.

C. THIRD CONJUGATION.
Passive and Intransitive.
1**11 : impersonal. It was proper, It belonged.
Is treated like other Passives—has no Subjunctive.
The Constructive has T1*H+ : and in other respects it is like 11 :

D. FOURTH CONJUGATION.
Active Voice.
TfrJI - He married.
The 3 : is long throughout; and the Preformative ft: is treated as
all the Transitive forms.

E. FIFTH CONJUGATION.
Passive of the preceding.
T^ll : Was married.

F. SIXTH CONJUGATION.
Causative Voice.
ftfTll : He caused to go in ; introduced.
Subjunctive, JFfT*|1 :: Imperative, "ftflll
Constructive, "MYMl'f":: Infinitive, ORtfVlT"
All the other Forms quite regular.
116 • ETYMOLOGY. [CH. IV.

G. SEVENTH CONJUGATION.
Intensive Voice.
n^»3>: (from flj: it sufficed) was quite sufficient
A geminating form. The long middle letter is retained throughout, and
the rest treated like 11"

H. EIGHTH CONJUGATION.
Intensive and Reiterative.
MTl: He frequently went in, often cohabited, behaved properly.
This conjugation is like a transitive of the preceding one: the long
penultima is retained throughout, and the rest treated like ?\*n ::

/. NINTH CONJUGATION.
ftMFf : He comforted, strengthened.
The two middle letters remain long ; ?i : is treated as in all Transitive
forms : there is no Subjunctive ; and as to the rest, this conjugation is like
the others of this class.

K. TENTH CONJUGATION.
Intense Passive.
TXFf : Was comforted.
Is treated like other Passives, retains the long penultima, and has the
other peculiarities of this class.

(66.) Forms with an Absorbed Guttural in the Middle.


- In these forms, the original guttural having been in the middle, on its
absorption, the first radical has become long. It-retains, however, its length
only in the Indicative Preterite, the Imperative, and the Infinitive Moods
of the Active ; and through the whole of the Passive forms, except the
Constructive. It has no peculiar form for the Subjunctive ; but uses, as is
generally done in such cases, the Contingent for the purpose. It has,
besides, the paragogic *t" : extremely seldom ; because it appears that letter
is intended for compensation for final absorbed letters, of which there are
none in this class.
This class has seven different Conjugations.
CH. IV.] ON THE VERBS.
A. FIRST CONJUGATION,
onA : (Eth. OD(h/v :) He swore, took an oath.
INDICATIVE PRETERITE.
Preterite.
SINGULAR. PLURAL
3d p. m. oqa : he swore. 01} f\- ; they swore.
. . . . f. oiiaH1: she swore.
2d..m. oq^u: fem.aqA.fi: | "OA^lh:
. . hon. 1. auft.: 2. aqA^U*:
1st com. qqAlh: ' anAt:
Present and Future.
3d p. m. JEianAA: he swears. | ,5*00/^A: they swear.
2. CONTINGENT.
3d p.m. JJOOA: fem. ^ODA: | JK9°A::
3.
subjunctive.—None.
4. CONSTRUCTIVE.
3d p. m. ODA": he swearing. ^AG)*:
. . . . f. onA: she swearing.
2d..m. gnAU: fern. ««/\fj: ""A^FU-:
. . hon 1. ODA(D*: 2. oaA^flh:
1st com. oxi|»: onAT:
5. IMPERATIVE.
Masc. aijA:]
do thou swear. on/^.; do ye swear.
Fem. anjj:J
6. INFINITIVE.
ODOi}A: to swear, the swearing.
7. PARTICIPLES.
Simple, OD£: one who swears.
ReL Pret. pau/\; he who swore.
Pres. paq_anA: he who swears.

. SECOND CONJUGATION.
Transitive Voice.
ft01! A : He made swear.
Contingent, ^9°A:: Imperative, AOOA:
Constructive, t\*f°t)P"- Infinitive, uuuiJA:
(See the above remarks.)
118 ETYMOLOGY. [CH. IV.
C.
THIRD CONJUGATION.
Passive Voice.
T^A: He was sworn.
Contingent, gfTRA" I Imperative, T^IA:
Constructive, T^A"- I Infinitive, uuuij^::

D. FOURTH CONJUGATION.
Transitive (Causative) Voice.
Aft01!A : He made swear.
Contingent, JPfl9°A:: i Imperative, Af|«»lA::
Constructive, Ykfl^A1:: | Infinitive, mjfUniA

E. FIFTH CONJUGATION.
Frequentative (Intensive) Voice.
A^l^lA: Distributed by casting (lots). Radix, "1A: He cast.
Contingent, .PUTA" Imperative, A"1"1A:
Constructive, 7^knWfV-' Infinitive, Oi}tt\**i£i:z

F.SIXTH CONJUGATION.
Reciprocative Voice.
■faqaq/\: Mutually swore, conspired.
Contingent, ^o^oqA:: Imperative, "FU,1U,JA"
Constructive, "VaqifOfip:: Infinitive, uuuijoq^;

G. SEVENTH CONJUGATION.
Intensive Voice.
T^AA:: He adjured, earnestly entreated.
Contingent, JCOq/\A" I Imperative, T^AA :
Constructive, T^IA1:: Infinitive, ouat}£\£i:

(cc.) Forms with an Absorbed P: ire <Ae Middle.


These forms are determined by the rule laid down, Part I. Ch. VII. 4. E.
On the absorption of the P: its corresponding vowel & has been joined to
the first radical ; which, whenever it is shortened, changes & into a short i ;
but when lengthened (as in the Fourth Conjugation), the first radical is
put into the Fourth: Order, and P: is restored. No paragogic *t*: is in
this class.
We take the two Verbs, H,fn : He sold, and thj*: He went.
CH. IV.] ON THE VERBS.

A. FIRST CONJUGATION.
fLfl) : Active, He sold. Ethiopic, UJ^fl) :
1. INDICATIVE.
Preterite.
SINGULAR. PLURAL.
3d p. masc. fi,fll : he sold. fi.ntr: they sold.
. . .. fem. hLffl^i1: she sold.
2d .. masc. fi/VU: fem. fi/vfi: fi.«l-lHJ-:
.. .. hon. 1. fi.ni-: 2. feitf-lf-:
1st. . com. fi,Tlf": fLTl::
Present and Future.
3d p. masc. £i"Ln)A: he sells. | ^h.^lA*: they sell.
2. CONTINGENT.
3d p. masc. JlXx/V- fem. ■t'fi.T: £fi.m-:
2d . . . . 'rrLT: fem. -t-fLtp.: ■l* Urn-:
.. ..hon. 1. £fi,m-: & -t-fLm-:
1st., com. ">»fi,"T:
3d pers. masc. 3. SUBJUNCTIVE.
Jifi/T : may he sell. I PhLfll-: may they sell.
4. CONSTRUCTIVE.
3d p. masc. \\JF* : he selling. fi.fIKD*:
.... fem. fi/H: she selling.
2d., masc. fLffiU: fem. fi.ni il ft/itf-ll-:
.... hon. 1. fi.m(D-:
2. fi/iVflh:
lst.com. fi.EEC: fi.nri:
5. IMPERATIVE.
fi.ni*: do ye sell.

6. INFINITIVE.
oofi,«p: to sell, the selling, sale.
7. PARTICIPLES.
Simple (a.) Act. fijptp: one who sells, a seller.
Q>.) fij?*B>: a thing sold, merchandize.
Rel. Preterite, pfi,m: he who sold.
Present, PO^ftT: he who sells.
ETYMOLOGY. [CH. IV.

B. SECOND CONJUGATION.
Active and Transitive Voice.
?ifh>£: He made go, drove the threshing ox.
Contingent, _Pih,JJ Imperative, ftiti.jij-:
Subjunctive, .Pd^J^" Infinitive, oijrfijj":
Constructive, }\rh.£:

TfflED CONJUGATION.
Passive Voice.
TFLfll : He was sold.
Contingent, JEFLT : Imperative, TfLT :
No Subjunctive. Infinitive, OoYi/Vi:
Constructive, TfLP1:

D. FOURTH CONJUGATION.
Intensive Voice.
T'lPfll : He traded, dealt, carried on commerce.
Contingent, gflPT; I Imperative, ThPT:
Constructive, T^ljEI1*: ' Infinitive, ooilPT:

E. FIFTH CONJUGATION.
Causative (Transitive) Voice.
ftflfh>£'- He made to go.
Contingent, .PflihJJ "• Imperative, lhtlih,f£::
Subjunctive, yfldt,K:: Infinitive, oflfl(h.Jf "
Constructive, ftflrh.^::

(dd.) Forms with an Absorbed (D : in Middle.


According to the rules laid down in Part I. Ch. VII. 5, and 6. the
middle letter fl): has been absorbed; its vowel o attached to the first
radical. This is further shortened, in the Subjunctive Constru6tive and
Active Imperative, into u. But in those forms which have long letters,
(D: is restored. In some of these, it forms diphthongs of the fourth
order. Those forms of this class, whose first radical is a diphthong, as
«t»-P: «1»»A: <Jh,»T| : Tn»£: T"J£:» have the Causative form with ftf|: and
the paragogic *t* : ; which the forms with simple o have not.
CH. IV.] ON THE VERBS. 121

A. FIRST CONJUGATION.
Intransitive, Active Voice.
<^oo : He stood.
1. INDICATIVE.
SINGULAR. Preterite. . plural.
3d p. masc. «¥»ou ; he stood. $od<: they stood.
.. .. fem. ^00^: she stood.
2d .. masc. <t9«HJ: fem. ^9°?!: *"9¥lh:
.. .. hon.l.^koo*: 2. $oq^|j.:
1st., com. 49D|f.;:
2. CONTINGENT.
3d p. masc. £^9°: fem. t^t*/0 : ^$oo> :
2d .. masc. 'f^"?**: fem. 't'^o^: ^|*^oi»»:
.... hon.l.^^oo': 2. foo>:
1st., com. "K^T0"
3. SUBJUNCTIVE.
3d p. masc. may he stand. JJ«ftoo«:: may they stand.
. . . . fem. 'Hjy0: may she stand.
4. CONSTRUCTIVE.
3d p. masc. : he standing. <feOD(D»: they standing.
.. ..fem. «fcoij: she standing.
2d masc. «feUD{J: fem *floof\;
hon.l.«ftooQ.: 2. «feaq^U-:
1st. com. «feo9.: j <£aoi ::
5 IMPERATIVE.
MasC-*9D:} stand! I «£oo«: do ye stand.
Fem. «feon:J
6. INFINITIVE.
on$90 : to stand, the standing, station, state.
7. PARTICIPLES.
Simple, 4»'«po9>: one who stands (see Dictionary). «fc9°: Eth. standing,
' straightforward.
Rel. Pret. p^oo: he who stood.
Pres. po^ ^90; he who stands.
122 ETYMOLOGY. [cH. IV,
S.
SECOND CONJUGATION.
Transitive Voice.
ftQoD: He made to stand, erected.
Contingent, Imperative, ^^9° -
Subjunctive, Infinitive, OTj<pgD:
Constructive,

C.THIED CONJUGATION.
Passive Voice.
•f^ao : He was erected.—No Subjunctive.
Contingent, (^'PCD?0:) Imperative, ■f4^9n: (*t"*l,Q)9n :)
Constructive, •t*<fcIl0 " Infinitive, au$9D:: (oo<]>(D9D:)

B. FOURTH CONJUGATION.
intensive Voice.
•f^>d)aii ; He withstood, resisted.
Contingent, £.&(D,la- Imperative, "TU'd)?11:
Constructive, TJCD'I0: Infinitive, OUjpQjgu : :

£. FIFTH CONJUGATION.
Causative Voice.
?if|«t»™P: He caused to wait.
Contingent, J?fl4>=£: Imperative, 'Mlty'jZ.:
Subjunctive, <pf|«t*'\$£: Infinitive, oqf|«^,p^»::
Constructive, ?kf|«t»^^"¥- :

F. G. SIXTH AND SEVENTH CONJUGATIONS.


Intensive Forms.
"V^^bOO : and TSJ00" To resist to the end.
Contingent, JE^«^»9D: and Imperative, "f : & "I"JS9° :
Infinitive, ooj^gn: and
Constructive, ■t"«|><|H■,^,, :
CH. IV.] ON THE VERBS. 123

IV. FOURTH CLASS —Doubly Imperfect Biliterals.


These are subdivided into three species :
(ad) Verbs doubly contracted.
(bb) Verbs beginning with }\: and terminating in an absorbed
guttural.
(cc) Beginning with P: which absorbs a guttural,

(ad) Doubly Contracted Biliterals.


These are but few in number ; derived from Quadriliterals, and flexible
through three Conjugations.

A. FIEST CONJUGATION. *
Intransitive. (Active) Voice.
AA: He was loose, lax.
1. INDICATIVE.
Preterite.

3d pi masc. AA : he was lax. AA*: they were lax.


.... fern. AA^P : she was lax.
.... masc. AAU: fem. AAll: AA¥lh:
.... hon. 1. AA-: 2. AA*r*U-:
1st., com. AAU- AA*
Present and. Future*
3d p. masc. JEAAA '• he is lax. JEAAA*: they are lax.
.... fem. ■^AAA^F': she is lax
2d . . masc. *AAAU: -t-AAA^Flf:
.... fem. AJ?Afi :
.... hon. 1. £AAA-:
2. ^AAA^lf:
1st. . com. >kAAAlh: VJAAA"* "
2 CONTINGENT.
3d p. masc. JEAA: fem. 'fAA: £AA«;
2d . . . . +AA: • . 'flJZ:
. . . . hon. 1. JEAA-: 2. -fAA-: ■VAA*:
1st., com. "fcAA: "A1AA:
3; subjunctive. —None.
124 ETYMOLOGY. [CH. IV.

4. CONSTRUCTIVE.
3d p. masc. A : he being lax. AATflh:
.... fem. AA3" ■ she being lax.
2d., masc. AATll: AAJ^U-:
.. .. fern. AATfi:
.... hon. 1. AATCD*:
2. AAJ-^PU-:
lst.com. AA^: AA*n=
5. IMPERATIVE.
Masc. AA: fem. AJ£: be lax. | AA-: do ye be lax.

6. INFINITIVE.
<*°AA't" : to be loose, lax.

7. PARTICIPLES.
Simple, None.
Rel. Fret. PAA : he who was lax.
Pres. PO^AA : he who is lax.

B. SECOND CONJUGATION.
Active, Transitive Voice.
AA : To loosen, relax.
Contingent, ^AA: Imperative, frAA:
Constructive, 2\AA+: Infinitive, o^/ifi'f

C. THIRD CONJUGATION.
Passive Reflective Voice.
: Was pitied.
Contingent, I Imperative, "ty#.<J.:
Constructive, "T&.Q'^'z I Infinitive, OO^.iJ/t" :

(bb) Biliterals beginning with "fa.: and terminating in an Absorbed Guttural.


They are but few, and have only. Three Conjugations. They have the
Paragogic ^ :
CH. IV.] ON THE VERBS.

A. FIRST CONJUGATION.
Intransitive, Active Voice.
2\*T|: He wanted, had not.
1. lNDfCATTVE.
Preterite.
PLURAL.
3d p. m. ?i«T| : he wanted. Jfrfll': they wanted,
. . . . f. ^'n^F": she wanted.
2d . . m. fem. fj : ftovffij,:
. . hon. 1. HO*: 2. TtOi^U.:
1st com. ftnjij. :
3d pere. maac. Present, and Future..
£"1A ■ he wants, fem. JilA^i1: I JP"1A>: they want.
2. CONTINGENT.
JP«l: fem. | JPfll-:
3. . SUBJUNCTIVE.
fem. ^nj: | £fl*::
4. CONSTRUCTIVE.
he wanting, fem. 2VF:T: | TxVViD'- they wanting.
5. IMPERATIVE.
fem. ^tp»: do thou want. | "J1* fn«: do ye want.
6. INFINITIVE.
Oijrrj-'j" : To want, the wanting, want.
7. PARTICIPLES.
Simple, None.
Rel. Pret. gn\ : he who wanted.
Pres. Po^y^i :: he who wants.

