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*TM 1-260


No. 1-260 J WASHINGTON, D.C., Si May 1965


CHAPTER 1. GENERAL 1.1-1.5 1.1


Section I. Effect of atmosphere on flight 2,1-2.7 2,1

II. General aerodynamics 2,8-2.16 2,2

III. Aerodynamics of helicopter powered flight 2,16-2.34 2,6

IV. Aerodynamics of autorotation 2.35-2.38 2,16



Section I. Introduction 4.1, 4.2 4,1

II. Ground operations and hovering 4,3-4.10 4.2

III, Normal takeoff 4.11-4.14 4.6

IV, Airwork 4,15-4,23 4.8

V. Normal approach (
4.24-4.26 4.19
VI, Maximum performance takeoff and steep approach 4.27-4.30 4.22
VII. Running takeoff and landing: 4.81,4.32 4.25

Section I. Basic considerations B. 1-6.13 5.1

II. Practice autorotations 6.14-5.18 6,4

III. Presolo phase practice exercises ;

5.19-6,26 6.6


AND UNIMPROVED AREAS ., __. 6.1-6.6 6.1

7. NIGHT FLYING 7.1-7.8 7.1


Section I, General 9,1-9.3 9,1
II. Type formations 9.4-9.8 9.2
III. Night formation flying- 9,9-9.11 9.18


*This manual supersedes TM 1-260, 24 September 1957, Including C 2, 12 September 1961 and C 3, 21 November 1962.

TIM 1-260



I.I. d. Users of this manual are encouraged to

This manual is an expandable guide to be submit recommended changes or comments to
ised by the helicopter aviator trainee in the improve it. Comments should be keyed to the
jarly phases of training, by the helicopter avia- specific page, paragraph, and line of the text in
;or in the study and operation of helicopters, which change is recommended. Reasons should
)y the flight and ground instructor as a text- be provided for each comment to insure under-
wok or reference in presenting instruction,
standing and complete evaluation. Comments
md by the checkpilot in the flight evaluation of should be forwarded direct to Commandant,
;he student's fundamental knowledge of rotary
United States Army Aviation School, Fort
ving flight. Expansion of this manual will be
>rovided additional
Rucker, Ala. 36362.
by coverage in future
1.3. Typical Single Rotor Helicopter
.2. Scope Configuration
ct, Emphasis given to basic helicopter
is Figure 1.1 shows a typical observation heli-
lero dynamics and flight techniques with discus-
copter with a list of terms usually assigned to
ions on autorotations, night flying, operations its principal components and parts.
rom unimproved areas, precautionary meas-
ires, and formation flying. 1.4. Helicopter Configuration and
b. Information in this manual is general and Performance
.pplicable, in part, to all helicopters. The flight
Information on helicopter configuration and
echniques discussed are applicable principally
o the OH-13 and OH-23 helicopters. Specific performance under particular conditions of
ight procedures and practices for individual payload and flight is given in appendixes II and
.elicopters are found in the applicable opera- III.
or's manual. Additional references are given
a appendix I.
1.5. External Load Operations
c. The material presented herein is applica- External load operations are discussed in
le to nuclear or nonnuclear warfare. appendix V.

GO 8770A
TM 1-260



Figure 1.1. Helicopter, single rotor configuration, typical.

AGO 8770A
TM 1-260




2. 1.
Atmosphere. column of the atmosphere. If, for example, a
The great mass of air which completely en- cubic foot of dry, pure air in a column of the
velops the earth (the atmosphere) does not end atmosphere weighs approximately 0.07651
Abruptly, but becomes less dense (fewer mole- pounds, any relative cubic foot of air resting on
cules per unit volume) with increasing distance this one will weigh less because there is less air

away from the earth's surface. For details, see above it.
TM 1-300.
2.5. Atmospheric Density and Density
2.2. Physical Properties of Atmosphere Altitude
The atmosphere is a mixture of several Atmospheric Density. Any volume of air
gases. Dry, pure air will contain approxi- is less dense than the air on which it rests. As-

mately 78 percent nitrogen, 21 percent oxygen, suming a constant temperature, the density of
and minute concentrations of other gases such a volume of air will vary directly with the pres-
as carbon dioxide, hydrogen, helium, neon, sure. If the pressure is doubled, the density is
Itrypton, and argon. Water vapor in the atmos- doubled; if the pressure is halved, the density
phere will vary from unsubstantial amounts to is halved. The new density compares to the
4 percent by volume (100 percent humidity). same fractional part of standard density as the
new pressure to a fractional part of the stand-
2.3 Characteristics of Atmospheric Gases ard pressure.
Due to similarities in the physical nature of
b. Density Altitude.
Density altitude refers
fill gases,the gases of the atmosphere can be
to a theoreticaldensity which exists under the
treated as a single gas. The kinetic gas theory,
standard conditions of a given altitude. The
which pertains to the qualities of gases, states
efficiency of an airfoil, either wings or rotor
blades, is impaired at high altitudes by the lack
a. All gases are composed of molecules which of air density. All aircraft, regardless of de-
a,re physically alike and behave in a similar sign, have an eventual ceiling limit where the
manner. air is too "thin" to provie enough lift to sustain

b. Gas molecules are flight. The effect of air density on helicopter

relatively far apart as
compared to the molecular structure of solids, performance is vital due to the critical loading
etiid are in a state of random motion, with an and confined area-type operation usually re-
average velocity proportional to their kinetic quired of the helicopter.
energy or temperature. These gas molecules
continually strike each other and the walls of
2.6. Effects of Temperature and Humidity
any container in which they are confined. on Density Altitude
Air that occupies 1 cubic foot of space will
2.4. Atmospheric Pressure require more space if the temperature is in-
Atmospheric pressure is the result of the creased. Another density change is brought
weight of all individual molecules in any given about by moisture content (humidity) of air.

AGO 8770 A
TM 1-260

With the absorption of moisture, as on a hot been established as standard, and aircraft per-
humid day, the density of air is reduced. Air- formance can be planned and evaluated by use
of this standard.
craft performance capabilities are also reduced.
Since temperature and humidity change almost 2.7. Computing Density Altitude
constantly, performance predictions are diffi- A method of computing density altitude is

cult. An average atmosphere, however, has given in appendix IV.


2.8. Airfoil 2.9. Airfoil Configuration

ft. General. An airfoil is any surface, such Airfoil sections vary considerably. An air-
as a wing or rotor blade, designed to produce foil may be unsymmetrical (A, fig. 2.2) or sym-
lift when air passes over it, The airfoils for metrical (B, 2.2), depending
fig. on the specific
an airplane are the wings. Helicopter airfoils requirements to be met.
are the rotor blades (rotating wings). The ft. Unsymmetrical Airfoils. On an unsym-
same basic aerodynamic principles apply to metrical airfoil, the center of pressure (an
both one-third of airfoil lift is produced by the
: imaginary point on an airfoil chord where all
impact of air on the undersurface of the air- aerodynamic forces are considered to be con-
centrated) moves forward as the angle of at-
foil, and two-thirds of the lift is produced by a
tack is increased. Most airplanes have unaym-
pressure drop over the upper surface of the metrical airfoils. An unsymmetrical airfoil
airfoil (fig. 2.1).
normally is unsatisfactory for use as a heli-'

b. Chord. An imaginary line from the lead- copter rotor blade because of the rapid move-
ment of the center of pressure back and forth
ing edge to the trailing edge of an airfoil is
on the rotor airfoil throughout each blade
known as the chord (fig. 2.1) .

c. Relative Wind. Air flowing opposite and
b. Symmetrical Airfoils, A symmetrical air-
parallel to the direction of airfoil motion is foilhas the characteristic of limiting center-
known as relative wind (fig. 2.1) .
of-pressure travel. Hence, helicopter rotor



Figure 2,1. Relationship of airfoil to lift.

2.2 AGO 8770A

TM 1-260

b. Lift. When wind velocity across an ob-

CENTER OF PRESSURE FIXED ject increases, pressure lessens (Bernoulli's
principle). As applied to the airfoils of a heli-
.--..CHORD LIN &*:->.-........ LINE copter {fig. 2.1), the curvature of the top sur-
face of a typical airfoil forces air over a longer
path than that over the bottom surface. Since
this air has farther to travel, its velocity in-
A.UNSYMMETRICAL B, SYMMETRICAL creases, causing the pressure on top of the air-
aavn 664
foil to be less than that on the bottom. This
pressure difference tends to lift the airfoil into
Figure 2.2, Airfoil section configuration.
the area of lower pressure.
blades are usually symmetrically designed so
that the center of pressure remains relatively 2.11. Thrust-Drag Relationship
stable. Thrust and drag, like weight and lift, are
closely related. Thrust moves the helicopter
2.10. Weight and Lift in the desired direction; drag tends to hold it
a. Weight. The weight of a helicopter
total back. In the helicopter, both lift and thrust
is the first force that must be overcome before are obtained from the main rotor. In vertical
flight is possible. Lift is the beneficial force ascent (par. 2,27), thrust acts upward in a
needed to overcome or balance that total weight vertical direction; drag, the opposing force,
(fig. 2.3). acts vertically downward. In forward flight,




Figure 2,3. Force acting on helicopter in flight.

AGO 8770A 2.3

TM 1-260

thrust is forward and drag to the rear. In blades with the collective pitch control, Unde:
rearward flight, the two are reversed. most flight conditions, the angle of attack o:
each rotor blade continually changes as it turn:
2.12. Angle of Attack through 360 (fig. 2.5). This continuous changi
a. General. The angle of attach (fig. 2.4) is occurs when the rotor pi an e-o. ('-rotation (roto:
the angle at which an airfoil passes through disc) is tilted by cyclic pitch control, as it ii

the air. This angle is measured between the during forward, rearward, and sideward fligh
chord of the airfoil and the relative wind. (par. 2.28).
When the angle of attack is increased, deflec-
tion of the airstream causes an upward pres- 2.13. Stall
sure on the underside of the airfoil and the As angle of attack is increased, lift will alsi
flow of air over the top side of the airfoil increase up to a certain angle. Beyond thii
increases in speed, further reducing the pres- angle, the air loses its streamlined path ove:
sure on the top side. These forces combine to the airfoil and the airfoil will titall. More pre
furnish lift.
cisely, airflow will no longer be able to follov
the contour of the upper airfoil surface, bu
will break away (fig. 2.G) nnd form burble;
(eddies) over the upper surface, The angle o:
RELATIVE WIND attack at which this separation takes place ii
called the separation point, the burble point, o;
the stalling point.
MvnCEt I

2.14. Velocity
Figure 2.4. Angle of attach, A certain minimum velocity ia required fo]
b. Helicopter. An aviator can increase or an airfoil to develop sufficient lift to get a heli
decrease the' rotor blade angle of attack with- copter into the air. A helicopter's rotor blade:
out changing the attitude of the fuselage. He must move through the air at comparative!;
does this by changing the pitch of the rotor high speed to produce sufficient lift to raise th<







Figure 2,5. Anglo of attack variations.

AGO 8770/
TM 1-260

helicopter off the ground or keep it in the air.

The rotor can turn at the required takeoff
speed while the fuselage speed remains at zeor. AIR FLOW
Speed of the rotor blades, and resultant veloc-
ity of airflow over them, is independent of fuse-
lage speed. The helicopter can rise vertically.
It can fly forward, backward, or sideward as
the aviator desires. It can even remain sta-
tionary (hover) in the air, with the rotor
blades developing sufficient lift to support the

2.15. Velocity Angle of Attack

Relation between velocity of airflow and
angle of attack on an airfoil, and their effect
on lift, can be expressed as follows: For a
given angle of attack, the greater the velocity,
the greater the lift (within design capabilities
of the airfoil). For a given velocity, the great-
er the angle of attack (up to the stalling
angle) the greater the lift.
, Figure 2.G. Effect of angle of attack on airflow.


2.16. Torque 2.17. Antitorque Rotor

Newton's third law of motion states, "To Compensation for torque in the single main
rotor helicopter is accomplished by means of a
every action there is an opposite and equal re-
variable pitch, antitorquc rotor (tail rotor),
action." As a helicopter rotor turns in one
located on the end of a tail-boom extension at
direction, the fuselage tends to rotate in the
the rear of the fuselage. Driven by the engine
opposite direction. This effect is called torqite, at a constant ratio, the tail rotor produces
and provision must be made to counteract and thrust in a horizontal plane opposite to torque
control this effect during flight. In tandem reaction developed by the main rotor (fig. 2.7).
rotor and coaxial helicopter designs, the rotors Since torque effect varies during flight when
turn in opposite directions and thereby neu- power changes are made (par. 2.16), it is nec-
tralize or eliminate torque effect. In tip-jet essary to vary the thrust of the tail rotor. Foot
helicopters, power originates at the blade tip pedals (antitorque pedals) enable the aviator
and equal and opposite reaction is against the to compensate for torque variance in all flight
air; there is no torque between the rotor and regimes and permit him to increase or decrease
tail rotor thrust, as needed, to counteract
the fuselage. The torque problem is, however,
torque effect,
especially important in helicopters of single
main rotor configuration. Since torque effect 2.18. Heading Control
on the fuselage is a direct result of engine
tail rotor and its control link*" '

power supplied to the main rotor, any change serve as a means of counteracting 1

in engine power brings about a corresponding

2.17), but also permit control of
change in torque effect. Furthermore, power during taxiing, hovering, and side .

varies with flight maneuvers and conditions, tions on takeoffs and approaches,
resulting in a variable torque effect. of more control than is necessary

TM 1-260

during takeoff or approach, an aviator

use antitorque pedals to apply just e
pitch on the tail rotor to neutralize torqi
possible wcathervane effect in a crosi
Heading control in forward flight at a!
normally is accomplished by flying the
copter to the desired heading with cycli
trol,using a coordinated bank and turn.

2.19. Pendular Action

It isnormal for the fuselage of a heli<
to act likea pendulum (to swing lateral!
longitudinally). Abrupt changes of flig
reetion, caused by over-controlling, exagj
this pendular action and should be av

Overcontrolling of the cyclic results in a

changes of the main rotor tip-path plane
are not reflected in corresponding
the fuselage. The cyclic control shou
DIRECTION TAIL THRUST moved at a rate which will cause the main
OF TORQUE TO COMPENSATE and the fuselage to move as a unit.
2.20. Gyroscopic Precession
a. Gyroscopic yrMimion
Figure 2,7, Compensating torque reaction, (a phenon
characteristic of all rotating bodies) is tl
torque will cause the nose of lh-> helicopter to suit of an applied -force against a
swing in the direction of pedal movement and occurs approximately 90 in the dire
pedal to the left and right pedal to the right). of rotation from the point where the foi
To maintain a constant heading at a hover or
applied (fig. 2.8). (See also fig. 2.5.) If,



Figure 2.8. Gyroscopic precession.

TM 1-260

control linkage were not employed in the heli- dissymmetry of lift is created by the
copter, an aviator would have to move the horizontal movement of the helicopter
cyclic stick 90 out of phase, or to the right, in forward flight (fig. 2.10) the ad-
when he wanted to tilt the disc area forward, vancing blade has the combined speed
b. To simplify directional control, helicop- of blade velocity plus speed of the
ters employ a mechanical linkage which ac- helicopter. The retreating blade loses

tually places cyclic pitch change of the main speed in proportion to the forward
rotor 90 ahead in the cycle of rotation (fig. speed of the helicopter.
2.9). This causes the main rotor to tilt in (2) If the helicopter is moving forward

phase with the movement of the cyclic control. at a speed of 100 knots, the velocity
of the rotor disc will be equal to ap-
2.21. Dissymmetry of Lift
proximately 170 feet per second, In
a. The area within an imaginary circle feet per second, tip speed of the ad-
formed by the rotating blade tips of a helicop- vancing blade equal 600, helicopter
ter is known
as the disc area or rotor disc. speed 170, with their sum 770 and V-
When hovering in still air, lift created by the amounting to 592,900. But the re-
rotor blades at all segments of the disc area is treating blade is traveling at a tip
equal. Dissymmetry of lift is the difference in speed of GOO, minus 170, which is 430,
liftthat exists between the advancing half of and V 2 equals 184,900. As can be seen
the disc area and the retreating half. It is from the difference between advanc-
created by horizontal flight or by wind. ing and retreating blade velocities, a
At normal takeoff rpm and zero airspeed,
pronounced speed and lift variation
the rotating blade-tip speed of most helicopters exists.

is approximately GOO feet per second (409 miles d. In the above example, the advancing
per hour or 355 knots) To compare the lift of
. blade will produce considerably more lift than
the advancing half of the disc area to the lift the retreating blade. This dissymmetry of lift,
of the retreating half, the following mathe- combined with gyroscopic precession, will cause
matical formula can be used; the helicopter to nose up sharply as soon as any
L = (&) x (D) X (A) X (V*) appreciable forward speed is reached. Cyclic
2 pitch control, a design feature that permits
In this formula, L is equal to the lift; C L equals continual changes in the angle of attack during
the coefficient of lift; D equals density of the each revolution of the rotor, compensates the
air; A equals the blade area in square feet; dissymmetry of lift. As the forward speed of
and V equals velocity, in relation to the relative the helicopter is increased, the aviator must
wind. apply more and more forward cyclic to hold a
given rotor tip-path plane. The mechanical
c. In forward flight, two factors of the basic
addition of more
pitch to the retreating blade
lift formula (D and A) are the same for both
and less pitch to the advancing blade is con-
advancing and retreating blades. Since the
tinued, throughout the speed range, to the top
airfoil shape is fixed for a given rotor
speed of the helicopter. At this point, the re-
lift changes with the two variables:
angle of
treating blade will stall, because of its attempt
attack and velocity. These two variable factors
to develop and equal the lift of the advancing
must compensate each other in forward flight
to maintain desired flight attitudes, For ex-
ample e. Dissymmetry of lift can occur as a resul
(1) When the helicopter is hovering in
the tip speed of the advanc-
still air, (1) Accelerations,

ing blade is about 600 feet/second and (2) Decelerations.

V* is 360,000. The tip speed of the (3) Prolonged gusts or turbulence.
retreating blade is the same. Since (4) Eotor rpm increases.

AfiO 8770A
TM 1-260




Figure 2.9. Mechanically compensated gyroscopic -precession.



355-100=255 KT


Figure 2.10. Dissymmetry of lift.

2.8 AGO S770A

T,M 1-260

(5) Rotor rpm decreases.

forcing the rotor system to fly upstream in a
(6) Heavy downward application of col- descending column of air (fig. 2.11).
lective pitch.
b. Rotor tip vortex
(which is an air swirl at
(7) Heavy upward application of collec- the tip of wings or rotor blades) and the re-
tive pitch.
circulation of turbulent air are also factors to
If uncorrected, be considered in hovering.
/. dissymmetry of lift will Consequently, the
cause an attitude change which can hovering rotor is operating in an undesirable
the inexperienced aviator. As his experience air-supply environment which requires high
increases, the aviator makes the required cor- blade angles of attack and high power expendi-
rections to prevent attitude changes caused tures, accompanied by high fuel consumption
by and heavy wear on the helicopter due to sand
dissymmetry of lift. For the particular ma-
neuver being performed, he has learned to and debris ingestion.
primary attention to controlling helicopter at-
titude to an exact degree in relation to the
horizon. If he controls attitude properly, he at
the same time corrects for
dissymmetry of lift
during all phases of flight.

2.22. Hovering

ft. Hovering is the term applied when a heli-

copter maintains a constant position at a se-
lected point, usually a few feet above
ground. For a helicopter to hover, the main
rotor must supply lift equal to the total weight
of the helicopter. By rotation of the blades at
high velocity and increase of blade pitch (angle
of attack), the necessary lift for a hover is
induced. The forces of lift and weight reach A, OUT OF GROUND EFFECT
a state of balance.
6. Hovering is actually an element of verti-
cal flight. Assuming a no-wind condition, the
tip-path plane of the blades will remain hori-
zontal. If the angle of attack (pitch) of the
blades is increased while their velocity remains
constant, additional vertical thrust is obtained.
Thus, by upsetting the vertical balance of
forces, the helicopter will climb vertically. By
the same principle, the reverse is true; de-
creased pitch will result in helicopter descent.

2.23. Airflow While Hovering

ft. At a hover, the rotor system requires a
great volume of air upon which to work. This
air must be pulled from the surrounding air-
mass, resulting in a costly process which ab-
sorbs a great deal of horsepower. This air B.IN GROUND EFFECT
which is delivered to the rotating blades is
331, Airflow while hovering.
pulled from above at a relatively high velocity, Riffitre

AGO 8770A 2.9

TM 1-260

2.24. Ground Effect b. At the instant of effective tranulf

The high cost of hovering is somewhat re- lift and as the hovering nir
supply putt
lieved when operating in ground effect (B, fig-. broken, there in suddenly at this momc
2.11). Ground effect is a condition of improved advancing and retreating blade and di
performance encountered when hovering near metry of lift (par. 2.21), which rcquin
ground or water surfaces at a height of no aviator to reposition tho cyclic forward
more than one-half the rotor diameter. It is
dor to maintain tho normal takeoff att
more pronounced the nearer the ground is ap- Next, usually a noed arises for pedal r
proached. Helicopter operations within ground tioning to compensate for tho stream
effect are more efficient than those out of effect of forward flight upon Mio tail
ground effect (see performance charts in op- tho incroasod ollldoney of Iho tail
erator's handbook and A, fig. translational flight).
2.11) due to the
reduction of rotor tip vortex and the
flattening o. In forward (light, air
out of the rotor downwash. Ground passing throu
effect re- rear portion of tho rotor dine has a
duces induced drag, permits lower blade h
angle downwash velocity than air passing tin
of attack, and results in a reduction of
power the forward portion. This is known as
verac flow c.ffwl (fig, 2,1,'i). This effot
2.25. Translational Lift combination with gyroscopic procession
2.20), causes tho rotor disc: to Lilt sidoi
. The
efficiency of the hovering rotor sys- and results in vibration which in most in
tem is
improved by each knot of incoming wind able on entry into effective
gained by forward motion of the translatioiml
helicopter or
by surface headwind. (See rule No. 4,
app. 26. Translating
III.). As the helicopter moves forward, fresh Tendency
air enters the system in an
amount sufficient to Tho helicopter has a tendency to move ii

relieve the hovering direction of tail rotor tin-nut'

air-supply problem and (to tho ri
improve performance (fig. 2.12). At when hovering This tmnsli
(par. 2.22).
mately 18 knots, the rotor system receives a tendency in overcome by rigging tho holicc
sufficient volume of
free, undisturbed air to re-
with the tip-path plane (par. of the 2.2H) ]

lieve the air-supply rotor tilted slightly to the loft.

problem. At this time, lift This rig
noticeably improves; this distinct results in a thrust force action to
change is the left P
referred to as effective to and compensating the
translational lift. As tendency to Irani
airspeed increases, translational lift to the right (fig. g.M). In
continues helicopters ha
toimprove up to a speed that a fully articulated rotor
normally is used system, tho avi
for best climb. prevents this translating
Thereafter, as speed increases, tendency by appl
additional gains of translational left cyclic control which
lift are can- r<!HiiHn hia hover i

celed by increased total tho loft sido

drag. slightly low.

2.27. Vortical

During vertical ascent, thrust acts

upward, while drag and weight net vertic
downward (fig. 2.1B). Drag,
opposing tho
ward motion of the
helicopter, is increased
tho downwash of air
from tho main ro
Thrust must be sufficient to
overcome I
weight and drug forces. Since tho main n
is responsible for
both thrust and lift, tho fc
representing the total airfoil reaction to tho
Figure 2.12. Airflow with translation^ lift in forward may be considered as two
flight, components/!/* i

thrust. Lift is tho force component requi

TM 1-260


IEIV 11676

Figure 3J3, Transverse flow effect.

the forces of a rotor system are perpen-

ROTOR dicular to the tip-path plane (plane of rotation)
(fig. 2,16) The tip-path plane is the imaginary

circular plane the circumference of which is

inscribed by the tips of the blades in a cycle of
rotation. During vertical ascent or hovering,
the tip-path plane is horizontal and the result-
ant force acts vertically upward (fig, 2.17), An
aviator accomplishes horizontal flight by tilting
the tip-path plane, The resultant force tilts
with the rotor (fig. 2.18) acting both upward

and horizontally. The total force can, there-




Figure 2,14. Compensating translating tendency

(helicopter rigged slightly left).

to support the weight of the

helicopter. Thrust
is the force component
required to overcome
the drag.

2.28. Horizontal Flight DRAG

In any kind of helicopter flight
forward, backward, sideward, or hovering), Figure 2,15, Aerodynamic forces in vertical flight,

2.1 1
TM 1-260

fore, be resolved into two components lift and is generally lows common l;o tho
thrust. The lift component is equal to an op- typo helicopter lined in training than to
posite weight. The thrust component acts in heavier cargo-type helicopter,
the direction of flight to move the helicopter. Note. Kutmitiiitf liladii .-itall <lowi not occur in H,
2.29. Retreating Blade Stall
2.30. Effects of Retreating
a. A
tendency for the retreating; blade to
Blade Stall

stall in forward flight is inherent in all present- (I-.

Upon entry into blade tho
.stall, first e
day helicopters, and is a major factor in lim- is generally a noticeable vibration of
iting their forward speed. Just as the stall of copter. This period iw followed by a liftiu
an airplane wing limits the low-speed possibili- pitch-up of tho nose and a rolling tondonc
ties of the airplane, the stall of a rotor blade the helicopter. If the cyclic stick is held
limits the high speed potential of a
helicopter ward and collective pitch I'M not reduced (
(fig. 2.19). The airspeed of the retreating increased, this condition beeomra aggravf
blade (the blade moving away from the direc- the vibration greatly increases, and
tion of flight) slows down as forward .speed be lost.
The retreating blade must, however,
l>. By being familiar with the comlit
produce an amount of lift equal to that of the
which lead to blade stall, tho aviator ah.
advancing blade (B, fig. 2.19). Therefore, as
realize when he in (lying under such circ
the airspeed of the
retreating blade decreases stances and should take corrective
with forward speed, the blade action,
angle of attack major warnings of approaching rotrea
must be increased to equalize lift
throughout blade stall conditions are
the rotor disc area. As this angle increase is
continued, the blade will stall at some high (1) Abnormal vibration.
ward speed (C, fig. 2.19). (2) Pitch-up of the no.so.
b. The (3) Tendency for the helicopter to rol
angle of attack distribution along the
blade in forward flight is not tho direction of the stalled
some uniform; side,
point along the blade will stall before the When
rest. fl.
operating at high forward poi
This is principally a result of the the following conditions are
amount and most likely to i
direction of the flow of air duco blade stall:
being encountered
by the rotor disc. In normal powered
flight, (1) High blade
the flow of air is down loading (high gi
through the rotor sys-
tem. As this downward flow weight) .

increases, the
angles of attack increase at the blade (2) Low rotor rpm.
tips, in
comparison to the angles at blade roots. (8) High density
At altitude.
high forward speeds, downflow increases as
the (4) Stoop or abrupt turns.
rotor is tilted into
the wind to provide thrust
m (R) Turbulent air.
overcoming drag. The angle of attack in-
creases on the
retreating blade as forward 2.3 Corrective Actions
speed increases, and the highest blade in Retreating
angles of Blade Stall
attack are at the
tips. Thus, in the powered
helicopter, blade stall occurs at the ft. When flight conditions are .such that bit
tip of the
stall is
retreating blade, spreading inboard as extreme caution -should bo ox
speed cised when
increases. The advancing blade,
having rela- maneuvering. An abrupt manem
uniform low angles of such as a steep turn or
tively is not pullup may result
attack, sub-
ject to blade stall. dangerously severe blade .stall. Aviator cont
and structural
The stall condition described
o. limitations of the holicopi
in b above is would be threatened.
much more common in some
helicopter config- 6. At the onset
urations than in others. of blade stall, the aviai
Retreating blade stall should take the
following corrective actions:

A(JO 87
T,M 1.260


Figure 2,16, Lift -perpendicular to tip-path plane.


