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Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK, March 2011 Vol VII Issue 10

Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK, March 2011 Vol VII Issue 10

Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK, March 2011 Vol VII Issue 10

ISSN: 0976-3759
Journal of
School SocialPriceWork
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A National School Social Work monthly dedicated to networking of parents and teachers.
Volume VII Issue 10 Contents March 2011 Pages
Editorial 02
An Overview of
Preventive Measures for Dr Thirumoorthy A
Juvenile Delinquency Jeyaram S 03
Juvenile Delinquents: Lalitha Kumari I V
The Role of Family Malleswaramma G 06
Role of Social Workers in
Correction Home Mary Princess Lavanya A 13
Implementing ICPS (Integrated
Child Protection Services) Sadhna Jain 18
Psycho-social Dimension of
Juvenile Delinquency Dr Narasimha Raju A V 23
Relegated to Crime -
Some Case Studies Dr Udaya Mahadevan 29
Focus: Juvenile Delinquency
Hony. Special Editor:
Dr (Smt) Lakshmamma T, MA, PhD, MSc, MSW, MEd, PG Dip (Stat)
Professor, Department of Population Studies and Social Work
Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati – 517 502
Journal of School Social Work,
8 (New 14), Sridevi Colony, Seventh Avenue,
Ashok Nagar, Chennai 600 083
Mobile: 98406 02325 E-mail: jssw.india@gmail.com and PJ.Naidu@yahoo.in
Note: Views expressed by the contributors are not necessarily the official view of the Journal.
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK, March 2011 Vol VII Issue 10

Editorial Protect Our Souls

The future of any country and of juvenile. The legal age at which a
human kind at large, depend squarely person is considered to be a juvenile
on its children. Children need good varies from country to country. A child
food, education, medical, physical, till he completes 18 years of age will
emotional, social and moral support, be treated as juvenile in our country.
protection and guidance. They need Juvenile delinquency is a serious
mothers who are healthy, able, social problem in many countries.
educated and responsible to give At this juncture women, family and
required care and attention to them. the society as a whole need to realize
But, women transcend from their that mere provision of (satisfaction)
primary and natural roles and of physiological requirements is not
responsibilities due to perceptually sufficient. What is needed more than
changing status of women in the that is an overall improvement in
family and in the society at large. attention, concern, guidance, and
The concepts of social justice, follow-up, aver the experts. In that
equality, gender perspectives might wonderful situation the family system
have had risen out of suppression, itself would be a Family Court and
need for respect and recognition of the indigenous Juvenile Justice
women’s roles and responsibilities in Court, in other words.
the family and in the society. That Hence, the academicians,
apart, the changing cultural, socio- researchers, administrators, policy
economic structures, norms and makers and IEC channels need to
standards of the family and the concentrate on adding to sources of
society reduce the attention of information at all levels to popularize
women towards their family in general the propagation of causes and
and children in particular, especially consequences, correction and
in the essential areas of nursing and rehabilitation services and preventive
nurturing. Thus, the ‘role of family’ is aspects at national and international
– identified as the prime cause for levels. It is absolutely essential to
juvenile delinquency, the violation of save our youngsters from becoming
law by an young offender or a delinquents.
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK, March 2011 Vol VII Issue 10

An Overview of
Preventive Measures for
Juvenile Delinquency
Thirumoorthy A*
Jeyaram S**
*Dr Thirumoorthy A, Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatric Social Work,
NIMHANS, Bangalore
** Jeyaram S, Ph.D. Scholar, Department of Psychiatric Social Work, NIMHANS,
Introduction survey showed that 11% of juvenile
Juvenile delinquency has emerged as population in the age group of seven
one of the social problems which the to 18 years committed delinquent acts
modern society has to face. G. C. as compared to 17% in the town.
Dutt observes, juvenile delinquency (Intelligence Bureau, Government of
is rapidly becoming a serious menace India, Seminar on Social Defence,
in India and with the progressive March 1965, p 30).
industrialization and urbanization of The following crimes were committed
many parts of the country, which were by juveniles in the report on Crimes
essentially rural areas until a few in India by Government of India in the
years ago, this problem will soon year 2005
assume the global proportion as seen 1. Murder
in many of the western countries. 2. Attempt to murder
Definition 3. Hurt not amounting to murder
The term juvenile delinquency is 4. Rape
defined in different ways by social 5. Kidnapping and abduction
scientists according to their own 6. Dacoity
experience. Freedlander defines it as 7. Preparation and assembly for
a juvenile misconduct that might be dacoity
dealt with under the laws. 8. Robbery
A study of juvenile delinquency in rural 9.Burglary
and semi urban areas shows that the 10. Auto theft
problem of delinquency was also a 11. Other thefts
serious problem in rural areas. The 12. Criminal breach of trust.
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK, March 2011 Vol VII Issue 10