B. SECOND CONJUGATION.
Passive, Intransitive Voice.
;J"«1 : To be wanted.
Contingent, JJjflj:: I Imperative, fn\:z
Constructive, jhT?"t"" ' Infinitive, ooj-oi'l":
126 ETYMOLOGY. [CH. IV.
C. THIRD CONJUGATION.
Transitive, Causative Voice.
A"!"! : To deprive.
Contingent, JP A; fi) z Imperative, Af!*1!:
Subjunctive, yfl*^}: Infinitive, fi n\ t\- :
Constructive, A^T*fr:

(cc) Verb beginning with p : which absorbs a Guttural.


Only one Verb has been discovered to belong to this class.
J?H : Eth. M H : To seize.
The y: is shortened into J»: and even reduced to the mere vowel i.

A. FIEST CONJUGATION.
Active Voice.
yH '• He seized.
1. INDICATIVE.
Preterite.
SINGULAR. PLURAL.
3d p. m. £H : he seized. ^H-: they seized.
• • • • f• JPH^p: she seized.
2d . . m. JPHU: fern, ynfiz
. . hon.l. yvb: 2. JFH^lf*:
1st com. jTHlb: .PHI::
Present and Future.
3d P- m* {^wAf } he SeizeS- yjiff: and jZ.yMf*: they seize.

t*£HA^: ) 8 C seizes.

2d m. tHAtJ:&;t\£HAtJ: tHA^lh: and ^HA^flh:


. . . . f. fHWM : & ^-H-Afi
. . hon. 1. £HA-: and JSJJHA":
2 (tHA^U":&
t^HA^lh:
1st com. A.HAU-: & >.JKKAU-: "Ai.HA'J: and ^I^HAI:
2. CONTINGENT.
3d p. m. £H: £H-:
.. ..f. XH - and ^.PH:
2d . . m. X"H : and ^JfcH : tH-: and
. . . . f.
.. hon.l. £H-: 2. t;H-: &JfPH-
1st com. A/H : and >»JE"H :: >»VH : and ^"iJE-H ::
CH. IV.] ON THE VERBS.

3. SUBJUNCTIVE.
SINGULAR. PLURAL.
3d p. m. JPH : may he seize. may they seize.
. . . . f. 't'^'TI: may she seize.
2d . . m. ^fr-JPH: fem. t-jp J£
. . hon. 1. PH-: 2. 't-^H-:
1st com. YiJP'H:

4. CONSTRUCTIVE.
3d p. m. ,PH : he seizing. ^H(D*: they seizing.
. . . . f. £H: she seizing.
2d..m. £HIJ: fem. g.\iTi:
. . hon. 1. JEHa^: 2. _£H^IJ.:
1st com. ^TC:

5. IMPERATIVE.
Masc ?H : 1 A
■n. „„ _ > do thou seize. j?H»: do ye seize.
Fem. JPK:^

6. INFINITIVE.
CTDJpn : to seize, the seizing, seizure.

7. PARTICIPLES.
Simple, PJ£: a seizer. Rel.Pret. P.PH: he who seized.
Present.
SINGULAR.
3d p. masc. po^H: and pn^JELH : he who seizes.
.... fem. Y^^jEW : and P^'fH : she who seizes.
2d . . masc. pgn-t;H : and pg^iH : ) . ,
> thou who seizest.
.... fem. PgntlH:: and pgo^^HC: )
.... hon.l. poiJH-: and pmj £H-: i
2. PgntH-: and pgo'f.pH-:)5- you who seize.

.... com. P^^H: I who seize.


PLURAL.
P^H-: and po^^H-: they who seize.
P7D't;H-: and pyn'f^H-: you who seize,
P^i/H: and PQ^l^H: we who seize.
128 ETYMOLOGY. [cH. IV.

B. SECOND CONJUGATION.
' ' J Transitive and Causative Voice.
lh¥H- He caused to seize.
Contingent, FfLU : Imperative, ft^H:
Subjunctive, yfH: Infinitive, O^^H :
Constructive,

THIRD CONJUGATION.
Passive Voice.
"T¥ H : He was seized.
Contingent, ^^"H: Imperative, TJ?"H :
Constructive, "TJEH: Infinitive, ooyH :

D.
FOURTH CONJUGATION.
Causative Voice.
fttlffH : He caused to be seized, betrayed.
Contingent, JPrt,"H: and JPf|£H:: Imperative, ftfl^H :
Subjunctive, yfiyHz Infinitive, oqflJPH"
Constructive, ?»|\H: and hflJKH::

E. FIFTH CONJUGATION.
Active and Passive, Frequentative and Reciprocative.
T^JPH: He frequently, alternately, reciprocally, completely, seized,
or was seized.
Contingent, JZ^JiFH'-'- Imperative, •VyyH::
Constructive, "TJPJJH:: Infinitive, ooyyn::

4. Various Conjugations of Quadriliteral and Pluriliteral Verbs.


I. FIRST CLASS.—Reduplicated and Transposed Biliterals.
This numerous class has Eleven Conjugations. (See pp. 56—60.)

A. FIRST CONJUGATION.
Intransitive and Active Voice.
Aoo/vou : It was green. ♦Pfll'l'm : He beat
Contingent, ,£Aol,A9D: Imperative, A^AT0:
Subjunctive, y.MO£%^°: Infinitive, *mtSSF° A 9° : :
Constructive, A^Aq":
CH. IV.] ON THE VERBS. 129
B. SECOND CONJUGATION.
Active, Transitive Voice.
ftA9°A9° : He made green, verdant, refreshed.
Contingent, JPA^AV0 Imperative, ^A9DA9n:
Subjunctive, yMf°&.9° Infinitive, a^A^A?":
Constructive, ?kA9nAlIa

C. THIRD CONJUGATION.
Passive Voice.
TA*!1A1* : He was bedaubed.
Contingent, ^A'fA^: Imperative, TA^A^*:
Constructive, "fii^A^P- Infinitive, «u/\ ^>A4* :

FOURTH CONJUGATION.
Intensely-Active Voice.
MjPM*: He shook..
Contingent, ytyTtty: Imperative, ?i^3>^^:
Subjunctive, Infinitive, tnTHM^:
Constructive, A*13»"}<£:

£. FIFTH CONJUGATION.
Intensely-Passive, Reflective, and Intransitive Voice.
-f/\^>A<t>: He bedaubed, washed himself.,
Contingent, JEAJ»A*: I Imperative, TAjhA*:
Conafructiiw, TA3»A*: I Infinitive, ""A^A*:

f. SIXTH CONJUGATION.
Causative, Transitive Voice.
AflA*Al»: He caused bedaubing. (ThtYmXld.- He moved, crept.)
Contingent, £ fl A*A^ : Imperative, ftflA^A^P:
Subjunctive, JfflA^A't: Infinitive, miflA^A^t :
Constructive, AflA^A*:
I

130 ETYMOLOGY. [CH. IV.


G. SEVENTH CONJUGATION.
Active Voice.
2V3fl£flK: He beat, shook.
Contingent, .P'JIlK'flJJ': Imperative, MnjJ"■flJEJ" :
Subjunctive, JP"in^""fl^": Infinitive, aij~}nj£" flj?*"
Constructive, ti'rffif£'fl\im:

H. EIGHTH CONJUGATION.
Passive and Intransitive Voice.
"t"1<!>fn<I>fn: He trembled.
Contingent, £Tt»fll,l>*p: Imperative, Tl^fDl'T:
Constructive, "VityT^fU- Infinitive, oo*J«i>(ll«i>«p::

I. NINTH CONJUGATION.
Intensive and Active Voice.
fr"i*l>,"l,I>l"l : He stirred up, moved.
Contingent, ^"M^^fl: Imperative, frl^t^fl:
Constructive, ?i^,^>'1^|»f,: Infinitive, on^H»f|::

A". TENTH CONJUGATION.


Passive, Reflective, and Intransitive Voice.
T1t>*l'Ptl- He was stirred, He moved.
Contingent, Imperative, T"M"'Mr,fl:
Constructive, Tl^il^^: Infinitive, oo*J«|>f|«|»f|::

£. ELEVENTH COJUGATION.
Causative, Transitive Voice.'
hlTlfltft: He stirred, moved.
Contingent, JPl"M»^«fcf|: Imperative, ftfTI'P'T^fl:
Subjunctive, JPfTHh^%ft: Infinitive, n^1l*M»^4»f|:
Constructive, ?\|"n^,i")^,|"' :
CH. IV.J ON THE VERBS. 131

II. SECOND CLASS.—Derivates from Triliterals, having one Radical


Reduplicated and Transposed.
This class is not numerous, and it has Six Conjugations.
A. FIRST COJUGATION.
Intransitive Voice.
£Au£qo: He was blunt.
1. INDICATIVE.
Preterite.
SINGULAR. PLURAL.
3d p. masc. J*/Y,lV?,lTu: he was blunt. £/V>£oov they were blunt.
.... fem. g/yj*00^:
2d., masc. £<V»jyj«»t|:
.. fem. ^<V^9°ri:
.... hon. 1. y/P^fro* :
.... hon. 2. gfpptnftlf-.
1st., com. ^A°,P."7nU'-. IgA-gy11*:
Present and Future.
JS^/V^OTJA: he is blunt. | ^^/V^ofl/V: they are blunt.
2. CONTINGENT.

3. NO SUBJUNCTIVE.
4. CONSTRUCTIVE.
£/V,K,9n+: he being blunt. | ^/V'K,9n't"<D':
5. NO IMPERATIVE.
6. INFINITIVE.
€ro£/V,£aD't'" to De blunt, the being blunt, bluntness.
7. PARTICIPLES.
Rel. Pret. P£/V£tID: he who was blunt.
Pres. PO^^/V1^,?0: he who is blunt.

B. SECOND CONJUGATION.
Active, Transitive, and Intransitive Voice.
7tgfr>gqn: He blunted. f^^ao^ao : He murmured.
Contingent, yi-^on^yii : Imperative, Y\Y"£JJo
Subjunctive, yY-£m*Ja£JlIa: Infinitive, tnffs^HpD^^D;
Constructive, l\'Y-£.tfaCt1P •
132 ETYMOLOGY. [CH. IV.

C. THIRD CONJUGATION.
Passive Voice.
"t"£/V,£tID : Was blunted.
Contingent, ££/V£9D: Imperative, Tpj/tfjZV0-
Constructive, T£A°K,9n"t": Infinitive, ao^feyaaff:

D. FOURTH CONJUGATION.
Intensive Voice.
ftYlFCDl: He gave success.
Contingent, .pYlfdM: Imperative,
Subjunctive, .P^lfffll: Infinitive,
Constructive, Mlf<D*4":

E. FIFTH CONJUGATION.
Intransitive and Intensive Voice.
*t*lTlf"(Dl: He had success, succeeded, prospered.
Contingent, £lnf"<D"l: Imperative, "t*Ylf<DT"-
Constructive, T\\V<D,f- Infinitive, <M»Yl f(DT :

F. SIXTH CONJUGATION.
Intransitive Voice.
tn^in : It became knotty.
Contingent, £Hd,1-n : Imperative, T"l"l£"I"fl:
Constructive, t11<J1P: Infinitive, ann^Hl =

III. THIRD CLASS.


Geminants, probably derived from Triliterals, but having their original
verb lost, so as not to be reckoned to the geminating Conjugation of the
Triliteral Regular Verb. This class is but small—is inflected through six
conjugations, similar to other Geminants.
ON THE VERBS.
A. FIRST CONJUGATION.
Intransitive.
Yl-IIAA: He escaped.
Contingent, £TTM1A : Imperative, Vr-flAA:
Subjunctive, ^lYMlAA : Infinitive, onYmAA"
Constructive, TTMIA*1:

B. SECOND CONJUGATION.
Passive Voice,
•tgavfifi: He was destroyed.
Contingent, f\fj: Imperative, "f^oofltl'.
Constructive, "VffP^tlf*- Infinitive, oogaofifi::

C. THIRD CONJUGATION.
Intransitive and Intensive Voice.
T*!-m]AA: Walked nimbly, affectedly, proudly.
Contingent, JET-injAA: Imperative, TT"H1AA:
Constructive, wT'l'-ax}ft' : Infinitive, owi°B*HiA:

D. FOURTH CONJUGATION.
Transitive Voice.
AflfDM»<I>: He cautioned.
Contingent, JPfimJ^*: Imperative, ftfinrTO^*:
Subjunctive, ^flm"?^^: Infinitive, oqfimi^
Constructive, ftflfni^*^:

£.FIFTH CONJUGATION.
Active Voice.
AlYll AA: He rolled about
Contingent, J?"llmA: I Imperative, ftlVllAA:
Constructive, AlYllA": ' Infinitive, ffqiTniAA

F. SIXTH CONJUGATION.
Passive Voice.
T"}lmAA: He was rolled about.
Contingent, £1 Yl H AA : Imperative, T^Y^^AA:
Constructive, "flYlHA*: Infinitive, «n»"IlmAA
ETYMOLOGY.

IV. FOURTH CLASS.


Quadriliterals and Pluriliterals of different Radicals.
A. FIRST CONJUGATION.
Intransitive Voice.
oof\l\; Was glorious.
Contingent, goafm: Imperative, oofm:
Subjunctive, ^onfm: Infinitive, oooofin
Constructive, oofllf:

B. SECOND CONJUGATION.
Active and Transitive Voice.
ftoo|"|*l}: He glorified.
Contingent, yoo^YTi Imperative, 2\ODfm:
Subjunctive, .poufm Infinitive, otj ouf| *|"| :
Constructive, ftOUf|°]f°

C. THIRD CONJUGATION.
Passive Voice.
TODftD: He was glorified.
Contingent, ^P^flTi: Imperative, TaDl"lTl:
Constructive, "Toafflf: Infinitive, onoo fll"! :

B. FOURTH CONJUGATION.
Intensive Voice.
?»f|{"n"t": He dismissed.
Contingent, .prtf-fl'T : I Imperative, ^rtf-fl^:
Constructive, ftrtF'fl't": Infinitive, o^flFnf:

E. FIFTH CONJUGATION.
Intensive and Passive Voice.
"Tl"irn*t": He was dismissed.
Contingent, l£|■|f*^^t•: .1 Imperative, Tftfll*?:
Cotwfcnc&w, Tftf-fl-f-: Infinitive, ooflTttt".
CH- IV.] ON THE VERBS. 135

F. SIXTH CONJUGATION.
Causative Voice.
AflODlYll: He causes to be glorious or glorified.
Contingent, lPf|OU|"|T}: Imperative, AftoofiTj :
Subjunctive, ,pf|oufm: Infinitive, OfltVmfH'i:
Constructive, ftfioofllf

G. SEVENTH CONJUGATION.
Intensive Voice.
lAlflfD: He overthrew completely.
Contingent, JElAI'fl'P : Imperative, "lAn*fl"P:
Subjunctive, JJIAH-flT: Infinitive, OOIAHIV::
Constructive, 1Aflrflfn:

H. EIGHTH CONJUGATION.
Intensely Passive Voice.
"nAniM): He was completely overthrown.
Contingent, JtlAHlV: j Imperative, tlAnflT:
Constructive, TIAn'flf": ' Infinitive, oniAnflT:

/. NINTH CONJUGATION.
Reciprocative and Reiterative Voice.
Trtflfl'T: Took leave from each other.
Contingent, SLflfUl'V: Imperative, fflfTfl^:
Constructive, trtflflt: Infinitive, o»|"imn;l"