I t



Figure 2,17. Vertical ascent or hover. WEIGHT


(1) Eeduce collective pitch,

Figure 2.18. Forward flight,
(2) Increase rotor rpm.
(3) Reduce forward airspeed. critical rate depends on rotor rpm, den-

Descend to lower altitude. sity altitude, and other factors. The rotor sys-
tem must be using some of the available engine
(5) Minimize maneuvering.
power (from 20 to 100 percent) and the hori-
zontal velocity waist not exceed 10 knots. Un-
!.32, Settling With Power der such conditions, the helicopter descends in
a. Cause. An aviator may experience set- turbulent air that has just been accelerated
ling with power accidentally. Conditions downward by the rotor. Reaction of this air
ikely to cause "settling" are typified by a heli- on rotor blades at high angles of attack stalls
;opter in a vertical or nearly vertical descent the blades at the hub (center), and the stall
[with power) of at least 30.0 feet per minute progresses outward along the blade as the rate
Lnd with a relatively low airspeed. Actual of descent increases.

8770A 2.13
TM 1-260
















Mffttro 2 iO.
Retreating blade stall

AGO 877
TM 1-260

Note. Rates of descent in "settling" have been re- repeated by the next contact (B, fig. 2.20), a
corded in excess of 2,200 feet per minute. The condition resonance is established which sets up a self-
can be hazardous if inadvertently performed near the
energizing oscillation of the fuselage. Unless
immediate corrective action is taken, the oscil-
b. Recovery. Tendency to stop the descent lation seventy increases rapidly and the heli-
by application of additional collective pitch re- copter disintegrates.
sults in increasing the stall and increasing the
c. Corrective Action for Ground Resonance.
rate of descent. Recovery from settling with (1) If rotor rpm is in the normal range,
power can be accomplished by increasing for- take off to a hover. A change of rotor
ward speed and/or partially lowering the col-
rpm may also aid in breaking the
lective pitch.
(2) If rotor rpm is below the normal
2.33. Resonance
range, reduce power. Use of the rotor
A helicopter is subject to sympathetic and brake may also aid in breaking the
ground resonance, oscillation.
a. Sympathetic Resonance. Sympathetic res-
onance is a harmonic beat between the main 2.34. Weight and Balance
and tail rotor systems or other components or The permissible center of gravity (C.G.)
assemblies which might damage the helicopter. travel is very limited in many helicopters, and
This type of resonance has been engineered out the weight of aviator, gasoline, passengers,
of most helicopters (e.g., by designing the main cargo, etc., must be carefully distributed to
and gear boxes in odd decimal ratios)
tail .
prevent the helicopter from flying with a dan-
Thus, the beat of one component (assembly) gerous nose-low, nose-high, or lateral (side-
cannot, under normal conditions, harmonize low) attitude. If such attitudes exceed the
with the beat of another component (assem- limits of cyclic control, the rotor will be forced
bly), and sympathetic resonance is not of im- to follow the tilt of the fuselage.
mediate concern to the aviator. However, when a. The helicopter will fly at a speed and di-
resonance ranges are not designed out, the rection proportionate to the tilt of the rotor
helicopter tachometer is appropriately marked system. The amount of cyclic control the avia-
and the resonance range must be avoided (see tor can apply to level the rotor system could be
the applicable operator's manual). limited by the manner in which the helicopter
b. Ground Resonance. Ground resonance isloaded, If a helicopter is loaded "out of C.G.
may develop when
a series of shocks cause the limits" (fig. 2.21), the aviator may find that
rotor system to become unbalanced. This con- when he applies corrective cyclic control as far
as it will go, the helicopter attitude will remain
dition, if allowed to progress, can be extremely
dangerous and usually results in structural fail- low on the heavy end or side. He will not be
ure. Ground resonance is most common to able to level the helicopter, or perhaps raise the
three-bladed helicopters using landing wheels. nose in order to decelerate and land. Under
The rotor blades in a three-bladed helicopter such circumstances, he is in an extremely dan-
are equally spaced (120) but are constructed gerous predicament,
to allow some horizontal drag. Ground reso- b. Efforts have been made, in newer heli-

nance occurs when the helicopter makes contact copter designs, to place the loading compart-
with the ground during landing or takeoff. ment directly under the main rotor drive shaft
When one wheel of the helicopter strikes the to minimize C,G. travel; however, the aviator
ground ahead of the other (s), a shock is trans- must still balance his load so as to remain
mitted through the fuselage to the rotor. An- within C.G. travel limits. He must know the
other shock is transmitted when the next wheel C.G. travel limits of his particular helicopter
hits. The first shock from ground contact (A, and must exercise great care in loading, as pre-
fig. 2.20) causes the blades straddling the con- scribed in the operator's manual for the par
tact point to jolt out of angular balance. If ticular helicopter.

TM 1-260



Figure 2J20. Ground shock causing blade unbalance.

Section IV.
2,35. General

Autorotation i
emergencies. A helicopter transmission is de-


TM 1-260

2.36. Autorotatlon but considerable drag, which tends to

little lift

a. Rotor Blade Driving Region. The portion slow the blade.

of a rotor blade between approximately 25 to d. Rotor RPM. Rotor rpm stabilizes or
70 percent radius (fig. 2.22) is known as the achieves equilibrium when autorotative
autorotative or driving region. This region (thrust) force and ant i auto rotative (drag)
operates at a comparatively high angle of at- force are equal. If rotor rpm has been in-
tack (fig. 2.22, blade element A), which results creased by entering an updraft, a general les-
in a slight but important forward inclination
sening in angle of attack will follow along the
of aerodynamic force. This inclination supplies entire blade. This causes more aerodynamic
thrust slightly ahead of the rotating axis and force vectors to incline slightly backward,
tends to speed up this portion of the blade. which results in an overall decrease in autoro-
b. Driven Region. The area of a rotor blade tative thrust, with the rotor tending to slow
outboard of the 70 percent radius is known as down. If rotor rpm has been decreased by
the propeller or driven region. Analysis of entering a downdraft, autorotative forces will
blade element B in figure 2.22 shows that the tend to accelerate the rotor back to its equilib-
aerodynamic force inclines slightly behind the rium rpm,
rotating axis. This results in a small drag
force which tends to slow the tip portion of the 2.37. Forward Flight Autorotations
blade. In forward flight autorotation, the aerody-

G. The blade area inboard of

Stall Region. namic regions (described in par. 2.36) dis-

25 percent radius is known as the stall region, place across the disc (fig. 2.23), and the aero-
since it operates above its maximum angle of dynamic force perpendicular to the axis of ro-
attack (stall angle). This region contributes tation changes sign (plus or minus) at each






Figure 2.22. Blade forces.

AGO 8770A
TM 1-260

180 of rotation;
i.e., the given blade element
rearward, thus causing a //.><; (pur. 5.10)
supplies an autorotative force Tl
(thrust) in the additional induced lift
retreating position (blade element C, %. momentarily chocks fo
2.23) ward speed as well as descent, 'riie
and an antiautorotative force greatt
(drag) in the volume of air acting on the rotor
advancing position (blade element 01, fig. dine will no'
2.23). Assuming a constant collective mally increase rpm (somewhat) during ft
setting, an overall greater angle of attack of /lure. AH the forward mid descent
speed neii
the rotor disc (as in a aero, the upward flow of air practically cease;
flare, par. 2.38) in-
creases rotor rpm; a and rotor rpm again
lessening in overall angle dwroases; the helicopte
of attack decreases rotor
rpm. settles at an increased rate
and with reduce.
forward speed. Tho flare,
2.38. Flares usually porforme,
During Autorotation at ;K) to 50 feet above l;he
Forward speed during autorotative ground, enables th
descent aviator to make an emergency
permits an aviator to incline the landing wit)
rotor disc little or no landing roll.





re 8.83. Dhphtcemcnt of blade /.

AGO 8770A
TM 1-260



3.1. General and oral examination, that the student

becomes familiar with all components,
The preaolo phase of training is the most
systems, and accessories, and with the
important portion of the overall training of a
proper checks for the airworthiness
helicopter aviator. It has been, and continues
of each item.
to be, an area of constant research in the Army
training effort. In this introductory flying (2) Cockpit procedure. The instructor
phase of demonstration and practice, the stu- pilot supervises the student in the
dent is taking the first step in a long training proper sequence of cockpit proce-
program aimed toward developing him into an dures, engine starting, and systems
operational aviator. Training programs must checks, increasing responsibilities
not be designed to rush through the low cost, each day until the student can per-

highly formative, presolo portion of training.

form all checks in their proper se-
An early solo is often academically and eco- quence.
nomically unsound. This becomes apparent in (3) Introduction to controls. The instruc-
later stages of training when the student must tor pilot fully describes all controls,
relearn the fundamentals of flight in larger and giving the use and effect of each.
more costly aircraft. Antitorque pedals. The instructor
pilot has the student hold the nose of
3.2. Presolo Flight Training Sequence Chart the helicopter on a distant object with
Figure 3.1 is a complete presolo training, pedals, while the instructor pilot
chart with suggested exercises listed in an moves the helicopter sideward and
hourly sequence. This sequence of introduction rearward, and changes torque by
will develop a firm foundation of basic airman- throttle and pitch actions.
ship upon which later stages of training can be
(5) Basic flight attitudes for hover, ac-
built. This chart may also serve as a study and deceleration. The in-
guide for those who contemplate helicopter
structor pilot places grease pencil
flight training, or for potential helicopter flight
marks on the bubble or windshield in
a manner that will facilitate and
clarify a demonstration of these basic
3.3. Breakdown of Figure 3.1
attitudes and their effect.
The chart items in figure 3.1 are grouped
(6) Collective pitch and throttle. The
into six sectionswhich lead up to the solo: the
student uses collective pitch and ped-
firsttwo sections require explanation; the last
als; the instructor pilot is on cyclic
four sections deal with maneuvers which are
and is assisting with throttle control.
explained in chapters 4 and 5.
. The first section includes b. The second section includes

Pre flight inspection. The instructor (1) Basic flight attitttdes. The instructor
each part and assembly pilot assists with the stationary hover.
pilot explains
listed on the inspection guides. He The student rotates, on command, to

insures, by daily practical exercise the normal acceleration attitude. Upon

AGO 8770A 3.1

TM 1-260

Illrs I
1|2|.3|4|5|6|7|8|'JUO|U| 12\13\U U
Preflight inspection ICC
Cockpit procedure
Introduction to controls
Antitorque pedals single control exercise
(student on pedals)
Basic flight attitudes Cor
hover, accel-
eration, and deceleration
Collective pitch and throttle (I. P. on
cyclic, student on pedals and collective)

Basic flight attitudes - low level 3 to 5

feet acceleration,
coasting hover,
Normal takeoff control of attitude and
heading to 50 feet or above
Establishment of slow cruise attitude at
50 feet or above
Normal approach control of attitude and
heading from 50 feet (to open area)

Normal takeoff (using basic attitudes and

power settings)
Traffic pattern (using basic attitudes p P p c c c c c c c c
and power settings)
Normal approach (using basic
attitudes) P P P P C G| Cl C Cl
Attitude control/airspeed
Power control/altitude b p p p c c C C C C
Pedal trim control PPG CO C C C C|
Turns - 90, 180, 360
Rpm control for stabilized
cruise, slow
cruise, climb, descent
Rpm control during full range
Methods of cross-check
power change DP PC,
Forced landing entry
straight ahead, maxi-
P P P C C, o c o
mum distance (with
power recovery after
Forced landing entry P D P C C
straight ahead,
shortened glide (with power
after entry)

Hovering stationary
Hovering, moving sideward and rearward
and 90, 180% 360 turns
Takeoff to and p p c
landing from hover
Hovering autorotation D P c| c c
PP I'll' c c
Forced landing entry with bank
and turn
(with power recovery after
Forced landing (all
above) to termination P p c
with power
Basic autorotation and c c c
landing I

Recovery from low rotor rp m or bounce c c

Basic autorotation 180
and landins
Antitorque failure 1' C Cl
First supervised solo
Second supervised solo
Third supari cof ao i
~ *

*-' l"-4 ' '

| , 1

Legend: D
Introduction/demono ration I;
P Practice and student: owl
G Chock accomplished summary
*- - Completed mid
- on roviow mi
Solo raquU-i-.l

Presolo flight
seque ^ B ojm, t>

AGO 8770A
TM 1-260

acceleration to 5 to 10 knots, the stu- structor pilot selects an approach

dent rotates to a hovering attitude, point in a nearby open area. When
(He attempts to hold steady attitude, the student reaches a normal approach
good track, and good heading control sight picture, he holds slow cruise at-
on a distant reference point, with titude and with collective pitch sets
emphasis on attitude, heading, and up a line of descent toward the select-
altitude of 3 to 5 feet.) On command, ed spot. When the rate of closure or
the student rotates to a normal decel- groundspeed appears to be noticeably
eration attitude (usually level) and increasing, the student rotates atti-
holds until the helicopter stops, tude to the normal deceleration atti-
Note, This exercise is repeated until the tude, using collective pitch to main-
student can perform the entire exercise with tain descent toward the selected spot.
reasonable accuracy,
The instructor pilot assists with rpm
(2) Normal takeoff control of attitude and control and the hover.
heading to 50 feet. The same exercise Note. This exercise must bo repeated un-
as in (1) above is practiced except the til the student holds steady attitudes and
is allowed to reach 18 or 20
helicopter good heading,- (slip control), and has no diffi-

knots and effective translational lift culty with attitude and power control during
for a normal climb. changes from acceleration to climb, to slow
cruise, to descent.
(3) Establishment of sloiv cruise attitude
Note. In figure 3.1 the stationary hover,
at SO feet. The student rotates atti-
hovering exercises, and takeoff and landing
tude to a slow cruise attitude on com- from a hover are introduced and practiced
mand from the instructor pilot and after the first four sections of the chart are
establishes slow cruise power for a accomplished. By this time, the student nor-
steady-state airspeed at approximately mally is able to perform the stationary hover
50 feet. without difficulty.

(4) Normal approach control of attitude c. Sections 3 through 6 contain maneuvers

and heading from 50 feet. The in- which are described in chapters 4 and 5.

AGO 8770A
TM 1-260




4.1. General 4.2. Attitude Flying

a. Mission accomplishment requires so much a. All aviator training requirements outlined

in this chapter follow the principles of attitude
of the helicopter aviator's attention that the
actual flying- of the machine must be automatic. flying (par. 4.15). In accordance with this
concept,all aviator performance is based upon
An aviator who is totally absorbed by the oper-
ation of his helicopter is a machine operator
knowledge, planning, projection, and predic-
tion with control action, feel, touch, and coor-
and, at this point in his development, is only a dination being items of cross-check. Subject
potential operational aviator. The operational matter for the student pilot being trained ac-
aviator must use methods and cross-checks that cording to these principles is listed below, in
permit him to devote most of his attention to order of importance. It is necessary that em-
the mission being accomplished, while flying his phasis be given to the subject areas in this
helicopter with precision. order:

b. In learning to fly a helicopter, the greatest (1) Knowledge of aerodynamics, physics,

and mechanics of flight.
portion of the student's effort must be devoted
to increasing his knowledge and understanding (2) Specificknowledge of the systems,
of aviation know-how. The trained aviator components, controls, and structures
of the helicopter being used.
looks ahead to the overall mission, the route
segment, the maneuver, and the task or "job" (3) Knowledge of the methods and rules
of attitude flying, which are similar to
unit within the maneuver. He must be mentally
the rules of attitude instrument flying
and physically coordinated so that he performs
inTM 1-215.
alloperational job units required to fly the heli-
(4) Specific knowledge of the breakdown
copter, without noticeable effort or distraction
of attitudes and cross-checks for each
to the overall mission. The 1 or 2 hours per day
maneuver; and development in divid-
that the student spends in the helicopter should
ing attention and cross-checking out-
be channeled toward testing, proving, investi- ward from a specific center of atten-
gating, and applying his aviation know-how. tion for each segment of a maneuver.
Only a small portion of his effort will be de- (6) Development of smooth and coordi-
voted to the actual physical moving of controls, nated physical application of controls:
switches, and levers. The required physical co- the ability to hold specific attitudes
ordination of control movement should come as and power settings or to change atti-
a byproduct of the expansion and application of tudes and power (in accordance with
knowledge. Control movements which are diffi- (3) and (4) above).
cultfor the student to perform should be prac- b. The physical application of the controls
ticed in an exercise form until the student's above) is considered to be less important
response becomes automatic. than the other four subject areas. Professional

AGO 8770A 4,1

TM 1-260

aviators become so proficient in these subject c. All maneuvers described in this

areas that they appear to fly the helicopter with are presented as flight training: exercises, Ench
little movement of the controls. Their skill is flight exercise is designed to evoke thought
the result of thorough application of the
prin- processes, to expand knowledg-e, and to develop
ciples in fl,(l) through (4) above during the the ability to divide attention and cross-check
learning and practice phases of training. This in a manner that promotes correct physical re-
application becomes habitual, then automatic. sponse on the controls.


Preflight Inspection (4) Development of genuine interest and
Once the helicopter aviator has the curiosity in helicopter and
assigned design
helicopter number and the mission maintenance problems,
he becomes the aviator in command and
is A
good preflight inspection requires ap-
ready to begin his preflight inspection. Before
he leaves for the flight proximately 10 minutes on small helicopters
line, he checks all avail- and up to 20 minutes on larger
able sources for possible configurations.
information on the Preflight inspection time, when totaled on a
mission to be flown. Then he checks
any avail- monthly basis, constitutes a heavy time allot-
able summaries as to
organizational or aviator ment. For example, 40 preflight
reports on the helicopter's inspections per
suitability for the month at 20 minutes each equal 800 minutes or
intended mission. He next files a
flight plan, or lSi/2 hours. This time should involve a continu-
assures that one has been
filed, and departs for
the ing study of helicopter design and maintenance
problems. The professional aviator should
a.Actual preflight inspections are
nothing notes on his findings and make- careful
more than a and ol
detailed comparison of the as- jective written reports. He should follo\
signed helicopter to the aviator's mental
image through with aviator reports and partlcipatioi
or idea of a standard
helicopter (in type and in maintenance and design discussions or con
model), and to the different types of ferences.
he has inspected in the
helicopters Frequent research of malntonaiio
past. Aviator proficiency and operator's manuals will also be an
m preflight inspection is
gained by a slow accu-
mulation of daily d. School training in preflight
comparison experience. The inspection pro-
more experience vides only the methods of inspections; compari-
the aviator has, the more pre-
cise is his image of the son experience is accumulated by the aviator on
standard helicopter.
Check of the helicopter forms and the flight line.
records pro-
vides additional information for e. In addition to the detailed
son. A published prefiight inspection compari- comparison dis-
cussed in a above, the aviator must
guide for
each helicopter provides the
sequence of in- (1) Check special equipment and
spection to be followed. supplies
required for the mission.
6. Key points for
an aviator's preflight in-
spection proficiency include
(2) Check the loading of the
with special
(1) A emphasis on proper
knowledge of helicopter component
weight, balance, and security.
design and maintenance practices.
(3) Perform the progressive
(2) A firm and detailed
sequence of
image of checks and operations in
the "zero time"
appearance of the accordance
with the published
shcopter to be flown. cockpit and start-
ing procedures.
ce to the published
preflight (4) Perform
n guide, which pretakeoff check, tune
provides a se-
- / inspection to be radios,and obtain
followed. necessary clear-

AGO 8770A

(5) Check operation of controls and cen- itshould be unlocked for turning ai
ter-of -gravity hang of the fuselage at locked for long straight-ahead taxiin
"gear light" or "skid light" power (Also see local regulations for furth
setting prior to breaking ground. guidance.)
("Gear light" or "skid light" power Note. Brakes should not be used for din
setting is that power setting at which tional control. However, it is general pri
some of the weight of the helicopter is tice to apply "inside" brake for spot parki
and pivotal turn control.
being supported by the rotor system.)
Note. If these checks verify that the heli- c. Procedure for Slowing or Stopping. F
copter favorably compares with the aviator's slowing or stopping the helicopter wh:
image of the ideal helicopter, the preflight taxiing
inspection is completed and the aviator is Level the rotor and lower pitch.
free to take off to a hover.
(2) As the helicopter slows, touch bo
4.4. Taxiing brakes to stop at the desired spot.
a. General, Helicopters equipped with wheels (3) For an alternate method to slow
and brakes have excellent taxi control charac- stop, tilt the rotor slightly rearwa:
teristics. Those equipped with skids can be The addition of collective pitch a)

taxied for a few feet, but generally this type power should then cause the helico

helicopter is hovered from place to place. When ter to slow and finally stop.

taxiing, the aviator must maintain adequate Note. For brake failure and emerge*
clearance of main rotor (s) in relation to ob- stop, perform a takeoff to hover.
structions and other aircraft. He must
Insure that clearance is sufficient for 4.5. Takeoff To Hover and Landing From
the area sweep of the tail rotor and Hover
pylon during a pivotal turn. ft. General. In all helicopters, the takeoff
(2) Properly use cyclic and collective and landing from a hover is primarily an app
pitch, for control of speed to not more cation of physics and aerodynamics. Therefoi
than approximately 5 miles per hour development of aviator skill is dependent on I
(speed of a brisk walk). knowledge of the physics and aerodynamics i

which produce volved. The smooth and apparently continue

(3) Recognize conditions
transition from a parking position up to
ground resonance, and know the re-
stabilized hover not a single operation. TJ
covery procedures for ground reso-
nance. transition contains many separate elements

Be familiar with the standard mark- key points, each of which is more of an appli
thinking process than a physical skill,
ing for taxiways and parking areas.
Be familiar with the light and hand b. Takeoff-To-Hover Exercise. The compU
signals used by tower and ground con- maneuver must contain all points in this ex*
trol personnel, cise. The finished maneuver will be a smoo
blend of all items listed below.
b. Procedure for Taxiing, To taxi a wheel-
and brake-equipped helicopter (1) Visually clear the area. Check for c
jects, conditions,or people that coti
(1) Set rotor rpm in normal operating
be affected or disturbed by a hoverii
(2) Tilt rotor tip-path plane slightly for- ;

ward. (2) Determine wind direction and vel(

(3) Increase collective pitch and manifold ity. Mentally review and predict ij

pressure to obtain a moving speed of possible effect of this wind upon i|

not more than that of a brisk walk. helicopter at lift-off. i

(4) Use antitorque pedals for directional (3) Tune radios, make advisory calls, 8
control. If helicopter has a tail wheel, just volume. For training, all radj

AGO 8770A
TM 1-260

should be on and tuned to local facil- would extend from the fixed
point be
ities. twoun your foot to your .scat.
(Sec A" V A '

(4) Adjust the friction on the collective flff. 4.1.)

pitch and throttle. Use enough fric- (9) Ho alort for tho .second
sign of mar
tion to hold these controls, so that the light condition, which is often a need
left hand can be momentarily free to for ropositionuiff of tho
cyclic control
operate carburetor heat, lights, and Make a positive
repositioning- of the
radios in flight. cyclic in a direction opposite to
(6) Make final pretakeoff check. This preventing any horizontal
check includes pressures, tempera- of tho helicopter,
tures, electrical final area (10) Continue the increaso of power
systems, to find
check, and operating rpm. tho center of
gravity (C.G.) attitude
Note. From or the contor of
this point until the final es- gravity of hang the
tablishment of a stabilized hover, compare fuselage, whitth i.s the fore and aft and
the lateral attitude of the
performance, control action, center of fuselage just
gravity, and sound of this helicopter to the
prior to breaking ground contact
standard response of your ideal
helicopter of (At tor
this type. If the
response or performance
breaking ground contact, this
differs greatly at attitude In referred to as the hov-
any point, reduce power,
(6) Increase manifold pressure oring attitude.)
slowly to
gear light condition or until the rotor Nutu. Thovo will l,o a
tomlimoy for cortnin
of thu landing K nt\v to
supporting some of the helicopter Ki'oum! fli-Ht, <Ui<) to Liu* location of
leave tho

For reciprocating tho cantor

weight. of ffi'iivlty for raclt load
engines, condition. Thoro-
center attention on rpm foi-o, if nowor ! H
instrument, Incrtsnmsd with heading
and cross-check to manifold nminlainml by pnoHlUonlnr of
pressure pwlnls and
and outward to a fixed point near all horizontal motion
im-.vtmtcd by reposi-
horizon. For this tioning of Liu cyclic, n iinint will bo ran
exercise, increase ched
whoi'u thu rotor In almost
manifold pressure % inch at a time Hiipnortln ff tlio full
wolKlit of tlxi
with collective pitch if holicoptor, but whoro some
rpm is on the 1'ortion oftlit!
lamllitK cr
Htlll la in contact
mark, or with throttle if rpm is low. witli tluj ffround.
Center attention on (H)
rpm, with cross- Identify tlio C.G. attitude
check to manifold pressure. (C.G.
Decide haiw) check Home windshield or can-

whether the next y2 inch of manifold

opy part against tho horizon. If tho
pressure should be made with
pitch or attitude appears
throttle to
normal, if the con-
keep rpm on the exact trols are
responding normally, and if
mark. tho helicopter fools and
sounds nor-
Note. With increased
above action appeal's to bo
proficiency, the
a smooth and
ou nre clom cfl to '

to a hover.
tho power application
continuous coordination. and
the helicopter will
Be rise vertically to a
(7) alert for the first
sign of gear light lull stabilized
hover, holding its posi-
condition, which usually is a need for tion and
heading steadily without re-
antitorque pedal
main rotor lift increases and
repositioning. As
ir W
noticeable clmnfiro of attitude.
weight TLho oxerciso i
upon the landing gear becomes complete. Hover brief-
less, ly prior to moving out,
torque may turn the fuselage.
(8) Shift center of attention
V m ffover ******
to the fixed Banding
point near the horizon
with cross-
a hover
exercise given in b
accomplished by reversinc-
lov flln * the ^
w w the
Hold M Tl and manifold p ress
helicopter heading on the
(1) Hover
briefly and position the holi-
reference point with coptor over tho intended
pedal repo- landing spot,
so that an U) Select reference
point near the hori-
imaginary line zon.

AGO 8770A
TM 1-260

points, thought processes, and cross-checks

(3) Use pedal control to hold a line from
the reference point between your feet volved in hovering can be mastered by use of
to your seat. the exercise given in b below.