13. Riots 19. Sexual harassment.

14. Cheating The extent and the distribution of
15. Counterfeiting juvenile delinquency cases and
16. Arson percentage as against total crimes
17. Hurt reported in a year are given below in
18. Molestation table 1
Table 1
Incidence of Juvenile Crimes in India
under Indian Penal Code (IPC), from 1995-2005
Incidence of crimes $ Rate
% to Population per
Sl Year
Juvenile Total total in Lakhs Lakh

1 1995 9766 1695696 0.60 9160 1.1

2 1996 10024 1709576 0.60 9319 1.1
3 1997 7909 1719820 0.50 9552 0.8
4 1998 9352 1778815 0.50 9709 1.0
5 1999 8888 1764629 0.50 9866 0.9
6 2000 9267 1771084 0.50 10021 0.9
7 2001@ 16509 1769308 0.90 10270 1.6
8 2002 18560 1780330 1.00 10506 1.8
9 2003 17819 1716120 1.00 10682 1.7
10 2004 19229 1832015 1.00 10856 1.8
11 2005 18939 1822602 1.00 10028 1.7
$ Estimated mid-year population
@ As per revised definition of Juvenile Justice Act, the boys’ age
group of 16-18 year has also been considered as juveniles since
2001 onwards.
Preventive measures 1.A team work of private and public
To prevent delinquency and to agencies devoted to preventive work
rehabilitate those who have become (such as schools, parent-teacher
delinquents certain measures have associations, youth organisation
to be taken. groups, work agencies, Police Boys
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK, March 2011 Vol VII Issue 10

Clubs) and people ( probation officers be encouraged.

of the Juvenile Courts, social workers 7. Creation and assistance to law
and police personnel). enforcement agencies including
2.Training of members of staff of all Juvenile police bureau.
organisations concerned with 7.The newspapers, magazines,
delinquency control. radios and television media should
3.Establishment of child guidance interpret juvenile delinquency
clinic to treat seriously disturbed and through honest reports about causes
maladjusted children. and protection of youth rather than
4.Education of the family needs to stressing the sensational aspects,
be strengthened for family living and scandals and false heroism
social hygiene and counselling. promoting delinquent behaviour.
5.Prevention of delinquency requires Conclusion
establishment of recreational Despite increasing public concern and
facilities such as play ground, widespread experimentation with
community centres. In rural areas, techniques of rehabilitation and
schools should open their meeting prevention, youth services are
hall and their play ground for sports, extremely limited, and the discretion
recreation and cultural activities. of the Juvenile court in most
6.Assistance to underprivileged jurisdictions is severely handicapped
children through schools and by the paucity of available alternatives
character building agencies should for treatment or protection of children.
The Register General of India. (2005): Incidence of Juvenile Crimes under Indian
Penal Code (IPC), India from 1995-2005.
Madan, G. (2002): Indian Social Problems (6 Ed., Vol. I). New Delhi : Allied
Sachdeva D R (2006): Social Welfare Administration in India, (5 Ed.). Allahabad:
Kitab Mahal.
Vidya Bhushan, and Sachdeva, D R (2006): An Introduction to Sociology (40
ed.) Allahabad: Kitab Mahal.
Articles may be sent to jssw.india@gmail.com and PJ.Naidu@yahoo.in and posted
in CD mailer too. Please mention your name and Article for the month of ..... in
the SUBJECT bar to prevent accidental spamming.18-03-2011 is the last date.
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK, March 2011 Vol VII Issue 10