5. Defective and Anomalous Verbs..


Three of them—viz. I. The Auxiliary ftA: " He is" ; II. M<» : " He
was"; III. Id)*: "He is,"—have been conjugated before we entered upon
the Regular Triliteral Verb. (See pp. 64, 65.) We proceed to give here the
rest.
IV. Various Conjugations of the Verb ft/\ : " He said."
The irregularities in this verb are caused by the mixing together of the
two forms ftA: and QA: Eth. "flfJA: "To say." This verb has Ten
Conjugations.
138 ETYMOLOGY. [CH. IV.
F. SIXTH CONJUGATION.
AlflA: He persuaded.
Contingent, JPn*flA: i Imperative, AnTIA:
Constructive, AqTIA?: Infinitive, oijq nA : :

G. SEVENTH CONJUGATION.
T1I1A: To be persuaded, to say to each other.
Contingent, £H fl A ■ Imperative, THIIA:
Constructive, "t,fl'flAo: Infinitive, ooq IIA :

H. EIGHTH CONJUGATION.
Til A: recipr. To say to each other.
Contingent, £11 A: I Imperative, "Til A:
Constructive, TI'tlA0: Infinitive, ooq q A :

/. NINTH CONJUGATION.
J"AA: He was talked into any thing, was persuaded, duped.
Contingent, ^JAA: Imperative, ^"AA =
Constructive, JA": ' Infinitive, 0*13-/yA"

K. TENTH CONJUGATION.
AJhAA : He persuaded, cheated.
Contingent, _P5"A: I Imperative, Aj"AA:
Constructive, Aj"Af: I Infinitive, OflJAA"

V. First Conjugation of the Verb AYlA: "To be equal," "amount to."


The remainder of this verb, T^lTlA: and AflT^lYlA: is regular.
The anomaly of the First Conjugation consists in .its assuming more of
the form A*TlA: or ftUA: than of AYlA:, and in its not having all the
Moods and Tenses. We give here all that is, as far as we know, extant.
1. INDICATIVE.
Preterite, none.
Present and Future.
SINGULAR. PLURAL.
3d p. masc. yUA: ne is equal, | ^UAA*:
The other Persons are wanting.
CH. IV.] ON THE VERBS. 139

2. CONTINGENT.
3d Person Masculine, .PUA: Feminine, ;J*UA:
These two personal forms only are used with the signification, " Amount-
ingto," "equal to;1' e.g. P»njl"lfIl(D*T: JFfJA: "equalto what he gives."

subjunctive, constructive, and imperative—none.


infinitive, orijTlA : i-q- ou^llnA: and ooTiYlA: "the middle."
participles—Eth. A: "equal," "half."
ReLPres. pai^llA: "what is equal to," "amounts to, about, almost"; e.g.
l",flft": fi{J: P<"J„PIJ:A "amounting to (about) three thousand."

VI. Negative Verb A.A: " Is not."


All that exists of this verb is this : AA : " it (he) is not." fern. AA^f ::
Participle, PAA: fem. PAA*?: "that which is not," "has not," "is
without ; " " without," " besides," " exclusively," " not including."

VII. Of the verb A*: (Eth. AOI*:) "To be greater," "larger,"


"excel;" in the First Conjugation, nothing is extant but the 3d pers.
masc. Conting. ^A^ : which is used as a sort of Comparative, " more,"
"greater," "especially"; and Participle, po^A^: P^'FA^: "he, she,
or it, who (Which) is greater," " superior," " excels."
The Transitive form of this verb : " he raised," " made excellent,"
is quite regular.

VIII. Verb aun^; "He came," is, in its First Conjugation, destitute
of an Imperative ; whilst all the rest is regular and perfect. The Impe
rative is supplied by the form f": Eth. and Tigr. Sing. masc. f :
fem. and "1J£: "do thou come." PI. \.z "do ye come." Only in very
rare instances they use a regular form 9«fn: "JUGft.: 90 but it
is against the custom.

IX. T<D: "He left," "omitted," "abandoned," "left off."


1. INDICATIVE mood.
singular. Preterite. ploral.
3d p. masc. f(D : fem. fffi'f1: TO)-:
2d . . masc. TCD'U: fem. Tfl^fi:
.. .. hon. 1. f<D>: 2. TT^Plh: TT^lh:
1st., com. TOHJ-: TOM::
140 ETYMOLOGY. [CH. IT.

Present and Future, plural.


3d p. masc. £'t**PA: he abandons. J^TTA*: they abandon.
.. ..fem. TTVtfir:
2d ..masc. ^"fPAU:
.. ..fem. 'fT.PAfi:
(The rest is regular.)
2. CONTINGENT.
3d p. masc. £T(D*: fem. Jt"T(D': JET(D,:
.. .. masc. TTfl)*: fem. "TTJE:
(The rest is regular.)
3. CONSTRUCTIVE.
3d p. masc. : fem. 1*3*:
2d . . masc. •t'TfJ: fem. ^Tfl:
.. . . hon. 1. TTQ)':
1st . . com.
4. IMPERATIVE.
masc. TCD^ fem. *t"JZ: I Tfl)-"
6. infinitive, ocfflrt*::
7. participles. P*t"Q):: P^Tfl)*::
The Transitive Conjugation of this verb, ftflTQ): "he caused to
abandon," is analogous to the preceding ; the <D : being changed in the
2d Fem. Sing, of the Ind. Pres., Conting., and Imper. into P:, and rejected
in the Constr.
X. Verb i% : and >» H : " to desire,11 " want,"
1. INDICATIVE.
Preterite. Regular.
Present and Future.
S1NCCLAR. . PLURAL.
3d p. masc. JE^iA: he wants. JE"lA": they want.
. . . . fem. TlA^f1: she wants.
2d . . masc. 'THAU: f+nAfi: t-hAHHf:
.. .. hona.^SlA-: 2. Jr!lA5FU':
1st . com. "^hAlf*: >»1flA"3::
2 CONTINGENT.
3d p. masc. JE^: fem. 'T*!:
2d ..masc. Th: fem. *r fi.: TiT:
.. .. hon.l. JEiT: 2. 'fh"
1st., com. "Jkl:
CH. IV.] ON THE VERBS. 141

CONSTRUCTIVE. PLURAL.
3d p. masc. ffi*fr: he wanting. fiTO*: they wanting.
.. . . fem. fij^z she wanting.
2d., masc. hfU: fem. fi"t"fl:
.. .. hon. 1. fi-r<D*: 2. fi^U-:
1st. com. :
4. IMPERATIVE.
Masc. : "1\¥V: do ye seek.
do thou seek,
Fem. %ri =}
5. INFINITIVE.
ooJl'f: to want, &c. the want, desire, request.
6. PARTICIPLES.
Simple, none. Perfect, p«*i: he who wanted.
Present, po^?| : he who wants.
The Transitive form of this verh, A^l : is only used impersonally, in
the 3d person singular masc. and fem., with the signification, " to be
requisite," or, in the mind of an Abyssinian, " to produce a feeling of want
by absence " ; e.g. A^h*!?0 : " I do not want (it)." The forms used are
these :
Preterite, Ah : Contingent, ^^\z
Present, A■ Infinitive, oqf1;t"::

XI. Of the verb PA911 : which is negative to the verb AA : " He is,"
nothing is extant but the 3d person singular masc. PA9° = " he (it) is
not," fem. PA^fV0: "she (it) is not," and plural PA-9°: "they are not."
With Suffixes, it signifies "has (have) not," e.g. PAG)*?": "he has not"
pA^9° : " she has not." PA1911 : " we have not," &c.
XII. The negative A^^A9": " Is not," is the negative answering the
substantive verb \(D*: " He is." Whence it is derived, we know not. It is
used only in the Preterite of the Indicative^ and Participle, which we
give here.
INDICATIVE.
■ singular. Preterite. PLURAL.
3d p. masc. A1g£A9n : he is not. A^^A-90: they are not.
.... fem. AJE£A¥9n:
2d., masc. A££AU9°: AtfRA^U-g":
.. .. fem. A^Afi?11:
.... hon. 1. A^A*^:
2. AJS^A^U-9":
lst.com. A^^AU-911:
142 ETYMOLOGY. [CH. IV.

Relative Participle Preterite.


SINGULAR.. PLURAL.
3d p. masc. yggfr : he who is not. y they who are not.
.. .. fern. .PtfgA^: *
2d . . masc. .P££AU : y^^A^U--
.... fern.
.... hon.l.2. .P^A^lh:
y$.gtt-:

1st., com. .p.ggAlh: ^^Al»


ft££A9": also is used for the Adverb of Negation, " No."

Section V.
On the Connexion of Pronouns with Verbs.
1. In other languages, this subject would be referred to the Syntax;
but in the Semitic family, the Pronouns governed by Verbs are so closely
joined to them, that it would be improper to do so, as the form of the
verb is modified in no slight degree by this combination. We conceive it
to be here the best place for exhibiting the mode in which it is performed,
after having explained all the other processes to which the Amharic
Verbs are subjected.
2. Before we entered on the consideration of the Verb, in the preceding
Chapter, Sect. VIII. we mentioned those Pronouns which are joined to
Verbs. We now give a brief statement of the regulations under which
they are joined.
(a) All the forms of Verbs assume the Verbal Suffixes, except the two
nominal forms, the Infinitive and the Simple Participle, which assume
Nominal Suffixes; e.g. txCjft'l' tmfnn,t: "my keeping him." JJ""j:
P^Ci- Tfl^T^Q)*: "his armour-bearer."
(b) All the forms which assume the Verbal Suffixes do receive them at
the end, except the two forms which are inflected with the Auxiliary AA :
i.e. the Present and Future Indicative, and the Aorist of the Constructive
Mood ; which place the Pronoun between the radical letters and the Auxi
liary, so as to render it rather an Infix than a Suffix.
(c) With regard to the different degrees of power the Suffixes possess,
of changing the letter to which they are joined, they are divided into light
(levia) and heavy {gravid) Suffixes. The light Suffixes are those which
are not preceded by a long a : those which are preceded by a long a are
heavy Suffixes.
CH. IV.] ON THE VERBS. 143

(d) The light Suffixes attach themselves to ultima radkales of the first
order, without change ; and to ult. rad. of the sixth order, by converting the
latter into the first order, sometimes without change. The heavy suf
fixes convert ult. rad., in either of those two orders, into the fourth order.
(e) Ultima radicalis of the second and of the seventh order, in accor
dance with Part I. Ch. VII. 5 & 6.
a. changes (D»: into 't*::
j8. is changed, if it is a guttural or palatine, into a diphthong of the
fourth order : if not, the vowel is detached from the consonant ; the latter
being put into the sixth, and the former becoming «p : of the fourth order,
before all the heavy suffixes. Before suffix 2d pers. hon. 1., it is either
left unchanged, or changed into the sixth order, leaving the suffix as it is.
(/) Ult. rad. of the third and of the fifth order changes none of the
light suffixes ; but agreeably to Part I. Ch. VII. 4. D., when being attached
to the heavy suffixes, it is generally changed into the sixth order; and
P: is added, to assume the long a of the suffix.
(g) Ult. rad. of the fourth order neither suffers nor produces any
change.
(A) With regard to the insertion or infixion of Pronouns, only this
needs to be observed; that ft: of the Auxiliary ftft: being absorbed
by the Pronoun, the latter, or, if it consists of more than one letter, its last
letter, is put into the fourth order, being changed into or"T)L::
These rules are illustrated by the following Table :

TABLE OF A VERB WITH SUFFIXES.

(Join : He has fed.


1. SIMPLE FORMS.
A. Preterite.
Masculine. third person singular. Feminine.
00 "111*1: he has fed me. ml II *1 : she has fed me.
o°inU : he has fed thee (m.). •"nn-fU : she has fed thee (m.).
""Ill fi : he has fed thee (/.). o°1 fl¥ fi : she has fed thee (/.).
^Hl^D : he has fed you (hon. 1). ^n^^p: she has fed you (h.l).
oo"l*l'Spu-: he has fed you (hon. 2). 00"111 U* : she has fed you (h. 2).
""IIKB*: he has fed him. o^Hl^f-fl)*: she has fed him.
o»lH^: he has fed her. °°*1 fl fJP*V : she has fed her.
PL. PL.
"Dlnl". he has fed us. ODin'fF'i : she has fed us.
«*unHHJ*: he has fed you. °°"1 II JP^F lh : she has fed you.
ODin^CD': he has fed them. ODlIl^ls:l,fl>' : she has fed them.
144 ETYMOLOGY. [CH. IV.

Masculine. SECOND PERSON SINGULAR. Feminine.


thou hast fed me. aD*]-n h*5 : thou (/.) hast fed me.
"U'J-niJfD-: thou hast fed him. 0D*]'fin(D*: thou (/.)hast fed him.
ooi-flW^: thou hast fed her. 001*11 • thou (/.) hast fed her.
PL. PL.
thou hast fed us. oo'l'flilV thou hast fed us.
thou hast fed them. «ol*fl^i:F<D*: thou hast fed them.

SECOND PERSON SINGULAR, HONORIFIC, like the Third and Second PlnraL

vFIRST PERSON COMMON.


ooi-flll-U I have fed thee (m.)
oo'Mllhh I have fed thee (f.)
ooTfllMp: I have fed you (hon. 1).
ool-fl^Mh: I have fed you (hon. 2).
I have fed him.
out-n£Sr : I have fed her.
PL.
I have fed you.
I have fed them.

THIRD PERSON. SECOND PERSON.


ooilK? = they have fed me. you have fed me.
ooin-U : they have fed thee (m.) you have fed him.
OTTin-fj : they have fed thee (/.) you have fed her.
•JOl"!! : they have fed you (h. 1). PL.
ooTl^lM: you have fed us.
oo'MlT^F'U*: they havefed you (h.2). ooin^Fl5!*®*: you have fed them.
an*W"Jl*: they have fed him. FIRST PERSON.
in,'l*fl*Pft*: they have fed her. "fl 1 tl: we have fed thee (m.)
PL. an1 fj : we have fed thee (/.)
"^IIM: they have fed us.
ao1mn\(P' we have fed you (h.l).
OD*l'IlY^lf*: they have fed you.
°1D*l*Ilt"'ffs'U*: we have fed you (h.2).
"""Ml T^d)': they have fed them.
oofMlKD*: we have fed him.
OTT)'fi f 1": we have fed her.
PL.
ooiflF^PU": we have fed you.
oo'l'flf :F(D': we have fed them.
CH. IV.] ON THE VERBS. L45

B. Contingent.
Masculine. THIRD PERSON SINGULAR. Feminine.
let him feed me. Jf-oiJ"!!!5!: let her feed me, &c &c.
£on^«fi{J: let him feed thee (m.) quite like .panm*?: &c
_poo«i-fiiri: let him feed thee (/.) SECOND PERSON MASCULINE.
let him feed you. Qui.) ^t-ao0!!!^: like the 3d pers. fem.
SECOND PERSON FEMININE.
^on-in^lhilethimfeedyou. (h.2.J J|-inj«i f\J% : mayest thou (/.) feed me.
Jjair"|n(D*: let him feed him. ^OD^l^d^ : mayest thou feed him.
£aoa|r|J!|- : let him feed her. ftaOD^'fijp1* : mayest thou feed her.
PL.
let him feed us. ^owiO/l: mayest thou feed us.
£cnD"|q3jiiJ.: let him feed you. _ . (mayest thou
^frooiq^dh: let him feed them. *™W*^: { Jd them
FIRST PERSON.
^OO^flfJ: &c, assumes the Suf
fixes, like the 3d pers. masc.

TBIRD PERSON. PLURAL. SECOND PERSON.


^OD«^fi-*i: let them feed me. faum-: the same as with the
£oua|l>U: let them feed thee, 3d pers. plural.
^aoin-fj: let them feed thee. FIRST PERSON.
'X*J01J-M1: the same as with the
£ODT'fl(p : let them feed you. (h. 1.) 3d pers. sing.
let them feed
^ao«|'fi<p^i|.: |
you. (hon. 2.)
£oo°in-'t*: let them feed him.
j»ao«in.'f|-: let them feed her.
PL.
^troifl-T: let them feed us.
^oo^-nT^U*: let them feed you.
^ooa|'f| q»!f(D»: let themfeed them.