(4) Use cyclic to prevent any horizontal b, Stationary Hover Exercise,

motion. If the helicopter moves hori- (1) At the moment of "lift-off," take spe-
zontally in relation to your reference cial note of the exact forward horizon

point, ease back to the original posi- picture outlined through the visual
tion. frame of hardware parts of the cock-
pit. Use windshield frames,
the top of
(5) Attempt to reduce power %
inch at a
time, with pitch and/or throttle, so as the radio box, instrument panel, an-
to maintain rpm on the exact mark. tennas, or a mark (grease pencil) on
The aim is to develop a slow, constant the windshield glass to determine an
downward settling-. exact hovering attitude in reference to

As the downward settling slows, re- a point on the distant horizon. It is

duce another y2 inch of manifold pres- important to use the distant horizon,
for this reference will be used later to
At initial ground contact, continue the
program the moving hover, the nor-
mal takeoff, and the climbout.
procedure in (5) above until all
(2) In peripheral vision, find the lateral
weight of the helicopter is on the land-
hang of the fuselage at "lift-off,"
ing gear.
using door frames or side window
(8) During early training or in transition
frames. The lateral hang of the fuse-
to other helicopters, it is best to use
lage can also be determined on the
the distant reference point as the cen-
forward horizon picture. (The aviator
ter of attention. Cross-check inward
will receive an indication of a change
to rpm and manifold pressure. Cross-
in the attitude of the helicopter prior
check downward for positioning over
to actual movement of the helicopter.
parking panel. Corrections then must be applied im-
(9) More advanced aviators may center mediately to maintain the level atti-
their attention on the wheel, skid, or tude and position..of the helicopter.)
some point in close to the helicopter. forward or rearward
(3) Accomplish all

Caution: Some helicopters must be landed horizontal control by slight adjust-

without pauses once the landing gear touches ments to the noseup, noseclown atti-
he ground, due to the possibility of ground re- tude as measured against some distant
tonance. point on or near the horizon. Use an
airframe part or grease pencil mark
1.6. Hovering on the distant horizon for exact atti-
The stationary hover and the moving hover tude control.

ippear to be highly skilled, coordinated physi- (4) Control sideward motion by slightly
calaccomplishments when executed by a sea- raising or lowering the lateral attitude
soned aviator, but as is true with all other (as seen in peripheral vision),
Note, Pedal turns to new headings often
maneuvers, these maneuvers can be divided into
require establishing new attitudes and
simple key point and cross-check exercises. trol centers when surface winds are not
calm. The main rotor tilt must remain into
4.7. Stationary Hover the wind and the weathervane effect on the

a. General The stationary hover actually be- fuselage must he counteracted,

gins at that moment of takeoff to a hover

4.8. Characteristics of Stationary Hover
the rotor is supporting most of the weight of
The stationary hovering exercise is prop-
the helicopter. Power application will then de-

termine the height of the hover. They key erly accomplished when

AGO 8770A
TM 1-260

(1) The hover is maintained by slight (6) The horizontal positioning is unsteady
nosedown, and lateral attitude
noseiip, and changing,
changes made on and around a specific
and recognizable base attitude. 4.9.Moving Hover Exercises
(2) The only cyclic control movement at The moving hover is generally less difficult
than the stationary hover and can be accom-
any moment is that motion necessary
to slightly change or hold the specific plished through use of the following exercises:
hovering attitudes (in normal wind a. Using the base attitudes required for the

conditions ) . stationary hover, lower the nose approximately

2 or B. (In instrument flying, 2% corre-
(3) The changes of attitude are made at a
rateand amount so as not to be notice- sponds to one bar width on the attitude indi-
able by a casual observer/passenger. cator.)
b. Hold this attitude steady until the for-
(4) Heading control is accomplished by
ward hovering rate has reached that of a brisk
prompt pedal repositioning, which
holds and keeps an aviator's feet and
the pedals straddling an imaginary Q, Return the attitude to the original sta-
line straight ahead to a distant refer- tionary hovering attitude for a coasting hover.
ence point (building, tree, bush, etc.). Raise the attitude slightly to reduce speed, or
lower the attitude slightly to increase speed.
(5) Hovering height is held to the speci-
Then, when desired speed has been attained,
fied height published in the operator's
return to the stationary hovering attitude for a
manual by use of collective pitch.
steady coasting rate.
b.The stationary hovering exercise is not d. Use lateral attitude control for positioning
properly accomplished when over the desired line of hover.
(1) The helicopter attitude is constantly e. Use pedals to hold the fuselage heading
changing, or there is no recognizable parallel to the desired line of hover.
and obvious base attitude around /. To stop, raise the nose 2 or 3 above the
which the aviator is working. stationary hovering attitude, then return to the
(2) The noseup, nosedown, and lateral stationary hovering attitude as all forward mo-
changes of attitude are made at a rate tion is dissipated.
and in amounts which are noticeable
to a casual observer/passenger. 4.10. Precautions When Hovering
(3) Due to overcont roll ing, the hover is When hovering, watch for and avoid
accomplished by rapid and constant (t. Parked airplanes.
cyclic jiggling, or thrashing of the 5. Helicopters which have rotors turning af-
cyclic without a corresponding chanffe ter shutdown.
of uirframe attitudes, c. Dusty areas or loose snow.
(4) The fuselage does not hold a constant d. Tents or loose debris.
heading on a distant reference point. e. Any area where there is a person or
(B) The hovering height is rising and that could be adversely affected by a hovering
lowering. rotor downwash,


4. II. General with few variables. Once the aviator knows
The normal takeoff performed from, a sta- where to look and what to think, what to pro-
tionary hover has fixed, programed elements gram and what to cross-check, this maneuver
4.6 AGO S770A
TM 1-260

The normal takeoff exercise and more power will be required to hold the
will be mastered.
the exact thought/action/ hovering run to effective translational lift.)
given below presents Also experiment, solve, and verify that when
to perform this
cross-check sequence required
starting with the observed hovering attitude,
maneuver in most helicopters. See
the applica-
an attitude rotation of a specific number of de-
ble operator'smanual for directions to convert
final form required for the grees made at a specific rate will result in a
this exercise to the
smooth progression from a stationary hover
specific helicopter.
(without appreciable settling) to effective
Considerations translational lift, and on to a progressive gain
4.12. Pretakeoff
off of altitude and climb airspeed.
Before taking
track to be exercise hold in cross-
Select the takeoff outbound c. Throughout this
used. Note the wind direction in relation to check
The attitude constant with fore and
intended outbound track. (1)
turn to clear the airspace aft cyclic control. The nose will tend
b Make a hovering lift
tower Gi- to rise at effective translational
for 'other traffic (unless cleared by
and thereafter as airspeed increases,
g-round crew)

due to dissymmetry of lift and result-

c Select two or three "line-up" objects (pan-
the takeoff point, over ing blade flapping. Reposition cyclic
bushes, trees) beyond selected not^mal
be flown. promptly to hold the
which the outbound track is to takeoff attitude throughout
the ma-
of in-
d Make final pretakeoff cross-check neuver.
and tempera-
struments for systems, pressures, (2) Hovering height with collective pitch,
until effective
tures. and power control
then al-
e. Hold fuselage heading on and/or parallel translational lift is reached,
to the farthest reference point. low the additional lift to cause
copter to climb.
Normal Takeoff Exercise
4 13.
(3) Power adjusted to the published climfc>
a, Note the exact hovering attitude, using value after climb begins.
on the horizon (or out-
airframe/windshield parts The heading parallel to the line of
projected horizon through
foliage ahead). the
bound reference points. Normally,
(1) Rotate the
attitude to approximately will tend to yaw to
attitude; this fuselage heading
lower than hovering effect
the left due to the streamlining
will result in a slow forward efficien-
on the fuselage and increasing
to approximately 2
(2) Rotate attitude rotor. Note that pedals
this will cy of the tail
lower than hovering attitude; the head-
must be repositioned to hold
result in noticeable acceleration. ing as airspeed increases
Rotate attitude to aPP
1 various
(3) ]^* climb progresses through
attitude. This
lower than the hovering wind conditions.
is the final attitude
change which over ttte
throughout (5) The helicopter positioning
should be held constant intended outbound track, controlled
run to effective trans Make reference
the horizontal with lateral cyclic.
lational Hold attitude constant
lift. under aviator's seat or
points pass
a progressive in-
thereafter to gain tween pedals.
crease in airspeed and
(6) Fuselage alignment
to m-
exercise and note control an<5
j uxpumie with this ntfitiide rotation
Experiment tended track with pedal
over the line oj
helicopter positioning
outbound track with
lateral cyclic m.
trol. This is
referred to as ad* ,

is used from a
hover up to 50 feet.

the event of engine failure

AGO 8770A
TM 1-260

takeoff, there would be little chance to climb power and normal

align the fuselage with the i-pm, climb pedals and i
touchdown level lateral trim, and
direction; therefore, the heading must
tracking is over desired
outbound track.
be aligned with
direction in a slip at
all times below 50
b. The exercise is
feet. At 50 feet re- properly accomplished
position pedals to the
"climb pedal"
position (usually this is a neutral ped- (1) Required attitudes which result in a
setting) for conversion of the smooth acceleration and
slip climb are
to a crab (par. programed and hold.
4.22d). Thereafter
airspeed should increase (2) Climb power is programed or
rapidly to- checked
ward the published climb at effective
airspeed. transitional lift with rpm
d. After
conversion from the in normal range.
slip to crab, or
*hen the airspeed (3) In cross-check, there
increases to within 5 is good heading
of the published knots
climb airspeed and track control.
d) Slowly raise attitude toward (4) At 50 feet, a conversion
the ten- from the slip
tative or known climb to a crab is
attitude to programed.
maintain climb (5) Climb airspeed is
airspeed. This must reached, and this at-
be a tentative titude is rotated to climb
attitude based upon the attitude.
aviate* knowledge of
the average a. Common errors include
clnnb attitude for
this type
helicopS (1) Poor hovering height control during
correct, verify, and solve the initial acceleration
a firm climb to translations!
attitude. (This will
be "alow cruise'' attitude (2) No firm attitude around
which the
To control outbound aviator is working.
crab (above 50
track when in a
ing attitude results in
Constantly c!.ai - w
f ee t), hold poor airspeed/
climb altitude
Pedals and fly a relationship.)
normal banked uni
w*h ey cHc t, a (3) Fuselage in crab prior to 50 foot
suit m heading that
the desired
4"e and/or constantly
track (toward a changing.


(5) Poor power control

4.14. (high or low man-
tor<Ille settinff)

Section IV.
4J5 Deduction '
to Airworlc


of control in
ft- uiii

o elements of

red maneuver
--I-!-. ^,.1 tii*e

m/f r,
control will
within th
y wo *ewife
iiiicidjt, PrnnpT non ^*


e ot thes e
ce an ^ dfi -
ovil.il /i/i/^


apply and
*ange (oi
at "^
(of attitudes
1S a
?" ed
and power
n (the lllitial
f time Bach flttitu
) ancl

rate of
Capabllit^ of the settings).
aircraft. Therefore
u " ies &nd

XS* -" 2~1- S

exercises of all flio-hf ,,^
ckee!c ss
tag awareness of wl f :
airara ** *- "
**8 at the moment
f L
tion as to
what th!' $
*!, e
2 > k" wled
the aircraft i s
and projeo-
going to do, and

AGO 3770A
TM 1-260

(3) purpose and intent for exactly what the (1) Will it hold the airspeed now indi-
aviator wants to do. The result will be attitude cated?
flying. (2) Will it cause a slowing of airspeed?
(3) Will it cause an increase of airspeed?
d. Based upon these principles, airwovk pre-
Note. Do not concentrate on the airspeed indicator-
sented in this section will include discussion It isan amount gage, showing only the amount of air'
and exercises for speed at the moment. It cannot be used to predict air'
(1) Attitude control and resulting air- speed in future seconds; therefore, use it in eross-checK
only. Do concentrate your center of attention on atti"
tude (to the exact degree on the horizon) to predict
(2) Power control and resulting altitude, airspeed in future seconds.
climb, or descent. c. Hold the attitude steady, change it mo'

(3) Rpm control for steady climb, cruise,

mentarily, or rotate to a new attitude which, in
or descending flight, and during heavy
prediction, will result in the airspeed desired-
power changes. Cross-check the airspeed indicator frequently
(4) Heading control and resulting track to assure that the attitude now being held is

or turns, and antitorque control and affecting the airspeed as expected.

resulting lateral trim. d. The exercise is being correctly performed
when the aviator
4.16. Attitude Control and Resulting Rotates to an attitude that, in predic-
Airspeed tion, will accelerate or decelerate to
ft. Airspeed is a result of attitude control. To desired airspeed.
hold any desired airspeed or make properly con- Cross-checks the approaching air-
trolled changes of airspeed, the aviator must speed indication desired.
Rotates the attitude to a specific atti-
(1) Prior to flight, have formed a clear (3)
tude that, in prediction, will hold the
mental image of basic attitudes nor-
desired airspeed.
mally expected of the helicopter he
Holds the attitude constant while in
to fly. For example, what are the atti- (4)

this type helicopter) for

cross-check. He observes the tota\
tudes (of
flight condition (mission, maneuver/
hover, normal acceleration, decelera-
other traffic, altitude, manifold pres-
tion, climb, cruise, or slow
sure, rpm, lateral trim, pedal setting,
(2) Beginning with the first takeoff to a
and track) he cross-checks the air-
basic atti-
hover, solve for the exact or
speed indicator is it low? high?
tudes of the helicopter being flown.
steady ?
How do these basic attitudes compare Note. The aviator makes slight attitude
with the basic attitudes of the ideal changes to return to the proper airseed^read-
or with other returns to his last
helicopter (par. 4.3) ing (when necessary), but
proven attitude when the airspeed
is cor-
helicopters of the same type? in tht
rected. After two or three corrections
b. During the first few minutes
of flight the
same direction, he modifies his proven attl
aviator must make the comparisons tude slightly.
to solve for
in a above, using tentative attitudes e. The exercise is completed when each stej
the actual basic attitudes prior to engaging is performed smoothly, promptly,
with preci
further maneuvers or precision flying exercises. sion, and without noticeable distraction
to thj

total flight.
4.17. Attitude Control Exercise
4.18. Power Control and Resulting Altitude,
ft. With center of attention on the exact atti-
condition, Climb, or Descent
tude being held for the desired flight
control. 1?
cross-check the airspeed indicator. Altitude is a result of power
or hold any desired altitufl<
this attitude is going to affect
how properly change to
b Predict
the aviator must
the airspeed in the next few seconds
of flight. ;

AGO 8770A
TM 1-260

. Prior to have a clear mental image

(->> A Lll <'altil,u
of tentative or basic
power settings normally
^ (

|<.rem-hasTuiseaItitnd P
Iwwin a reduction of
expected for the type
helicopter to be flown. manifold mJ'
wiro *" ;i U "" l(i v" or
For example, what are the known c t
; '

power settings (of power s

the average machine of .sottiujr.
this type) for
climb, cruise, slow M) Solve fniM-lMM-xm-t
cruise, and descent? What nmnifold 1)roai
differences could r(1( uil (11 to hold the
normally be expected for vari-
l '

ous gross weights and l'Naim,i, .
density altitude combina-
above and below
tions ? 'ulnuv lor minor altitude correc-
'> to* r
b. Upon
the first takeoff to a hover
and there- ''<>'!
/; loss). Uso t e
"""-1.0 , h,h r decent power J*
after, solve for the exact basic
power settings lor mm -

required for precise altitude control

l ,
for the hel- corrections.
icopter being flown. For ,
>>, i. (llH
. .
ntriU ,
U ^^o,,ly.on ThoX
u (
good altitude control, '

tins study must be

completed before engaging
m further maneuvers or
precision flying exer-
"l.v an ,,,,.. WW! , flh o W ln B T.
cises on this flight.

n Mtu
4.19. Altitude
Control Exercises
tlX * r'"'
PHl.lhi ff and control!
lN in futun, flconi a ',

a. Altitude Control Exercise,

U) With center of attention on
, U H1( ,, H ,
nllowin ff cro^rhock
attitude rule
ht "" 1 .....
for control of a ""'"'"'n.^:IfthonlUm!
stable climb '*''
airspeed, IH.I H 1I H .
cross-check and maintain nmrk, thann the
climb power
(Climb power will be Ini
() a
published or as .'"
inn,,, ,-,,,,
required to maintain a 500 ''""''"o linl.1 tlHMMn,!
feet per ,,H| tH( | (! . i f(l
minute rate of w " lliliml(! i

climb.) on and
(2) Use pedals to
align the fuselage with 101' llllH a )],.
the outbound
track. At 50
tion the pedals to
feet, reposi-
"climb pedals,"
Altitude Control K x , m^ t
(Slt)w ^^^
which usually is a
neutral setting. (1) BoUito Iho alHtudo to a
tentative or
(3) Conduct a
running known slow cruiHo attiludo.
cross-check on
climb power, since
it will be
to add throttle necessary -
prevent a natural or
known slow cruiHo power
decrease of manifold
pressure as alti- Hottuiff (i.Hually 2 to
tude is gamed inches below
and the i'iH(!
atmosphere be- manirold prc.HHiiro sotting).
comes less dense.

b. Altitude Control
Excise (Cruise).
IH)W( "' <IUon in Ch.i amount
'-vont yuw thn
(1) When the climb has (Iurllw powcp (

reached to within XIletllfil|alHOttln ^"lrc d ! for slow

ruAa-ri^ to|nlor||IWm
o an acceleration )J'f|
() s *or tlio oxnct mnnlfold proBsure
(2) When "|w
the airspeed wttiiiff rotjuirod to hold
reaches cruise al*. the desired
altitudo. Uo 2 inches above or below
r known
reading for minor altitude correc-

AGO 87 70 A
TM 1-260

d. Altitude, Control Exercise (Descent), neuver, systems, fuel management, other traffic,

(1) With cruise or slow cruise attitude/ and navigation.

airspeed, reduce power to the mani-
fold pressure needed to establish a 500 4.20. Rpm Control
feet per minute descent or to the pub- a. Helicopter power controls are designed to

lished descent manifold pressure. combine the following three functions into the
(2) Coordinate pedals to prevent yaw dur- collective pitch stick :

ing power change. (1) A twist-grip throttle serves as the

( 3 ) Center attention on attitude, with handle for the collective pitch stick.
cross-check to manifold pressure and/ Gripping the throttle and bending the
or 500 feet per minute descent. wrist outward will add throttle bend- ;

e. Deceleration Exercise. Although this ex- ing the wrist inward will decrease
rcise is used primarily for coordination prac- throttle.

ice, deceleration can be used to effect a rapid (2) Raising and lowering the collective
.eceleration in the air. The maneuver requires pitch stick will increase or decrease
high degree of coordination of all controls, the pitch or angle of incidence of the
,nd is practiced at an altitude of approximately main rotor blades,
feet. The purpose of the maneuver is to (3) A throttle correlation unit is added to
maintain a constant altitude, heading, and rpm the collective pitch linkage. Once this
irhile slowing the helicopter to a desired device is set by the throttle for the de-
n'oundspeed. To accomplish the maneuver sired engine rpm, it will automatically
(1) Decrease collective pitch while coordi- add more throttle as the collective
nating the throttle to hold rpm, and pitch is raised and reduce throttle as
apply aft cyclic control, flaring the the collective pitch is lowered. Thus,
helicopter smoothly to maintain a con- in theory, this unit will maintain con-
stant altitude. stant rpm as the main rotor loads
(2) At the same time, continuously apply change, However, being of simple cam
antitorque pedals as necessary to hold design, this correlation device usually
a constant heading, (The attitude of works properly only in a narrow
the helicopter becomes increasingly range. Increasing collective pitcl
nose-high (flared) until the desired above or below this range usually re-
groundspeed is reached.) sults in undesirable rpm changes,
(3) After speed has been reduced the de- which must be corrected.
sired amount, return the helicopter to
b. To learn rpm
control requires study, prac-
a normal cruise by lowering the nose
tice, experimentation by the aviator. He
with cyclic control to accelerate for-
must develop a visual cross-check of the rpm
ward while adding collective pitch and instrument. He must, at times, use the sound
throttle to maintain altitude.
of the engine or the whine of the transmission
(4) Use pedal to hold the desired heading.
to recognize rpm variations. Some throttles re-
/, Completion of Exercises, These altitude quire a slight bending of the wrist outward or
lontrol exercises are completed when all items inward as the collective pitch is raised or low-
ire performed smoothly, promptly, and with ered for rpm to be exactly maintained through-
>recision. The objective is accomplished when out the full power range from maximum allow-
;ach exercise is performed without noticeable able power (pitch up) to collective pitch p" 11
Ustraction to the total flight; i.e., mission, ma- down in needles-joined autorotation.

1.21. Rpm Control Exercises

control exercises, when accomplished step by step and uni
natic, will give the aviator an apparent effortless control of rpm.
nto three distinct flight groups that require study and practice, as fo

i.GO 8770A
TM 1-260

Rpm control and correction during steady state climb,

cruise, and descent:
(1) // rpm is high: (2) // rpm fa 1 OW :
() .Vote manifold pressure reading.
( ft ) Note manifold pressure
I/O Squeeze off U to 1 inch of manifold Squeeze on % to
(6) inch of .1,
niHiiiffl u
pressure with the throttle.
pressure with the throttle
(c) Increase collective pitchy, to 1 inch
( c) Reduce collective pitch </, to M M
of manifold pressure
(returning to Of manifold pressure (return n
ongma reading m step original reading m .top (1

a tilude
11 ^ the
(1) above).
attitude >
W Cross-choc], other tn fnY
a e

and track. After approxi-

a]t itudo, and trade. A to >
mately 3 seconds, cross-check rpm ''

clo R - c!uwki

page for completed correction

high, repeat the exerc e
C"" P e ,
<>M. Tf

repeat tho exorcise;.

Rpm control and correction
during heavy manifold pressure
0) him control while
reducing collective (2)'
{ Rm
pm ,/,.;
(/ ,i T> , .
ive pitch:
ttt) Reduce manifold pressure with i r \

collective pitch while

^) Increase j.rosm.ro with
S njanifoW
collective pitch
rpm gage. while cross-chocking
rpm is slightly high, make the ,M r
next inch manifold
pressure reduc I
v low
131 1
IK '

sllfi htl
, -

. mkc the

tion with
Reduce manifold pressure
with pitch and/or

throttle in l-i nc h
next luch manifold


manifold prcssuro
*' in-

increments so as to maintain
the de- -
Vpltch an(l throttle in 1-ind, /r
sired rpm. increments so as to maintain the
**. Keep the manifoW
sired rpm.
needle ppessurfl
moving in pei iphera , visi JVo( B
Koop the manifold impure
n g affe m constant nee(Ile iovin ff in
cross-check. prii,h (! rai vllo,'
CO Upon m ffaffe hl conHt!Ulfc

reaching the desired manifold /jv ? croHfl-choelc.

Pi-essure for
wake further
steady state
corrections to rpm as
^ on reac
n T * BU
hi ^' tho closiml
or ^ manifold
Btiito rlimb,
ln above '


heck rpm (2)
frequently ,
" P1 eSSUre 1

^^ Cross-check

At I hot? rpm frequently.

ff l inch rf
S *
niantfo d -'

'-' ......

4.12 Peat exercise.

TM i-260

Antitorque Pedals alignment with a distant reference
'.General. The primary purpose of the an- point. The aviator uses an imaginary
line to a distant object and applies
que pedals is to counteract torque (pars.
and 2.17) However, the antitorque system
pedal to position and maintain the line
^ly is designed to have surplus thrust, far from his seat through the cyclic and
that required to counteract torque. This the gap between his pedals (A, fig.
Additional thrust, designed into the tail rotor 4.1). Aviators in either seat use the
same distant reference point with no
.ystern, is used to provide positive and negative
j/jai-ust for taxi direction control and to counter- appreciable error. Figure B, 4,1 shows
the weathervane effect of the fuselage in the fuselage alignment to hovering or
takeoff direction.
operations. In certain helicopter con-
figurations, care must be exercised in using the (2) During the moving hover and the ini-
"**""* climb to BO feet, pedals control
power of the antitorque system, since tial
to the tail pylon area can result from heading as in figure 4.1, and cyclic
during fast-rate hovering pedal control is used for direction and later-
and during taxi conditions over rough al positioning over the intended track
1.(Some tail rotor designs may demand as in
figure 4.2. Using peripheral
to 20 percent of the total engine output. vision (and cross-cheek), the helicop-
rf his power should be used with caution.) ter should be positioned with lateral
>- Areas of Consideration. Antitorque cyclic so the imaginary line is seen
a.re the most misused of the helicopter con- running through position 1 (%. 4.2)
i. There are three separate modes of con- during taxi or run-on landings, and
position 2 for hovering and climb
trol for correct pedal use, and each of these
rtiodes must be analyzed and treated separately through 20 feet. The line should be
the seen between pedals as shown at posi-
tion 3 for all altitudes over 20 feet,
(1) The first group includes normal heli-
with all track reference points lined
copter operations below 50 feet, dur-
up and passing between pedals in pas-
ing which the fuselage is aligned with
sage over each point.
a distant point. This group includes
Note, Beginning students may use tho
taking off to and landing from a
method shown in A, figure 4.1 to determine
hover, the stationary hover, the mov- track alignment for all maneuvers,
ing hover, the takeoff and climb slip
(3) In crosswind operations, the combined
control, and the approach slip control.
use of pedals and cyclic as in (2)
(2) The second group includes coordi-
above results in a sideslip, commonly
nated flight and all operations above
referred to as a slip. The aviator does
50 feet which require pedal use to
not consciously think slip, for he is
align and hold the fuselage into the
relative wind. automatically in a true slip if he holds
the fuselage aligned on a distant ob-
(3) The third group includes proper pedal
ject with pedals (fig. 4.1) and main-
use in turns. Coordinated turns (at
tains positioning over the line with
altitude) require the proper use of
cyclic (fig-. 4,2).
pedals to keep the fuselage into the
relative wind as the bank is initiated,
d. Pleading and Track Control for Opera^
tiona above 50 feet.
established, and maintained.
(1) For coordinated flight above 50
G. Heading and Track Control for Operations feet,
the pedals assume a
50 Feet, purely antitorque
role and are
promptly repositioned to
(1) Taking off to and landing from a a climb pedal setting upon
hover require that pedals be reposi- reaching 50
feet. This pedal action converts
tioned to hold and maintain the nose
slip to a crab, which aligns the fuse-

TM I -260




troHd fcy,
TM 1-260

for heading control. The use of

pedals and note the exact pedal setting re-
to prevent the
momentary yaw of the quired when ball is centered.
nose due to gusts should be avoided in
Door frames or windshield frames
early training. Do not move the pedals for lateral level trim. Pedal into the
unless there is a power change,
low side and note the exact pedal
(3) Power changes require sufficient co-
setting required.
ordinated pedal to prevent the fuse- Main rotor tip-path plane. It should
lage from yawing left or right. When be the same distance above the hori-
the power change is completed, cross- zon on -each side. For level rotor,
check the new pedal setting and lat-
pedal into the low side.
eral trim of the fuselage (fig.
4.3). Note. If the pedal position required is
(4) Generally, the average single rotor far removed from the normal
settings as
helicopter will have pedal settings shown in figure 4.3, write up "pedals out
which are normal for various power/ of rig."

speed combinations. Coordinate these (7) In semirigid main rotor

settings with power changes and hold tions, note the lateral hang of the
in cross-check (for all operations and fuselage at a hover (into the wind).
coordinated flight above 50 feet). If the fuselage is not
level, then the
(5) Average pedal settings for a typical one-side low condition must be ac-
single rotor helicopter are shown in cepted as level; thereafter, in flight
figure 4.3. Cross-check these settings (airwork over 50 feet) adjust pedals
for accuracy as described in <6) and for a lateral trim of one-side low as
(7) below. existed at a hover. Proceed as in
(6) Rigging of pedal control linkage will (6) (c) above.
vary in helicopters of the same type. e. Pedal Use in Turns. Use of
pedal to enter
Therefore, in steady climb, cruise, des- and maintain a turn requires study and
cent, or autorotation, with pedals set ment for the particular helicopter
being flown.
as in figure 4.3, cross-check (1) To determine if pedal is required for
(a) Turn-and-slip indicator for a cen- a coordinated entry to a bank and
tered ball Pedal into the low ball turn





Figure b.2. Lateral positioning.