Juvenile Delinquents : The Role of Family

Lalitha Kumari I V*
Malleswaramma G**
* Lalitha Kumari I V, Asst. Professor, Department of Social Work, Sri Padmavathi
Women’s University, Tirupati, e-mail: lalithakumariiv4@gmail.com
**Malleswaramma G, Asst. Professor, Department of Social Work, Sri Padmavathi
Women’s University, Tirupati, e-mail : malligaleti@gmail.com
Introduction The largest number of crimes by
With the rapid development in our juveniles – 7,498 were theft followed
country, lots of changes appear in by 4,832 for hurts, 3,744 for burglary
the society. The research reports and and 2,231 for riots. The crimes
surveys show an increase in committed by minors were 1.7
delinquent behaviour of children percent of total crime in the country
aged 14-18 years. The Juvenile in 2005. It increased to 1.9 and 2.0
Justice Act (JJ Act) 1986, considers percent in 2006 and 2007
a boy of 16 years or below and a girl respectively, according to the Crime
18 years or below as a juvenile. In in 2007 report of the National Crime
later amendments of the JJ Act, Record Bureau (NCRB). The number
1986, to the BARE Act, 2000 (India, of juveniles apprehended in 2007
2000), it is said that any person, 18 (18,015) in the age group of 16-18
years or below, found to commit years is highest and 6.3 percent
an offence would be considered as higher compared to 2006, the report
a juvenile delinquent. said. Madhya Pradesh reported
Statistics highest number of crimes by
More and more children across India juveniles in the country followed by
are taking to crimes with the 4,499 in Maharashtra and 1,864 in
incidence of juvenile crime recording Gujarat.
an increase each year. In 2007 the Causes
juvenile crimes increased by 8.4 If we look for the causes of juvenile
percent over 2006 with 22, 865 delinquency, social scientists
crimes by juveniles registered during reported that the theoretical causes
2007, up from 21,088 in 2006 (IANS). are social disorganization, strain and
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK, March 2011 Vol VII Issue 10

stress, bad company and labelling. greater emotional instability as

The external causes are atmosphere compared to adolescents from high
at home, neighbourhood and socio-economic stratum. A similar
teacher’s behaviour. Some other study found 705 offenders from poor
factors also may influence juveniles and very poor strata. Poor socio-
to become delinquents. economic condition, he asserted,
Review of literature was one of the important reasons for
Human beings live in a complex children to go deviant. Such a
multifaceted environment and their condition may result in insecurity
adjustment largely depends on the producing psychological reactions in
extent to which they can cope with some children, which finds
their biological demands, personal expression in delinquency. Sharma,
requirements and social obligations Gunthey and Singh (1982) found that
with in the frame work of delinquents exhibit more tension,
environmental facilities and assertiveness, anxiety, depression
restraints. In modern industrialized and frustration. There are popular
countries, the socio-cultural gulf assumptions that juvenile crimes are
between adolescents and adults tend committed more by male children of
to increase due to changes in the economically and educationally
economic orders. In the era of post- disadvantaged families (Mc Dill and
modernism it is observed that Mc Partland, 1977). Statistical
institutional settings are losing their information from India (India: Ministry
strength, especially in upholding the of Human Affairs, 2001) also
values of life. The effect is supports the above proposition.
predominantly seen among the youth Gordon (1976) cites 23 empirical
in the life style, casual attitude to life studies which document such a
and the tendency to rebel against the positive relationship.
systems. In the Indian context, Sen (1993)
In Indian situation, Shamugam states that in ordinary middle class
(1957) found that adolescents nuclear families in urban
belonging to low socio-economic environments, the fathers are usually
stratum were characterized by preoccupied or away from home. In
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK, March 2011 Vol VII Issue 10

such a case, the mother becomes the there is an absence of ‘adult area’. It
dominant figure. The system works is true that vandalism, theft and
well for the girls as they are expected attacks committed by delinquents
to behave in a feminine way. But the and youth gangs may not necessarily
boys face conflict because society be for direct material gains. Property
expects them to be manly and they is often destroyed or discarded rather
are forced to adopt early in life than than sold or used. The sense of
a female. The boys, therefore, must adventure is more dominant in such
assert masculinity and often their cases than the greed for money
delinquent behaviour takes the form (Cohen, 1955:166).
of masculine protest. Methodology
Sociologists view that the state of Tirupati is a well known temple town
structuration in deviant behaviour of Andhra Pradesh and a leading
gradually occurs with increasing age. center for spirituality, education and
It has been observed that a large culture. With its strategic position in
proportion of serious crimes economic and related opportunities,
committed by a certain section of Tirupati has always attracted migrant
youth during their early adolescence population in a big way from
have shown a receding trend in the neighbouring villages, other districts
later years of their crime corner. A in the state and other states also.
majority of juvenile offenders do not Floating population represents both
continue a life of crime, whether they the extremes – the rich and the poor.
receive special treatment from A sizeable proportion of its population
correctional agencies or not. Law lives in slums, but it is very much
says that a juvenile of 18 years or influenced by the religious, cultural
below, who is found to have and social values.
committed an offence is a delinquent. Like any other town or city Tirupati
It is assumed that a juvenile may be also has to its ‘credit’ incidents of
an offender, but there is a potential deviance and crime. As Tirupati is
of innocence and hence cannot be well connected by rail and road
treated like an adult criminal. This is transportation with major towns and
because in an adolescent’s mind cites the problem of street/
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK, March 2011 Vol VII Issue 10