C. The Imperative joins the Suffixes in the same manner as the Contingent.
146 ETYMOLOGY. [cH. IV,

D. Simple Constructive.

Masculine. THIRD PERSON SINGULAR. Feminine.


he feeding me. she feeding me.
«"i"|ptJ: I aw«iqU:
he feeding thee. she feeding thee.
mi"|pfi : ' «n»«infi ;}

he feeding you. she feeding you.

no^p^f : he feeding him. she feeding him.


m"I'll W1?'- he feeding her. she feeding her.
PL. PL.
OD«|p): he feeding us she feeding us.
he feeding you. she feeding you.
"n<ri'n*p:pav: he feeding them. tro°m:P<D': she feeding them.

SECOND PERSON SINGULAR.


""TnU5?: thou feeding me. troillfl^J: thou feeding me.

Assume the Suffixes like the same Persons in the Preterite.


Second Pers. Sing, honor. 3d and 2d Plural, the same as Preterite 3d and
2d Plural.

FIRST PERSON SINGULAR. FIRST PERSON PLURAL.


I feeding thee. we feeding them.
""mil : J "I
•"•"HHcp : I we feeding you.
1 1 feeding you.
(sing.)
""•mil)-: I feeding him. """inKD'-. we feeding him.
I feeding her. feeding her.
I feeding you. (pi.) feeding you. (pi.)
; I feeding them. aDinr:P(D': we feeding them.

Note.—Constructive Forms with the paragogic T: differ in nothing


concerning the affixion of the Pronoun.

E. The Relative Participle treats the Suffixes like the Preterite Indi
cative and the Contingent.
CH. IV.] ON THE VERBS. 147

2. Forms with the Auxiliary AA : Infixion.


INDICATIVE.
Present and Future.
THIRD PERSON SINGULAR MASCULINE. in the same manner
(See Contingent.) 1 3d p. Sing. Fein. as the 3d pers. sing,
<gao"|n?*A: he feeds me.
2d . . . . Masc. ( masc. with neces
he feeds thee. 1st. . . . & P. sary termination of
.gtTOT-flhA:)

| he feeds you.
^ItIA SECOND PERSON SINGULAR FEMININE.
^utJinVA: he feeds him. ^OO^HPaH: thou feedest me.
he feeds her. ^oo°|nL<p/\fj: thou feedest him.
he feeds us.
tOOIrnyptiYl : thou feedest her.
he feeds you.
he feeds them. ^ouin^f/ifj: thou feedest us.
THIRD PERSON PLURAL. *t'iro«|'fl^5|»«PAfi: thou feedest
^ooin-fA : they feed me. them.
JE"mn-ilA:} they feed thee. SECOND PERSON PLURAL.
£<n>°Ml«P¥:i.A:) , , ^ou-in-^vy^lh: &c., the same
}■ they feed you.
with regard to Infixes as 3d p. pi.
they feed him.
they feed her.
they feed us.
they feed you.
£OT>"M1T:P<PA: they feed them.
Constructive Aorist.
Masculine. THIRD PERSON SINGULAR. Feminine,
"^PFA: he feeds (fed &c.) me. , on«|nff\^-: she feeds me.
o^PHA:
| he feeds (fed &c.) thee. she feeds thee.
"»1PilA on-milA^
"OIPJ-A: he feeds (fed &c.) you ODam<PA¥:
(s. hon.) J- she' feeds you.
«"^P;I*A: he feeds (fed &c.) him. """IHTArF: she feeds him.
"WHITJ-A: he feeds (fed &c.) her. °°T1^a¥: she feeds her.
o»1P{"A: he feeds (fed &c.) us. ""inrA^: she feeds us.
OVHW<P¥A: he feeds (fed &c.) you. "oti^a^: she feeds you.
""l-flTf *PA: he feeds (fed &c.) them. o««n^<pA^: she feeds them.
Masculine. SECOND PERSON SING ULAR. Feminine.
"UinufA: thou f eedest me, &c. <ro°inhi5A: thou feedest me.
FIRST PERSON SINGULAR. FIRST PERSON PLUKAL.
"""in.WAU-: I feed thee, &c. ""OTfllWA: we feed thee.
SECOND PERSON PLURAL. THIRD PERSON PLURAL.
uo-in^U-fA: you feed me. •"^IKD"?A : they feed me. ,
Note.—The connexion of Negative as well as other Particles, Conjunc
tions, and Prepositions, will be noticed in the next Chapter.
148 ETYMOLOGY. [CH. V.

CHAP. V.
ON THE ADVEBBS.
1. The Amharic Adverbs are either Separable or Inseparable ; and the
Separable Adverbs are either Simple or Compound. The Simple Adverbs,
again, are either Original or Derived. We have to consider, first, the
Simple Original Adverbs.
2. The Simple Original Adverbs are to be subdivided into two classes ;
the first of which comprehends such Adverbs as express their ideas by
themselves ; the second, such as are usually connected with the Verbs i\A :
"to say," 2\KO: or ft.*Vf"" " to do," "to make," " to induce"

(a) First Class.


oo^: " when ?" MKi: "now."
tfVf- "how much?" "how many?" fll^J.: Shoa, and Vulgar :
q>f|: "calmly," "cautiously," "qui >»"ri : » indeed," " even."
etly." "XVOCl : "no!"
-fl5* : " but," " only," " singly." Is " but," " except," " not in
used also with Suffixes in cluding."
the Accusative : •fljfP'l: I do not know."
"I alone." -nfftr}: "thou " yes ! '
alone," &c. Tn+-. " thoroughly," " wholly,"
"quickly,'" " speedily." "fully." With negative
•t'A'i't*: and TA'i't'f": " yester "never," "nowhere," "not
day." at all."
fyfjof: "last year." (D"t*C: "always."
"HIJCC"- " this year." H£.: "to-day," "now," "at pre
IT : " yet." With neg. " not yet." sent."
Second Class.
PARTICLE INSTANCES.
aoQ : of leaping, jumping. °°C: ^AA: "he jumps."
9D£: of bitterness. 9°C: A : " it was bitter."
£^9° = of carelessness, idleness, ATJ" : ,£A £\ : " he acts carelessly "
and eye-service. "is an eye-servant"
l\fn.T : of cracking. l\m/P: £AA : " it cracks."
|"|<5,<J.: of soaring. I*I<S.&: JEAA: " it soars."
ilT't": of gliding. TlTt: £AA- "he slips."
«|>fl : of caution, silence. ^*fl : ^AA : " he acts cautiously."
CH. V.] ON THE ADVERBS. 149

"flA£B»: of glimmering, glittering, ■flASfl>: J£AA: "it glimmers."


■fl't*'}: of scattering. •ftffli ^A: "he scatters."
•f-/V : of celerity. ■f*A°: .gAA: "he does quickly."
'tti.z of spitting from between t-ft: AA: "he spat."
the lips.
TA : of neglect. 'FA: ^A*PA: "he neglects him."
>kAA: of shouting. XAA: OA: "shout!"
"A9° 11.: of refusing. ik^n.: AA: "he refused."
1?»fi.: of compliance. ">i il.: ^AA : " he yields, " is willing."
"JȣJ.: of blowing, fanning. "Afc: 11 A: "blow," "fan."
?lJl*Jt": of fulness, completion. *l*r*: ^AA: " it is full," " done."
YlQ.: of highness, elevation. IriS.: AK4*1: "he raised," "ele
vated," " made high."
H911 : of silence. H9° : AlTF®*:: " he silenced him."
"H«|»: of lowness. H*: AA: "he was low," "stooped."
HA"I: of tallness, &c. HA"|: ^AA: "he is tall and stout."
Jgft: of joy. Eft: AlYFCD-: "he rejoiced,"
" pleased him."
: of slipperiness. AA: "it was slippery."
«|juj«|aw: of celerity. "|jui«>|juu: "he went quickly."
EH,: of completion. CR,: AA: "it was full," "entire."
CfP>%» : of spitting through the teeth. E0'^> : AA : " he spat thro' the teeth."
XT : of silence, subsiding. XT: AA: "it became quiet"
: of moving forwards. dS.^'fr : AA : " he proceeded," " went
further."
fjoigii"!: of gliding. Q^awq-. AKO: "he made to
glide."
Most of these particles seem to be originally intended for mere ex
pressions of the natural sound of certain actions. Such is decidedly the
case in f^m^V: t"^.' E0»4»: "AAA: "Aft: *PJ£: And their connexion
with AA: "to say," giving the idea that e.g. "to crack" is "to say
sifit"; to spit," is " to say teff" or " tsh'ek"; " to shout" is "to say ellel"
(as is really the custom in the East *) ; " to blow " is " to say eff"; could
lead us to rank the whole of this class rather with the Interjections, but
that their connection with Verbs prohibits us, though several of these
Particles are Interjections as well as Adverbs.

* See, in the Amharic Dictionary, *)\AA"


150 ETYMOLOGY. [CH. V.

3. Simple Derived Adverbs are very numerous. They are derived from
Nouns (Adjective and Substantive), and Verbs, and at least one Pronoun.
Those derived from Nouns are not changed in form, but in the sense.
Perhaps they may be considered as Accusatives, or having the Preposition
II : omitted. Such Nominal Adverbs are the following :

ORIGINAL SUBSTANTIVES. ORIGINAL ADJECTIVES.


•outside," "abroad," 00^*19°: "well," "properly.1
" within." t£«f1: "near."
13 : " to-morrow." "badly."
AJ^: " early in the morning." KUf*: "well," "safely."
4>j£-«/i»: "before," "previously." J-A^: "largely," "greatly."
7k^1m- "much," "very."

Besides these, perhaps every other Adjective may be used adverbially.

Simple Adverbs derived from Verbs :


h££A9°: "no." JE^C- Particle of forgiveness ; e.g.
y«A: "nearly," "about." J£*C: JEAA: "he forgives."
SLA4* : " more" (mayis).

The Simple Constructive Mood is altogether used for Adverbs ; e.g.


Ka,q":l« again." nH*f": "more."
•pJJ-qD; "before," "previously."
o*j£lfc: " early in the morning." . - - „. ("befo
"before," "in the
<PQP: "near." iginning."
•fife: "saying," "thinking." *l-Jt/V: "wanting," "but"
ft*flC: "together." fcJ»Cl: "doing."

Adverbs of uncertain origin are :


(Shoa, qn-: and HrtlO "readily," "with pleasure!"

4. Compound Adverbs are formed, (a) by Prepositions and Nouns;


(b) by Prepositions and Pronouns ; (c) by Nouns and Nouns ; (d) by
Preposition:}, Nouns, and Particles.
CH. V.] ON THE ADVERBS 151

(a) Adverbs formed by Prepositions and Nouns.


n<DJ""f : JMillten,ally" "within," mer-
" I "inside."
nan p - J " externally," " without," tl&T: "before," "previously."
" "outside." flTY'T: "in the morning."
nK«r: ("well," "safely," "in ni"t*C: "at noon."
thealth,""successfully" not]3* : « in the evening."
n<m-: I "by little,M "in a low
" l
degree." n**L \ night"
("by little and
n«pq>> : n : < little," " gra- lTIJfC: "from time immemorial."
( dually." IllA: "after," "afterwards."
fWgoo: "before."
" I great measure."
flAil: 1 "with measure," "mode- n<.*: "afar off" "at a distance."
;} rately.' hj"^: "below."
0 £TWi- ■[ "With fear'" "fearfuHy," YlJ"^: "from below."
'\ "shyly," "cowardly." Yl 113.A : " from behind."
pjfgx^f.. j"k°ldly," "courage- ttAJfc: "above."
" I ously." YlAJE: "from above."
nKftj": "joyfully." finnan : « entirely."
YlAAflzf^T1 thC heart'"
AHAA«°: "forever."
I "heartily."
n<5.J»Jf : "willingly." Yin<5/t" i"from before," "from a
T>»9»C: |"rationally," "reason " (. former time."
YlHAJE: "from above."
H'TCH": "kindly." TrillJ1^: " from below."

(£>) Adverbsformed by Prepositions and Pronouns.


I1H.U : (Shoa, flJMJ : 1 " here," nH.JP: (Shoa, njPn "there,"
& nH.ll:) ) " herein.' &nH:) ) "therein."
here," ("there"
from here," YlHJP:(Sh°a>UH:K"from there,"
& nH.UO hence." I "thence."
{(Shoa, \ <D£HJP:) "thither," "after,"
(DRJIU. thither"
<DJR.JP: J "beyond"
&UH.fJ:)J
^KH-U:l«so,""th«s." J™1"-^! so far.

WU5.fl: "henceforth," "hence.1 YlH.JP: CDJP^JP: "afterwards."


152 ETYMOLOGY. [CH. V.

ViR.'t': "how?"
" to be sure P
>kflYlH.Un "so fiw" "as far as
nflty: "after."
>»flTH.« : ) this," " up to this."
flP't" | « where?" A9"*l: "why?"
<D¥/f-> " wherefore ?'
Y| I » whence ?" " where flA: 9n'i: "on what ac
in (DR,*: J from?" flA: 9"1JtC: count?"

(c) Adverbs formed by Nouns (Pronouns, Numerals) and Nouns.


( " always," " continually,"
U-Am:| "constantly."
{" mouth to mouth," i.e. AlKlH: " once" (See Numerals.)
Aft: Aft 'A "by word of mouth,"
( " viva voce." ( " then,"
PH.? 7: T.H.: j M at ^ time «
Art". Ad.*: J " °PPosite'" " over
9nf"AHft': "perhaps."
" \ against each other."

(d) Adverbs formed by Prepositions, Nouns, and Particles.


Il&tll,: "by the head-side.' mCl: "by the foot-side."
flj^l: "by the hand-side." nKS"3: " near the door " &c.

5. Inseparable Adverbs are but few.

AA — 9°:>"not"
A — 9°: J
AA non—, un—, in—, &c. ">»P — : Distributive Particle.
— T : Interrogative Particle.

The Negative Particles A — : AA — 9°: and A — 9°: are joined to


the Finite Verb. AA — 9° : is used throughout the Preterite, and with
the 1st pers. sing, of the Present Tense. In the other personal forms, the
A= is ejected, and A — 9°: remains. The mere A — : is used in the
Subjunctive, and in all cases where the Negative Verb receives any addi
tional Prefixes ; e. g.
CH. V. VI.] ON THE ADVERBS. 153
PRETERITE. PRESENT INDICATIVE.
J\4tODrT)9D: "he came not" ^,_P_cronr|i/D : «he \ does not
pVAoorri^pgo: "she came not." ^^>onrr)9D: "she] come."
fxfr*mn\u*jo : " thou (m.) l earnest ?\Jt-aurr)gn:| "thou dost not
hftnnniil?": "thou(/.)J not ' ^■"f£rnr,ji,ijti: j come.
hA«""')U'9D: "I came not" hA<n>a)gn: «I*
hAoom-9°: "they"; "they do not
came ftt'OOflHP1 : "you
hAonni^U-^: "you come."
not"
^^000)^90: " we ) ft"}cm it)gn: "We
SUBJUNCTIVE. With additional Prefixes, which absorb
" let him not come." the fx"
Trf-iynn) : « let her not come." HJZrhJ? = " if he do not go."
iVt"9tJ'T) : m. " (thou) who doest
patj^fooAfl: |
do not thou come." not return."
^^:{"t"aottdo"mayeSt
2VP9°rn-n "do not you (hon.)
ft'fgufll.:) come." rtpnA. ("without (his) eating,"
i^iii • |or „ before he eats „
AA00"): " I must not come."
?»^9°lll-: "let them not come." *IA*"IC.: " before I learn."
ft^t-gufn-: " do ye not come."
/Vlooa|: " let us not come.
?iA — : is prefixed to Infinitives; e.g. KAOflfl)^: "ignorance,'1
i.e. the not knowing, non-intelligence. fit\BtItm1". "unbelief."
^A^JHTi: "disobedience," " insubordination," &c.
—1: (in Shoa —(D£0 is a Particle of Interrogation, and affixed to
any part of speech; e.g. KUf : Wi-
WJ1: "Art thou well?" yiCff}:
OT: tiRW- " Has he done this ? 1

CHAP. VI.
ON THE PREPOSITIONS, OR PARTICLES OF RELATION.
1. The term " Prepositions " for that part of speech which falls under the
consideration of this Chapter, is not entirely suitable. It is a class which
determines the relation between Nouns, Pronouns, or Verbs ; and which,
because in our European languages they are generally placed before the

* Mark the difference in pronunciation of the 1 st pers. Present from the 3d pers. Preterite.
The latter is pronounced " Almat'am"; the former " Alemat'am." In the 3d pers. sing, of the
Preterite, the A: is mute ; but in the 1st pers. sing, of the Present, it is sounded, because in
the latter the Preformative "A: which the A • absorbs, must be-tieard.
X
154 ETYMOLOGY. [CH. VI.

object of relation, have been called Prepositions, but would be better called
Particles of Relation ; as this term would suit also in cases where the Particle
is placed behind its object.
2. The Amharic Particles of Relation are partly Simple, partly Compound.
The Simple ones are always Pre-positions ; the Compound ones consist of
Pre- and Postpositions. The Simple Prepositions are either Separable .
or Inseparable. The Simple Separable Prepositions are the following :
flA: "for," " for the sake of," "in behalf," "instead of," "in favour of,"
" because," " on account of," " concerning," " on."
<DK: "to," "towards."
,J»A: "without."
ThlR'- "as," "like as," "according to," " in proportion to."
"fcflYl: "to," "up to," "reaching to," "till," "until."