TM 1-260

133J09 Mcnaa
sNouvaajo ivnsn -

TM 1-260

Start at cruise airspeed with the

(ft) c. The tower will often clear
you to a direct
correct pedal setting for lateral approach point on the sod or to a particular
trim in straight and level flight. runway intersection nearest your destination
(6) Begin a bank with cyclic only. Use point. At uncontrolled airports, adhere strictly
no pedal. to standard practices and patterns.
(c) Note whether the nose turns in pro-
d. Figure 4.4 depicts a typical traffic
portion to the bank. pattern
with general procedures outlined.
(2) If the nose begins to turn as the bank
Note. If there is no identifiable helicopter
is no pedal is required for
initiated, traffic pat-
tern, set up one inside the normal airplane pattern (fig.
the entry to a turn in this helicopter.
4.4) .Use touchdown and takeoff points to one side of
If the nose does not the active runway. If you intend to land on the
(3) begin to turn as runway,
the bank is use only that
initiated, approach to the near end, then hover clear of the run-
pedal required to make the nose turn way immediately.
in proportion to the bank at e. To fly a good traffic
entry. pattern, visualize a
(4) After the bank is established, antici- rectangular ground track and
pate the normal requirement in all air- (1) Follow good outbound tracking on
craft to require a slight pedal pressure takeoff and climbout, with steady
in the direction of the turn for coordi-
climb airspeed,
nated flight or a centered ball.
(2) Turn usually less than 90 for drift
correction on turn to crosswind
23. Traffic Pattern leg-, so
as to track 90 to the takeoff
a. The traffic pattern is used to control the
(3) Select a distant point on the horizon
w around an airport or flight strip,
of traffic
for turn to downwind leg so as to 1

affords a measure of safety, fly ,

separation, pro- a track parallel to the takeoff and
:tion, and administrative control over arriv-

?, departing, and circling aircraft. During landing direction. Then set up a

lining, a precise traffic pattern is flown to steady cruise speed and hold a steady
Dmote knowledge, altitude.
planning, prediction, and
discipline. All pattern procedures must (4) Turn more than 90 for drift correc-
strictly followed so that every aviator work- tion on turn to base
leg. Change atti-
in the circuit, and transient
aviators arriv- tude to slow cruise. Change
power and
r and departing, can determine at a glance pedals to descend at approximately
intentions of the other aviators,
500 feet per minute or to lose 6 miles
). When approaching a radio-controlled air- per hour for each 100 feet of descent.
t in a helicopter, it is possible to expedite Watch far reference point for turn to
ffic by stating, for example final approach leg (fig. 4.6).
(1) Helicopter No. 1234. Turn short or beyond 90 on turn to
(2) Position 10 miles east,
depending upon the crosswind
(3) (For landing) my destination is (one condition. Before entering approach
of the following) (or not later than the last 100 feet of
(ft) Operations building. the approach), establish a
slip with
(b) Administration building. fuselage aligned with the line of ap-
(c) Fuel service.
proach and the helicopter positioned
(d) Weather station. over the line of approach anti- (see
(e) (Other.)
torque pedals, par, 4.22) .

TM 1-260



360" PEDAL

traffic pattern,

AOO 8111
TM 1-260




Fiffwe .5. Turn to final approach.


4.24, General proximately 300 feet above the ground
Helicopter normal approach techniques fol- 4.6).
low a line of descending flight which begins a. The desired line is intercepted, thei
upon intercepting a predetermined angle (ap- lowed by use of positive collective pitch i
proximately 12) at slow cruise airspeed ap- so as to establish and maintain a constan

AGO 8770A
TM 1-260

(0 (Vntor ationt

a) Makn ,,1,,,,,,,, collrucH "


Figure 4.6. Normal approach to hover,

or angle of descent,
holding the approach panel
in collision or
b. Slow cruise
attitude'is held at
entry (if
the groundspeed is
normal) and until there iu
an apparent increase the
rate of closure. There-
after,the apparent
groundspeed (or rate of
closure) is maintained
at an agreed
valuo, ( fl ) AH tl)
usually an apparent 6 miles
per hour Thin
results in a smooth constant
deceleration from
the entry down to the hover

short of
POW8r -

effect to "

touchdown on the panel or

the Panel approaching /

n or hover. vision to the
touch- /
4-26. No fma ,

the llam
maintained '*
Tho ** is

Figure Ay " A

TM 1-260

(2) Cross-check and hold slow cruise atti-

tude to get a true sight picture read-

(3) Use a positive collective pitch reduc-

tion, in the amount necessary to
change the line of flight downward to-
ward the panel. Use prompt collective
pitch action to make the panel appear
to be stationary to the eye.

c. Normal Approach (Intermediate Portion)


(1) From this moment on, do not use any

airframe part or sight picture to con-
trol the line of descent.To maintain
an angle of descent to a fixed point
(for helicopters and 'airplanes), use
the rule of collision or intercept.
Collision Rule: When two relative-
ly moving objects (aircraft and ap-
proach point) have no apparent mo-
tion to the eye when viewed from one
or the other object, those objects are
on a collision or intercept course,
(2) The sole control of the line of descent
(collision course to the panel) is the
collective pitch. Use positive collec-
tive pitch action instantly when need-
ed to prevent apparent motion of the

Figure 4.8, Average sight picture for entering normal (3) The rate of closure toward the panel
approach (Ofi-23). is a function of attitude control (cy-
Prior to reaching the sight picture, it clic) and is usually maintained by
is optional to change from a crab to a controlling the apparent groundspeed
to that of a brisk walk.
Note, Each phase of the above exercise (4) If the rate of closure or apparent
must be strictly followed to insure desirable
groundspeed. is fast, raise the nose
conditions for entry. Most common errors in
the normal approach procedure can be traced slightly above the slow cruise attitude.
back to poor performance and (6) If the groundspeed or rate of closure
planning on
the final leg prior to entry.
appears to be slowing too much, lower
b. Normal Approach Ent-)^ Exercise. the nose momentarily to the slow
(1) If the
apparent groundspeed was cruise attitudeand wait until the de-
normal or slow on final, fly up to a scent causes an apparent increase
point just short of the normal ap- back to the desired rate of closure or
proach sight picture, If the ground- apparent groundspeed ( Never
, at-
speed was fast, use a point or lead tempt to accelerate or use an attitude
well short of the normal approach below slow cruise, unless for a go-
sight picture.
AGO 8770A
TM 1-260

d. Normal Approach Termination Exercise. the panel (ovor and above

that dc
At 100 feet maintain speed control, as scribed in (M) above).
outlined in c(3) through (5) below,
4.26. Summary
down to the hover or to touchdown.
Common errors committed by .students
(2) Begin to place the wheels or skids on per
the line of descent (4.24c above). forming normal approach techniques
a complete lack of knowledge of many
Begin building in hovering jtoma
(3) power- above oxerei.son. Those errors
listed in the
decelerate so that the helicopter sinks cmi
be eliminated if the student understands
(if necessary) so more power can be
and is
able to execute these oxnmsos.
added to arrive just short
There are
of the
many alternate exercises for
introduction and
panel, needing only ground effect to
early practice of tin; normal approach.
establish the hover. The
example used hero is well suited for separate
(4) Keep eyes outward for good heading or single control studies (i.e.,
collective pitch to
control use peripheral vision to see control line of descent; cyclic control
and atti-
panel. Use whatever collective pitch tude changes for apparent
Knurndspcod or rate
is required to maintain the line to of closure control).


4.27. Maximum Performance Talceoff e x o c u t i n g maximum performance
a. The maximum performance takeoff in takeoff.
reality, a smooth, slowly developed maximum (4) Add only vnowjh collective pitch to
angle takeoff. The maneuver is correctly per-
cause the helicopter to leave the
formed when there is a slow, ground (usually I inch or less mani-
highly efficient
steep-angle climb established by using maxi- fold pressure),
mum allowable power. The maneuver is com- (13) As the helicopter breaks
ground, ro-
pleted when the barriers are cleared and a tate the attitude to u
position just
normal climb is established. short of the normal takeoff attitude,
&. The exact Note. Abort, hm-o and rnpout (1)
performance sequence is pre- through
sented in exercise form. To (ft) nhovn until thlw oxorclm! IN
convert the exer- pm-formcd
cises to an operational pxnctly
an AM procodurwi Imvo been
maneuver, blend the included for a Kood maximum
exercises for a smooth transition iim-fornmitcG
throughout. takeoff accept dim addition of
maximum al-
lowable imwor.
4.28. Maximum Performance Talceoff 6. Maximum Verformanc.v Takuoff Interne*
mate Esuerc-iso.
Performance Takeoff U) After
Entry performing a(r>) above, add
maximum allowable power wit h
(1) Select a takeoff path as throttle
nearly into while controlling rpm with
the wind as barriers
will permit. collective pitch,
(2) Select one particular Note. For wonk engines or poor
tree for a slip- perform-
ance due to load or
and-track-control reference density altitude, ellml-
point. mite a(4) ubovo and
(3) Slowly add power to intuu't (i) above,
find the G G at- Hold the emot attitude assumed
(2) in
titude for this
particular helicopter, ft (5) above.
load, and rigging. Hold this attitude
(3) Maintain track and heading on the
during training, with some
portion of reference tree with good
the landing gear slip control.
still in contact
the ground. This
is the
key point in
(4) Control rp m
by anr and frequent
cross-check to the rpm instrument,

TM 1-260

c. Maximum Performance Takeoff Comple- proaching over rough terrain or congested

tion Elxercise, areas.

(1) At a point where the barriers are c. Generally, aviators will use a normal ap-
cleared, convert the slip to a crab by proach when possible and steepen the angle
repositioning pedals to the "climb only by theamount required to have a clear
pedals" setting. downward approach angle to the touchdown
(2) Lower attitude to the normal takeoff point. Aviators generally avoid approach
attitude (normal acceleration atti- angles steeper than that recommended for a
tude) to gain normal climb speed. specific helicopter so as to stay clear of the
(3) As climb speed approaches, rotate at- Caution areas depicted on the height velocity
titude to normal climb attitude and diagram in the operator's manual.
reduce manifold pressure to the nor-
mal climb value. 4.30. Steep Approach Exercises
d. Maximum Performance Takeoff Emer- a. Steep Approach on Final Prior to Entry
gency Climb Exercise (for Nonsupercharged Exercise.

Engines). (1) Establish a good track on final ap-

(1) For doubtful performance or to clear proach leg (using a crab) with 300
feet altitude over the terrain.
high barriers, use a 200 rpm overrev
at a(l) and hold the overrev during (2) Hold slow cruise attitude, with cor-,
the initial 25 feet of climbout. reetions to airspeed accomplished by
(2) Gently pull off the 200 rpm overrev momentary attitude changes.
down to normal rpm. This will con- (3) Use an exact slow cruise power set-
vert the overrev inertia of the main ting,with altitude corrections accom-
rotor system to lift at a point where plished by prompt manifold pressure
ground effect is lost and will assist in changes.
gaining translational lift.
(4) Analyze the apparent groundspeed on
final. Unless groundspeed is notice-
4.29. Steep Approach ably slow, all entries to the steep ap-
a. The
steep approach (fig. 4.9) is the maxi- proach must have a lead. See b (1) be-
mum angle of descent recommended for any low.
given helicopter. It is often referred to as Well short of the steep approach sight
the companion maneuver to the maximum per-
picture (figs. 4.10 and 4,11), discon-
formance takeoff. tinue all attempts for altitude and air-
b. The steep approach is used when the speed corrections, Now use a slow
presence of barriers or the size of the landing cruise attitude and a slow cruise mani-
area requires a slow steep angle of descent. It fold pressure setting. (It is too late
is also used at times to avoid turbulence or to for further corrections to altitude and
shorten the overall approach profile when ap- airspeed, since the fuselage must now
be used as a transit to find the steep
approach angle.)
(6) Optional: change from a crab to a
slip for track control.
Note, Each atop of the above exercise
must be performed with precision and with-
out noticeable effort or distraction to the
APPfiOX 20
aviator. If the work on final, prior to entry,
is erratic, then no two approaches will be
alike and efforts throughout the approach
would be devoted to recoveries from errors
Figure '4*9, Steep approach. caused by the bad entry,

AGO 8710A 4.23

TM 1-260

o o


Steep Approach
Entry Exercise.

ingtheste -

noun and at ,
<*!> the line Of fl L Which

ure. c ] os

n to
J '

ysett eg
j opter
colloc ' iv(!
ni " ll8 <'
should bo

AGO 8770A
TM 1-260

(o.)Cross-check manifold pressure. comfortable even to the inexperienced

{&) If low, raise the nose slightly so the aviator) .

helicopter will decelerate and settle.

More power will then be required
(3) A good termination is accomplished
to hold the line of descent, when the helicopter arrives over the

(2) Use attitude control to regulate the approach needing only ground
rate of closure, which should be com- effect to establish a hover or a gentle
fortable (too slow or too fast is not landing to the ground,


31. Running Takeoff The helicopter will leave the ground
a. The running takeoff is used when the heli- when sufficient speed is attained for
hot sustain a hover or perform a effective translational lift.
pter will
rmal takeoff from a hover or from the (8) Hold the same normal takeoff atti-
Dund. This condition is encountered when tude until climb speed is reached.
3 helicopter is heavily loaded and/or during (9) Rotate attitude to the normal climb
jh density altitude operations, attitude.

&. The running takeoff is more efficient than (10) Set climb power and climb pedals.
3 normal takeoff because of the Convert slip to crab.

(1) Partial elimination of the costly hov- d. An alternate technique for the perform-
ering circulation of the air supply. ance of this maneuver is as follows:

(2) Ground run toward efficient transla- (1) Perform e(l), c(2), and c(S) above.
tionallift, where clean undisturbed (2) Apply enough power to find the cen-
air (in volume) is delivered to the ter of gravity attitude of the loaded
rotor system. helicopter.
c. A general description of the running (3) Apply enough cyclic to cause a slow
ceoff maneuver for a loaded helicopter is as forward motion.
lows : (4) After approximately 6 feet of for-
(1) Assure that the terrain ahead will ward motion, apply maximum avail-
permit a short ground run. able (allowable) power.

(2) Plan the outbound route for a shallow (5) Hold the steady attitude ((3) above).
climb. (6) Hold good heading on a distant refer-
(3) Make a pretakeoff check. ence point.

(4) Place rotor tip-path plane at the (7) When sufficient translational speed is
normal takeoff attitude (this is the attained, the helicopter will take off.

most efficient attitude) or place cyclic (8) When normal clirnb speed is reached,
slightly ahead of hovering neutral. rotate the nose to the normal climb
(5) Apply enough power (manifold pres- attitude.
sure) to cause a forward movement. (9) Set normal climb power and climb
(6) After approximately 6 feet of for- pedals (convert slip to crab),
ward motion, smoothly add maximum e. Difficulty arises when demonstrating a
available (allowable) power,
running takeoff in a helicopter that can hover
(7) Hold the tip-path plane or the attitude one that is not heavily loaded. Even so, the
constant. With some portion of the practice is beneficial for student aviators, The
landing gear still in contact with the practice exercise is usually set up by limiting
ground, the helicopter will accelerate. the power to 2 inches less than hovering power.

TM 1-260

/. The practice maneuver is correctly per- When an cmcrffoncy exi'HtH duo

(7) to
formed when there is
of heading- control or tail rotor

(1) A smooth acceleration to translations!


(8) Whenthe center of tfruvity is
out of
limits due to structural
(2) Steady and accurate heading and at- faihn-c, cargo
shift, or poor weight jiml
titude control. balai, CP

(3) No pitching or lateral lurch of the

fuselage as the helicopter breaks
Usually, the running landing Of a

run-on type, having- a

ground. vory short Ki'oiuul w, ''

(4) Good track control and acceleration

It is performed by
normal climb speed. (1) Making the approach at
(5) Smooth quired to clear barrloi-H
JIM nnglo ^
transition to normal climb or turbulence
attitude and power at 50 feet of but usually at not Joss than
alti- 5 fn.'
tude. 4.12).
(6) Good conversion from (2) Planning the approach aa if to
slip to crab.
at a hover, but
4.32. Running Landings continuing without
pause to the ground, for n
. All
helicopter landings to the touchdown
ground with some forward
which have some degree of moUon~. im ,n|| y
forward motion at less than 10 feet of
touchdown are referred to as ground roll
running landings.
The amount of forward
motion at touchdown
may vary from I mile per hour
up to a rela-
tively high speed of 40 miles
per hour

re Used for

and c 4.12.

(2) minimize blowing of

dust, (1) Hold slow
debris and to
avoid rotor during

f the


AGO 8770A
TM 1-260




rection. The resultant forced landing could

5.1. Introduction
cause personal injury, and/or damage to or
An autorotation is considered an emergency
total loss of the helicopter,
procedure and should be treated as such. When
a helicopter engine fails during flight, the avi- c. Safe altitude for a helicopter over open,
level terrain is that altitude from which it can
ator must rely on autorotation to effect a safe
Safe execution of this make its largest radius 180 turn, using a nor-
descent and landing.
maneuver depends largely upon the aviator's mal bank while holding a constant cruise air-
judgment and his preplanning prior to the speed in autorotation. (The OH-13 requires
700 feet for this turn; the OH-19, 900 feet;
and the UH-1, 900 feet.) Safe altitude over
5.2. General undesirable areas is that altitude from which a
safe landing area can be reached in the event
a. In considering autorotations or forced
or as- of a forced landing.
landings, there are several basic rules
sumptions that the aviator must accept. These d. Safe airspeed is the airspeed which will

are give the best ground coverage in autorotation.

(1) That the helicopter is being operated This same airspeed will give turning power
within the safe parameter as pre- when decelerating or lifting around a normal
scribed in the height velocity diagram bank autorotation turn.
of the appropriate operator's manual. before
e. Safe routing normally is selected

(2) That the helicopter is being flown the flight by use of charts and maps. A
over the best routes so that clear and line from the departure point to the destination
level forced landing areas are avail- will often take the flight over undesirable ter-
able, and that flight over impossible rain. Therefore, the aviator should plot a
forced landing areas such as water, course which will be over the most favorable
forests, or precipitous slopes is held terrain without undue deviation from the di-
to a minimum. rect course. During flight, the aviator should
(3) That some missions will be upon or- scan ahead and make necessary heading
ders which prescribe route and alti- changes which will route the flight over the
tude to be flown. best terrain. These deviations will not add
appreciably to flight distance or time,
b. Except when flying missions which pre-
scribe the route and altitude, a good helicopter
5.3, Glide and Rate of Descent
aviator will fly at a safe altitude (e below) and
Each type helicopter has a specific air-
select a safe route (e below) for his return

flights. In the event of engine failure, if the speed (given in the autorotation chart of the
aviator is not following the rules listed in a operator's manual) at which a poweroff glide is
most efficient. The best airspeed is the one
above, he is compelled to make an autorotation
with limited choice of landing area, wind di-
which combines the most desirable (greatest)
and landing di- glide range with the most desirable (slowest)
rection, airspeed, groundspeed,

AGO 8770A
TM 1-260

rate of descent. The specific airspeed is some- assist or speed the turn causes
loss of airspeed
what different for each type helicopter, yet and downward pitching of the noseespecially
certain factors affect all configurations in the when left pedal is used.
same manner.
Immediately before ground contact, an in-
l>. Specific airspeed is established on the crease in pitch (angle of
basisof average weather and wind conditions, attack) will permit
the blades to induce sufficient
and normal loading. When the helicopter is additional
lift to
slow the descent and allow the
operated with excessive loads in high density helicopter to
make a safe, smooth landing.
altitude or strong gusty wind conditions, best Abrupt rear-
ward movements of the cyclic stick should be
performance achieved from a slightly in-
avoided. If the cyclic control is
creased airspeed in the descent. For autorota- moved abrupt*
ly rearward, the main rotor blades
tions in light winds, low density altitude, or may flex
downward with sufficient force
light blade loading, best performance
tail boom.
to strike the
achieved from a slight decrease in normal air-
speed. Following this general procedure of
tilting airspeed to existing conditions, an avi- 5.5.
Hovering Above 10 Feet
atur can achieve approximately the same
glide Hovering above 10 feet may be considered a
angle in any set of circumstances and estimate calculated risk and
normally should be avoided
his touchdown point. For example, the best (See height velocity chart in
glide ratio operator's man-
(glide to rate of descent) for the uaL) When hovering above this
OH-13 or OH-23' without litters, in a no-wind
altitude, the
collective pitch angle of the
condition, is about 4 feet of blade is very high
forward glide to 1 If the engine should
foot of descent. Ideal fail, rotor rpm will fall
airspeed for minimum off rapidly.
descent is about 40 knots, or about Although collective pitch may be
1,200-feet- reduced immediately, altitude
per-minute rate of descent. Above and
may bo inade-
quate to regain sufficient
10 knots (the
specific airspeed for the OH-13 rpm for au unevent-
ful autorotative
and OH-23), the rate of
descent rapidly
landing. The rate of doseont
J in- is very
high and collective pitch must bo
plied rapidly and close to
the ground to cushion
the landing.
5.4. Fight Control Application of collective pitch to"

A helicopter transmission is

designed to
allow the main rotor to
rotate freely in its
ongmal direction if the
engine stops. At the 5.6. Crosswind Autorotative
-/? of engine Landing
failure, by immediately low-
collective pitch, the Crosswind autorotative
helicopter will begin landing can bo mado
to descend. Air will produce a by slipping the helicopter into the !
"ram" effect on wind
he rotor system cause of the loss of

and impact of the air

IihuidT- ii-vli M i tS

reduces the amount of remainintr

n*ht pedal *
travel. However, prior
a crosswind landing, the

'Stive turns, generally onlv th.

". ^o ^Cetrto

A0 H770A
TM 1-260

5.7. Vertical or Backward Descent rpm will be lostduring the initial part of the
Autorotation flare, but the loss will be regained as the flare
progresses.) Complete a modified flare aiitoro-
Vertical or backward descent aiitorotation
tation with slow forward speed.
may succeed when an engine fails under high
wind conditions directly over, or just upwind
Failure in Forward
of, the only available landing area. A 360 5.11. Antitorque System
turn may be unwise under such conditions be- Flight

cause of the danger of drifting away from the Ifthe antitorque system fails in flight, the
landing area. An altitude of at least 1,000 feet nose of the helicopter will usually pitch slightly
should exist before descending vertically or downward and yaw to the right. Violence of
backwards. The maneuver should last only and yaw is greater when a failure occurs
in the tail rotor blades, and usually is accom-
long enough to establish the desired angle of
yaw- and
descent into the area. Forward airspeed must panied by severe vibration. Pitching
the cyclic con-
be regained before landing; however, this al-
ing can be overcome by holding
trol near neutral and entering
ways results in a great loss of altitude and a
high rate of descent. Therefore, desired for- immediately. Cyclic control movements
ward airspeed should be completely regained at be kept to a minimum until all pitching sub-
n reasonable altitude above the ground. sides. Cautiously add power as required
continue flight to a suitable landing area, unless
5.8. Autorotation From High Speed Right attitudes are incurred. Re-
dangerous flight
duction of rotor rpm to the allowable minimum
If the engine fails at above normal cruising
rate to re- aid in overcoming an excessive forward
speed, execute a flare at a moderate
(nose-low) condition.
With effective
duce forward speed. The collective pitch stick C. G.
translational speed, the fuselage
remains fairly
should be in its lowest position as the flare is
is at-
An attempt to maintain the same well streamlined; however, if descent
completed. a con-
flight attitudewith cyclic causes the helicopter tempted at near zero airspeed, expect
tinuous turning movement to the left. Main-
to pitch up several seconds after collective pitch
Since more forward tain directional control primarily with cyclic,
stick has been lowered.
in aiitorotation, sufficient and secondarily, by gently applying
cyclic is required to the
might not be available to stop this with needles joined, to swing the nose
cyclic travel
movement if speed has not been
re- right. Landing may be made with forward
pitching will turn
The helicopter
duced, speed or by flaring.
during the flare and during subsequent
is unlikely if the
5.9. Autorotation at Low Altitude descent; however, damage
contact. The best
In the event of engine failure at low altitude helicopter is level at ground
and safest landing technique, terrain permit-
after takeoff, or while making an approach,
into the wind with at
lower the collective pitch control as much
as ting, is to land directly
an excessive rate least 20 knots airspeed.
possible without building up
the landing.
of descent. Apply pitch to cushion While
time Failure
At 10 feet altitude, there is seldom enough 5.12. Antitorque System
26 feet, it may be Hovering
to reduce collective pitch; at
col- hovering
reduced slightly; and at higher altitudes If the antitorque system fails in

lective pitch can usually be lowered

completely. aviator must act quickly .because the
flight, the
turning motion the helicopter builds up
5.10. Low Altitude Autorotation From High close the throttle (with-
Speed eliminate the
out varying collective pitch), to
at low altitude and on the heli-
If the engine should fail turning effect of engine torque
flare to momentarily
high airspeed, execute a copter. Simultaneously, adjust
the cyclic stick
forward speed
maintain altitude and to riow to stop all sideward or rearward
collective pitch, (borne
Simultaneously decrease
AGO 8770A
TM 1-260

landing. After ground contact, smoothly lower turning; to the right (or the opposite*
collective pitch. from which the main rotor is tuniiiur), and
hold this pedal position throughout thn rowt of
5.18. Antltorque Failure at Hover the maneuver. Allow the turn to projjrixws
least 90, then rotate the throttle into the
Antitorque failure may be experienced while
closed This will oliminiito ciiKine
hovering. To simulate antitorque failure, pro- position.
ceed as follows: torque eft'ect and cnuae tlio rate of turn to ilu-
n. Hover the
helicopter crosswind (wind
b. Complete the maneuver in th<>
from the aviator's right) at normal .sunu> man-
hovering ner as in autorotation from n hovor.
altitude. To simulate the loss of antitorque
Note. Antitorque failure;
control, apply right pedal to start the normally will | J(!

helicopter only in reconnaissance Juilicoptcvs.