abandoned and delinquent children fifty per cent of the population in the
is more. We find the problem is more special home.
among boys than in girls. Hence with Case studies
this background three cases were Case study: 1
selected from Regional Special Mr A, aged 17 years, discontinued
Home for boys, Tirupati out of six in X Class had murdered his mother.
delinquent cases. Case studies were He says:
prepared by interacting with the “My father was a daily labour and
young offenders and the officials to my mother, a vegetable vendor. My
find out the circumstances and father is an occasional alcoholic. My
factors that led them to commit an mother fought when my father took
offence. alcohol. My mother looked after the
Details about delinquents household affairs. I was very much
Totally there were only six juvenile attached to my mother and I helped
delinquents in the special home. This my mother some times. She also
data was taken from special home loved me very much. I wanted to
for boys, Tirupati during March 2010. study well, get good job and lead a
The data shows that all the decent life in the society. One day I
delinquents are in the age group of happened to see a stranger in my
10-18 years (10, 14, 15, 16, 17 and house and I asked my mother about
18). The first four had committed him but she did not respond well.
thefts and the last two, murder. From She also shouted at me to go out. I
the data it was deduced that the poor was upset a lot. He visited our home
socio-economic background of regularly. I didn’t like him and didn’t
unhealthy family atmosphere, broken want my mother to spend time with
families, single parent families, him. My poor father did not know
alcohol abuse of the father and the about this. One day when I came
poverty contributing to juvenile back home from the school in the
delinquency among children. afternoon the door was locked and
Of the six, three were chosen on the I knocked at the door. My mother
basis of crime committed (one opened the door. When I went inside
murder and two thefts) representing he was also there and he went off
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK, March 2011 Vol VII Issue 10

immediately. I was shocked and I “ My parents were illiterates. father

hated my mother. Since then I was was a car driver and mother, a
disturbed and could not sleep even homemaker. We are six children
at night. One day I planned to kill (Four sons and two daughters) and
her and did at night when she was I am the 3rd son. I lost my mother
sleeping. My father got up and at the age of seven years. I did not
shouted in confusion. The find home atmosphere comfortable
neighbours also got up and rushed in the absence of my mother.
to our home. Later the police came Gradually I came in to contact with
and arrested me.” bad elements. My father and elder
Case study: 2 brothers were not aware of it. But
Mr B, 14 Years old illiterate had after a few days one of my elder
committed theft. He says: brothers came to know that I was
“My parents are illiterates and father involved in antisocial activities. At
works in a bamboo shop and this stage, my father’s advice had
mother, an agricultural labour. I have some restraints on me. But my
three sisters and an elder brother father also died shortly and my elder
and none were sent to school and brother used to take care of me. I
father insisted on me and my brother went back to my old company and
to work. But I did not like to work, ultimately involved in theft. I begged
hence my father in his anger beat pardon for my misconduct but my
me and forced me to work in a elder brother was not prepared to
teastall. Meanwhile I developed the take me in the family. He was of the
habit of loitering and started opinion that it was not possible for
committing petty offences. One day him to provide proper care and
I was caught red-handed by police. attention. So I was sent to the
As my father refused to take me correctional institution.
home I was sent to the correctional Analysis
institution.” These cases reveal that they
Case study: 3 belonged to poor socio-economic
Mr C, 10 years old illiterate had backgrounds and they did not have
committed theft. He says: healthy family environments for
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK, March 2011 Vol VII Issue 10