Inseparable Prepositions are, A — : fl — : Yl — : T — : "1 — : or U — :


>kP— ::
A — : "to," "unto," " in favour of," " to the benefit of," " belonging to."
fl — : "in," "on," "upon," "at," "by," "through," "with," "against,"
"for (in exchange)," "over."
Yl — : "of," "out of," "from," " (more) than," "to."
•f — : " with (company)." <
— : or U — : vulgar, instead of Yl — : and of n — "
>WP — : " in proportion to," " according to," &c, and Distributive.
Illustrations of the preceding Simple Prepositions.
(a) flA: ■>VlH.2vnih.C: "For God's sake."

flA : 3fll.M: "■ "^"I0 3"Alh : " I die on account (because) of my sins."
flAlT : oan\: "He came on thy account"
flA: <D£&,: JER^l^A: " He labours/or (in behalf of) his friend."
flA : V^IRC, : " where/ore ? "
JtV^: 9«06,£: flA: W^aqf^.; ^nM¥: "This chapter
treats on faith."
(6) fl©*: "as a man," "according to (the manner of) men."
1t\1R A.T?Cfl : " like 38 " or " resembling Peter."
<5.3»K,: "He does according to his will," ("as he
likes").
'Xl.K1 " In proportion to his strength."
(c) <D£: ihll f\ : ih,K: " He went to Abyssinia."
(DECl>: AK£*1 = "He set his face towards him."
CH. VI.] ON THE PREPOSITIONS. 155

(«0 ^iflYl! (sometimes >kf|"t":) is seldom used without a following


S££tl '■ > but sometimes it is used by itself; e. g.
>»flTn: 1*1KC: .gih.£A: "It goes as far as Gondar," ("up to
Gondar").
(e) A — '• is used as a Universal Dative ; e.g.
llflHD*'- "He gave it to me."
Ai.: i(D*: " It belongs to ine."
A9°*l: (A9n^IK'C:) "whatfor?" ("wherefore?")
AVIA*?:' signifies both "send to me," and "send for me," (in my
favour, or behalf, to somebody else).

(/) flll.'t*: "in the house."


Il'JVlH.JvnA.C- yV°rA- "He believes in God."
nOTiT, A: JPflt*9°^A: "He teaches (in) the Gospel."
JITTT : " in the morning."
n*I>J!t'C: "at n°on."
n9°JfC: "on earth," " on the ground."
flJfTl't': "on a sudden."
IlA'Igl: "at (in) London."
IlKSr: "at the door."
HR^: imjioflr-l": JE.E'FA: "The just shall live by faith."
mAiC*"1 119°JfC : " % sea m^ h land."
n^^fl-'PA*! : illnCrt-t-fl: " Through him that strengtheneth me ;
through Christ."
INDC^*"1 n"flC: 1H(D": "With gold and with silver did he pur
chase it."
XA*t: oonin:?; "My enemy came upon (against) me."
JEiS.^^nS'A: "He judges over him" (or, in contrast with —A— :
" pronounces judgment against, condemns him.")
£^»C: nAl: tiV- J?AQKi: "Forgive us that which is against us;"
ie. "forgive us our debts," Matt. vi. 12.
nfMffrt" : *flC: .PtlfllVA: "He sells it for six dollars."
J?A: I1*! n't": "He gained the victory over him."

(g) Tn fl/l*: Q)*1! : "He went out of his house.'


YlCfr: <DrtjfU-;t*: "I took it from him."
tli: JEIIA"! A: " He is greater than I."
TriCI>: JPTTiA: "He is inferior to him."
156 ETYMOLOGY. [cH. VI.

(M) T: and 1 ' or U: are frequently used in vulgar, but not in good
language. (See the Dictionary.)

(&) "X P— : is a Preposition, Distributive and of Proportion. It is related


to "AlJJ: and has been mentioned already with the Numerals as
a Distributive Particle. Other instances are these : "J*PHai,£.:
" according to its kind." TfrPJUUt^V!*: " in his respective order."

3. The Compound Particles of Relation are formed by any of the Simple


Prepositions, connected with Nouns, or other Particles. The latter (Post
positions) are either directly joined to the former, or follow after the
Noun or Pronoun to which they refer. We shall first give here a list
of Postpositions ; then show how they are combined with Simple Prepo
sitions ; and afterwards exhibit their use, by expressions of daily occur
rence in conversation.
List of Postpositions.
(DM»T: "the inside." i H1JP":i
I particles of company.
: " what is behind." 26.: j
AJE: " high," " upper," " elevated." JC£ft: particle of extent
<5/f : " face," " fore-part," " surface.' °°fm: "proportion."
: * that which is below." : " measure."
hmW: "the side." Il^C: particle of omission.
""TlYlA: "the middle." >»Yl*A: "equal," "equality."
H"CJP: "surrounding place." o^Jn^'l": " reason," "cause."
ft*MC: "front." <5.1;I-: "portion," "stead," "part."
They are thus combined with Simple Prepositions :
nffl^f : and n— : OW*"?: "within," "inside."
nYTA: "about," "in the vicinity," "direction."
nH-CJ?: and n— : HC.P: "surrounding," "round about."
Ild/t": " before," " previous to," " in sight of," " in front of."
IllA: and Yl— : fl^A: "behind," "after."
IIJ"1? : and Yl— : flj"^: "below" "under."
n— : H1.R-: "by," "with."
Yl— : H"JJf: "from," "from with."
>»flYl: — : R£.il: "till," "up to," "to," "as far as."
11— : AVI : "in proportion to."
no°YnjPJl*: and n— <*»lnjP,!t*: "for the sake of," " on account of,
" because of."
CH. VI.] ON THE PREPOSITIONS.

I1AJE". and In—: flA.£: "on," "upon," "above," "over," "against."


1 mi'fl : " beside," " by."
nooTiVi^: and II— : ooYiYlA: "among," "between."
Tn— : " with," " together with."
nonflll: and 11— : "in proportion to."
Yl— : fl*l*C: " without," "excepting."
fl—: <5."W": "instead of."
n*iHC: and n— : 2"k1HC: "in front of," * opposite."

Instances for illustration: ,


fKDM'fll*: " within him."
mC: " within the country."
nA°"i£1: IlYl^A: " in the vicinity of London."
Yl«l,Jt"C: IKtA: "eE^er midday," i.e. "in the afternoon."
n^|f^1: "under us."
Ylljf3»: nj*'?: "under the table."
n%'- H1R> " with or by me."
Yl"l3"(D*: o0"!: "He came from (from with) his master."
■fcfllFl: Hdo- Jf^fl: "*° this day."
"KflYl : 13 : JC^fl: " to-morrow."
flH^: AVl : "*» that measure," i.e. so large &c. as that.
n°°ll*}yJt*fl: "<m thy account," "for thy safce."
flA^.: **°lT'Sl^l*! " because o/his son."
flH-CJP®*: " roimd aoowf him."
mC: H-C.P: "in the environs of (round about) the town."
n<S.3*:f(D': <h.K: "ne wen* 6e/ore them."
f|ijlog.£: /y£: "on the earth."
Yin."!5: I1A,£: " a&ow his house."
ntifi.6-- AfllTfl: "by the side of the place."
nThAW: iyg: Tl1*! : "He rose against the king."
nfl^P^F: "^"^llnA: "among men." *
nlf: nCrt*: ao"'hTriAi "between me and him."
*lH1s: 3^.: <h,£: "He went wiffe his father."
ll(D*<I>'t!: oo(m: " in proportion to his knowledge."
If-A^d*: YlC^i*"- lll'C1 "They all write excepting him."
Rfc: «5."*3": JEfHATA: "He receives it, instead of me"
nn/t"- A1flC: "opposite the house."
158 ETYMOLOGY. [cH. VII.

CHAP. VII.
ON THE CONJUNCTIONS.
1. The Amharic Conjunctions are either Separable or Inseparable.
2. The Separable Conjunctions are as follows :
(a) Copulative, and Reiterative : : " also," " again."
(b) Adversative, TJ : " however," " but."
S.O ) rtP«|>r•i"notwithstanding',, T
Y1C. : Tl : > " but." • \ « nevertheless."
PT: mf\: J "hlSE- "hut," unless."

(c) Disjunctive :
(D^: ) „ <D£fl:— : <D£fl:—: "either—," "or-
mg9U: y'or.
. ( with Negation, " neither."
<D£f|: J *
(d) Causal : Vkljf: " that." WiR: " in order that," " in order to."
(e) Conditional, Wigjifi: (Shoa, "if."
(/) Conclusive, ftAH.<J: "therefore."

3. The Inseparable Conjunctions are these :


(a) Copulative, — 9°: — f": "and," "also."
ll — : f — : "and," "by," (in counting).
(6) Copulative and Adversative :— f| : — ft :: "as for," " but," " indeed,"
"but."
(c) Conditional:

With the Negative ft: (1 :) " if not," " unless."


•n— J
(d) Conjunction of time, f| — : " when," " while."
Negat. i"| — : " ere," " before," "without."
(e) Final and Conditional : "ft"!.!? — : "that," "if," "to."
£%.—: "that," "in order that."
(/) Intensive, "Xflfrl— : "so that," "so as to."
"fcflll—: Jf^fl: "until," "till."
(g) Comparative, fa— : " than that."
(A) Causal, —f: "for," "because."
Note.—The junction of these Particles to Verbs is effected according to
the rules laid down in Part I. Ch. VII.
CH. VII.] ON THE CONJUNCTIONS. 159

ILLUSTRATIONS :
IT-Auf: njLU'r: ooflV: ih.J'/T0: " The king and the queen came
and went."
i£C: /V"AA3":1,(D*: T4»°10in-: "But their servants remained"; or,

OT-f-: *190iT| : " One hundred and fifty."


>»Cfr: K°II1D: VlJiU: AA*!: "He also told me so."
JMJ: IMV: l£^C: " Notwithstanding all this.'"
JEU«: AAhg*': "K^: " I do not want this, but that."
9°n: "1-I5.AJAO: ««JMi$."i". (D£fl: "fl<,"l: "What doest thou
want, the book or the money ? "
<D.gf|: <D£ft: JUn: A^-JfC"*: "Either this or that must
thou do (art thou fo do)."
7kCfftl: "KIR: ih.K: ftPU-: MO AW 'XTE'irti*: AA
d^ggo;; "Indeed, that he has gone, I have seen; owf in order
that thou shouldst be lazy, he did not go," (" was not his object
in going").
>»«nj£;: H7R". (or A^CO "Xffl^AU-: "I like to learn."
oojtih^.: 11*1: IKDg J?U""- "I should like to get a book."
tl 't'BR.Qrt" : *fl ^utld. : AHA : " If thou learnest, that will be better
for thee than if thou playest."
Wf: -flffA9I1~i: TiCXf: n,ftmV: \flC.: "If thou wouldest ask, he
would give thee."
1,3'fl)': l\*I,oro"F : A"A,: £ih.£A: " While the master remains, the
servant goes."
>trt¥l<n>rn : Jf^fl : "t^A*? : " Wait for me till I come."
oogom'f f|: "Aao']nAU': "As for coming, I shall come."
ATfHh "-Bwfthou?" (emphatic, "what wilt thou do?")
-|-ijnq>^r: A^cmni9D: "Because he is sick, he does not come."
160 ETYMOLOGY. [CH. VIII.

CHAP. VIII.
ON THE INTERJECTIONS.
1. We notice first those Particles which, when combined with the Verbs
?kA: URd.!: and 2\fiT:> constitute Verbs (See Ch. V. 2.) ; but when
used by themselves, are Interjections. They are the following :
Particles Signification. Particles Signification.
f"tush!" f " yes,"
of silence, >»iT.: of compliance, j.,readily«
1" quiet!"
f"mind!" ■^90 of refusing, " I will not !
♦ft: of caution,
("softly!"
("hurrah!"
of haste, " quickly ! ' >»AA: of exultation, j.,huzzahr
(" done ! "
ln'l"fr: of completion ^"finished!"
("full!"
2. The remaining Particles of Exclamation are as follows :
ITg. : of address, " oh ! " fofcommise-1 (<oh!„
\ ration, j
«|»A : of expulsion, " begone ! "
"alas!"
>»UJ£: of joy, "eh ! " "aha ! (DP*: of lamentation, j „
woe ! "
;"look!" " woe ! '
KIT. ofattention, {?^r _ ( of lamentation I " alas ! 1
{contradiction, V' oh ! " \ & abhorrence, | "fie!"
complaint, >"farbeit!"
abhorrence, ) " fie ! " OfMl: 1 ofasto- V'oh wonder!"
(DP; J nishment J " dear me ! "
xnwofcourtesy'rSirr
lt" 1 ■ l of address, j "O Lord !"

{f dd (" '1°^e ^aVC n0t ^UFt yourse'^ ' " " SUDsti"
svmDathv 1 tute'" *,e- ' snould have preferred the accident to
' have happpened to me, instead of you !
( 161 )

Part III.—SYNTAX.
ON THE ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS,
AND THEIR
CONSTRUCTION INTO SENTENCES.

CHAP. I.
ON THE NATURE OF SENTENCES, ESPECIALLY IN THE AMHARIC
LANGUAGE.
1. A sentence is an aggregate of words expressing a judgment of the
mind. It is either simple, complex, or compound. The constituent parts
of every sentence are, a subject, an attribute, a copula, and an object ; the
latter, however, being less necessary than the three former. Simple
sentences are such as have nothing but these parts ; e.g.
WRC,'- l"l<S.: F't": "The earth is spacious."
T|.juu: oqo) : " The king has come."
Mn*l: <5.£fl1: IK A: "The lion killed a horse."
Note.—The Copula, or Joining Verb, which connects the subject with
the attribute, is frequently joined with the latter in one and the same
verb; .e.g. "JT-JUU; oorr|:: Here onfT|: contains the attribute of
IT-M*: ("king"), which is, " one that came," together with the Copulative
Verb "is."
2. Complex sentences are such as are amplified by qualifying words in
connection with either the subject or the attribute; e.g.
Hda- 00 *n : " My son came to-day."
Here is the subject, A^-: "son," qualified by the pronoun e, "my," and
the attribute " who came," (contained in the verb oon\ : " came," with
the copula "is") by the adverb H<5,: "to-day."
3. Compound sentences are such as have either the subject, or the
attribute, or the object, or all of them, augmented by additional or expla
natory parts; e.g.