5.19. Introduction
Note. This exorcise should !,c
.l(!,mi)li.sl,,.,l i

Practice exercises in this section before other annotation oxorclmw

are pre- nro inlrodiicoil,
sented in the training
designed to 5.21. Forced Landing
promote high proficiency in the
shortest pos- tor
Entry (Straight Ahead
sible time. Shortened Glide
a This exercise can bo
introduml inuno-
5.20. Forced ataly after completion of tho
Landing Entry (Straight Ahead exerdse (par. 6.20). Tho lo maximum '

tor Maximum Glide oxcrcis., buKi.u. w

Distance) the mstructor
splitting the nowlloH (th n

f ;1
e * ercise can be
1 "'"
introduced after the
*?** ^e exercise be-
reduction at cn.ise air S (!u d
tude havmg an
p am! < ;1 ,
open Held clonoln h w , , w
Jj (throttle
- requires a steep angle of
reduction) at cruise airspeed
nd eru, S e exercise to
altitude, with an open field ahead
correctly ,, or f rnu)d
-oqu,, maximum glide distance.
Pitch ia wduco
iS '' t a rato
Performed a,,,,,,, , otol. rpm ,, ^
mainta.ns rotor rprn in
Antitorque ix-dala m .

rp,,ition fl cl in
the the amount required to 1)rovoilt

(3) ( niise at tude is

chc control
maintained by
repositioning. slow cruiso
in a
8toep miglo of

(4) s th 6
fo , *K
"Pd reaches the value in
a " Ull
which wm,
OWC1 '
l "' so
.the exercise at this (5) The sJdl rtM tho " noo '

-" noint d
the needles
C"f ''
for a


***> power, an" rn -


TM 1-260

c. Discontinue the exerri.se at this point 5.23. Power

abovo), and execute a power recovery. Recovery
(7> (5) a. Power recovery
is a performance sequence
Assume an umilomtion attitude, add climb used to discontinue autorotation and reestab-
sower, and ropoHition the pedals for climb. AH lishnormal flight. In practice, it usually is
ihvspood approaehos the normal climb speed, used to establish a climb, although the same
i-otate to the normal climb .speed attitude.
procedure may be used to establish a cruise or
d, During mibwtjmmt dual periods, forced normal descent.
anding entries requiring maximum glido dis- b. The power recovery is correctly per-
;ance should bo alternated with those requiring formed when
diortonod glido distance. Now autorotation (1) The engine tachometer needle is near-
ixordses should not bo attempted until these ly joined to the rotor tachometer
;wo basic drills am perfected. needle by use of throttle (i.e., needles
joined loosely),
5.22. Forced Landing Entry (From Downwind (2) Airspeed is cross-checked, If airspeed
Heading With Turn) is below normal climb airspeed, rotate

attitude to an accelerating attitude

. This exerdso can bo introduced imme-
(usually to a normal takeoff attitude) .

liately aftor completion of the straight ahead

If airspeed is at or above normal climb
lutorotiitinn entry exorcises. Tho exercise be-
airspeed, rotate attitude to a normal
rinH with the instructor splitting the needles
climb attitude (usually the same as
[throttle reduction) at cruise airspeed and
slow cruise attitude) ,

iruiHo altitude, while Hying downwind and hav-

(3) Manifold pressure is increased to the
ng nn open field to the left or right.
published climb power setting by in-
b. Tho exorcise in properly accomplished creasing collective pitch and adding
vhon .
throttle (bending wrist outward) to

Collective pitch is reduced at a rate

maintain normal rpm.
that will maintain rotor rpm. (4) A steady state climb is established
with cross-checks to climb attitude,
(2) Antitorquo pedals arc roposltioned in climb airspeed, climb pedal setting,
the amount required to prevent yaw.
and normal rpm; the climb is routed
(8) Cruise attitude is held during opera- over the best terrain and clear of
tions (1) and (2) above, other traffic.

(4) A normal bank is entered (left or Caution: Do not join the needles at
right) with lateral cyclic control hold- an excessively high rpm, which causes
ing cruise attitude. an engine overrev. Do not increase
As the bank is established, the atti- pitch so rapidly as to reduce rotor
tude is changed to slow cruise, provid- rpm below normal operating limits. A
for turning smooth control touch and coordination
ing deceleration lift
of all control action is essential.
c. The exercise is completed upon the rota- 5.24. Termination With Power
ion of attitude at 6(5) above without regard (t. Termination with power is an exercise
o the degree of turn accomplished. Discon- Sequence used to terminate an autorotation at
inue the exercise by removing bank and mak- a hover (over open terrain, where prior ap-
ng a power recovery. proval is granted).
b, The terminate-with-power exercise is cor-
d. In subsequent dual periods, all three en-

ry exercises should be given at least once dur- rectly performed when

At 100 feet, the needles are joined
ng each period, so as to develop split second (1)
loosely (engine and rotor tachometei
ccuracy in performing each of these nutoro-
needles are nearly joined) .

ation entry maneuvers,

TM 1-260

(2) The attitude is smoothly rotated to a tie is eased off to cause the needles to
normal decelerating attitude or level split.)
landing attitude. (4) An oral cross-check is made, includ-
(3) At approximately 15 to 25 feet, mani- ing the actual airspeed and rotor rpm
fold pressure is increased to arrive at in the green (or yellow, as the case
the accepted hovering height by in- may be) .

creasing collective pitch and adding (5) Attitude is rotated to the slow cruise
throttle so as to hold normal rpm. attitude.
(4) The decelerating or landing attitude Note. Procedures (3), (4), and ( 6 ) f11*
and heading are held until all forward accomplished slowly and smoothly in some
motion is stopped. helicopters; in others, the order is changed
to combine (3) and (5), with accom-
(5) A stationary hover is established. plished last.

5.25. Basic Automation (6) With collective pitch positioned to

a. The basic autorotation is a by-the-num-
maintain rotor rpm in the grcon
(usually on the down stop), slow
bers (1-2-3) drill. It is a basic exercise which
is preplanned and programed
cruise attitude is cross-checked and
throughout. Any held with the helicopter aligned
deviation from the programed basic autorota- par-
tion sequence published for a particular heli-
allel to the touchdown lane. Tho noso
tend to lower as airspeed ap-
copter will result in something other than a
basic nuto rotation. proaches the slow cruise value, re-
quiring cyclic repositioning rearward
b. This maneuver has
great training value to hold the slow cruise attitude
and should be performed steady.
(unassisted) by all Note, The center of attotntion
students prior to solo. Since the basic autoro- must bo on
attitude control throughout the maneuver;
tation is programed throughout and includes
a cross-check everything elsu outward from
landing on a large smooth area which permits this reference center.
a touchdown with a variable With
ground it is
run, (7) airspeed just reaching slow
unsuitable for introduction work in cruise at
forced approximately 100 foot, an
landings and autorotations. oral cross-check is
Therefore, the made, calling 1

basic autorotation is
usually introduced 'after "Airspeed ), rotor in
the student is proficient in the
forced landing green, throttle to override."
entry series, the power recovery, and the ter-
(8) At 100 feet (if the
mination with power. ffroundspeocl in not
too slow and provided
c. The basic airspeed is nt
autorotation is correctly accom- slow cruise or
higher), tho attitude ia
plished when rotated toward the normal decelera-
(1) At flight altitude, tion or level
usually 700 feet, a landing attitude,
turn to final At the agreed height
approach leg is accom- (9)
Pished, resulting in a good
(usually 10 to
20 feet), an initial collective,
steady altitude, and cruise
pitch ap-
airspeed. plication is made in the
(2) Just prior to
amount and
entry, a slip is estab- at a rate that will bo
felt as added lift.
lished if
necessary for crosswind cor- Not* For helicopters

rection with requiring- ft Jiowi

final check on airspeed decelerating tho no.o I
and altitude. hjh to tho level attitude,
tated ro .
landing attitude, nt U.l

cruise '' P sitive collec ';i vo

attitude, with pitch is
pedals lied h
repositioned to prevent
y aw nent.
(The wr, S t bent inward This will
radco "the'
;s during the "of
collect^ pitch reduction descent and cause
so as to the helicopter to nl.
maintain normal most parallel the ground
rpm; then the throt- for a touch-
down two
helicopter length* ahoad

TM 1-260

Collective pitch is used in a manner back side, and inside of the precision glideslope.
to cause light ground contact of the
Before considering each of these entry points in
wheels or skid gear, and then to grad- detail, some important general

add the full helicopter weight to be remembered are these:

on the landing gear. (1) The best precision airspeed range as
shown in figure 5.2 is 30 to 40 miles
(12) The fuselage parallel to and over
per hour. When plotted in profile,
the center line of the lane throughout
a ground airspeed range becomes the precision
(9) and (10) above, yielding
run of from one to five helicopter glideslope or the cone of precision.

lengths, depending upon the prevail- (2) The main effort in performing the
ing atmospheric conditions. precision autorotation is to intercept
and stay inside the precision glide-
slope. At positions 1, 2, 4, 5,
and 6,
5.26. Precision Automation
the precision glideslope must be inter-
a. The precision autorotation to a predeter- then a
cepted as soon as possible;
mined spot landing is a highly skilled maneu-
students or steady state 30 to 40 miles per hour
ver, usually performed by advanced
airspeed is established and tested,
perfected in postgraduate training. Procedures slow cruise attitude.
holding a
vary in each type helicopter. Information the circle of
in is applicable to the observation-type helicop- (3) Point CA (fig. 5.3) is

action or the point of collision (which

ter; however, portions of this information may
is two or three helicopter lengths
be applied to all helicopters.
short of the touchdown), where (to
b. A
study of the autorotation chart in figure the eye) the helicopter would hit the
6.2, which shows rates of descent
for the vari-
ground if collective pitch were not
ous airspeeds for steady state autorotation, will
to applied.
give the basic information for introduction
autoro- (4) For recognition purposes, the entry
precision autorotation, The acceptable
area between positions 4 and 5 can be
tation airspeed range for the various models of
considered as the entry position of the
observation helicopters ranges from 30 to 70
this range familiar basic autorotation.
miles per hour. Note that, in speed
the minimum change of.airspeed with maxi- (B) The precision autorotation flight en-
mum change in rate of descent occurs between velope ends at 100 feet. A basic type
30 to 40 miles per hour airspeeds; therefore, termination can be made thereafter to
this is the best precision range. An aviator
in a touchdown at point TD (fig. 5.3),
provided the airspeed is at or
a steady state autorotation at 35 miles per hour
may advance or retreat the point of ground con- 30 miles per horn- and the roie of des-
tact by increasing or decreasing the airspeed by cent is normal. During practice^ it is
5 miles per hour. Airspeeds of less than
30 advisable to make power recoveries at
miles per hour yield high rates of descent. 100 feet for a go-around to the next
of position exercise. This will permit
Therefore, during practice exercises, speeds
less than 30 miles per hour are restricted
to complete series to be covered in 1

altitudes over 200 feet.

Exact attitudes must be used through-
diagram similar to the one shown
A in (6)
manual out the exercises. The center of at-
figure 5,2 is available in the operator's
for each type and model helicopter. A study of
tention is split between attitude and
this diagram will disclose the precision autoro-
the circle of action point. All other
references such as airspeed, rotor
tation parameters for the particular helicopter.
rpnij etc., are read in cross-check,
d. Figure 5.3 shows eight example entry
These (7) The airspeed values and restrictions
points for the precision autorotation.
front side, of the height velocity diagram must be
entry points show positions on the

AGO 8770A 5.9

Ifrt t-QV



5 10 15 20 25 3
45^m; 75 80 85




TM I-26Q


60 5





TD -

observation-type helicopter.
Figure 5.3. Airspeed/line of descent profile for typical

Hold the flare until the airspeed

scaled up to comply with the perform- (c)
ance charts of larger helicopters. goes through 15 miles per
then slowly lower the attitude at a
Height velocity diagrams are based on hour
rate so as to meet miles per
a standard day, and the envelopes
reading with a slow cruise
or hover-
must be expanded in proportion to in-
ing attitude.
creasing density altitude.
(d) Settle vertically; a headwind will
&. Exercises for performing the precision rearward movement.
cause a slight
autorotation from positions 1 through 8 in fig-

(e) When it appears that the helicopter

ure 5.3 are as follows:
is about to intercept the precision
(1) Position no, 1. glicleslope, lower attitude smoothly
no. 1, the
(a) In the area of position to a point below the normal accel-
touchdown (TD) point appears to eration attitude.
be almost vertical to the student.
the airspeed reaches 30 to 1O
At cruise airspeed and at 700 feet,
(6) miles per hour, rotate to a slow
into the wind, when the throttle is
cruise attitude.
collective pitch, hold
cut, lower of action (CA)
(</) Watch the circle
heading, and flare promptly stop- of overshooting
point for evidence
ping all forward motion (gaining
or undershooting.
altitude if possible) .

TM 1-260


If undershooting lower attitude to

, (c) As tho airspeod approarh<\4 ,10 (
gain 5 miles per hour; then return miles per hour (dopandiiiK upon
attitude to slow cruise (for further headwind efi'oct on
reading of the CA point). lower attitude to tho alow
(0 If

overshooting , raise attitude to titude for sttuuly atato

lose 5 miles per hour; then return and proceed as in (//) through
attitude to slow cruise (for further of position no. I cxcrtHHti, above.
reading of the CA point). (4) Position no. 4.
(/) At 100 feet, if airspeed is 40 miles In the area of position no.
(a) -I, (| to
per hour greater, terminate as in a student ostimatda that hu in
basic autorotation for a just
landing at short of the prociaion
the TD point.
(6) At cruise aiivspood and at 700
(&) At 100 feet, if airspeed is 30 miles feet,
when the throltla \ r.ut, l<nvoi' i;ol'
per hour, hold slow cruise attitude
lective pitch, hold hoadln^, and
to approximately 60 rfc-
feet; then ro- celemta smoothly.
tate to the normal deceleration TJiIw wMI cmiao n
level lifting up to tlio pivrei.skHi glitlc-
landing attitude.
(1) Touchdown on TD point as in basic
(c) As the airspeed approach^
autorotation touchdown. ,'!(} to 4 ft
miles per hour
Note. In reading the
precision Hue of des- (dopondiiut NJJOJI t!i
cent m (/) through (i) above, observation of
headwind c/Tcct on KTOuml.spml)
the CA point is reliable
only when the atti-
lower attitude t< tho alow
orui.so at-
is. at slow
cruise and when a steady titude, fora stondy .stato autorotn-
state autorotation is
progress (no decel- tion, and proceed as in ( ff )
acceleration), thnnigh
ot position no. T
(2) Position no. 2. ox(iric, above.
Exorcise no, 4 in tho oxmn|ilo to
() In the area of
position no. 2, the
student estimates that
he is almost
beyond the precision (5) Position no. .7.
(o) At cruise airspeed and () In the nrcii of
at 700 feet positi,,,, , l( , r ,, |c
when the throttle is studont ostimatos tluit
cut, lower col' h is wll
Active mtch, hold short of tlio precision
heading, and
ffltdcloim (tit
approximnte position whoro n

a arent ljft cn -
?f S'onndspied
miles per At cruise nirspoecl
hour, tower atti-
the slow enHsB
nncl ut 700 foot
attitude. when the trottlo i
(The airspeed will cut, lovyor C(>ll ec .'

now be equal to Kl
the wind ! !l
hokl llc
velocity.) !', !
attitude for boat
(rf) Settle
vertically and continue as in
(e) through of position no
exercise, above.
(3) Position no. 3

Th ,

Wi11 COU8
up to tho !".
precision glidoslo.
glideslope. As aiMpeod
approaches 30
to 40


TM 1-260

can be made
basic type termination
(6) Position no.
at the TD point.
no. 6, the
(a) In the area of position
is almost Position no. 8.
student estimates that he (8)
of the identical to position
too far back for interception (a) This exercise is

that the entry

precision glideslope. no 7 exercise except
(b) He proceeds as in position no.
5 ex-
is set up farther
away from the pre-
ot was at no.
ercise with possible interception cision glideslope
than it
the precision glideslope 7.
line of descent.
appears to be
down the to
(M The line of descent
(7) Position no. 7. a point 100 feet (or
more) short of
no. 7, the
(a) In the area of position the normal CA point.
cannot in-
student estimates that he distance attitude and
(c) Holding best
cept the precision glideslope. 25 to 30 feet, execute
trim down to
(b) At cruise airspeed and at 700
flare which is regulated
col- a full
when the throttle is cut, lower rota-
and hold heading and rate and amount of attitude
lective pitch,
arrive at the TD point
distance. tion, so as to
cruise attitude for best
to be a at the end of the
(c) The line of descent appears to 16
to settle
the CA point. Allow the helicopter
spot well short of (d)
feet, begin
a 20 feet, apply initial
(d) At approximately 100 to
convert- attitude to level
smooth lifting deceleration, pitch, rotate
This will change and apply a firm posi-
ing speed to lift. ing attitude,
the 111 in the amount
the line of descent toward tive collective pitch
to cushion
point. and at a rate necessary
and amount
(e) By regulating the rate the landing.
of deceleration from
100 feet on, a


A.GO 8710A
TM 1-260




(2) On the ground on the immediate up-

6,1. Basic Considerations
wind side of any solid barrier such as
For the purpose of this discussion, a. confined
leafy trees, buildings, etc. This
area any area where the flight of the helicop-
is tion is not generally dangerous unless
ter is limited in some direction by terrain or the the wind velocity is approximately 17
presence of obstructions, natural or manmade. knots or higher.
For example, a clearing in the woods, the top of In the air, over and slightly down-
a mountain, the slope of a hill, or the deck of a wind of any sizable barrier, such as a
ship can each be regarded as a confined area. hill, the size of the barrier and the
a. Talceoffs and Landings. Takeoffs and wind velocity determine the height to
landings should generally be made
into the which the turbulence extends.
wind to obtain maximum airspeed with mini- (4) At low altitudes on bright sunny days
mum groundspeed. Situations may
arise which near the border of two dissimilar
this general rule, types of ground, such
as the edge of a
modify sod (fig.
Turbulence is denned as ramp or runway bordered by
b. Turbulence, of turbulence is caused
6.2} This type

smaller masses of air moving in any direction

Barriers by the upward and'downward passage
contrary to that of the larger airmass. of heated or cooled air.
on the ground and the ground itself may inter-
fere with the smooth flow of air. This
6.2. Reconnaissance
ference is transmitted to -Upper air levels
as be con-
A high and low reconnaissance should
Therefore, an unfamiliar area.
larger but less intense disturbances. ducted prior to landing in
the greatest turbulence usually is found
at low
a High Reconnaissance. The purpose
of a
in wind
altitudes. Gusts are sudden variation reconnaissance is to determine
velocity. Normally, gusts
are dangerous only locate barriers and esti-
of the landing area,
in slow flight at very low altitudes.
The aviator a for touch-
mate their wind effect, select point
cessation and
may be unaware of the gust, and its down, and plan the flightpath for approach
reduce airspeed below that required
and pattern for
the higK
may takeoff. Altitude flight

Gusts cannot be planned

for or wind and terraiix
sustain flight. reconnaissance is governed by
however, can general- of forced-land-
anticipated. Turbulence, features, including availability
will be found in the should be low
ly be predicted, Turbulence ins areas. The reconnaissance
velocity exceeds
to permit study of the general
area yet
following places when wind enough be-
not so low that attention
must be divided
and avoidmg bst <~-

downwind tween studying the area

(1) Near the ground on the be high enough to af-
or hills. The tions to flight. It should
side of trees, buildings, of making a successful
relative in ford a reasonable chance
turbulent area is always
forced landing in an emergency, yet
not so high
and rela-
size to that of the obstacle, cannot be studied ade-
the velocity of the that the proposed area
tive in intensity to
wind (fig. 6,1).

TM 1-260

b. Low Reconnaissance. final part of an aproach to a pinnacle or ridge-

(1) Except when a running landing is
c. Approach flightpath is usually parallel to
necessary, the low reconnaissance and
a ridgeline and as nearly into the wind as
approach can often be conducted to-
gether. To accomplish this, the avia-

tor studies his approach path and the Caution: Remain clear of downdrafts on the
immediate vicinity of his selected leeward or downwind side (B, fig. 6.3). If wind
touchdown point as he approaches; velocity makes erosswind landing hazardous,

however, before loss of effective trans- make a low coordinated turn into the wind just
lational lift, he must decide whether prior to landing.
the landing can be completed success- rf. In approaching a pinnacle, avoid leeward
fully. Never land in an area from turbulence and keep the helicopter within
which a successful takeoff cannot be of a forced landing area as long as practicable.
made, than immediate
e. Since a pinnacle is higher

(2) When a running landing; is contem- surrounding terrain, gaining airspeed

on take-
plated because of load or high density altitude. The
off is more important than gaining
altitude conditions, a "fly-by" type of airspeed gained will cause
a more rapid depar-
low reconnaissance is made. Airspeed ture from the of the pinnacle. In addi-
a high-
is adequate to maintain effective tion to covering unsafe ground quickly,
translational lift at an altitude suffi- er airspeedaffords a more favorable glide angle
cient to clear all obstacles and allow and thus contributes to the chances of reaching
If no
the aviator to concentrate on terrain a safe area in the event of forced landing.
The intended landing area will
features. suitable area is available, a higher airspeed
to execute a flare and
should be checked for obstacles and/or permit the aviator
or to autorotative
obstructions in the approach path crease forward speed prior
on the landing site; and the point of landing.
intended touchdown must be selected.
6.4. Over Barriers
(3) Upon completion of the low reconnais- Operation
where obstructions
altitude is regained and the ap- a In entering an area
sance, turbulence and ad-
executed accord- interrupt smooth windflow,
proach and landing
jacent regions of
calm air near the ground must
ing to plan. the suitability of
be considered. In determining
allowance must be made for abrupt
Pinnacle and Ridgeline Operations the area,
6.3. under these
the ground variations of lift often encountered
A pinnacleis an area from which
drops away steeply on all sides. ridgeline A is a
b Proper planning of
the approach over a
drops away
long area from which the ground of existing:
such as a bluit or barrier should include evaluation
steeply on one or two sides,
of forced landing
of barriers does wind conditions, availability
precipice. The absence pinnacle and relative
of pinnacle areas near the approach route,
not necessarily lessen the difficulty to be cleared. It may
downdrafte, height of the obstacle
operations (fig. 6.3). Updrafts, haz- to make a erosswind ap-
often be advantageous
and turbulence may still present extreme m
lack of suitable area proach and/or landing.
ards, together with the
should be as far be-
which to make a forced landing. c Point-of-touchdown
as practicable to
to a pinnacle or ridgeline
is ex-
yond the barrier
a, The climb
when too steep. I he
side of the area against the approach
ecuted on the windward however, should be
final stages of the approach,
advantage of any updiafte
practicable, to take conducted short of downdrafte
and turbulence
end of the
(A, fig. 6.3).
which may be encountered at the far
conditions and ter-
b. Load, altitude, wind area.
to use in the
rain features determine the angle
AGO 81 10 A
TM 1-260

i *xi

3r*\ ftm
\A^\ x

S ' Ce
ShouM be con raiffht W*- iwwwa
marC D ,

A 00
TM 1-260

st be kept as shallow as barrier clearance because of the possibility of striking the tail
1 permit. Clearing a barrier by a narrow rotor on the ground.

rgin with reserve power is better than clear- e. If an uphill landing (fig. 6.4) is necessary,

it by a wide margin using maximum power,

: landing too near the bottom of the slope may
cause the tail rotor to strike the ground.
Slope Operations To from a slope, move cyclic con-
/. takeoff
%, When a helicopter is resting on a slope,
troltoward the slope and slowly add collective
3 rotor mast is perpendicular to the inclined The downhill skid must first be raised to
t'face. However, assuming zero wind condi- in a level attitude before
place the helicopter
ais, the plane of the main rotor parallels the it vertically to a hover.
.ie horizontal for vertical takeoff or landing,
d thus is tilted with respect to the mast, 6.6. General Precautions
'die control available for this tilt is limited Certain general rules apply to operations
the OH-13, for example, by the swash plate of confined area (inclosed, slope, or
the swash
any type
justment. Maximum travel of
Some of the more important of these
pinnacle) .

ate (OH-13) is approximately 8 forward, rules are
t,and 6^. laterally. The rotor hits its static and approximate
cables a Know wind direction
ops at about a 7 flap, but dynamic stop Plan landings and takeoff s
de- velocity at all
n-mally prevent static-stop engagement by knowledge in mind.
with this
easing effective cyclic control at approximate- and
A slope of 5 (about 8 feet of
rise b Plan the flightpath, both for approach
5 of flap.
takeoff, so as to take
maximum advantage of
100 feet of run) is considered maximum
forced-landing areas.
)rmal operation of most helicopters.
as near to its nor-
to a slope is not materially c Operate the helicopter
b. The approach the situation allows. The
land- mal capabilities as
from the approach to any other that
should be no steeper than
Allowance must be made for wind, angle of descent
ig area. barriers and o land
the necessary to clear existing
arders, and forced-landing sites. Since
on a preselected spot. Angle
of climb takeoff m
to wind
.ope may constitute an obstruction than that necessary to
must be should be no steeper
assage, turbulence and downdrafts clear all barriers in
the takeoff path.
d If low hovering is not made hazardous by
If a helicopter is equipped with the effect of turbulence
the terrain, to minimize
be set prior to mak- the helicopter should
Hiding gear, brakes must made and to conserve power,
iig- a landing.
The landing is then usually than normal when
overed at a lower altitude
With skid-type High grot or weeds
v, 1
jading upeloj* (par. 8.6ff). in a confined area.
be made cross-slope. effect but
ear, slope landings should decrease efficiency
of the ground
and posi- off from the ground
his type landing requires a
; delicate
hovering low or taking
must be low- this loss of ground
ive control touch. The helicopter
Ted from the true vertical by
paS compensate for
,kld on the ground first.
The to a specific point not
e Make every landing
;hen lowered gently to the area. The more confined
nJre" into a general
:yclic control is applied
simu essential that the helicopter
Nmmal ?he area, the more
point a definite point. The
:he helicopter on the landing be landed precisely upon
until the landing he kept in sight during
operating rpm is maintained landing point must
If the aviator runs
out of cyclic during the more
is completed. final abroach, particularly
LSbef ore the downhill skid
is too steep and
critical final phase.
increases ^
ground, the slope Consideration should
be given
/. o ig-
attempt should be discontinued. in terrain elevation
between the point of
recom- areas of operation,
6.4) is not
d. Landing downhill (fig. takeoff and subsequent
rotor type hehcopteis
mended with single 6.5

AGO 8710A

>'''' imToase in elevation

' ou anceniustai -

;:; '
'"'' vei CIt >
variations caused ,, T

main ,,
l '1 1 '1 - 1
'"it re

to the t
approach fora con-
M '-^ fora

' - -
- I' j 4-1.* /I SV-^l lr> I
winning- landingO
o be leve],

tall ,,,(,, fk
TM 1-260



7.1. Preflight Inspection during hovering. During the initial portion of

Since defects easily detected in daylight will night checkout, a tendency for the helicopter to
drift, and difficulty in maintaining directional
often escape attention at night, a night pre-
control and hovering altitude, will be noticed.
must be especially precise and
fiight inspection
These cii'cumstances require additional atten-
complete, A
flashlight is used for the inspection
tion, as follows :
if no better illumination is available. Night

inspection is identical to daylight inspection a. Normally conduct hovering with the land-
except that special emphasis is given to the in- ing light ON. However, a more experienced
spection of position lights, landing lights, cock- helicopter aviator can hover the OH-13 in the
pit lights, and instrument lights. When avail- illumination provided by the position lights.
able, an auxiliary power unit (APU) is used to The lighting, though not bright, is sufficient if
The the hover is kept below 5 feet. Determination of
start the engine. preflight is carried out as
follows : groundspeed and drift is difficult in the dimmer
light, but experience and practice will add to
a. Turn on position lights before starting en-
visual skill. Avoid staring at any fixed point to
gine. Keep these lights on while the engine is
prevent vertigo. (See chapter 3, TM 1-215, for
operating, until the rotor has stopped and been
a detailed discussion of vertigo.)
secured at the end of the flight. If the helicopter
must be parked in the landing area, leave the b, Cross-check frequently with two or more
position lights ON
as a warning to other air- outside reference points. Night landings from
craft operating in the area. Check position a hover are like their companion daylight land-
lights frequently during helicopter night ings, except that greater caution is required to
operations. prevent the helicopter from drifting.
6. Adjust the landing light to obtain the best
7.3. Takeoff Technique
results for the maneuver to be performed. The
landing light used for most helicopter opera-
is Before executing a night takeoff, select dis
tions at altitudes below approximately 200 feet. tant reference points to aid in maintaining th
A proposed flightpath during the climb. Use no

temporary reduction in night vision will be

noticeable when the landing light is turned off. mal takeoff procedures whenever possible. U
Use the light with discrimination in haze or Hhe landing light except for "light failure" dea
fog; its effect is considerably reduced by re- onstrations. Anticipate temporary loss of nign
flection, vision when the light is turned off, Pay special
attention to airspeed and altimeter readings
Warning: Use care when operating the land-
during all night operations.
ing light in areas where other helicopters are
operating. The light may temporarily blind
7.4. Approach Technique
another aviator if pointed directly at him.
. Use the normal approach at night, con-
7,2. Hovering Technique ducting the .last 100 feet of the approach at a
The landing light beam provides adequate-an. slightly reduced airspeed and rate of descent to
ly lighted area in front of the helicopter for obtain a time safety margin in which actual al-
drift reference and for observing obstructions titude above the ground can be determined if

AGO, 8770A 7.1

TM 1-26-3

is inoperative. Other than

hes may bo required for un-
nia(!o;Ii m vcv,.(', riir .smu.!,.,,
in other special circum- ' l

bcsliu'ldod \vflJi ii.'i-r.iriil.'.