proper personality development. In Discussion and conclusion

the first case mother’s extra-marital The three case studies highlight the
relations and unhealthy family delinquent behaviour of adolescents
relations turned the child a murderer. from broken families which did not
In the second case lack of normal provide conducive environments to
opportunities of schooling, poverty, balance their personalities, or no
absence of family ties are the interest in conformity with the existing
causative factors of delinquency. In values and norms. This turned them
the third case the factors like large to deviant and delinquent activities
family, lower economic level and poor which ultimately took the shape of
supervision have lead the boy to feel crime.
insecure and lonely in the family after A healthy home environment is a key
the death of his mother. His poor factor for the proper growth and
motivation to go to school and lack development of any child. Children
of supervision have lead to develop also need a good peer group and
socially unacceptable behaviour healthy neighbourhood which
pattern on his part. influence their personality. In the
The findings are also supported by traditional societies, the scope for
the research. deviant behaviour was limited due to
Criminals are not born, but life the nature of environment the child
experiences, environment and socio- was exposed to. With the
economic influences do contribute advancement of science and
to delinquency. technology, new opportunities are
The relationship between emerging which assign new roles
delinquency and family functioning and challenges to the parents and
has been well documented in the therefore, changes are expected in
literature. Negative parent – child their role in socializing their children.
relationships in general and poor The media (TV and movies), living in
parenting skills in particular have slums, concentration of opportunities
been identified as significant risk resulting in more competition and
factors for criminal behaviour in youth wide inequalities in institutions have
(SEM, 1997). serious influence on child’s growth
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK, March 2011 Vol VII Issue 10

and development. Family is the first social agency to

Families play vital role in shaping the protect the child from all dangers in
future of the children. Through proper the society and promote a healthy
socialization, by meeting the needs growth and development in them.
of the child, ensuring healthy home Hence family has the major
and school environment, better responsibility to prevent delinquency
housing and environmental in the family. Family life education
conditions and imparting value based helps the broken families to
education in the school the problem strengthen the family in the total
of delinquency can be prevented. perspective.
Cohm A (1955 ): Delinquent Boys: The Culture of the Gang, New York: Free
Gordon R A (1976): Prevalence: The Bare Datum in Delinquency Measurement
and its Implications for Delinquency. In M.W. Klen (Ed.), The Juvenile Justice
System Annual (Volume 5) Berarly Hills: Sage Publications, 201-84.
India : Ministry of Home Affairs. (2000): BARE Act, 2000, Amendment of Juvenile
Justice Act, (JJA), 1986,
National Crime Record Bureau (2001): Crime in India Report, New Delhi.
Mc Dill L E and Mc Parland J (1977): Violence in School : Perspective,
Programmes and Positions, Toronto : Lexington Books.
Sen S (1993): Juvenile Delinquency, Indian Journal of Criminology, 21(2), 83-
Shanmugam TE (1957): Effect of Low Socio–economic Status on Emotional
Stability, Journal of Psychological Research. 1, 60-67.
Sharma R P, Gunthely R K and Singh M (1982): Personality Correlates of
Juvenile Delinquency, Indian Journal of Clinical Psychology, 9(1), 43-45
We are thankful to the honorary special editor, Dr (Smt) Lakshmamma T,
MA, PhD, MSc, MSW, MEd, PGDip (Stat) Professor, Department of Population
Studies and Social Work, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, for co-
opting Dr Savarimuthu A, Trichy and Prof Sampath Kumar,
Vishakapatnam. We are thank her for sending editorial in time and for
her objectivity in ranking all the articles received. ~Ed.
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK, March 2011 Vol VII Issue 10