" The soldier, the merchant, and the farmer, are useful men."
162 SYNTAX. [CII. II.

CHAP. II.
ON THE SUBJECT AND THE ATTRIBUTE, AND THEIR RELATION TO
EACH OTHER.
Section I.—On the Subject.
1. The subject is the principal or the reigning part of every sentence :
it therefore stands always in the Nominative Case: e.g.
fKD*: JS^^A'- " man dies."

2. The ideal subject is always a Noun Substantive: the grammatical


subject may be a Substantive, Adjective, Numeral, Pronoun, an Infinitive,
or Participle : for words which express no perfect ideas by themselves,
i. e. which are not substances, cannot form subjects of thought, unless they
be at least ideally converted into substantives.

3. In every sentence, the subject precedes; the attribute and the copula
follow; e.g.
"hCf* ■ KUr : HD» : " He is good."
This is always the case, whether the Subject be simple, defined, complex,
or compound.

4. When the Subject is specified by a Substantive, an Adjective, a


Numeral, Pronoun, or Participle, the specifying words precede; e.g.
PflOP: £\-fl: 1<D*: "Mans heart is evil." y
fli: l"l(D*: SLtl-fli.A:: " A good man is honoured."
1*1^1 -"J- : 'PI: ?kA<5.: "Seven days passed."
,£U: fl/t*: l"l<5.: 1(D*: "This house is spacious."
n/t*: l*l<L: 1<D*: "The house which has been built, is
spacious."

" May the fear of the Lord be with you."—2 Chron. xix. 7.
5. A Compound Subject, which consists of several Nouns, Numerals, or
Pronouns, has all these parts in the Nominative Case; e.g.
9"^C: JPA4./V: "Heaven and earth shall pass away."
7%£l?: oo-f-: Ylrtoq-J^: |f(JD¥: "Those hundred and eighty
men have gone."
6. Where the Subject is connected with subordinate explanatory parts,
it follows after them ; e.g. Luke xii. 47.
CH. II.] ON THE SUBJECT AND THE ATTRIBUTE. 163

PWD**!: <5.3*Jf: ?i<D**: .PATHOS: T\1g,z «5,g>£.9«:

Literally : " His Lord's will knowing who prepared not himself, ac
cording to his will and did not the servant, much shall be scourged;"
i.e. "That servant who knew his Lord's will, and prepared not him
self, neither did according to his will, shall be severely scourged.11
These two rules, No. 4, and 6, are so peculiarly in the Amharic idiom, that
they cannot fail to impress themselves at once upon the mind of the Student.

Section II.
On the Attribute, and its relations to the Subject.
1. The Attribute may be a Substantive, or an Adjective, or Pronoun,
or Participle : it may be separate, or implied in the Verb.
Examples.
">»TK^*flih.C: ""l^fl: W>*: "God is « Spirt*"
fi,V- 1*1 (D»: ?i<P'lj : l(D*: "This man is intelligent"
111*: J£U: lap: "The matter is this.'"
<5.3»K,: PT'fr-^fll : KD*: "His resolution is decided.'" Acts xix. 7.
l"l(j)*-T,JD: AM*^: U-A'l': Yfl«J,: "And the men were twelve.'"
TxCXt-: .E<5,6. A : " He fears," i. e. " is fearing."
2. Complex Attributes (see Ch. I. 2.) have their subordinate parts before
them.
Example.
flO>: IHV,.(IM U-A-: I^YTA?5: Id*:
Lit. " This man, in his work all, is cunning"—" is cunning in all his doings."
'S. The Attribute always follows the Subject. This is evident from the
preceding instances.
4. It often agrees with the Subject in Gender, Number, and Case : often
does not As to the Gender, the concordance may be assumed, most of
the Nominal forms being of Common Gender ; and, in the Adjective Par
ticiples at least, the Gender is strictly attended to. Concerning Number,
the Singular is more used in Adjectives than the Plural ; which may be
accounted for by the supposition, that they are regarded as an abstract
mass, of which the individual subjects have their share; e.g.
>»AtJ: l*l(p^: KtJf : f^(D*: "These men are good."
But when the Attribute is a Relative Participle, it must agree in Number,
164 SYNTAX. - [CH. II.

as well as in Gender, Case, and Person, (see Page 73.) with its sub
ject; e.g.
A°AAf: PJ-on*.: T:T(D'". "His servants are faithful."
The Number is especially uncertain, when the Subject is a Collective
Noun ; e.g.
l"l(D*: IWV: "All men (or every man) dies.'1
fhHIl-: TrtnnfV^: (Sing.) or Tl*ini"lfl-: (PI ) "The people was (or
were) gathered together."
With regard to Case, we remember but one instance where the Subject
and the Attribute do not agree ; •fl\f: with SufHxes ; e.g.
"M.: -fllfPT -.h^i: "lam alone."
Here is the Subject in the Nominative, and the Attribute -fl^PT:
in the Accusative Case.

CHAP. III.
VARIOUS USES AND CONSTRUCTION OF THE NOUN.
A. Construction of Substantives with Substantives.
1. Two or more Substantives connected together, denoting the same
thing, are in a state of apposition, and must agree in Gender and
Number; e.g.
XalH.2VH<h.C: ftflnAM: " The Lord God."
fl)1£": nCF: "a man- slave."
IT.J" : Si'E't" : " King David " & ■ 1*1-J" : " David, the king."
hlilA0^: nC*P': "Negroes," "slaves"; i.e. "Negro-slaves."
2. Nouns of Quantity are joined to other Substantives in the Nominative
Case; e.g.
ftt: "II C: "a little silver."
ftlJET: 1TC: n»1: "one pound (of) coffee."
Kl^f: ")fr'P: Qt'J- "one jar (of) water."
3. Substantives of Quality, of Origin, or of Possession, are joined to
other Substantives. They stand in the Genitive Case ; e.g.
PS.~Yl.y- nrf: "a house (made) of stone."
PfTLG.: "lll.J': " Teff-bread-cakes."
yiC,' flOY*'- "a man of the country"; or the Ethiopic expression,

PIH «5, : : " the farmers plough."


More about this when we come to speak of the Genitive Case. (See p. 167.)
CH. III.] USES AND CONSTRUCTION OF THE NOUN. 165
4. On the construction of Object-Substantives with Subject-Substantives
we shall speak when coming to consider the Verb. (See Ch. VIIL)

B. Construction of Adjectives with Substantives.


Adjectives may be connected with Substantives, (a) either as epithets
to the Subject ; or (6) as Attributes of the sentence ; or (c) as modified by
another accompanying Substantive.
1. As Epitheton of a Substantive, the Adjective generally precedes the
latter; e.g. fl"J: f\(D*: "a good man."
2. In Number and Gender, the Epithetic Adjective does not always
agree with its Substantive ; but the following rules are observed :
(a) The Substantive may be in the Plural, and the Adjective in the
Singular Number; never the reverse ; e.g.
XUfYonJlAiQ/t-: "good books"; never "OR-Aft"
(b) In the same manner, the Adjective is most frequently used in the
Masculine form, when the Substantive is of Feminine Gender; but a
Feminine Adjective is never used for a Masculine Substantive; e.g.
iVt": "a bad woman," but not 'llffh'I":* (D"*^: "a pure man."

3. The preceding paragraph refers not to Participial Adjectives of the


Relative form, as in them the strictest attention is paid both to Number
and Gender. (See Page 163. §. 4.)
4. When the Adjective is attribute to the sentence, the rules laid down
in the preceding Chapter, Sect. II. §§ 3, 4. obtain.

5. When another qualifying Substantive is connected with the Adjec


tive, a Relative Participle is required as complement ; e.g.
HAnTd)': lft.*h"i: J?A«: rtflpp: "Men who are pure in their
hearts."
C. Number, of Nouns.
There is a strong tendency in the Abyssinians to use the Singular
Number, where we would use the Plural. We shall point out several
cases where the latter never, and others where it but seldom is used,
although it would be impossible, in the present stage of our knowledge of the

* We do not quote 3rl fj.'X'l" :, the Feminine form of Ylfc, because it is not used
in theAmharic, nor the Participle PYld."^1! because, when Adjective-Participles are used,
the Gender and Number is always strictly attended to. (See tbe preceding Chap. Sect. II. § 4.)
166 SYNTAX. [CH. III.

Amharie language, to give rules for every case, and would exceed the
bounds which must be assigned to this head. The following classes are,
some of them, never, others, seldom used in the Plural :
1. Nouns denoting a mass; as, gold, silver, corn, wheat, honey, fat,
dust, &c.
2. Several parts of the animal body; e.g.
A'fl : " the heart."
ITR- " the belly." X>C: "hair."
ggo : " blood."
3. The soul, and several powers and faculties of the mind :
Mi.fl: "the soul." (D*f* : " love."
fSLSM? : "the will.1 <i.^C: " charity."
tifVn ■ " thought.' Kfl5*:"joy."
AIM": "reason." ^A^JT": hope."
4. Most Abstract Nouns, denoting quality, condition, action, quantity.
We especially refer to the two Tables of Nominal Forms. Table I :
Triliteral Radices of Verbs, No. 5. and Quadriliteral ones of No. 4.
Table II: Simple Forms of 3. A. a. 4. 6.; and Augmented Forms, 1. a. c;
some of d. ; and almost all of e.
5. The following Collective Nouns are not often used in the Plural :
(a) Generical names of animals and of plants ; e.g.
jt*fl: "hyaena." MlH: "flower."
(b) Names of assemblages of men, or other beings ; e.g. Q)*n : " tribe,"
" sect," " kind," &c. The Plural of this word, (Dlf"^- signifies the indi
viduals belonging to the whole assemblage, fill: "court of justice,"
"town," " country," and other words.
6. Certain periods of time: «|»'}: "day." A't": and AA/t": "night."
l"l*Vt*: " hour." «|»Jt*£: "noon." <» «{J£- :" forenoon." These are never
used in the Plural number. Seldom: T.H.: "time." H°°'l: "time,"
"period." fton "year." i^on'f'f : "week."
7. Several Nouns denoting confines, borders, shores, &c. ; e.g. •
"banks," "shores," "coast" J?C3P: "borders." (DlYl: "confines,"
" borders." HCA- " seam," " hem."
8. As to the agreement in Number between Nouns in the samesentence,
either Subjects or Attributes, see the preceding Chapter, Sect. II. 4. ; and
in this Chapter, A. 1. and B. 2.
D. On the Various Cases of Declension.
1. The Nominative is, in common conversation, often improperly used
CH. III.] USE AND CONSTRUCTION OF THE NOUN. 167
where the Preposition (DJ»: should stand; e.g. Mi AA: «h»K: " He went
Angollala," omitting (DK= " t0"
2. It is applied in answer to the question, How long ? How often ?
How much ? e.g.
fiftf: tfT: "ffoufH: "He remained three days."
■II H-: T.H.: trorrl : "He came many times."
A'JJEJ': OTJ^JCJ: Tflfl: " One madega (a certain measure) barley."
3. The Genitive Case expresses :
(a) Possession :
JPn*t: fl/T: "My father's house." PTbt*>: 3,£A: "The king's power."
(6) Origin :
PV°K:C.'- " The fruit of the earth."
Pdiflh: rtdh:" A man of (from) Abyssinia," i. e. " An Abyssinian."
(c) Quality:
PWft: >»9» : " Iron furniture." PKT1„P: Il/t*: " A house of stone."
Here it supplies the place of Adjectives.
(d) Measure of time, space :
PrtH't': A00^: tli.: "The work of seven years."
PU-A't": VI: oonjf : "Two days1 journey."
(e) Price and Quantity :
y^R- -11 C: n-1: "One dollar's (worth) of coffee."
4. When Prepositions precede the word which stands in the Genitive
Case, the P: is dropped. See Part I. Ch. VII. 3. B.
5. When an Accusative follows the Genitive, the latter adopts the mark
1': of the former, so that the word seems to stand both in the Genitive
and in the Accusative ; e.g.
yiC.'i- YlT"1!: APU-: "I have seen the capital of the country."
P>kaIH.?Wlfh.Ci: P^AYlUl: fl9»: 1111*: AWO®*:
" Thou shalt not use the name of the Lord thy God in vain." Ex. xx. 7.
6. When the Genitive belongs to several Substantives in apposition, its
P: is to be applied to each; when to a Substantive preceded by an
Epithetical Adjective, it is applied only to the Adjective; e.g.
P£*E^: P"*"W*": P*n.£: """Hoo-d.'l': " The. Psalms of David,
(of) the King, and (of the) Prophet."
PR\3r : : MO "The words of a good man."
7. When the Genitive belongs to a Substantive having several Epithetic
168 SYNTAX. [CH. III.
Adjectives, the P: is applied to each Adjective, and may, or may not, be
applied to the Substantive also ; e.g.

or P^A*f: Pmn.*f1: PHAm;j9n: JlA-qoT: ftT: "«*Kf|:: .


" The temple of the great, wise, and wealthy Solomon."
8.t The Ethiopic Genitive, or Status Constructus, has been mentioned,
Part II. Ch. I. Sect. L 4. and Sect. V. 2.
9. The Dative being formed by the prefixion of the Preposition A: (to,
for, in favour, in behalf, &c.) to the Noun, we need only to refer to what
has been said, Part II. Ch. VI. 2. e.
10. The Accusative Case is formed by the annexion of at the end : it
serves to indicate the immediate or direct action of the Subject upon its
object ; and is required by all Active, Intensive, Transitive, and Causative
Verbs; e.g.
fl<D*"l: A£X: " He sent a man."
Although this rule is very plain, it may not be superfluous to specify it
a little. The Accusative is governed—
(a) By the Verb Finite ; e. g.
"»A>kVl;|-T: .ER-4.A: " He writes a letter."
Tin CUT: AJfCl: "Do thy business."
fl'fr*J.'i: JEH: rh,K: "He took his stick, and went."
(b) By the Infinitive ; e.g.
nlflhT: fl<5. : °l,fli.;l": ?».P(D*4,9D: "He knows not to perform (can
not perform) good works."
(c) By Relative Participles ; e. g.
£{Ji*i: " He who has done this."
Aj£/J: PO^fl)^: "He that loves his child."
(d) By Nominal Active Participles ; e.g.
torfl'- Wi- "One that builds a house."
11. Besides Active Verbs, there are a few phrases in which the Accusa
tive is used ; e. g.
"Aili.£AU*: " I go my way."
flfT : "1H : " He entered his house."
•fl^5: "alone," "single," with Suffixes, assumes the Accusative form, when
it is converted into an Adverb ; e. g.
'fllFOKi: lfl£: " He was by himself."
12. When the Noun which stands in the Accusative terminates in a
CH. III.] USE AND CONSTRUCTION OF THE NOUN. 169

letter of the third, fourth, fifth, or seventh order, a euphonic (D*: is joined
before the accusative e.g.
mn«£aKi: oo^jaKig™: n^a^g": q>nc<D^9D: ?»pu*:
" I saw the herdsman, the herd, the oxen, and the fox."

12. Relative Participles in u, standing in the Accusative, have a eupho


nic J|«: before the accusative ; e.g.
JPPlh^T: P1Rtt-ttm'itta- tlda- "The ox which I saw, and which they
killed."

13. Accusative Nouns ending in the sixth order are euphonically


changed into the second ; Accusative Participles, into the first order ; the
latter receiving a euphonic Q>»: ; e.g.
ao£fyao*1z "good wine."
.PWHJdKl: 3m.M-: "The sin which thou hast committed."

14. When a Descriptive Adjective is connected with the Noun standing


in the Accusative, the T : is not generally aflixed to both, but sometimes
to the Substantive, sometimes to its epitheton ; when the latter is a Parti
ciple, to the Participle: e.g. it is equally good to say £{Jf": flGKi: or
g.W(D*1 : l"l(D*: " a good man," but with a Participle ; e.g.
PnAildKl: 7in$£&.: "The bread which thou (/.) hast eaten."