JM'OVOIlt pufl fill.' Ifn'MI ,M|[
f.- Do not rely completely on the al-
H'n close (o (he
ground. (6) Tho approach |j >v f,[. wli.-u i.v.ji,,,, ,

i"ilwin K poi n t s should be mounted on n iiiiiv,.|-..,:,J 1

remem- rni m j!
nuking a /tight approach; Permits mlj. W |i,,rnl ;i I',,,,,, '

,,,, [''

the tactical situation

permits, l. inj.Kun. if 1
J'fiM is used during all

Wht. TJuM,
%lits of the OH-13 afford
*see the ground tor ffrnsn, anil
>p !,,,,,/, ;,,!,,,.
U,, hoMo IM
, f^

1 ''


7-1). Who tI ;
1|)Jlm;iHl n l

may se a fl as h-
the point of
awator. He should point
dlr ection
at a 45'
towai-d the in " =^^ lh(il "*'" l '

TM 1-260

c. An aviator may experience difficulty in er fuselage attitude. Low altitude and contour
properly executing the approach, for the fol- flights may be
flown with the landing light ON
lowing reasons : and adjusted to the best possible angle.
(1) Overshooting- the landing point be-
7.7. Forced Landings
cause of failure to reduce the rate of
descent and forward airspeed. Every attempt should be made to become fa-
miliar with the terrain over which night flights
(2) Undershooting- the landing point be-
are made. If an emergency autorotative landing
cause of reduction in airspeed too
and failure to compensate
is necessary, normal daylight procedure is fol-
with collective pitch to check the rate lowed, using the landing light during the latter
of descent. As a result, the helicopter phase of the descent to observe obstructions and
select a landing area. In night antorotation,
settles almost vertically.
prescribed airspeed is maintained until terrain
(3) Staring at the approach light too long, detail becomes discernible, to afford some choice
causing loss of perspective, and conse- of landing- point. Excessive nose-high attitude,
becoming disoriented.
quently, as in a flare, with the lauding light set at or
near 5 will result in temporary loss of ground
7.5. Autorotations
Night autorotations are performed in exact-
ly the same manner as those in daylight (eh. 5) , 7.8. Crosswincf Considerations
but greater concentration is required of the When and approaches are
possible, takeoffs
aviator. The landing light should be turned on made generally into the wind; however, they
about 200 feet ab.ove the ground. Eyes must be must occasionally be made crosswind. Proce-
kept in motion. Drift corrections must not be dures for crosswind takeoffs and approaches
neglected by concentrating too intently on ap- are as follows:
plying pitch. Proper perspective must be re-
a. During the initial portion of the takeoff,
tained at all times.
keep the fuselage aligned with the ground
track. Once the climb lias been established, crab
7.6, Poor Visibility
the helicopter into the wind.
Discretion must be used in deciding whether
or not to make under poor visibility con- 6. Use crab and/or slip during early stages
ditions. If during a flight the horizon becomes of the crosswind approach. During the final
probably be hazardous but stage of approach, use slip only to align
invisible, flight will the
may be continued if necessary and if sufficient fuselage with the ground track. This places
helicopter in a more advantageous position
ground lights are available as reference points.
If the horizon is not visible before takeoff, the
the event of a forced landing, and affords better

should not be attempted. Helicopters that

view of the landing area. Crabbing at low alti-
tude and airspeed may render a successful
lack instrument flying equipment require con-
forced landing difficult or even impossible.
stant outside visual reference to maintain prop-

TM 1-260



8.1. General Precautionary Rules

wi. Never perform acrobatic maneuvers.
Because of its unique a
flight characteristics, n. When-flying in rough, gusty air, use spe-
helicopter is capable of missions no other
many cial care to maintain proper rpm.
aircraft can perform. A helicopter aviator o. Always clear the area overhead, ahead, to
must, however, realize the hazards involved in each side, and below before entering practice
helicopter flight and know how to apply pre- autorotations.
cautions which might save the helicopter or
p. Avoid engine overspeeding" beyond the
even his life. He should
manufacturer's recommendations. This limit
Always check ballast prior to flying. is usually several hundred rpm over the red

b. Assure that any object placed in the cock- line. If exceeded, an engine inspection is re-

pit of a helicopter is well secured to prevent quired to determine damage and, in some cases,
fouling of the controls. the engine must be replaced.

c. Caution approaching or departing- passen- q. Avoid low level flight and contour flying,

gers of main rotor/tail rotor dangers at all except to meet mission requirements.
times during ground operations, especially on
slopes or uneven terrain. Personnel carrying 8.2. Rotor Rpm Operating Limits
Jong objects such as pipe, wood, tripods, etc., Limits of rotor rpm vary with each type of
should not be allowed to approach a helicopter helicopter.In general, the lower limit is deter-
whose rotor blades are turning, because of the mined primarily by the control characteristics
danger of these objects striking the rotor of the helicopter during autorotation. Since the
blades. tail rotor is driven by the main rotor, a mini-

d. Always taxi slowly. mum rotor rpm exists at which tail rotor thrust
is insufficient for proper control. For example,
e. Maintain proper rpm when taxiing.
flight tests in the OH-13 disclose this minimum
/. Always hover for a moment before begin- to be at 260 rpm, so that a safety factor of 110
ning a new flight. percent of 260 (286 rpm) is set as minimum
ff.Avoid hovering above 10 feet (see height rpm. The upper limit of 360 rpm (OH-13) j s
velocity diagram in operator's handbook) . based upon both autorotative characteristics
fi. Be especially careful to maintain proper and strength of the rotor system, and is the re-
sult of structural failure tests plus an adequate
rpm when practicing hovering turns, sideward
flight, and similar low airspeed maneuvers. margin required by FAA safety standards, .

i. Use caution when hovering on the lee side

of buildings or obstructions.
8.3. Engine Rpm Operating Limits
, Engine rpm limits are ba.sed on the
j. Never check magnetos in flight. on operation of the helicopter. Maximum engine
k. Use caution when adjusting mixture in rpm is established by the engine manufacturer
flight. and substantiated by FAA-type tests which re-
I. Develop and use a constant cross-check for veal the rpm at which engine performance is
carburetor heat, pressures, temperatures, and considered most efficient while driving a rotor
fuel quantity. system at its design rpm. Minimum engine rpm
AGO 8770A
.- to insure satisfactory ter has been <>X|>I>HI>I] I*. IV
.speed characteristics, and A partially do,o:'d i r fW.'
range of several foJd prowurn In (li,.
( .,.im
The mini- /

in its effect
,- -, At a constant
airspeed, a decrease in en-
increased forward ..
f- -4t high speed with an aft s of ""'bnntlor
ideation, the aviator is more
f forward w;* of r ,,, n m '

cyclic control with

f 't lu- rpm.
Minimum rpm

renter-of-gravity limit, hor-

Xl >- nd top speed. in
/ o \
I *Mmii
w a
compromise of
y limit and

was inJ

. rh, ;

arbm-etor heat i.s (ho N<m(


(OH-13 ating- range.


^ Carburetor Ah- >r
/r "'7"-r
carburetor -Hi- *

*'< 11 ' <


.. X(IH||)J t *
& >e en arc; fty
vi jjW.S


_ 3(J)1 t
) -

(' ( iiHI

TM 1-260

b. A helicopter should not be loaded so as to lective pitch. The pitch should be in the FULL
cause an extreme tail-low attitude when taking DOWN position as the flare is completed at
off to a hover. Aft center of gravity is dan- best glide airspeed.
gerous while hovering and even more danger-
ous while in flight because of limited forward 8.8. Operations With

travel of the cyclic stick.

and Low Ceiling Conditions
By reducing speed to the limits of visibility,
c. Heavy loading forward of the center of
and remaining in effective translational lift so
gravity should be avoided. Limited aft travel
that a rapid deceleration may be executed if
of the cyclic stick results, endangering con-
an obstacle appears in the flight path, flight can
be continued until ceiling and visibility ap-
d. Extreme nose-low attitude should be proach zero. The aviator must, however, be
avoided when executing a normal takeoff. Such aware of the hazards of downwind flight at low
an attitude may require more power than the altitudes under these conditions. Whenever
engine can deliver and will allow the helicopter further flight appears hazardous, an aviator
to settle to the ground in an unsafe landing at- can execute a landing (vertical if necessary)
titude. In the event of a forced landing, only and remain on the ground until further flight is
a comparatively level attitude can assure a safe possible.
touchdown. Note. An instrument qualified. aviator in a properly
equipped helicopter may receive a clearance and con-
e.Rearward cyclic control should never be
tinue the flight under actual instrument conditions.
abruptly applied. The violent backward-pitch-
ing action of the rotor disc may cause the main 8.9. in Precipitation
rotor blades to flex downward into the tail
boom. a. Rain and Snow. Light rain and snow
have comparatively little effect on the helicop-
/. Large or unnecessary movements of the ter and flight can usually be continued. How-
cyclic control should be avoided while at a ever, heavy rain and snow have an abrasive
hover. Such movements of the cyclic control effect on the rotor blades and flight should be
can cause sufficient loss of lift, under certain discontinued during heavy rain or snow.
conditions, to make the helicopter inadvertently
settle to the ground.
b. Hail. Hail, the most serious type of pre-
cipitation from an abrasive standpoint, should
g. When executing 360 hovering turns in be avoided by skirting- weather areas where
winds of 13 knots or more, of the heli-
the tail hail is likely. If hail t's encountered during
copter will rise when the downwind portion of flight, a landing- should be made as soon as pos-
the turn is reached. When this happens, if the sible and the helicopter inspected for damage.
rear cyclic control limit is exceeded, the heli-
G. Freezing Rain.
copter will accelerate forward, and a landing
must be made immediately. (1) Freezing rain is the most dangerous
type of precipitation encountered. Ice
8.7. High Speed Autorotations quickly forms on the bubble, and com-
plete loss of vision through the bubble
When entering autorotations at high air-
can be expected as the ice thickens.
speeds, the nose pitches upward after collective
By looking to the side or jettisoning
pitch is lowered. With an aft center of gravity, the door, the aviator may retain
this condition can become critical by having
insufficient forward cyclic control to effect
enough visibility to effect a safe land-
recovery. (A large amount of forward cyclic
control is used even in recovery of a well-bal- Warning; An aviator should never
stare through a bubble on which ice
anced helicopter.) To avoid losing forward
is forming; a loss of sence of direction
cyclic control, a moderate flare must
be ex-
ecuted with a simultaneous reduction of col- and movement may result.

AGO B770A 8.3

l^'im'.iti'.'n of fee on the rotor blades per cubic fool, it i

vi--,- 4*iN unbalanced condition and a rotor blades at a

/!~!Lj|'Ej'on of streamlined airflow. The pitch. Tho mi.supi
. -'jliant loss of airfoil symmetry may from tho thiminr air
.('.;: the centei- of pressure to mi- is availably V
y.^r- a- the angle of attack changes, vertical doscmil, nin;
-Hiring in reduced control effect and ning talceoffs and
m-iKi] feedback of undesirable con-
sary a.s oiwratitui hdctniicri
Nv.rMirps. Unevenformation
" ;
r-> unbalanced rotor biades which 8.M. Flight Tochniquo in Hot
**ilu<'-! oxcessive vibration of the en-
When (lying in j, () (. Wt (|| ,, M .

The aviator must not at-
to throw ice off the
'- Make full u.so win,!
blades by
acceleration, or by rapid
movements. At best, only a JIM
than ""
aH portion of the blade ice ")
thrown off, probably
incurring ad-
*ial rotor unbalance.
>ter u-oather conditions
in which , - --

dewpoint are and Gn I1GC

n r and near -
close ^ary.
freezing, i ce
rapidly on a rotoi

ing engine). When

tll(!y , vt "' '"
opowtio,, lht

, I

w ""'
Pitch to ^T
hl ffh
Inv olvod
r " <lriu "

not oxcood


to '
f "" (- w

lift ,.

thai 'lCj
fnot ;
TM 1-260

(2) Density altitude. Density altitude is and takeoffs could be used. Favorable wind
pressure altitude corrected for tem- conditions are helpful, with landings and take-
perature (app. IV), Increased density offs directly into the wind if possible. In moun-
altitude indicates less dense air and tainous terrain, flight should be on the upwind
results in reduced lift. Density alti- side of slopes to take advantage of updrafts.
tude increases with increased temper- When landing on ridges, the safest approach is
ature ;
and temperature changes may usually made lengthwise of the ridge, flying
vary density altitude at a particular near the upwind edge to avoid possible down-
geographic elevation by several thou- drafts and to be in position to autorotate down
sand feet during a day. For example, the upwind side of the slope in case of forced
high altitude tests at an airfield with landing. Using the updraft in this manner re-
an elevation of 6,320 feet showed that sults in lower rate of descent, improved glide
density altitude varied during the day ratio, and greater choice of a landing area.
from 3,500 to 7,000 feet.
d. Operations Over Tall Grass. Tall grass
(3) Load, When operating under high
disrupts airflow and disturbs normal down-
density altitude conditions, the heli-
wash angle with two results : the induced rotor
copter performs less efficiently
drag is increased and the rotor airflow pattern
loads must be reduced.
is changed. More power be required to
b. Effect of Altitude on Instilment Read- hover, and takeoff may be very difficult. Be-
ings. The thinner air of higher altitudes causes fore attempting to hover over tall grass, make
the airspeed indicator to read low. True air-
sure that at least 2 or 3 inches more manifold
speed may be roughly computed by adding 2
pressure are available than are required to
percent to the indicated airspeed for each 1,000 hover over normal terrain.
feet of altitude above sea level, For example,
an indicated airspeed of 100 miles per hour at e. Operations Over Water. Altitude is diffi-
cult to determine when operating over water
10,000 feet will be a true airspeed of 120 miles
per hour. A
more accurate computation may with a smooth or glassy surface. Thus, cau-
be made by using the E6B computer. Manifold tion must be exercised to prevent the helicopter

pressure Is reduced approximately 1 inch for from inadvertently striking the water or from
each 1,000 feet of increase in altitude. If an "landing" several feet above the surface. This
engine can maintain 29 inches of manifold problem does not exist over rough water but a
pressure at sea level, only 19 inches would be very rough water surface may disperse the
available at 10,000 feet. "ground" effect and thereby require more
Of the power to hover. Movements of the water sur-
c. High Altitude Flight Technique.
current flow, or even
face, wind ripples, waves,
three major factors limiting helicopter per-
formance at high altitude (a above), only load agitation by the helicopter's own rotor wash
tend to give the aviator a false feeling of heli-
may be controlled by the aviator. At the ex- The aviator should avoid
copter movement.
pense of range, smaller amounts of fuel may be
carried to improve performance or increase staring at the water; he can remain oriented

useful load. The weight and balance aircraft by frequent reference to objects in the water
records should be consulted to insure efficient such as ships, buoys, floating debris, or objects

Where running landings on a distant shoreline.

loading. practical,

AGO $.5
TM 1-260



Section I. GENERAL

9. 1 . Introduction 9.3. Free Cruise (Day)

Formation flying is the grouping of air-
a. When aviators are required to fly tt

position in a formation
that cannot freely be
craft in a flight pattern arranged for a specific
varied in turns, excessive power changes
purpose. The aircraft involved must be able Such power
to take off and rendezvous quickly, and must required to maintain position.
result in greatly increased fuel
follow prescribed procedures to enter the land- In a 3-plaiie sec-
sumption, pilot fatigue, etc.
ing pattern, execute the breakup, and land tion V-forrnation and a G-plane column
of Vees
quickly. formation, the established position of
the wing-
b. Aviators undergoing training in forma- men and second section leader remains fixed,
tion flying must be fully aware of the responsi- even in step right or left turns. The only
bility and vigilance required. Though forma- the wingmen can maintain their rigidly
tion flying generally is not dangerous, any positions is to increase power
if they ai-e the on
outside of a turn, and to decrease power
if they
aspect of this training can be dangerous if
are on the inside of a turn.
principles are violated.
In a 2-plane section the position of the
Normal terminology derived from airplane
c. b.

wingman is not as rigidly established vs in a

formation flying is applied to helicopter forma-
has the pi-eroga-
tion flying to the extent practicable, 3-plane section. The wingman
tive in a steep turn to freely move
from a

9.2. Formation Factors sition 45 astern on one side of the section

leader to a position 45 astern on the
Two or more helicopters, holding positions is called "free cruise."
Such a prerogative
relative to each other and under the command
It allows the wingman to maintain "position"
of a designated aviator, constitute a formation.
with an established power setting by matching
Important factors in determining the best for- his relative speed with that of the leader-. The
mation are
wingman 's relative speed is less than that of
a. Obj ectives of the mission.
the section leader when the Avingman in. on. the
b. .Simplicity to permit easy control,
outside of a turn, and greater than that of the
tate flight discipline, and afford reconnaissance section leader when the wingman in on the
efficiency. inside of a turn. To equalize the relative speed
c. Flexibility to meet different situations, differential without power change, the -\ving-
and ability to quickly close up to fill vacancies. man slides to the outside of a turn hiswhen
cl. Mutual support and maximum protection. relative speed is greater than that of "the sec-
tion leader, and to the inside of a turn %vnen his
e. Maneuverability for evasive tactics.
com- relative speed is less than that of the section
/." Provisions for rapid development of
bined offensive and defensive power.

87 70 A

of See
type. the
numbe r

n e rjffht ni .

*' ns
Jeade,, f/en
n e o
In on the OStlon whe n
right ",f,
Position when n
d fly-
]ef* echelon w
e left r

e the
f tt
bea '!8- to the a 45"

Parts O f ed ft on,
hub to " a eg

the of an y
of the

or for
""*> e Used
8d '-

9.1 r,,
TM 1-

B0,l WtNtiMAH

firciiON itAiifn, MO
RlttliTWIN4iMA.ll, HO J WltlliMAN

-jilttnn ntst'i.fan V-f urination.


It in a compact, fluid, manouvnrnblo
formation able to doploy H tho situa-
tion (lonwndH. In this formation, tho
loador of tho Wiuond unction fltoH <ir>"
aHtorn of tin? flight Iwulm I to 11 foot

above tho fliffht lomlor, and opptwito

thci Hidti of tlio winKmnn of tho HiKht

Sin!i)iK bo wo on HecsUonHI;

ho Bunici(nt to porrait the

of tho flight loader to inovo
from or to uithov ticholon position
without danger. Kiguro A, !).R shows
tho Oight with tho Hocond Hoction on
tho riKht (hftavy riffht). Figure B,
0.3 Hhow.s tho Hocond suction on tho
loft (hcmvyloft).

SiwlMw jlifjht. This flight is com-

DOHcd of two 8-plnno acctiona. The
bnic formation of tho fi-plane flight is
a column of VCGB (Hg, 9.4). The sec-
ond 8-plaiio section is behind and
abovo the flrnt section. The distance B. TACTICAL HEAVY LEFT

between flections should bo sufficient

to allow a wingman of the tot section Figure 9.3. Faitr-plane flight formation.
to move from V-formatum to echelon
of Section and Flight
formation without danger. The 6- c. Responsibilities
Leaders. Section and/or flight leaders are re-
planc flight
i seldom used for tactical
employment but may be used for
ad- sponsible for
ministrative reaupply. It fllioiUd not (1) Maintaining smooth flight.

be used when operating from helicop- Maintaining correct formation posi-

ter carriers except under ideal condi- tions.Either the section or the flight
tions, such -as when the carrier is at leader must be prepared to assume the
anchor and night operations have be- when required,
"lead" position
come a i-outine affair.
AGO 8770A
to start
t ,


evasion and

nd a]te
Cedm 6




' o Peiatl0
" of
, etc


echelon is

section leader

AGO 8770A
TM 1-260

man remains at the same altitude and heading,

but reduces airspeed slightly to increase the
distance between helicopters. When this dis-
tance is from two to four helicopter lengths,
the wingman moves to a column position di-
rectly behind the section leader. When the sec-
tion leader desires his wingman to join up, he
rocks his helicopter up and down (nose-up,
nose-down positions). This rocking action ap-
pears as small climbs and descents to the wing-
man, who reverses the process used in forming
the column position, and thus returns to his
previous echelon position.
d. Formation Breakup.
(1) When the section leader desires to
execute a formation breakup, he
places his wingman in echelon forma-
tion on the side opposite from which
he will break. After rocking his heli-
copter from side to side to indicate
intends to break away, he executes a
90 to 180 turn away from the wing-
Figure 9.5. Signal for section echelon formation.
man. When flying a light helicopter,
the wingman waits 5 to 10 seconds
c. Column Formation. In a column forma-
and turns to follow the section leader.
tion (fig. 9.6) the wingman, directly behind
The time interval of 5 to 10 seconds
the section leader, is separated by two to four
1 to 3 feet separates the helicopters by 300 to
helicopter lengths and stepped up
500 feet and provides proper spacing
above the lead helicopter. To signal a column
the tail for carrier landings or for practice of
formation, the section leader swishes
The wing- the rendezvous and joinup (e below).
of his helicopter from side to side.


column formation.
Figure 9.6. Two-plane section
AGO 8770A
helicopter. betwe en each

exceed ahouW
Jevel. s
should be

tte result
of the , ekh?
bflMll W
"Pter Places 10 " 011 of
. ,

tei f
a)iy to ln htl'H *h

the ^ ; theJe^oT
Posifaon in the f )lls i
ffla " the
stops ? ;



Of NO- 2



AGO 8770A
TM 1-260

rate left turn, bears 45 to the left.

(2) Normally, longitudinal separation be-
(Since the separation between
tween the section loader and thfe wing--
the soc-
executed a copters is 1 minute or more,
man, after they have
tion leader will nearly complete or will
formation breakup, is not more than
for a 180 left turn before he
5 to 15 seconds. The procedure
reaches a position that bears -15 from
rendezvous and joinup of helicopters
the wingman.) At this position, the
described above uses a 10-second
wingman executes the procedure to
longitudinalseparation between heli-
The same pro- rendezvous the joinup.
copters,(fig. 9-7).

cedures can" be used when the /. Chansic of Leader, When the

section leader
between heli- of
longitudinal separations desires to pass; the leadership responsibilities
the wing-
copters are 1 minute
or more (fig. the section to the wingman, he places
echelon formation,
9.8). The wingman, upon receiving man in either left or right
to the wingman. This
instructions to execute a left rendez- pats his head, and points
the "lead" to the
vous and joinup, continues on his signifies that he is passing

original course until the section wingman. The section leader then moves sev-
his standard away from his wingman.
leader, in the process of erafhelicopter lengths
his eyes on the wingman,
\t this point, keeping
to the echelon
he reduces speed slightly, moves
position, and becomes the wingman.
a Radio and Hand Signal Com>nn,iicatlon.
Either radio or hand signal
tactics. However,
may be used during section in
hand signals cannot be used eifectiyc.y
the U^Uion
CH-37 type helicopters due to
Other visual
and size of the engine nacelles
signals such as
swishing the tml assemb y
GIVES RENDEZVOUS difficult to mtei-
the helicopter are sometimes
SJT jftja s. *

radio transmissions.
leaders tend to minimize

9 6 Three-Plane '(Section)
be practiced until the
Section tactics should
the two winsmen are profi-
section leader
cient in the following maneuvers:
\ -*.

\x Right Krf Le-fi

echelon formation
Echelon. To form a
from a V-fora.at.on. the

the number hvo wmsmnn

l'[-n leader signals
9J5. On the command
described in paragraph
two wingmnn reduce.,
of evm.*--.. the number
until the section louder
and num-
speed slightly at
have moved ahead

ber three wtagnmn number

STOP BATE OF CLOSURE st one helicopter
length. Then the
?Zan crosses over to
his position
(tf. 9.9). lo
section right echelon
from a right echelon
return to a V-formation
leader .signal, the man-
and jo format-on, the action
Figure f>.S. Two-plane xection renfostnt who passe, the mil on to
or wore u her *<.' v.'ingman,
procedure with reparation of 1 minute

AGO 8770A
r nvo wingman. (The hand
signal the sot-Lion Ir;i.liT li.i . ium.,1 i

.<** signflj used to form a left


;<* boi- two u-ii W nmn hy" |t.. (V,, '^j' ,

in this "''
r, ber hvn \vn " '''''



---> -f.._.


9 ' 7-
mr"'-'Uil. fl.%,
' ''


te To

TM 1-260

echelon formation from tactical heavy

left formation, the flight leader gives
the proper hand signal (fig. 9.10) to
the second section leader. The flight
leader then gives the command of exe-
cution (rocks his helicopter from side
to side) The leader of the second sec-

tion then moves his section into flight

right echelon formation (fig. 9.11).

45- FROM THE U*R. >.*"* ^

Fn-P lanc fiiffht riflkt

vhclo* Ration.


