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On Development: 3. Concrete operational- (6-12yo.) child can 4. Elementary- (5-12yo.) Industry vs.

It is a life-long process that has gains and losses in now perform operations, but with help of visuals, Inferiority= If they develop new skills, they learn to
multiple dimensions. It can be affected either by thus concrete. be competent, therefore industrial. V.V.
nature1 and nurture2 but gradations of these vary
over time. It is also systematic, thus predictable. Ergo, 4. Formal operational- (12yo.-death) child can 5. 11
Adolescence- (13-early20’s) Identity vs.
it is scientific. [Its ends are for: survival, adaptation, now think abstractly, and do conceptual operations. Role Confusion= answering “Who am I?” and
wholeness, integrity, wisdom, conscience and logical The driving force behind learning is the schemas8. “What must I do?” builds a sense of identity. V.V.
thinking.] Its goal is to CONTROL. These schemas are developed either by 6. Early Adulthood- (20’s-30’s) Intimacy vs.
Dev’t. psych. is optimistic and resilient. assimilation9 or accommodation10. Isolation= finding “the One” bears intimacy. V.V.

There are 4 kinds of development: Moral Dev’t. – developed by Lawrence Kohlberg. 7. Mid-adulthood- (40’s-50’s) Generativity vs.
Defines ‘morality’ as a system of deciding between Stagnation= if one succeeds in preparing for the
Physical Dev’t.-
‘good’ and ‘evil’; how one’s conscience affects others. next generation will be nurturing. V.V.
Infancy and Childhood- Reflexes, almost complete
development of senses, lack of language He postulates 3 levels (6 stages) of moral dev’t. 8. Late Adulthood- (60’s beyond) Ego
Adolescence- Puberty, change is sexual I. Pre-conventional- (most children) main objective is Integrity vs. Despair= When one achieves that
characteristics, self-fulfillment. ‘inner peace’ gives off confidence in facing death/
Adulthood- (20’s-death) decline of physical and neural Ia. Punishment Avoidance - act to avoid punishment. integrity. V.V.
features, menopause (female) or andropause (men). Ib. Reward acquisition – act to get rewards
Aging as defined in 3 theories: The Cellular Clock II. Conventional- (most teens and adults) other- Other related concepts to Psychosocial Dev’t.:
Theory stating that the body cells has a definite span centeredness, conformity to norms and laws Temperament: the emotional and behavioural
of repairing, the Wear-and-Tear Theory stating the IIa. Approval of others – act to get affirmation of characteristics fairly well established after birth.
body wears down through strenuous physical
IIb. Law and order – act because of law and respect • Easy- Babies with regular body rhythm and
activities, the Free Radical Theory stating that
to authority. are easily controlled
restates the prior theory through free radicals that
damage the cells, and the Activity Theory stating III. Post-conventional- (few adults) acts for a • Difficult- Active, hard to stay still, and loud
‘universal good’; own scrutinised morals.
that as the body is more fit, the longer it can endure.
IIIa. Social principles contract- act for others’ welfare
• Slow to warm up- they are as quiet as the
The 5 stages of death by Elisabeth Kübler- Ross: easy ones but are slow to adapt to change
Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression, and for others’ happiness, even at the cost of law.
Acceptance IIIb. Universal principles of conscience- act acc. to
one’s conscience; Emphasis is on respect, dignity, Attachment- an emotional bond formed between the
equity, even at the cost of order. baby and its primary guardian. Mary Ainsworth
Cognitive Dev’t. - developed by Jean Piaget and postulated 4 kinds:
postulated 4 stages.
1. Sensory-motor – (0-2yo.) relate through
Psychosocial Dev’t. - 8 stages developed by E. • Secure- willing to let go of guardian and is willing to
Erikson with each stage characterised by a specific welcome him/her back
senses of sight, touch and taste. Acts through conflict.
reflexes3. Lack of mental representations and Stages:
• Avoidant- willing to let go but not willing to
object permanence. welcome back
1. Infant- (0-1yo.) Trust vs. Mistrust= when
2. Preoperational- (2-6yo.) symbolic thinking
basic needs (milk, sleep, food) are met, trust is • Ambivalent- unwilling to let go and unwilling to
improves as language is learned. Imagination, gained. V.V. return
animism4, egocentricity5 and intuition6 are
developing. They still lack the ability to conserve7. 2. Toddler- (1-3yo.) Autonomy vs. Doubt= if • Disorganised/Disoriented- willing to let go but
they realise they can direct their behaviour, they unsure about welcoming back
But they have already learned object
permanence. develop autonomy. V.V.
3. Preschool- (3-5yo.) Initiative vs. Guilt= if
1 they succeed in taking responsibility, they become
Physical environment and companions
Care given and affection received. they develop initiative. V.V.
Involuntary actions. Examples of which are rooting
reflex, Babinski reflex, grasping reflex, sucking reflex, 8
Mental images which are similar to the concept of
startle reflex etc.
4 eidos.
Giving life to inanimate objects like dolls, cars etc. 9
5 Adding new information to an existing network of
Lack of ability to see the world in others’ perspective thought
Giving an answer without a reason but ‘basta’ 10
Adjusting knowledge in response to new 11
Another unique factor is the parent-adolescent
Changing accidents but not essence information conflict.