15. When several Adjectives are connected with a Substantive in the


Accusative Case, the T : is put to each of the Adjectives, but not to the
Substantive; e.g.
fWi: (DQ.i."o^l9ii: n1: &£190: P9D?4.&<D''3 : Hft:
4»-£fn«: " They cut down a large, thick, and good-fruit-bearing tree," i.e.
"a large and thick tree which bore good fruit."

16. Concerning the construction of the Genitive with the Accusative,


see §. 5.
170 SYNTAX. [CH. IV.

CHAP. IV.
ON THE DEGREES OP COMPARISON.
1. The Amharic Language has almost the same mode of comparing
things with each other as the Hebrew ; namely, especially by prefixing
the Preposition Yl : "of," "from," to the Positive Noun or Pronoun ; e.g.
Yionj-Yl't*: oroaij£: .gfjAA: " Learning is better than to be idle."

2. In many cases, they add the Postpositive Particle ^A'fr: which gives,
however, no additional force to the idea of gradation already expressed by
Yl : ; but it stands generally at the end of a sentence, and is used more
for Verbs than for Adjectives ; e.g.
HQ,: 'f^'H'njA^: Ymj^: £A*:
" This tree is tall, more than that one."
Here it would be equally good to say,
jLV'f- : YlH-P^ ^^H^JA^: " This tree is taller than that one."
3. The Verbs nAfll : " is greater," Mft: " is smaller," " less," and
"rlA: "is better," are in themselves of a comparative nature: neverthe
less, when brought together with other Adjectives or Verbs for comparison,
they require the Yl— : as well as Adjectives or other Verbs; e.g.
TIM1: In Yl-flJt*: ,£«lAA: " Wisdom is better than wealth."
TUFT : Yl A£*V : JZn A"l A : " An elephant is larger than a mouse."
?»*llAA: Yl2VtfinC: FTlA^: "Angollalais smaller than Ankobar."
4. Besides the preceding, every verb of quality, condition, or even of
action, is capable of expressing a comparison when constructed with Yl :
for the adjective is contained in that verb ; e.g.
: YlHQ. : ^4"HO^A : " A mountain is higher than a tree."
^m.A't": YlV0^ : JfYl<lA'^: "Sin is worse than death."
Verbs of action, however, require J£A^»: e.g.
Yl fLVQtl : SZA& : AdWVfl : RYl00 : " Paul laboured more than Peter."
5. The Superlative is rendered by YllhA*: (with Suffixes) and YllhA:
£A*: e.g.
V°S?C.: FA*: f*: **A9»: £nA"lA'- ^H.ft-n<h»C: Ti:
Ylll*A: .PflA'HA: "The earth is great; the universe is greater; but
God is greatest (of all)."
YllJ-A'ra)*: J£A*: >»Cl"l"- "He learned more than they all."
CH. V.] SYNTAX. 171

CHAP. V.
ON THE NUMERALS.
1. The Numeral does not, properly speaking, form a particular part of
speech, but is either, as the Cardinals, a Substantive, or, as are the Ordinals,
an Adjective, or, as the Distributive, an Adverb. We need therefore to
say but little about their Syntax.
2. The Cardinal Numbers are always, when connected with other Nouns,
to be considered as in apposition with them ; and they always precede; e.g.
U-A'T: tl(f)*?-: "two men.
3. All the Numbers, from One upwards, seem to be considered as Plurals ;
wherefore they are of common gender, except ftlJJ": " one," which has
in the feminine, ti}£Jf:z '
4. Notwithstanding this, the noun to which the numeral is joined, is not
always used in the plural number. Although they use, in common lan
guage, the singular and the plural indiscriminately, the rule seems to hold
good, that the round numbers, ten, twenty, &c. up to a hundred, and the
large numbers, as hundred, thousand, ten thousand (AAtJ.: pvptot), are
more frequently constructed with the noun in the singular than in the
plural, and the numbers between every ten generally in the plural ; e.g.
U-A^: rtg)^ : "two men." Vf: |"KD*: " twenty man."
5. The Numbers Juu/vOh ftCH: h!J°^: fljfl: fMl°k-
ftnqlj?: Hfllf: oof :: are generally used for Ordinals as well as for
Cardinals ; or rather, as they do not like to adopt the ordinal form for those
numbers, they place the cardinal behind the noun as a predicate; e.g.
""Jfihft: «y: "book twenty," instead of V^V ■ ""JWh^.: "the
twentieth book."
6. The form of the Ordinal Numbers is regularly derived from the
Cardinals ; except, as in our European and in other languages, the first ;
although in compound numbers that also is used in the regular form; e.g.
AJW^.: hTiRp- "the eleventh."
When used in a simple form, A"iJ»f: signifies " unique," " sole," " only."
In enumeration, they use aoj£ou£jp: "the beginning," or "the
foremost," "first."
7. As for the Distributives, nothing needs to be added to what has been
said Part II. Ch.II. §.4.
172 SYNTAX. [CH. VI.

CHAP. VL
SYNTAX OF THE SEPARABLE PRONOUNS.
1. The Separable Personal Pronoun isused,
(a) When it is the subject of a sentence. "M,: 'hih^Ath: " I S° "
although it is not necessary to use it.
(6) When an emphasis lies on the pronoun ; e.g.

" He has not done it, but I have."


2. The third person singular and plural is used for demonstration ; as is
the reverse in the Latin and Greek ; e. g.
AIK1: .FAIT?: ">»C«V. JPAU-IJ: "That which thou hast now
been telling me, is the same with what I told thee."
3. The Separable Possessive Pronoun is used only when a stress is laid
upon it; e.g. J£U: 11/1*: PI' 1G>: "This house is mine."
Cf. John xvii. 9, 10 : flT: f^dM":: AW0: PIT*: U-A-: TkCfl*:
ATI*: WD*:: ^'iT0>9n: fiCXf: At: 1(D*: "For they are Thine. And
all that is mine, the same is Thine ; and Thine, the same is mine."
Where no such stress lies on the Possessive, Suffixes are used.
4. The Singular Masculine of both the Demonstrative Pronouns forms
Adverbs, by the junction of Prepositions with the Genitive Case of those
Pronouns. See Part II. Ch. V. 4. (b).
5. The Interrogative ai}-}: "who?" "which?" "what?" is used for
persons : it is made use of, also, for inanimate subjects in the phrase
Id)*: fl<*W: or fioo-: aiJI: JO).: (oijKd*:) "What ishis (its)
name ? " On the contrary, the Impersonal 9«T : is employed as a Per
sonal Interrogative, by way of utter contempt, in the expression, "J0*!:
ATF : " What is his father ? " Both these expressions are elliptical.
6. The Indefinite U«A:> which may be considered, as it is in the other
Semitic languages, as a Noun, |>A: (*?3> J-^ with suffixes, assumes no
other suffix in the singular than the suffixes masculine and feminine of
the third person ; but it takes all the suffixes of the plural : U>A : lhA'P :
U-ATOh: U-A^U-: U-A^l::
7. When U»A*: is absolute, it stands at the beginning of a sentence:
when connected with Nouns or Participles, it follows them; e.g.
U-A : d%,R : " All is gone."
U-A1: "He has done all."
rtflh: IhA: "All men," "every man," "people in general," &c.
CH. VI. VII.] OP THE SEPARABLE PRONOUNS. 173

8. U*A":» as subject of the sentence, and without any other suffixes,


may have its verb either in the singular or in the plural : when connected
with nouns or participles, or with other suffixes, the number and person
of the verb are determined by those nouns, participles, or suffixes; e.g.
U-A«: £0)4.A: . " All will (sing.) perish "; or,
IhA- : £01 <{.A« : " All will (plur.) perish."
U-A^FS: Tiff: 11: "We are all together."
l^ff: U-A-: Trtflfin-: U-A:P(D'9n: TVh- "All the kings
were assembled together, and all of them engaged in war."

9. fclgflr: "some," "something," "anything"; with, negation, "no


thing"; e.g.
AIJ^I: riffldh: " Give him something."
A"5£*F1: AAT1>nAU'"In: " I received nothing."

10. A^A: signifies an indefinite number or quantity; e.g.


A.£A: fiqft : SfVY-fA: AJPA: TV- £m£.m<,Il jTA:
" Some men believe ; others doubt it."
When it is predicate, it signifies a large quantity :
Yl*fl"l»: ?iJPA.: Id)1: "His property is considerable."
11. In order to express Reciprocity, the Abyssinians make use of the
form flCfl — with the Plural Suffixes a>p~l: a^flh: and
a^FQ)*: and a Reciprocitive or other Verb ; e.g.
"JhCXt"- tlC^i^Vh: TfJUSL- "Love one another V
12. An Indefinite Pronoun is AI't'T: which signifies, "The what's
his name." Gr. oSeiva; French, chose; German, Dingerich; e.g.
ftTl'TI: ft£<h..E"9n: "The what's his name does not go."

CHAP. VII.
ON THE AFFIXED PRONOUNS.
1. As to their position, that is determined, the Nominal Suffixes being
joined to the final letter of the Noun (or Adverb) ; the verbal to the last
radical of the Verb, or to the Verbal Afformative. Adjectives do not
assume suffixes, except when considered as Substantives.

2. The Nominal Suffixes are to be considered as possessive ; the


verbal ones as objective ; e.g.
Aj£: "My child." ooj^J- "He struck me."
174 SYNTAX, [CH. VII. VIII.

Adverbs with Suffixes are treated by them as Substantives, 'the nominal


Suffixes being joined to them ; e.g.
flAK: "over me."
3. Concerning the Verbal Suffixes, enough has been said in the preceding
part of this work, Ch. IV. sect. V. We add here, that the suffix of the first
pronoun in the singular is sometimes used pleonastically ; e.g.
Au.K-U-5?: "I am gone."

CHAP. VIII.
CONSTRUCTION OF THE VERB.
Having discussed the nature and use of the Verb, and its various parts,
rather extensively in the preceding part of this work, Ch. IV., we need not
here go through it at full length ; but shall offer, in the first place, such
additional remarks on the Moods, Tenses, and Persons, as are deemed
necessary ; and, in the second place, to show the agreement of one verb
with another, and of the verb with the other parts of speech.

Section I.
On the Tenses of the Amharic Verb.
1. The following Tenses are used for the past time : the Simple Pre
terite of the Indicative, the Compound Preterite of the Contingent, and the
Compound Preterite of the Constructive.
(a) The Simple Preterite of the Indicative is used,
a. For the Perfect Tense ; e.g.
"KYIS,- tmtT\- "A stranger has arrived."
(hHll*: "l"l"ini"in-: "The people have gathered themselves together."
/8. For the Historical Tenses, the Imperfect and Pluperfect; e.g.
\\T6.6,V°: IHD£K: 7.H.: TYlTA-^: "fill-: AfhH-fl:
" And when he descended from the mountain, many people followed him."
Matt. viii. 1.
Tn<5.Xoo: n^A: YlHj»: AA«5.:
" When he had finished his command, he passed over from thence."
Matt. xi. 1.
7. For the Present or Immediate Future, in a very few instances. So
when visitors courteously ask leave to go, they do it by saying: ih.JEJU-;
"lam gone," i.e. " If you allow me, I go now." Or when a person is
CH. VIII.] CONSTRUCTION OF THE VERB. 175
frequently called, and does not come, he at last answers : oogu-: oogy.;
" I come ! I come !"
S. With Conjunction Prefixes, it serves for the Potential and Optative
Moods.—See Sect. II. §. 5. and Isa. i. 9.
(6) The Compound Preterite of the Contingent is used,
a. For the Imperfect and Pluperfect of the Indicative ; e.g.
ttAmt*l: 7*C/lir<D'-- £11 A-: Jn<.: "Before I came, they had
been eating."
/8. For the Imperfect and Pluperfect of the Potential Mood :
•fl^fA9°)(D*: Il.l"lTU: M1C: " H tnou wouldst ask him, he would
give thee."
JZUYi: *1 AJEttHJ: "IKDJ? fJ: W1CU-: " If thou hadst not done this,
I should have loved thee."
(c) The Compound Preterite of the Constructive is used chiefly for the
Pluperfect, and sometimes for the Imperfect of the Indicative ; e.g.
llT^: lllClh: "I had given."

2. Tenses used for the Present, are, the Present of the Indicative ; the
Second, or Aoristic Constructive ; and the Contingent with Conjunctions.
(a) The Present Indicative and the Aoristic Constructive are both used
for the Present Indicative ; e.g.

" Whereas he is talking, I keep silence."


(b) The Present Indicative is used for both the Present and the Future
tenses : the Aoristic Constructive serves especially for an action, condition,
state, or suffering, which continues ; and therefore, although it is more
frequently used for the Present, it is likewise made use of for the Perfect.
This peculiarity of both these forms is owing to the Auxiliary Verb
Substantive ftA : with which they are composed.
(c) The Simple Contingent Mood serves for the Present as well as for
the Future Tenses, when connected with Particles; e.g. the Participles
po^oon): "he that comes;" f^aorrj; "when he comes" i"l£uurri:
" before he comes ;" Negative assertions : ft£ot»fijgu ; - he comes not,"
"will not come;" Conditional expressions : HQM^fl: "if he end," or
"if he ends" Final and referential : 'X'iJi^Jfr^.: "that he writea" or
" write ;" Final : A®0! : "M1*!: " he rose to go out," where it is for an
Infinitive; <D'5Jf00*'l: JE££: H"ljf: ih,,K: "He went to assist (that
he might assist) his brother."
176 SYNTAX. [CH. VIII.
3. The Future time is generally expressed by the same forms which
serve for the Present, except the Aoristic Constructive. Vide 2. a.—In p. 66
of this work we pointed out another mode of a decidedly future form ;
besides which they make use of the Contingent with faft : or with glffA :
The one is found in the negative expression, Ezek. xvii. 9 : fl<J,: JH.o^H'H '•
PAT0"!: g^t/V'- PA9°T: "Shall not its root be ex
tracted ; and its fruit, shall it not be cut off." But these two latter forms
are not confined to the Future : they are also used for the Present Tense.

Section II.
On the Moods of the Amharic Verb.
On this head, we shall add but little to what has been stated Chap. IV.
of the preceding part, and in the preceding Section of this Chapter.
1. The Contingent serves for the Indicative, Subjunctive, Potential, and
Participial Moods ; as is shown in the preceding Section.
2. The Subjunctive expresses a desire, or an indirect request, order,
command, or obligation.—See p. 72.
3. The Infinitive, as Verbal Noun, assumes Nominal Suffixes ; but relates
to and acts upon other nouns in a verbal capacity ; e.g.
AIT-J11': °°THHi: " My obeying the Kong," " my being obedient
to the King."
It is, however, likewise constructed as a Noun ; e.g.
PtlCfl"f"ft: ouijurri-Y' : " The coming of Christ."
tlail(i.&A"- TTTnA'f1: "In order to bear fruit was it planted."
4. The Participles are of the same character, partaking of the nature of
Adjectives (as the Infinitive does of the nature of Nouns), and of the Verb,
as has been shown in the preceding Part, pp. 72, 73. The Simple forms,
however, have more of a nominal ; the Augmented forms more of a verbal
character. The Augmented forms are verbally flexible through all the
persons ; besides their being capable of receiving Prepositions, and the
Accusative T: marking them as Nouns. All*: PRF- tl(D*i
.PAGKl: Vl£: o°A<DT: ?»^a)^"9°: "A man of a determined cha
racter does not like to change his word which he once has spoken.
A3>oH: J»f|: £A*PA: HC.1: Tn»"lH</r: £A*: "The
gatherer of the fruit rejoices, more than those that sowed the seed."
5. There is in the Amharic Language no peculiar form for the
Optative Mood : they express it by circumscription ; e.g.
nUTIfl: nflftnJCUl: IKDKJtU-: "If it had been, if thou hadst
instructed me, I should have liked it"
CH.VIII.] CONSTRUCTION OF THE VERB. 177

Section III.
Construction of the Verb with the other parts of the Sentence.
1. The Amharic Verb having all the personal forms connected with it,
it is capable of including the subject in itself ; e.g.
Qin't': " he observed." ou;*r{j: "thou hast beaten."
And by the aid of Suffixed Pronouns and Prepositions, it is further capable
of expressing a whole sentence in itself ; e.g.
OD'*1'fHJ: "He came upon thee." ou^-Uflft': "Thou hast struck him."
2. But when, as is more usual, the subject is separate from the Verb,
the latter should agree with it in gender, number, and person ; e.g.
JEU"!1" iVt*: ?i*l,ihJS,9D: " This woman does not go."
A"AA"!5: TlTlTA''fI" : " His servants followed him."