^^ of h s section to the flight
same. However, as the turn Pp<$[
Figure 9.10. Signal for fliffht echelon.

to left
Telative speed of
the second soc tern
^ ";

(2) Tactical heavy right formation

echelon. To execute this formation,
reverse the procedure in (1)
(3) Tactical heavy right formation
the flight into
right echelon. To place
the fligM
right echelon formation,
to the right
leader moves his wingman
The second section
echelon position.
into position and
then moves
pletes the formation.
to left
(4) Tactical heavy left formation
echelon. To execute this
reverse the procedure in (3) above.
The flight
6. Tvnu, Cttmbs, and Glides. climb and
der should execute all turns, ,-

lides as smoothly as possible. ? 90.

is not
or more, the second section

GO B770A
TM I-2&0

/ 7"


" '
m,.,,,,uv W .


numbo '

int <> their

positions tai Icildor

C 1 8 ""'" "'
n '^
8 'oft
ed for a or to
n fofwal
1 fro m the right o
r e n ioft
- to th 'oter

The6 co
helicopt e ,s

" through a 4
left - The to
two than
thlln stfl11-

141 uncu the noso

TM 1-260

flight leader
to execute
45 tions from the
is he con-
of his helicopter a left rendezvous and joinup,
ahead of the flight leader. This places tinues on his original
course until the
the flight leader to the right.
The num-
flight leader
has reached a position
this rela-
ber two wingman maintains 45 to the left of him. (If
the rendez-
tive bearing until the
result of the is properly
vous and joinup procedure
helicopter places
relative motion of his
executed, the number two wingman
laterally to the a 45
him within 200 feet
will also be approximately on
in the for-
left of his intended position three heli-
then stops his bearing from the number
mation. The wingman The second section leader
rate of closure for a
moment and copter.)
the flight
in the then starts a turn toward
"crosses over" to his position turn until the
or leader and continues the
formation (number three position
leader) nose of his helicopter is approximately
right echelon of the flight

leader. This
45 ahead of the flight
section leader (num-
(2) When the second places the flight
leader to the right.
ber three helicopter) receives







180 TURN.
NO. 2)


AGO 8770A
;.- wjid section leader main tains
rrfmivc bearing until the relative
H f.-nMiJiilr^M..p Jlt , irj
-;f'/i of his helicopter .

places him a fKO (urn


J-.vt *i,.ru|v i

laterally to the left of Ms in- '

>,./.: Ji."
: -i libitum
in the*
formation. The
"""inwuii. J.IIB
fV,, m
,. , iVoilIm-*'
rt(!l s
i.. Mil.'
l f I t 'IPe
J'. j, f 1
:=-i/wtion leader then stops his
-r <'i"sure for a Aft '/
moment and -.' ' '|''t
"'"'^ //'"' .s'^/uc*/

*'... (i
' ;i
ir!E '-' his position in
1 1 radl0 llJ "H ' " "'
forma-, j^ '."'
J{ ''' 1 -

"'A' Jv !^J'

t a
"'** inlon " JEh<1 "- *'' 1 -

'/ section leader's ,

I i
I'" n!-,
. _ I, r t
/the number four helicop- fnadmr/r,,/ 1 *>,., ,,,-.
lvw instructions that the Format, (f
1,,-li,,,,,,,.,,, /,,.,,,"'"'"

rendezvous and .,
v :"' '^

hfs ori ^ iaj
111 '

leader ha s

Wly executed, the
number three heli!

and ,

continues the

ecute a
f"turn P,the
ar e re .
TM 1-260

the flight elements remain in visual contact is always in opposite direction to the

with each other if possible. The flight leader turn of the number two wingman.
makes no radical turns or speed changes and (4) The number four wingman of the sec-
performs a 180 formation turn out of the IFR ond section executes a 60 turn away
condition. However, if the helicopters in for- from his section leader, and climbs
mation (fig. 9.15) cannot maintain visual eon- 300 feet.
tact with one another, the procedure given be- (5) After all helicopters have completed
low is followed : the initial breakaway turn and
Note. Flight operations should not be conducted climbed to the assigned altitude, they
when ceiling is below 800 feet and visibility isbelow 2 fly a straight course for 30 seconds.
miles. The flight leader then announces over
(1)" The flight leader continues straight the radio, "Number two and four heli-
ahead and reports his magnetic head- copters, complete the 180 turn." The
ing and altitude. number two and four helicopters ac-
knowledge the communication, and
(2) The number two wingman executes a
continue their turn until they have
30 turn away from the flight leader,
and climbs 100 feet. completed a 180 turn from the

The second section leader (the num- original heading of the formation.
ber threeman) executes a 30 turn (6) After ordering the aviators of the
away from the first section or flight
number two and number four helicop-
ters to "complete the 180 turn," the
leader, and climbs 200 feet. This turn


100 FEET






under tesiruflwrol
Figure 0.1B. Four-plans flight formation
AGO 8770A
"=- =
seconds and in- w , wiii ff mn in 11,,. fir.,1 .,,,.,. n

Jiuiijiju-j inrt'u neacopter ti

S!rX- =:=
Jn -: 180= turn. Simultane- MI nui Minimi lun "'5

"'-'" u l *

leiulcr starts his "<
ffiffht odiolon
formad'on (fi v ?
pi^itiM,, r,M-,7 :'

<i K;I


-' .' viator of the '

helicopter at sequence of ovontH fs ulilixrcl

.'iJtifude reports that he has wto left echelon
|., t'nrtn
"' "'" 'i }\'Ml
1 1- ti
fonimi ,',,.
cf-iKfitirms, the aircraft
altitude can start a
t y W * 6V/W
1 AlV ' ""^ < ;/ " / '-''--
eiM .
?' . ! TMI-J,.,,,,,, t

conditions. This se-

Tf "'

!(1 d ujiiila jj aviators
odielon fornmtimJ!
w feiBft(Krf W ionfo,JH
rlltth4iMihi '%
leader that u;;;;/
/ -
^'VHtjr their location if


/''^-/"J'foi'mation breakup i

J^mt --^
instrument weath-
in lateral

/ t( ' r -

"W not, for ex- ,

; !;i
;f .

llt de w ^hin
!;";''"' ; j'" P i us
Howe ver, thelat- to
.*,.;!. u> , ,,'
-^m-ov.dedaresufli- J ,

collisions. above and 7r> t< ,'

le "er. The i "'"
Tacti cs numb,, !
t ,!'""'
number two
to !00
nll,, lv ,|| |(!


ateraijy t
..... v, lwn
above and '
Vfi to )( f,' ' ' 1

s ,

second Action " """'" "'""I
observe the
buW '"" (V "'

/" .umh "''".'n- ho '


n "
"""" sil
lc H'e Uh"'" '"'*
to to sir/n . ),i.H
ft '^ U 1 " '" '
flight. 180 ornint '"n nd
'0 a n "n the
"" '

TM 1-260

3d STEP 4th STEP


1st STEP


Fiffiire 9.18. Six-plane flight right echelon formation,

AGO 8770A
r >;i;if-iu# for carrier landings or 46 ahomf of the HrVlil J.vulrr, 'n,/,,
r-mir/.vous and joinup, below. the
e fliht loddor ID (lir-
flight rij:M. I'V) '."^
'turf Joinup of Helicopters, maintain.^ this rclaliv<- Vi "
it leader desires to rendezvous
J.r.'u-inr iiiiii'i n"
tive motion of IIIN Jn>hVontrr pli liv -

%IK (%. 9-17), he rocks his



feet latoniJIyto ||h. N-n-.f

ini| liou-n !,(.,;
(nose-up, nose-down in thu >t(
fonmillim. ,\( (In, n (li
;.'iial the aviators in the other I

impending maneuver. (This

,p, I(
n'ura,un,, lt .ui i 7 lfll

ator movos '

his holko,,!,.,.
' (
by the other helicopters.) the formation.

To ""
starts a 180 standard
vous and .foi miJ
,. X( .nil,.
rj,| , V"
J- su-cd direction
(to the left or are reversed A
MJ f
cMror, Muv; n, 1 i

Jui-S to execute a left rendez- -p|;
' m ,. (|i f ,| )f ,.,,..
* n


HiMliffht leader xviJJ turn to
;Jielicoi)tcrs in the formation

~fS;,t:HH ? v'*
nirin.'ii course
until the flig-ht
m,' order bears 45 ;
from each t"n.i niii.v tf.'M-
'''.As the (lit* mi. ,,,,i ....
flight leader reach-
P'^ifion relative to
each heli-
<-OHcorncd starts a left turn
'; and continues the turn
r is
TM 1-260














0.17. Six-plane flight rendezvous

and joinup procedure.
General turn until tho noso of Jim
hriicnplt'r |' ,,
\vho perform
have intensive
nig-ht formation mateJy 20^ to flfl" hwul of (ht* i, nm &*

training and the

B ,i
WI) j ll< , wt , Nimil||J ^^


i" day formation wopter to tho ri ht.

ff T/.o H,. -OM| rt<v n,,
;"' flying 'f (
v tht nftzards of niht maintains this roJativc 'f>niiii||i_
flying and effect
t , btmrinir iiiiiJjikifiiit
niKiJ hi
- * i.

'^amu-ork, this training should be copter places him ,,(,,,

o .

, f| , t ,,
*"'.' as a unit. his in ended position i,, t |, ( ,
fornuU,,,, ,
Vfrf formation flying procedures for the
are b elow These
stops his rate of clo u
The second suction
mid Mm ,-t

;'*f 'i in ri ^n l>

"^... '

to night
.... proceduresp-
J . j
l,'',lm' H
formation fly- y
-'-plane section.

Joinup of Aircraft

4*1 i,



the rear

ao^- !
" ta '

ProceduiS "
to IT"
up. TJ/C aviu


care that '

ate of
h fl

distance nf fllghi PV
rotor di

at a bo
the o

M " 8t
"*-'" turns mfllt(J

sHi ato ov Ie 8a, find

TM 1-260



Figure 9.18. Night rendezvous and joinup of helicopters.

the flight in a column. This

flight leader places
of 30 or more should be announced by
turn. is the easiest and safest formation for execut-
the leader prior to effecting the A breakup executed
ing a breakup at night.
from an echelon formation involving
more than
9.1 1. Breakup unless
two helicopters should not be attempted
approaching the field for a night
When the flight is exceptionally well trained.
Prior to
mation breakup preparatory to landing,
AGO 8770A

special lBndll
twi ,
. those avia lols be
ave received


of W formation flying.


TM 1-260



AR 95-series (Army Aviation.)

AR 320-5 Dictionary of United States Army Terms.
AR 320-50 Authorized Abbreviations and Brevity Codes.
Oiks, Parts, Supplies,
AR 715-232 Emergency Purchase of Army Aviation Fuels,
Equipment, and Necessary Services
from Commercial Sources.
DA Pam 108-1 Index of Army Motion Pictures, Filmstrips, Slides, Tapes, and
DA Pam 310-series Military Publications Indexes (as applicable).
FM 1-100 Army Aviation,
FM 21-5 Military Training.
FM 21-6 Techniques of Military Instruction.
FM 21-30 Military Symbols.
FM 57-35 Airmobile Operations.
TM 1-215 Attitude Instrument Flying.
TM 1-225 Navigation for Army Aviation,
TM 1-250 Principles of Fixed Wing Flight.
TM 1-300 Meterology for Army Aviation.
TM 55-series-10 (Appropriate Aircraft Operator's Manuals.)
TM 57-210 Air Movement of Troops and Equipment.
FAA Advisory Circular Helicopter Rating Guide.
FAA Advisory Circular Helicopter Instructor Guide.

TM 1-260



observation, radiological survey, armed

1. General sur-
reconnaissance and security, topographic
This appendix discusses Army helicopters missions. It is powered
vey, and light resuppiy
which are presently used in accomplishing the and can be trans-
by a 250-horsepower engine
now in the aircraft or
role of Army aviation. Helicopters ported by rail, water, military
are not of this
experimental or developmental stage truck. For additional characteristics
included, helicopter, see table I.

2. OH-I3H (Observation) 4. UH-1 (Utility)

The OH-13H (fig. II. 1), manufactured by The UH-1A, B, or D, manufactured by Bell
Company, is a standard obser- is a utility-type, com-
Bell Helicopter Helicopter Corporation,
vation helicopter. Designed for operations
in which features a low sil-
pact design helicopter
a single
confined areas of the combat zone, it can carry houette. This helicopter is powered by
one passenger, two litter patients, or 400 gas turbine Lycoming engine.
The UH-1 A can
from to 87 one
carry one crewman and
six passengers;
pounds of cargo. It has a speed
nautical miles per hour. The OH-13H
is a
crewman, two litters, and a medical attendant ;

for training, crewman and a payl5ad of 2,000 pounds-

multipurpose helicopter designed or one
and control, wire laying, aeromedical The can carry one
UH-1B crewman and eight
command a
survey, three litters, and
evacuation, observation, radiological passengers; one crewman,
medical attendant; or one crewman
and a pay-
armed reconnaissance and .security, topograph-
load of 2,578 pounds. The UH-1D (fig.
missions. It is 11,3}
ic survey, and light resuppiy 1
which crewman and 12 passengers;
powered by a 250 shp Lycoming engine can carry 1
The OH-13S currently 6 and a medical attendant ;
is derated to 200 hp. crewman, litters,

is very similar to the OH-13H. 1 crewman and a payload of 2,289 pounds.

being" purchased from.
The major difference is the addition of a turbo- These helicopters are capable of operating
The derated horse- and under all-weath.-
supercharger to the engine. unprepared landing areas
is 220. can be conditions. Cargo and equipment
not feasible
power of the OH-13S engine ^t er
military aircraft or to load inside can be transported externally.
transported by rail, water,
truck. For additional
characteristics of this The UH-1 can be equipped with various arma-
ment systems to perform the mission of aerial
helicopter, see table

suppressive fire. For additional


OH-23D of these helicopters, see table I.

3. (Observation)
(fig. H.2),
manufactured by
*The OH-23D 5. UH-1 9
is a three-place (Utility)
Killer Aircraft Corporation
mam rotor and anti- The UH-19 (fig. II.4), manufactured ^
helicopter with a single of United
for operations in Sikorsky Aircraft, Division
torque tail rotor. Designed standard utility
combat zone, it can cany Corporation, is a limited
confined areas of the six troops, six
or 400 copter capable of carrying
two passengers, two litter patients, load of up to I,Q
patients, or a normal cargo
pounds of cargo.
The OH-88D IB a multipur- of approxims^.
for training, command pounds. With a cruising speed
pose helicopter designed ly 70 knots, the UH-19D
is powered by a sii^ ~
aeromedical evacua-
and control, wire laying,

TM 1-260

T? ,
>< i >: - , .w? ^m*&*'L



inure II.1. OH-13H (observation).

cruising- speed
of 15,400 feet.
This heli- 80 knots. It b
copter usually is used in the
movement of 26-horBopowr
mssion <PaMHUos of
troop transport, air-sea
rescue nh
^nation Fo ; ad

6. CH-2IC (Light Cargo)

7. CH-34C (Light Cargo)

11.2 :er can carry n

AGO 877 OA
TM 1-260

'1 :*" :^-JC^^*l^? y

Figure II.2, OH-23D (observation).

normal cargo load of 4,000 pounds. Designed ditional mission capabilities of this helicopter
for a pilot and copilot, it has a cruising speed include salvage operations and ship-to-shore
operations. For additional characteristics of
of approximately 85 knots. Some mission capa-
bilities include airlift of troops and equipment, this helicopter, see table I.

aerial command post, salvage operations, fire

and wire laying, For additional char- 9. CH-47A (Medium Cargo)
acteristics of this helicopter, see table I. The CH-47A (fig, II.8), manufactured by
Vertol Division of Boeing Aircraft Company,
8. CH-37B (Medium Cargo) is a tandem-rotor, medium transport helicopter,

The CH-3YB (fig. II.7), manufactured by powered by two Lycoming T-55-L-5 free-tur-
Sikorsky Aircraft, Division, of United Aircraft bine engines. A rear ramp permits rapid
Corporation, is a twin-engine helicopter de- straight-in loading and unloading of troops,
signed for the transport of cargo
and troops vehicles, and cargo. Items which are too bulky
and for the evacuation of casualties. It is pow- to fit within the payload compartment can be

ered by Pratt and Whitney twin engines transported on the 8-ton capacity external car-
mounted in pods on each side of the fuselage, go hook. Load release normally is accomplished
and is capable of carrying a load of 5,000 hydraulically. In the event of utility hydraulic
in a failure, release may be effected elec-
pounds. The CH-37B has clamshell doors system
loading ramp in the nose, and can lift approxi- trically or mechanically. For additional char-
acteristics of this helicopter, see table I.
mately 23 troops or 24 litter patients. Some ad-

AGO 8770A 1.3

TM 1-260

aavn 378
Figure II. 3. UH-1D (utility),

11.4 AGO 8770A

TM 1-260

aavn 377

Figure II. 4. UH-19 (utility).

AGO 8710A
TM 1-260

Figure 11.5. GH-21Q (light cargo).

AGO 8770A
TM 1-260

Figure U.d. CH-34.C (light cargo).

AGO 11.7
TM 1-260

Figure 11,7. CH-3rB (medium cargo).

AGO 8770A
TM 1-260


Figure II.8. CH-47A (medium cargo).

TM 1-260

Table I.
Helicopter Characteristics

reduction o( th* fuel lc a a

duce IfcjtntirajlHCC am! Incrtaic Ilia
AKUMO. Full oil I* rt-julrtd (or .11

LBTICIfTi The t-fif ve

' hollc-opter In Iti bulc
en, ID IncJud* sll flppoln

HSfft full and all, tu

'"' *l ' C '
.1 in<9 oil?
of hellcgpt<r* VI 11 vny ullh gin
ind iltltudi. Be
appropilnta optr

AGO 8770A
TM 1-260



(3) Find the difference between maximum

I. General available manifold pressure and mani-
The methods for predicting helicop-
practical fold pressure required to hover.
ter performance under particular conditions difference manifold
(4) Change the
payload and flight given in this appendix apply inch of mani-
heli- pressure into weight (1
to the OH-13 type helicopter or to similar fold pressure equals 80 pounds) to get
copter configurations using the 200-horsepower the approximate additional payload
air-cooled engine. (The techniques described
which can be carried to lift to a hover
result from engineering tests on the OH-13 as
for safe takeoff.
published by Jack Fairchild and
Hans Weich-
of Bell Aircraft Corporation.) These Note. Temperature, winds, altitude, fuel load, flight
sel, Jr., are included in the above
better utilization of the weight, empty weight, etc.,
practical methods allow method and need not be considered separately.
of factors
helicopter, a clearer understanding
influencing helicopter performance, and
3. Manifold Pressure and Hovering Ceiling
on which to base flight decisions;
however, they are not intended as substitutes a. By using available manifold pressure

for experience and good judgment. determine hovering ceiling, an aviator can pre-
dict whether or not he can hover at a

2. Manifold Pressure and Payload tion.

a. Power-curve tests on the 200-horsepower EULE NO. 2. If wind velocity at point

air-cooled engine show that 1 inch of manifold intended landing is approximately the

pressure is equivalent
to 6 horsepower. Speed- same as at point of takeoff, and the flight
demonstrates that is made within the same airmass (no
power polar of the helicopter
1 horsepower will lift 13.5 pounds
of weight radical temperature change) 1,000 feet,

while hovering. Combined, these two facts is added to the point-of-takeoff altitude
for each inch^of manifold pressure in
RULE NO. 1. One inch of manifold pres- excess of that required to hover.
sure will lift 80 pounds of payload.
b. This method should be applied as follows :

b. With this knowledge, the aviator can ob- (1) Check manifold pressure at a normal
tain a rough estimate of the additional weight hover prior to takeoff.
then en-
he can safely carry to be able to hover, (2) While hovering, momentarily apply
This rule should be applied before
ter flight. full throttle and note maximum mani-
landing at destination, in this
manner :

fold pressure available.

full throttle at 100
(1) Momentarily apply difference in these two manifold
the (3) The
feet altitude or less and determine
readings is equivalent to
maximum manifold pressure. This pressure
inch of excess
manifold pressure is approximately 1,000 feet altitude per 1
manifold pressure. Apply this addi-
equal to the maximum
manifold pres-
tional altitude to the point-of-takeoff
sure available for takeoff.
altitude to get the maximum altitude
(2) While hovering, check manifold pres-
(above sea level) at which
the heli-
sure required for the hover.

AGO 8170A
TM 1-260

copter may be hovered with ground 6. Hovering Ceiling and Gross Weight
effect. The hovering ceiling will vary in proportion
to the gross weight of the helicopter. To de-
4. Payload and Wind termine hovering ceiling for a known gross
In winds from to about 15 knots, the hov- weight, the following rule should be applied ;

ering ceiling of the helicopter will increase RULE NO. 5.

from 100 feet for each knot of wind. In winds (1) A 100-pound reduction in gross
from about 15 knots to 26 knots, the hovering weight increases hovering; ceiling in
ceiling will increase about 350 feet for each or out of ground effect about 1,300
knot of wind. feet,

RULE NO. 3. The payload may be in- (2) A 100-pound increase in gross weight
creased 8 pounds for each knot of wind decreases hovering ceiling about
from to 15 knots, or may be increased 1,300 feet.
28 pounds for each knot of wind from 15 Note. These factors are true up to the
knots to 26 knots. maximum gross weight of ^ho helicopter
Note. These load changes apply to a decrease (2,600 pounds for the OH-18).
in wind velocity (and load
reduction) as well
as to an increase.
7. Service Ceiling and Gross Weight
The service ceiling of the helicopter varies
with gross weight. To determine the effects of
5. Hovering and Skid Height
gross weight on service ceiling, the following
altitude over level terrain is ideal
Covering rule should be applied:
with skid clearance of
approximately 4 feet. RULE
Variable hovering altitudes, due to obstacles or NO, 6. A 100-pound decrease in

rough terrain, have a decided effect on helicop- gross weight adds 800 feet to the service
ter performance in
determining hovering ceil-
ceiling, and,conversely, a 100-pound wt-
and crease in gross weight reduces the serv-
ing payload. These effects are best esti-

mated as follows: ice ceiling 800 feet.

RULE NO. 4. 8. Rate of Climb and Gross

(1) To hover under 4 feet, 300 feet is To determine the effects of gross
weight on
added to the hovering ceiling or 24 rate of climb, the
following- rule should be
pounds to the payload for each 6 applied :

inches of decrease in skid RULE NO.

height 7.
from the 4-foot hover.
(1) Using maximum rate of climb, a
(2) To hover between 4 feet and 10
feet, change in gross weight of 100
300 feet is subtracted from the hov- pounds alters the rate of climb
ering ceiling or 24 pounds from the about 80 feet per minute in forward
payload for each foot of increase in flight (45mph).
skid height.
(2) On vertical rate of climb, a change
Note, Ground effect decreases in gross weight of 100
above 10
rapidly pounds alters
feet, and hovering should not be the rate of climb about 180 feet
attempted. pel-
minute, :

AGO 8770A
TM J-260



2, 3, or 4 cubic inches as the temperature
I. Air Density an airplane
higher and higher. It is easier for
a. Air, like liquids and other gases, is a fluid.
or helicopter to take off in cold weather
Because it is a fluid, it flows and changes shape the air is dense than in hot weather when
under pressure. Air is said to be "thin" at air is thin, because the wings or
blades must
high altitudes; that is, there are fewer mole- displace a certain amount of
air in taking off.
cules per cubic foot of air at 10,000 feet than hot
In taking off from a high altitude field on a
at sea level. The air at sea level is thin when will require a longer than
day, an airplane
to air compressed in a truck tire. A a
compared ordinary run and a helicopter may require
cubic inch of air compressed in a truck tire is The
ground run rather than rising vertically.
denser than a cubic inch of "free" air at sea thin not
air at the higher altitude would be
level. For example, in a stack of blankets, the caused
only because of the decrease in density
bottom blanket is under pressure of all blankets of the
by higher temperature, but also because
above it. As a result of this pressure, the bot- lower pressure found at the higher elevation.
tom blanket may be squeezed down until it is
b. Moisture. When temperature and pres-
only one-tenth as bulky as the fluffy blanket on
sure are constant, changes in the moisture con-
top. There is still just as much wool in the Air
tent of the air will change air density.
bottom blanket as there is in the one on top,
always contains some moisture in the form of
but the wool in the bottom blanket is ten times
water vapor, but the amount varies from al-
more dense. If the second blanket from the
most none to 100 percent humidity. The den-
bottom of the stack were removed, a force of
The sityof the air decreases as the moisture con-
15 pounds might be required to pull it out.
tent increases. Therefore, aircraft taking off
second blanket from the top may require only
In the same way, air layers from a high altitude field on a hot, humid day
1 pound of force.
will require additional ground roll to get off
near the surface have much greater density
the ground, due to the further reduced density
than air layers at higher altitudes.
resulting from high humidity.
/). The above principle may be applied in
flying aircraft. At lower levels, the propeller 3. Standard Atmosphere
or rotor blade is cutting through more and Due to the fluctuations ofatmospheric con-
air, which also offers more support standard atmospheric con-
denser ditions, a criteria of
increases air resistance. The same has been established. These standard
(lift) and ditions
amount of power, applied at higher altitudes conditions assume a certain pressure (29.92"
where the air is thinner and less dense, propels Hg or 1013.2 mb.) and temperature (59 F, or
the aircraft faster. 15 C.) at sea level, with a given temperature
lapse rate of 3.56 P. per 1,000 feet of eleva-
2. Factors Influence Air Density tion. Aircraft performance is evaluated using
a. Temperature-. Even when pressure re- these standard atmospheric conditions.
mains constant, great changes in air density
will be caused by temperature changes.
The 4. Helicopter Performance
same amount of air that occupies 1 cubic inch Helicopter operation in hot weather is gen-
erally less efficientthan in cold weather. Verti-
at a low temperature will expand and occupy

AGO 8770A
TM 1-260

cal ascent, hovering, and vertical descent may quired to compensate for the thin air.
be impossible when the temperature is high. If the maximum gross weight of the
Necessity for running takeoffs and landings helicopter exceeds the limits of avail-
arises with decrease in air density. Engine able engine power, a reduction in load
rpm loss is likely, and will require extra con- may be necessary.
centration by the aviator to keep rpm above (3) Due to changes to density altitude and
minimum limit. An over rev is permissible wind velocity during the day, the
during takeoff and landing, provided it does weight-carrying capability of a par-
not exceed the maximum allowable (red line). ticular helicopter may vary many
Although civil and military tests have proven times during a single day.
the helicopter capable of performing success-
(4) Established service ceilings for each
fully at high altitudes, they have also proven
helicoptermust be considered in com-
that high altitude operations are usually mar-
puting maximum load for safe opera-
ginal and demand a high degree of aviator pro-

6. Measuring Density Altitude

5. Density Altitude
No instrument is available for measuring
Army helicopter aviators must be familiar density altitude directly. It must be computed
with the high-altitude factors affecting helicop-
from the temperature and pressure at the par-
ter performance and the flying techniques of
ticular altitude under consideration. The chart
such operations. The three major factors to
shown in figure IV.l may be used as a field
understand are '

expedient in computing density altitude; how-

ct. Air Density, ever, the answers derived are based on vari-
(1) An increase in altitude causes a de- ables and must be considered as close
crease in air density. mations.
(2) An increase in temperature causes a
7, Steps in
decrease in air density. Computing Density Altitude

(3) An increase in humidity causes a de- Using the chart shown in figure IV.l as n
crease in air density. guide, density altitude is computed as follows;

Step Example
b. Wind.
a. Determine barometric pressure
(1) If there is sufficient wind velocity to for point of take off /Ian ding, 28,60" I-Ig
afford translational while hover-
b. Determine field elevation at
ing, helicopter performance is im-
point of takeoff/landing. 2,000'
proved considerably,
Transnational lift, present with any
o. Apply altitude addition/sub- 1,245
traction to field elevation obtained
forward speed or headwind, has an
in b above. Use amount correspond-
insignificant effect until speeds of ap-
ing to appropriate barometric read-
proximately 15 to 20 knots are ob-
ing found in a above. (Readings
shown in two columns on right of
fi- Load.
(1) Load is a variable factor and must be
considered carefully by the aviator. d. Find resulting pressure alti- 3,245'
Smaller amounts of fuel may be car- tude.
ried to improve performance or in- e. Obtain outside air temperature 95 F.
crease useful load however, this
; at field elevation of point of intended (35 C.)
necessitates a sacrifice in range. takeoff /landing.
(2) Under conditions of high density alti- f. Move a 'pointer horizontally 3,245'
tude, additional engine power is re- along temperature scale at the bot-

IV.2 AGO 8770A

TM 1-260

Step Example (4) Substitute the determined values into

torn of chart to degree reading ob- the formula.
tained (e, above) then vertically
d. The following sample problems illustrate
along temperature line until pointer
the use of the formula method of density alti-
intersects the diagonal pressure alti-
tude computation for
tude line (d above). (Interpolate as
(1) Air temperatures above standard:
Pressure altitude 2,010 feet.
g. Move pointer horizontally to 6,400'
Actual temperature (of
the left and read resultant density
the free air) 30 C.
altitude in feet.
Standard temperature 11 C.
Temperature variation +19 C.
8. Simplified Computation of Density
Altitude (Approximate)
DA =PA+ {120 XV,)
= 2,010+ (120X19)
a. Density altitude should be determined be-
= 2,010 + 2,280
fore computing aircraft weight and balance
= 4 ,290 feet.
data. The length of runway necessary for air-
(2) Air temperatures below standard:
planes and the power requirements for heli-
Pressure altitude 1,070 feet.

copters are contained in the operator's manual

for the appropriate aircraft.
Actual temperature (of
the free air) 6 C.
/). The following formula may be used as a Standard temperature ___ 13 C.
field expedient to determine approximate Temperature variation ___ 7 C.
density altitude: DA = PA + (120 X V t )
DA = PA + (120 X V where t ) , = 1,070+ (120 X -7)
DA is density altitude, 1,070 - 840
PA is pressure altitude, ~ 230 feet.
120 is a temperature correction constant, A proposed landing site at altitude
Vt is the variation of the actual air tem-
higher than point of departure:
perature from standard temperature at the Pressure altitude at de-
pressure altitude. parture site 1,200 feet.
c. The steps in computing density altitude Actual altitude of depar-
by this formula are ture site 1,020 feet.