Role of Social Workers in Correction Home

Mary Princess Lavanya A*
Mary Princess Lavanya A, Asst. Professor, Department of Social Work, Patrician
College of Arts and Science, Gandhi Nagar, Adyar, Chennai-600020.
e-mail: princesslavanya80@gmail.com.
Introduction kept in observation homes, which are
Juvenile delinquency is a complex also known as remand homes or
social problem that significantly correctional homes.
impacts all members and processes Homes
of a social structure. Delinquency Remand home is a place of
refers to a set of behaviours that is detention, which provides remand
not in line with the collective practices service for children and young
and/ or ethics of the dominant social persons pending court appearance
group. Essentially, these behaviours or police investigation, temporary
deviate from societal norms and custody and care for children and
more specifically they violate young persons pending court
established criminal codes and laws. disposal, as well as detention for
The consensus among practitioners children and young persons
and researchers however maintains committed to place of detention.
that juvenile delinquency is a Structured programmes are
dynamic, multifaceted problem with provided during the period of
numerous potentially causal factors. detention. Assessment of children
Subsequently, investigators and and young persons pending court
professionals suggest that treatment disposal is also conducted to assist
procedures must focus on not only the investigating officers to formulate
the immediate issue of the offender’s welfare plan and the magistrates to
deviant behaviour but on every decide on appropriate court disposal.
element within the context of that Social work programmes refer to
behaviour as well, including for number of groups or mass
example, family relations and social programmes arranged by social work
support services/ networks. For this staff of the Home applying social
purpose the juvenile delinquents are work values, knowledge and skills
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK, March 2011 Vol VII Issue 10

and with planned objectives, Very few remand homes have social
programme contents, evaluation and workers who are designated as
documentation. Probationary Officers. It causes
Purpose and objectives confusion as banks also have the
The purpose and objectives of post of probationary officers whose
Remand Home are: role is altogether different from that
àTo provide temporary custody in of a probationary officer in the
a stable, safe, fair and warm Juvenile homes. Social workers face
communal living environment. challenging ambiguity in their roles
àTo provide residential care. in different settings, more so in
à To provide social work correctional settings.
programme and structured routines Role of social worker
to address the problems leading to The juvenile delinquent is a person
placement. of 18 years and below who had come
à To encourage their potentials, in conflict with the law. The social
sense of responsibility, self-esteem, worker or social welfare officer or
self-care and social relationship for probation officer (SW, SWO, PO
children and young persons in respectively) will be dealing with the
remand. Police and the family/ home of the
àTo assist the children and young juvenile simultaneously. They may
persons to develop better links with contact the family to educate them
resources in the community. to cooperate with the Police. They
à To function as an assessment also educate them on their rights and
center for children and young that of the juvenile, including getting
persons in remand. a legal representation. Social
But it is disheartening to know that workers take the juvenile and family
most often these remand homes do through the possible process the
not have a trained social worker. juvenile will go through. They also
Professionals from other disciplines see to it that the juvenile’s rights are
who simply can control these children not compromised. This includes
or the probationary officers who are protecting the juvenile from torture
not trained in intervention strategy. and possibly putting him/ her among
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK, March 2011 Vol VII Issue 10

adult offenders and not remanded counselling. In the Junior Correction

unduly longer whether in the police Institution (JCI) (the probation
custody or in social worker’s custody. homes and the Industrial schools)
The social worker’s contact with the the social worker sees to it that the
home also helps police to determine juvenile continues his/ her education
the type of remand the juvenile will if s/he were already in the system.
need (to release him on remand to S/he also encourages the family
his own parents). The family is members to visit and participate in
encouraged to visit the juvenile at the the reformation of the juvenile.
police station and give him assurance Counselling the juvenile to accept
of their support. himself is a very vital component of
Role in the court the rehabilitation of the juvenile.
Then at the court, the social worker Writing of reports on the juvenile and
plays two roles, one as a panel submitting to the head office also are
member and the other as the next other functions undertaken.
friend of the juvenile. In the court he The social worker takes the services
sees to it that the court is as juvenile to the juvenile delinquents in
–friendly as possible by the following compliance with Juvenile Offenders
procedures: Ordinance. Services provided
àPolice are not in uniform. include:
à The parents/ guardians are the (a) Residential training in the form
only people from the public. of small group living within the Home
àThe juvenile is addressed in a to promote and facilitate individual
language that he/ she understands. contact, treatment, attention, privacy
àThe juvenile is not intimidated in and closer relationship among
any way. residents and with the residential
Social Enquiry Report (SER) workers.
After the trial, the social worker still (b) Individual or group counselling
has a role to play whether the juvenile to relieve the residents’ anxiety and
is sentenced or given a suspended uncertainty, to help them adjust to
sentence. If incarcerated, he the Home living and to help them
continues with his supervision and gain insight into their emotional and
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK, March 2011 Vol VII Issue 10