3. Collective Nouns, however, which admit of a Plural, haye the Verb


sometimes in the Singular, sometimes in the Plural : e.g.
ihUfb: Trtflrtn^f: "The people gathered itself together"; or
ih"H*fl : 1*1*1111*10'': " The people gathered themselves together."

4. When there are more than one subject in a sentence, the Verb stands
either in the Third Person of the Plural, or it is determined by what is
considered as the chief subject; e.g.
(D'iR-f: tltr : ana\ : « Male and female came."
-JT-^wf : UJ<5.*^1*: tov^s: "The king and his army were beaten."
When the person who is addressed forms one of the subjects, the Verb
follows in the Second Person Plural ; e.g.
UJ^I: l-fl<.9D: *VTT9«»: A-t*mj<*,: {"*f-U-z
" Kiddan, Gabru, and thou, (you) are to learn."
When the speaker is included, the Verb is to be in the First Person Plural :
>»C,"l:r<D*F: "XlF" TAPl : "They and we are separated."

5. When the subject consists of several Infinitives, the number is not


multiplied, and the Verb is used in the singular; e.g.
anooq^f: auj*|<5/t-: £01 4*01)A: "Learning and working is useful."
But when the subject consists of several Participles, which are considered
as Nouns, the Verb must be in the plural; e.g.
fli.^f: "^JS" ann>n*t*: "A thief and a murderer came upon him."

6. Active and Transitive Verbs have their objects in the Accusative


AA
r?8 SYNTAX. [CH. VIII. IX.

Case : see Ch. III. 1 0. Transitive and Causative Verbs may have a double
Accusative ; e.g.
troA"KVl;t*T: ?ifl>l<5,(D*: "He caused him to write a letter."
But as these Verbs may sometimes be used as Intransitive, the use of
Prepositions is frequently applied; e.g.
<5.C^O'fri "He judged over (or against) him."
H&.n'V • "He wrote in it."
I^flj-T: ftf|«nwiA'|-: "He caused a man to come for (or to) him."
7. Intransitive Verbs are generally connected with their objects by
Prepositions; e.g.
nn.'T: "He was in the house."
(D£*1<J,: ih»K: "He went to his country."
nQ)9nn4.: "M* 00 III: "He sat upon his chair."
8. When the object of the sentence is another Verb, that is expressed
by the Infinitive, or by the Contingent with Conjunctions; e.g.
oooi]£: ,£(D5» A : " He likes to learn " ; or,
,£»"JC: HIJf: ,£(D£A: "He likes that he may learn."
iir>£--]ijTi : y d>3>^ : « He can read."
9. The reigning Verb should be always at the end of the sentence,
whether the object be simple, or complex, or compound; e.g.

" What man does not like, he will not perform."


VHifrflrffaC: n*t*>»HH-: PTnAYlAOKl: Y1C.' fid)-: .PECJA :
" What God in His law has prohibited, man does commit"

Mill: Pl>fl: fttfl+ft: Pfl&.<D*7: ooRJXff - fl^^f'V:


Vi«l>nA-. H7R". (DTIA: J?flT7°£FA: "The Gospel teaches us
to believe in the Word of God, to repent of our sins, and to receive in
faith the Salvation which Christ has wrought out for us."

CHAP. IX.
CONSTRUCTION OF THE REMAINING PARTS OF SPEECH.
As the doctrine of the Particles, i.e. Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions,
and Interjections, has been pretty fully exhibited in the Etymological
Part, Ch. V. to Ch. VIII., we do not think it necessary to add any more :
and so we finish here the Amharic Grammar, adding only a few Speci
mens of Common Conversation, and a few Exercises.
( 1'9 )

Part IV.
SOME SPECIMENS OF CONVERSATION,
AND
A FEW EXERCISES.

1. CONVERSATIONAL MODES OF SALUTATION.


In conversation, the Abyssinians are very polite towards each other,
without using quite such a bombastic style as is common among the Arabs
and other Eastern nations. When speaking of the Pronouns and under
the Verb, we have mentioned two honorific distinctions for the second
person in the singular, and that they speak of a third person of respect in
the plural. A neglect of these distinctions is overlooked in foreigners,
whilst learning their language ; but amongst themselves it is taken as an
offence, except with intimate friends, and in a few other instances. In
saluting, the various times of the day, the state of health, frequency of
intercourse, season of the year, and some other circumstances, are to be
regarded as determining the mode of address.
As for the time of the day when persons meet, four times are distin
guished, for which four separate Verbs are used ; viz. (a) The morning,
until the sun has finished half his course from the horizon to the meridian,
i.e. between nine and ten o'clock a. m. During this time, when meeting,
the verb A£«i: " to spend the night," "to rest," is used in the Preterite:
when parting, the verb ^<5.J»: "to spend the forenoon," ?kf|«^<5,£:
"to make spend the forenoon," or <PA: "to spend (A*PA: "to make
spend) the middle of the day," in the Imperative or Subjunctive Mood.
(b) The forenoon, from about nine to eleven o'clock a.m. At meeting, they
salute each other with the verb <£<5.K: " *° spend the forenoon," in the
Preterite : when parting, with the Verb TA : or A*PA : (c) Noon and
afternoon, to sun-set. When meeting, they use «PA: in the Preterite:
when parting before five p.m., A*PA: when after five, the Subjunctive of
?\f\aof\: "to make pass the evening," or Imperative or Subjunctive of
ouf\ : " to pass the evening." (d) Evening and night, from sun-set to the
first break of the day. When meeting, the Preterite of OBfj: when
parting, either the Subjunctive or the Imperative of AJJ^: "to pass the
night," "to rest," or Subjunctive of A^R^: " to make pass the night," &c.
is used.
£aq£: "May He (i.e. God) be gracious!" and £<5.(Dfl: "May He
heal," " restore ! " both with Suffixes, is used for addressing sick persons.
The former wish also is used when a person sneezes. 11 :, in the Preterite,
is used when meeting a person who has newly arrived at the place : in the
180 SPECIMENS OF CONVERSATION.

Subjunctive with Suffixes, when parting with a person who goes to another
country. rtHVT: "to pass the time from one interview to another," is
used in the Preterite, when persons meet who have not seen each other
for some time. ArtllVt": "to make pass &c, is used at parting, when
they do not expect to meet again for a considerable time. Then they add,
yHT^Y- " May He bring us together again !" Yld.00- " to pass the rainy
season,1' and AfllTl £au its transitive, is used in the same manner.
The following Specimens of Conversation will illustrate the preceding
remarks. We choose the imaginary meeting of the servant Gabru, with
his master Kiddana Maryam, after his return from an errand to a friend,
Aito Malku, who lives in a distant part of the country. The meeting is
supposed to take place in the morning.
K.M. ng{JF: TnUI: Tfl<.= Hast thou arrived in health (safely
&c), Gabru ?
G. >kaIH.?i'nih.C:^0,,flTl:: God be praised ! Have you, mas
ter, been well all the time since I
saw you last ?
K. M. 'ViH.A-firh.C. £ODft Thank God ! Hast thou been all
n:£«r: mnTin: ait-, the time well ?
g. >^H.fr'iiih.C:1£ODrrn: Thanks to God ! Are you well?

K. M. ■K«IH.?Wl<h.C: ^""fl
Thanks to God ! I am well, Hast
thou had a good journey ?
TIT :
G. oong,: q>f » ftHU: Tl I had a good journey. I arrived
there in three days after I had
started from hence, and staying
YlH.^9°: A1.R-: 1>T: <D»A.
there one day, I returned, and
-rooAflU-l: nU-AT: T19"
in two days and a half arrived
here.
K. M. gn^C:JZAA-:A^+: What does Aito Malku say ?

G. KUrA-1: RUFtfl: RU " Are you well ? Are you well ?


Are you well? Have you been
quite well since our last interview ?
*<pT: Yl^oo-I:
Are you well? Have you passed
the rainy season well ? My friend
yUA: FT: AA-:: 7tC.fl^9° ship amounts to heaven and earth,"
he said. — What you sent to him
SPECIMENS OF CONVERSATION. 181
>0£«jgo: Rf|: AAfl't-:: Vl I delivered, and he was very glad of
H.?k'nch.C: jEfimcp: >»-iH.A-fi it, and said, " May God give it (re
ward) you ! May God give it you !
d^C= ^ftmfl): "fr'lH.A'flih.C: May God glorify you!" (i.e. I am
JPoofnig): AA: very much obliged to you.)
K. M. rh£Rft :: But how is (what did he say to)
my request ?
G. "KiT.: ^.K-CTPAU-: He agreed to do it.
K.M. n1» MhT9°: 9"ft Very well. ■ Now eat thy dinner,
«T: HATW: (DR: •J-aroau^. and go to Walleta Gabriel, a sick
ft,'!-: (DR: (DAT: "MICA, A: woman, and (give her my respects,
and tell her that I sympathize with
her in her illness) say for me, " May
Cfi : >»"lH.A-flrh,C : E^CD-ftfi: God have mercy on thee, and restore
theel Doest thou not feel a little
flAA?:: better to-day ? "
G. >»iT.:: rh.E'lh5?: Very well. I go then.
K.M. >»ft.:: IlEUf: E®* Very well. (Mayest thou spend
Mi:: the middle of the day well !) Good
bye !
G. nSUf: .PCD-A-: (<PA0 (May you spend the middle of the
day well !) Good bye !

Tasfu, another servant, enters, announcing a visitor.

Tasfu. A£+:(DAK: J?"MA There is Aito Walda Dengel:


AA". AJ1IKI:: Shall he come in ?
K. M. ■Kfi.:: £in-::
Yes, let him come.

On entering, Kiddana Maryam attempts to rise ; but Aito Walda Dengel


hastens to prevent it; saying, JSW^s £!*<£,: "Remain remain!" or as
usual :
By God! by Mary! (i.e. Do not
rise.)
W D. T^R,*: AK<.= How have you passed the night ?
K. M. ■SVlH.A'flih.O ^°°ft
Thank God! Have you passed
11:: KUf : AK<.T- the night well ?
W. D. ■K-lH.A'flih.C"- ^""ft
Thank God! Have you passed
the forenoon well ?
182 SPECIMENS OF

K. M. "^-lK^-nrti-C: y uu Thanks to God ! Have you passed


the forenoon very well ?
W. D. >»1KM»<1».C: ganfl Thank God ! Are your wife and
11:: gnfitgH*: Ag^fQ): li all your children well ?
ft-: RW: f^O)*:
K. M. "SVlH.A'Ilih.C: ^""fl Thank God ! My wife is poorly
IT" gnfil:: H<^: 3-o^A^:: to-day.
W. D. AJfc" rhoqo^:T(D': Ah ! What is her complaint ?

K. M. WRV. SraVJ-A" She has pain in the bowels.


W. D. Tfl^.:: Tasfu!
T. Aft*:: Sir!
W. D. >k«lH?i'n<h.C: Speak to thy mistress in my be
<p: "SVIH.Jvnih.C: K-d.OM'lCp: half ; saying, " May God have mercy
daaI ■. "Kooa'rin:: on you ! May God restore you ! "
T. Mhl: «T«t*: ^aFA: She says that she feels now a
£Aft:: little better.
w. d. ■■ yd> &i ■• Henceforth, know me (as your
n AK^n P1911: .pficn/l » friend), and give me a Baldaraba*
(a man that introduces me to you).
K. M. ^iT.:: AIT: ffl£: Very well. Thou, Tasfu, when
A^-t-: <DA£: .R-nA: ft00®-: ever Aito Walda Dengel comes, do
thou introduce him.
W. D. ilfcjflh^:: I go then.
K.M. "Ah." nKUf:JPaWV":: Very well. May He make you
spend the middle of the day well
i.e. Good bye !
w. d. nK«r-. .pawv: May He make you spend the &t\
K. M. A«"rJ : Amen !

* See H AK^I "• in t,ie Dictionary.


( 183 )

2. A FEW EXERCISES.

SALVATION.
(See Amharic Spelling Book, p. 20.)
AU-'ifl 'ftlR.ll : 1*1. in : Now, as it is thus, all men having
l"l(D-90: lh/Y: VlH.A-flih.CI: by their sins offended God, and fallen
under the divine judgment and eter
nal damnation, God has opened for
9°: Yr-tt: nj-¥: l\fC= >k«IH. us another way, a way of Grace,
?Vflrh,C: A,A(D»"1: PK^dhT: when He in His mercy gave His
wilR: Tn^-TAi: Il^A*: Beloved Son as a ransom in our
stead.
nV: A.lf: fhH: AJC"C*J: nil
mO*-: 1.H,::
BEST USE OF GEOGRAPHY.
(See Preface to the Amharic Geography.)
gU^'i- flfIWD: TI+^C1 If thou leara this (Geography)
perfectly, thou wilt, even whilst re
maining at home, become like a
man that goes into a distant coun
tt'O.: Jtart<mi<D'1 : AAiH-fl try, and of nations, whose very name
thou didst not hear before, thou
ft^CD-l?0: Tll£3'!l,<D'"Wn wilt find here their residences, their
YlHU: FTFAU:: IhA^CD-T11 nature, employments, their state and
conditions. And all these are thy
brethren ; all of them, great and
little, civilized and barbarians, good
^1^9°: H«o£>p.{J: JPH+IJ:
and evil, are thy relations, the sons
°9cn:P<D'9n : fi<s.:F(D^9n of Adam, thy father. Know them,
learn of them; and examine into
tro£oo£:: P7°^1:5 H^(IKJ9"
their works. Whatever thou findest
n1: nc: m-n*:
good in them, keep, and flee from
hil". U-AH'OKiT™ : (D'K.R-
!6.flOT: ■l-ffi.E". H^: "KIM. evil. Love them all, as God wills
that thou shalt love thyself. But
A-fldi-C: "hlK0^"! :: YlU-AT":
£ A* : VlfcU : -nAU : 1 Q.n«1 : above all things, ask thyself, saying,
184 EXERCISES.

" Wherefore has God created me?


*fa'iRC.: d.ttl^" PiVlHIA " What is the will of God with me ?
-flih.C9l,: ASK- Hi: 9"^C: " and how do I accomplish the will
id*:: ttlR,*: >»<5.R-o^ " of God ? What is the will of God
AU-: P^H.A'flrh.C^'S.S'.K"" " concerning my people and nation?
9nij^c:i®': P>»"iK?i-n<i».C: " And we, the people of Abyssinia,
<5.3ȣ-: nrhTia: nCDir'B?":: " do we perform what God requires
"^fV": Pihn^: fttp^f". ^H. " us to do ? And if we have not
?k*n<h,C- po^h-ni: ttRCiv " done it, what is our duty henceforth
"to do ? " If thou askest in this
£infA: "XTl.fclJ: >»t*KCT: manner, the Holy Scriptures will
mjf" -fVrmtf*: satisfactorily answer thee. Hear
them, and follow them !
AflAWA " TiCXTW0 :\ tl™) :
TlnTA(D'9D::

THE END.

LONDON :
PRINTED BV RICHARD WATTS, CROW COURT, TEMPLE BAR.