(1) Set 29.9% in the Kollsman window of Air temperature at de-

the aircraft altimeter and read the parture site 15 C.

pressure attitude directly from the al- Actual altitude of proposed

timeter face. landing site 4,100 feet.
Determine the standard temperature Standard temperature at
for the pressure altitude. Standard proposed landing site 7 C.

temperature of the air at sea level is Pressure altitude at pro-

15 C., and the standard decrease of posed landing site (this

temperature with altitude above sea isthe pressure altitude

level is 2 C. per 1,000 feet. There- at the departure site

fore, for each 1,000 feet of pressure plus the difference be-
altitude above sea level, 2 C. is sub- tween the actual alti-

tracted from 15 C. For each 1,000 tudes of the two sites) __ 4,280 feet.
feet of altitude below sea
pressure Computed free-air temper-

2 C. is added to 15 C. ature at the proposed

the standard temperature landing site (this is the
(3) Subtract
from the actual temperature to find temperature at the de-
the variation in the two temperatures. parture site minus 2 C.

AGO 8710A




28,0 1,825
28.1 1,725
28.2 1,G30
26.3 1,S35
28. -I 1,135
28.5 1,340
28.6 1.245
28.7 1,150
28.8 1,050
28.9 OSS
29.0 865
29.1 770
29.2 675
29.3 580
29 A 465
29.5 390
29.6 300
25.7 205
29,8 110
29.9 20

30,0 - 75
30.1 -165
30.2 -255
30.3 -350
30.4 -440
30. S -530
30.6 G20
30.7 -710
30.8 -805
30.9 -805
31,0 -9G3



2 30 40 50 6
70 8'o 9 'o ^ nV 120

Figure IVJ. Pressure altitude

TM 1-260

for each 1,000 feet of DA = PA + (120 X V,)

difference between the = 4,280 + (120 X 2)
actual altitudes of the = 4,280 + 240
two sites) 9' C. = 4,520 feet at the proposed land-
C. site.
Temperature variation 2' ing

VGO 8770A
TM 1-260




28.0 1,823
28. 1 1,725
28. 2 1,630
28.3 1,535
28.4 1,433
28.5 1,340
28.6 1,245
28.7 1,150
28, 8 1,050
38.9 955
29.0 865
29.1 770
29.2 675
29.3 580
29,4 485
Z9.5 390
29.6 300
29.7 205
20.8 110
29.9 20

30.0 -75
30.1 -16S
30.2 -2S5
30.3 -350
30.4 -440
30.5 -530
30.6 -620
30.7 -710
30.8 -805
30.9 -89S
31.0 -9fiS



Figure IV. 1. Pressure altitude

density ehcurt.

AGO 8770A
TM 1-260

for each 1,000 feet of DA := PA + (120 X V,)

difference between the 4,280 -f (120 X 2)
actual altitudes of the = 4,280 240 -)-

two sites) 9' C. = 4,520 feet at the proposed land-

Temperature variation 2' C. ing site.

TM 1-260



I. Procedures the best performance airspeed for various loads

aviator planning an external load opera-
and pressure altitudes.
tion must be familiar with the operator's man- d. Performance Data. The operator's manual
ual for the helicopter to be flown. The opera- also contains charts which compute various
tor's manual contains information on sling loads and pressure altitudes for hovering, take-
capability, gross load limitation, airspeed limi- off, climbs, range, maximum endurance, and
tation,performance data, systems operation, landing distances, and show the expected per-
and hand signals for the ground crew. formance of the helicopter equipped with a spe-
cific engine of a given rated horsepower. En-
a. Sling Capability. To plan his flight, the

aviator must know the type and capability of gine operating limitation charts are available
the sling with which the helicopter is equipped. for each type and model engine, giving power
limitations based on operating rpm, type and
Some slings are of the nonrotating type and
require a swivel hook; some helicopters use a grade fuel used, and temperature.
nylon strap between the hook and the load as e. Systems Operation. The operator's manual

a vibration damper. In any helicopter, the gives a complete operational explanation of the
weight capability of the sling must not be ex- sling and its release systems. On the preflight,
ceeded. the aviator must check the condition of the
and make an operational test of each
fo. Gross Weight Limitation. Sling loads do sling

not require the computation of weight and bal-

mode of cargo release.

ance; however, for planning purposes the avi- /. Hand Signals for Ground
Crewmen. Hand
ator must use the gross weight chart found in signals to be used by the ground crew for day
the operator's manual. This chart provides or night operation are published in the opera-
the flight crew with a rapid means of deter- tor's manual. The preflight is not complete un-
mining the load-carrying capabilities of the til the aviator has briefed his ground crew on
limits. In ex- and the mission be performed.
helicopter within safe operating their duties to
limits can be
tremely cold climates, structural
2. Pickup Procedures
exceeded without exceeding the performance
limitations. Any flight exceeding gross weight a. To pick up an external cargo, the aviator
limits should be written up on
Form 2408- positions the helicopter approximately 100
13 (Aircraft Inspection and Maintenance
Rec- yards short of the pickup point into the wind-
line at an altitude of approximately 100 to 125
c, Airspeed Limitation. When computing
feet. Speed should be commensurate with the
type helicopter, terrain, and wind.
He then
the desired airspeed for the proposed mission,
manual establishes a rate of descent and reduces speed
the aviator must refer to the operator's
for to arrive at a point 6 to 8 feet short of the
where there are airspeed correction tables At
instrument error charts for hovering, takeoff,
pickup point at an altitude of 6 to 8 feet.
endurance, and this point, the rate of descent has stopped and
climb, best range, maximum
and limits charts the helicopter is in a level attitude with for-
landing distance; operating
ward movement limited to that indicated by the
which indicate maximum airspeed for a given
load and altitude. These charts give signalman.
TM 1-260

b. The signalman directs the aviator to a po- airspeeds of over 90 knots are not recommend-
and the load is attached to
sition over the load,
ed in the CH-34. Any unbalanced load may
the hook by the hookup crew. As soon as the jump, oscillate, or- rotate, resulting; in loss of

load is securely attached, the hookup crew control and undue stress on the helicopter,
clears the area directly beneath the helicopter This requires reducing forward airspeed im-
and signals the signalman that the load is ready mediately, regaining control, and "steadying
to lift. up" the cargo load. The weight and balance
of the load determine air worthiness (steadi-
c. On direction from the signalman, the avia-
ness in flight) and the maximum airspeed at
tor takes up the slack in the sling until he
which the helicopter may be safely flown. At
"feels" the load. He then increases power
the first indication of buildup in oscillation, it
slowly until the helicopter is centered directly is mandatory to slow airspeed immediately be-
over the load. The aviator then hovers the
cause the oscillation may endanger the helicop-
helicopter momentarily to determine i.: suffici-
ter and personnel, and may necessitate jetti-
ent power is available for transition to forward
soning the load. For a complete explanation
of the release systems for the helicopter to be
d. The signalman indicates to the aviator by flown, see the operator's manual,
'giving the takeoff signal that the load is clear
c. Operation
of the ground and properly suspended. The of Release, Generally, the three
takeoff should be accomplished with as little positions (or mode selections) for external

nosedown attitude as cargo release are on, safe, and auto. The de-
possible, so that most of
sired position should be decided
the available power can be transmitted into lift upon prior to
rather than forward thrust in the initial take- reaching a hover over the intended release
off phase. This procedure decreases the pos- point. When the helicopter is in a hover over
sibility of the helicopter sinking and the load the desired release point and the relative mo-
striking the ground before gaining sufficient tion of the helicopter over the
ground is zero,
translational lift to begin a climb. When the the pilot instructs the copilot to
place the mas-
helicopter has attained a safe altitude, power ter cargo switch in the desired release-mode
is reduced to that
necessary for a climb to the position. Upon signal from the signalman, the
desired cruising altitude. crew chief, or at the aviator's own discretion
(as the situation may dictate) the release but-
3. In-flight Procedure
ton is actuated. If the auto mode has been se-
a. Power Check, Before attempting for- lected, the cargo load should release automati-
ward flight with external cargo, the helicopter when
cally the load tension is reduced (as the
should be hovered
momentarily to determine load touches the ground).
how much power is required to maintain hov-
ering flight. If this requirement is very near
the maximum allowable power, forward
4. Release Procedure
should not be attempted because of the The transporting helicopter approaches
bility of the load striking the ground. This is the cargo release area and is guided into posi-
due to a sinking tendency as the tion for cargo release
helicopter by the signalman who
moves into forward flight and the nonavail- has positioned himself in the same manner as
ability of additional power to counteract this for hookup (par. 66). The
cargo release men
tendency. stand by, but are not
actively employed unless
b. Aircraft Performance. High-s tacked the helicopter crew cannot
release the cargo,
light loads generally tend to shift either electrically or from
farther aft mechanically, within
as airspeed is increased. the helicopter.
When the load is
heavier, more compact, and &. The signalman
balanced, the ride directs the lowering of the
is steadier and the
airspeed may be safely in- load onto the ground, then
creased. With any directs the helicop-
type of external cargo load, ter crew to release the load.

AGO 3770A
TM 1-260

After the signalman insures that the cargo (6) Be familiar with helicopter hand sig-
nals for both day and night opera-
sling is completely released from the cargo
to take of? tions,
hook, he gives the aviator the signal
and then moves quickly aside out of the takeoff b. Duties of Signalman.
path. As the helicopter approaches the
hookup area, the signalman takes
Emergency Procedure and up-
5. position about 50 feet beyond
When the cargo cannot be released by either wind from the load, facing the load
arms above his head.
the helicopter crew or ground personnel and no with his raised

applicable instructions are contained in

the unit His position must be such that the
SOP or other directives, the cargo release crew aviator can plan his approach on him ;

the signalman must remain in view of

the aviator during the entire hookup
Cut the cargo free with any sharp object,
and departure process.
such as a pocket knife, bayonet, or sheath
knife. (2) As the helicopter approaches the load,
the signalman positions himself ap-
b. If the cargo net is metallic, use a cable proximately 45 off the aviator's
cutter; i.e., diagonal cutters, pliers, or a similar of the helicopter, remaining approxi-
cutting device. mately BO feet away from the load.
c. Release cargo snap fasteners and cut draw (3) After the helicopter has come to a
hover, the signalman guides the
cable. avia-
tor directly over the load for hookup.
6. Duties of Ground Crew (All signals must be precise, with

a. The ground crew normally con- unnecessary movements.)
sists of threemen the signalman and two (4) After the hookup is completed, the
hookup men. However, if the situation de- signalman signals the aviator that the
mands, one man may serve as the hookup crew. load is securely attached. He then
The transported unit responsible for provid-
gives the hookup men sufficient time
ing the ground crew personnel for helicopter to clear from beneath the helicopter
external load operations. These crews should before giving the aviator the signal to
be properly trained and kept abreast of de- move upward.
velopments on new equipment and operational
Ground crews (5) As the helicopter moves upward, the
techniques and procedures.
signalman insures that the load is
should be briefed by the aviator or an aviation
properly secured and that the cargo is
representative who is familiar
with the mission
The ground crew must properly suspended,
to be performed.
Be familiar with the type of cargo to (6) The signalman then gives the aviator
be transported. the takeoff signal and moves quickly
aside to be clear of the takeoff path.
(2) Direct the planning of the cargo load
for hookup. c. Duties of Hookup Men.

(3) Inspect the load to insure that the (1) Aa the helicopter hovers over the sling
slings arenot fouled mid the load is load, the hookup men will position
secured and ready for hookup. themselves next to the cargo to pre-

(4) Insure that the area to be used is clear pare for hookup. Their position
of obstructions that could snag the should be one from which the hookup
can be accomplished quickly and easily
(5) Insure that cargo weight docs not ex-
ceed the capability of the helicopter,
and in plain view of the signalman at
or cargo net. all times.
load, sling,

AGO 8710A
TM 1-240

(2) After the hookup, the hookup men Caution: In case of an emergency,
must insure that the cargo hook is the hookup men will exit from
properly secured and then move quick- beneath the helicopter to the right;
ly from beneath the helicopter and out the aviator will move the helicopter to
of the takeoff path. the left.

AGO 877<IA
TM 1-260


Paragraph Page
Aerodynamics: Auto-rotation Continual
Forces in vertical flight 2.27 2.10
Lift 2.106
High speed _______________ ...
Of autorotation 2.36-2.38
Hovering ______________
Air density Landing crosswind
(l,5a, app. IV) IV.l, IV.2 Low altitude ____
Factors influencing (2, app. IV) IV.l
Low Night ----- ........ ________ ..... -r,
8.10 8.4 No-flare ___________________ ,".j" : ,. ;

Airflow while hovering 2.23 2.9 Over water _________ ..... ..... , ,".n
Airfoil 2.8-2.10, 2.12-2.15 2.2, 2.4 Practice ________ ....... ,. ''..H-'-.S^
Airspeed, safe 6.2d 5.1 Precision ___________________ ,\iy;
Air turbulence 6.16 6.1
Rate of descent _____________ D.'i,. ,'.:>;
Airwork 4.15-4.23 4.8
Vertical or backward de-scent.. "> 1

Altitude :
Backward descent autorotation,-,. <",T
Control 4.18,4.19 4.9, 4.10 Balance and weight ______________ 'i4
Density. (See Density
Barriers, operations over _________ ___ P 4

Basic autorotation _____________,_ -'.'^
Safe 6.2c 5.1 Blade forces _________________ 2,''*],^ri7
Angle of attack 2.12,2.13, 2.4, Blade stall, retreating ________ 2.y -2 31
2.15, 2.21c 2.5, 2.7 Burble point ____________________ "2.V,
An ti torque:
Pedals 3.3,4.22 3.1, 4.13
Carburetor ice ___________________ 3 ">

Rotor 2.17 2.5 Cargo helicopters _______ (C- J, ajtj?. II) f

System failure in forward Chord _____ ............. ______ __ 2Sff

flight 5.11 5.3 Climb _______________ ...... ..... 4.1i):i

System failure while

Cockpit procedure ____________ ;-!.'i<i<2i

hovering 5.12, 5.18 5.3,5.6 Collective pitch stick _______________ 42" 4.11

Approach: Collision rule ___________________ 4-2> 4-.il

Normal 4.24-4.26 4.19

Compensating torque reaction ---- tM7
Stoop 4.29,4.30 4.23
Computation of density
Technique, night 7.1
altitude ______________ (&-S.a[jp. IV*
Atmosphere: Cone of precision ________________ u.l'^f
Definition 2.1 2.1
Confined areas _______________ G.I, 6*'.
Physical properties 2.2 2.1
Crab _______________ ...... 4A3f,4.!i2rt 47,4
Standard (3, app. IV) IV.l
^ r> ^
Cross-slope landings ------------
Atmospheric: '.6
2.6<t 2.1 Crosswind autorotative landings,.
Density ".S
2.0 2.1 Crosswind takeoffs and approaches
2.1 Cruise _______________________ 4-19h, r
Pressure 2.4
2.126, 2-21iJ 2.4,1!"
4.9 Cyclic pitch control- ...... .

Attitude control 4.16,4.17

Attitude flying: 42 - 4.1 4.UV 411

Deceleration -------------------
Autorotntlon: Density altitude:
2.35-2.38 2.16 1V.2
Aerodynamics Computation _______ (5-8,app.IV)
5 25 5.8 Definition _______ ...... 2.5&,&.12a
Basic -

Basic considerations 5.1-5.13 5.1 Effects of temperature and

*1 f"
Fl ttrc 2.38, 6.16 2.18, 5.4 humidity -----------------
2 37 2.17 Descent - 4 - 19
Forward flight

5.5 5.2 Rate in autorotation

From 'hover above 10 feet
Indet I
TM 1-260

Paragraph Paffe Pfirmjrnph Page

2.21o 2.7 Free cruise 9.3 9.1

Disc area
2,21 2.7 Freezing rain, operations 8.9c 8.3
Dissymmetry of lift

Drag and thrust 2.11,2.27 2.3,2.10

Glide 6.3 5,1

Effective transitional lift 2.25 2.10 Gross weight:

Hovering; ceiling (6, app. Ill) III.2
Emergency procedure, external
load V) V.3 Rate of climb (8, app. Ill) III.2
(5, app.
Service ceiling (7, app. Ill) 111,2
Engine rpm operating limits 8.3
Ground crew duties,
4.19 4.10 external loads (6, app. V) V.3
Altitude control
Antitorque failure at hover 5.18 5.6 Ground effect 2.24 2.10

Antitorque pedals 4.22 4.13 Ground resonance (shock) 2.33ft, c 2.15

Attitude control 4.17 4.9 Gusts 6.1b G.I
Basic autorotation 5.25 5.8
Gyroscopic precession 2.20 2.6
Deceleration 4.19e 4.11
Flare autorotation 5.16 5.4 Heading control 2.18,4.22c, d 2.5,4.13
Forced landing entry 5.20-5.22 5.6 Helicopter:
Hovering autorotation 5.17 5.5 Cargo (C-9, app. II) 11,2
Landing from hover 4.5e 4.4 Characteristics (Table I) 11.10
Maximum performance Configuration 1.3,1.4,2.16, 1.1,2.6,
takeoff 4.27,4.28 4.22 (app. II) II.l
Moving hover 4.9 4.6 Observation (2, 3, app. II) II.l
No-flare autorotation 5.15 5.4 Performance 1.4, (4, app. IV) l.l,IV.l
Normal approach 4.24-4.26 4.19 Performance
Normal takeoff 4.13, 4.14 4.7, 4.8 prediction (1-8, app. Ill) III.l
Power recovery 5.23 5.7 Presolo flight training 3.1-3.3 3.1
Precision autorotation 5.26 5.9 Utility (4, 5, app. II) II.l
Rpm control 4.20, 4.21 4.11 High altitude operations 8.12a-c 8.4
Running landing 4.32 4.26
High reconnaissance Q.2a 6.1
Running takeoff 4.31 4.25
High speed autorotation 5.8, 8.7 6.3, 8,3
Stationary hover 4.7, 4.8 4.5
Hookup men duties,
Steep approach 4.29, 4,30 4.23, 4.24
external loads (Go, app. V) V.S
Takeoff to hover 4.56 4.3
Termination with power Horizontal flight 2.28 2.11
5.24 5.7
Traffic pattern 4.23 4.17
Hot weather flight techniques 8.11 8.4
External load operations (app. V) V.I Hovering:
Extreme attitudes 8.6
Above 10 feet 5.5 5.2
Airflow 2.23 2.9
Flare autorotation 2.38, 5.16 2.18, 5.4 Antitorque system failure--. 6.12, 5.18 5,3, 5.6
Plight control during autorotation 5.4 5.2 Autorotation 5.17 5.5
Flight training, presolo 3.1-3.3 3.1 Ceiling and gross
-Floats 5,13 6.4 weight (6, app. Ill) III.2
Forced landing entry 5.20-5.22 6.6
Definition 2.22a 2.9
Forced landing, night Ground effect 2,24 2.10
7.7 7.3
Formation flying: Landing 4,f; 4,4
Flights Moving 4, 6( 4.9 4 ,
6j 4>6
9,45 9.2
Free cruise Night 7,2 v.i
9.3 9.1
Normal approach 4.24-4.26 4.19
Night 9.9-9.11 9.18
Responsibilities of leaders
Normal takeoff 4.11-4,14 4.6
9.4c 9.3
Sections Precautions 4,10 4.3
9.4 a 9.2
Tactics: Skid height. III.2
(5,app. Ill)
Four-plane flight Stationary 4.6-4.8 4,5
9.7 9.8
Takeoff 4, Bft 43
Six-plane flight 9.8 9.14 ]

Three-plane section 9.6

Translating tendency 2,26 2.10
Two-plane section 9,5 9.4 carburetor
Ice, 8 6 8 ,2
Forward flight

2.26e, 2.28 2.10, 2.11 In-flight procedure,

Antitorque system failure 5.H 5.3 external loads
Autorotationa (3, appi y) V,2
2.37 2.17
Inspection, pi-eflight 3.3a(l), 4.3, 7.1 8,1,4.2,7,1
AGO 8770A
TM 1-260


Pickup procedure, external

Landing: app. V) V.I
6.6 5.2 loads (2,
Crosswind auto-rotative 6.3 6.3
7.7 7.3 Pinnacle operations
Forced 2.22 2.9
From hover 4 - 5 4.3 Pitch, blade
4 32
- 4.26 Power:
Running 4-18 4.9
4.22e 4.13 Control
Lateral positioning 5.23 5.7
Lift: 2.32 2.13
2.3 Settling with
Aerodynamics 2.106 5.7
Termination with 6-24
And thrust 2.11, 2.27 2.3, 2.10 8.1
Precautionary rules 8.1
2.10 2.3
And weight Precautions, confined area 6.6 6.5
2.21 2.7
Dissymmetry Precautions, hovering 4.10 4.6
Perpendicular to tip-path Precession, gyroscopic 2.20 2.6
2.28 2.11
plane 8.9 8.3
2.25 2.10 Precipitation, operations
Translational 5.26 5.9
2.10 Precision autorotation
Vertical flight 2.27 5.9
Precision glideslope 5.26rf
app. II) II.2
Light cargo helicopter (6, 7, 3.1, 4.2
6.3 Preflight inspection 3.3a(l),4.3
Low altitude autorotation 5.9, 5.10 7.1 7.1
8.8 8.3 Night
Low ceiling operations
6.3 Preflight procedures, external
Low reconnaissance 6.2ft
loads (1, app. V) V.I
Presolo flight training 3.1-3.3 3.1
Manifold pressure and hovering
(3, app. Ill) III.l Pressure:
Altitude 8.10 8.4
Manifold pressure and
III.l Altitude density chart. (7, app. IV) IV.3
payload (2, app. Ill)
2.4 2,1
Maximum angle takeoff 4.27,4.28 4.22 Atmospheric
Pretakeoff considerations 4.12 4,7
Maximum performance takeoff- 4.27, 4.28 4.22

Medium cargo helicopter- (8,9, app. II) II.8 Rate of closure 4.25c 4,21

Moving hover 4.9 4.6 Rate of descent, autorotation. 6.3, 6.26 5.1, 6.9
Reconnaissance 6.2 6.1
7.1-7.8 7.1
Night flying References (app. I) 1.1
Formations 9.9-9.11 9.1S
Relative wind 2,8c 2,2
No-flare autorotation 5. IB 6.4 Release procedure, external
Normal approach 4.24-4.2G 4.19 loads (4, app. V) V.2
Normal takeoff 4.11-4.14 4.6 Rendezvous and joinup of aircraft 9.10 9.18
Resonance 2.33 2.15
Observation helicopters __ (2, 3, app. II) Stabilizer bar 8.4 8.2
Operating limits; Retreating blade stall 2.29-2.31 2.12
Engine rpm 8*8 8.1
RidgelhiG operations C.3 6.3
Rotor rpm 8.2 8.1
Rotor :

Operations :
Antitorque 2.17 2,5
External load (app.V) V.I Disc 2.21tt 2.7

High altitude 8.l2a-e 8.4

Ttpm operating limits 8.2 8.1
In precipitation 8.9 8.3
Routing:, safe 5.2e 5.1
Over barriers 0.4 6.3
Rpm :

Over tall grass 8,l2d 8.6 Control 4.20, 4.21 4.11

Over water 8.12c 8.B
Engine operating limits 8.3 8.1
Pinnacle 6.3 6.3 Rotor operating limits 8.2 8.1
Reduced visibility (low Rules, precautionary 8,1 8.1
8 -8 8.3 4,32 4.2G
ceilings) Running landings
6.3 0.8 4,31 4.2G
Ridgelinc Running takeoff
6.5 6.5 Run-on landing 4,32 4.20
Over con trolling 8.6 8.2
Separation point 2.13 2.4

Payload and wind (4, app. Ill) III.2 Service ceiling and gross
Pedal settings, typical single rotor weight (7, app. Ill) III .2

4,22</ 4.18 Settling with power 2.32 2.1 S

4.22 4.13 Shallow approach 4,82c 4.20
Pedals, antitorque
turns 4.22e 4.15 Shock, ground 2,33 2.15
Pedals, use in
Pendular action 2,19 2.6 Sight picture (normal approach) 4.20

AGO 8770A Index 3

TM 1-260

Paragraph Page Paragraph

t picture (steep approach) ___ 4.30a 4.23 Taxiing ------------------------ 4.4 4.3

Sipnalm:in duties, external Termination with power __________ 6.24 6.7

lojicis __________________ (66, app. V) V.3 Thrust and drag ____________ 2.11,2.27 2.3,2,10
Slip ___________________________ 4.13c 4.7
Tip-path plane ----------------- 2.28 2.11
Slope operations ---------------- 6.5 6.5
Torque -------------------- 2.16, 2.17 2.5
Slow cruise ____________________ 4.19e 4.10
Track control ----------------- 4.22c, d 4.13
bar resonance ----------
Stabilizer 8.4 8.2
Traffic patterns _________________ 4.23 4.17
Stall __________________________ 2.13 2.4
Translating tendency ____________ 2.26 2.10
Stalling point ------------------ 2.13 2.4
Standard atmosphere ----- (3, app. IV) IV.l Translational lift _______________ 2.25 2.10

Stationary hover -------------- 4.7,4.8 4,5 Transverse flow effect ____________ 2.25c 2.10
Steep approach ------------- 4.29,4.30 4.23 Turbulence --------------------- G.I& o.l
Symmetrical airfoils ------------ 2.9ft 2.2 Turns, use of pedals ------------- 4.22c 4.13
Sympathetic resonance __________ 2.33a 2.16 Turn to final approach ___________ 4.23e 4.17
Unaymmetrical airfoils __________ 2.9a 2.2
Helicopter characteristics
Utility helicopters ------ (4,5, app. II) 11,1
(table I) ------------- (app. II) 11.10
Tactics for formation flying____ 9.5-9.8 9.4 Velocity -------------- 2.14,2.16,2.210 ,4,2.5,2.7
Tail rotor ---------------------- 2.17 2,5 Vertical autorotation ____________ 5.7 5.3
Takeoff: Vertical flight --------------
2,226,2.27 2.9,2.10
Maximum performance _ 4.27, 4.28 4.22 Visibility, night ________________
Night ---------------------
Normal ---------------- 4.11-4.14
7.3 ^ Visibility, reduced ______________

Running ------------------- 4.31 425 Weight and balance ______________ 2.34 2.15
To hover ------------------- 4.5 43 Weight and lift_________________ 2.10 2.3

TM 1-260

By Order of the Secretary of the Army:

General, Unitfd Xtitttx A.rr,iy,
Official: Chief of Staff.
Major General, United States Army,
The Adjutant General.

To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-31 requirements for general liu-ratim? for
all rotor wing aircraft.


I (j F f I : C. I'JC'j J'vO ill