behavioural problems and plan (i) Encouraging and facilitating

realistically for their social contact with families/ guardians and
rehabilitation. arranging guardian’s visits for
(c) Assessments on areas including improvement of parent-child
physical condition, behavioural and relationship and development of
personality characteristics, individual welfare plan for the
interpersonal relationship, general residents.
performance, attitude towards (j) Introducing various community
welfare plan and assessment on resources to the residents and their
needs of the residents to assist the families, involving volunteers in the
investigating officers to formulate programmes and by involving the
welfare plan and the magistrates to residents in community service
decide on appropriate disposal. projects to enhance their self-
(d) Working with relevant others esteem and to develop their
including the investigating officer, potentials.
family members, staff of other Rights of children
agencies and/ or clinical The United Nations’ Convention on
psychologist to develop individual the Rights of the Child provides a
welfare plan for the residents. framework for improving the living
(e) Training programmes to develop conditions of children, focusing on
life skills. the following four broad areas:
(f) Educational and trade training to àSurvival rights: Articles 6.1, 6.2
cultivate residents’ interest in study. and 24.1 deal with the basic needs
(g) Social, cultural and recreational that must be met for children to
activities to develop social skills and enjoy good health for adequate
interest for better adjustment in the growth, including medical care,
community. nutrition, shelter and clothing. For
(h) Family life education street children most of these needs
programmes to develop skills and are not satisfied.
knowledge for the improvement of àDevelopment rights: Articles 6, 26
family and interpersonal and 28 relate to the opportunities
relationship. and means for providing children
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK, March 2011 Vol VII Issue 10

with access to education, skills, solutions to their problems if

training, recreation and rest, consulted. Street children, in
information, parental care and social particular, have already learned to
security. make important decisions regarding
àProtective rights: Articles 2, 19.1, their daily lives without the
19.2, 32.1, 33, 34, 36 and 37 focus assistance of adults.
on the legal and social provisions Conclusion
that must be made by each country Under the correctional services the
to protect children from exploitation, observation home offers a place of
drug abuse, sexual abuse, cruelty, safety and facilities for classifying the
separation from family, type of children to suitably plan for
discrimination, and the effects of all treatment services and placement of
types of man-made or natural the child, according to the need of
disasters. each individual child. Each child will
àParticipation rights: Articles 12, be followed up by the case work
13, 14 and 17 focus on the technique of social work according
opportunities and means provided to the child’s background.
to children to enable them to Preference is given to rehabilitate the
express opinions on matters child back to the family;
affecting their lives, including institutionalization is only a last resort.
freedom of worship, access to The juvenile today, when given the
information about oneself, and necessary support by significant
freedom to give evidence (where others, could become a great teacher
applicable). Children are or a disciplined police officer, or
knowledgeable about their enlightened and dedicated social
situations and can devise innovative worker in future.
Jennings M A and Gunther J (2000): Juvenile Delinquency in Search of a Practice
Model: Family Health, Differential Association and Social Control. Journal of
Family Social Work, 5, 1, 75-89.
Lundman R J (1993): Prevention and Control of Juvenile Delinquency, 2nd Ed.
New York: Oxford Press.
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK, March 2011 Vol VII Issue 10

Implementing ICPS
(Integrated Child Protection Services)
Sadhna Jain*
* Sadhna Jain, Reader, Department of Family and Child Welfare, Aditi
Mahavidyalaya, University of Delhi, Delhi.
Introduction laws, some of which are Right to
One third of India’s population is Education Act, 2009, Right to Food
below the age of eighteen years. Act, 2009, the Pre-Natal Diagnostic
India’s children are India’s future. The Techniques (Regulation and
investment on children is investment Prevention of misuse) Act, 1994,
in future. To have bright future, it is Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1929
important to have children with sound (amended in 1979 and 2006), Child
body, mind and spirit. This is possible Labour (Regulation and Prohibition)
if and only if their basic physical, Act, 1986 (amended in 2006) and the
psychosocial and emotional needs Juvenile Justice (Care and
are met. The fulfillment of these Protection) Act, 2000 (amended in
needs will make them healthy, happy, 2006).
protected, well-developed and Schemes
productive members of the society. In 2006 during XI plan, the Ministry
But, the stark reality is that India is a of Women and Child Development
home of large number of vulnerable (MWCD) proposed the adoption of
children. They live in difficult the Integrated Child Protection
circumstances which increase their Scheme (ICPS). It was based on the
vulnerability to abuse, neglect, principle that the child protection is a
exploitation and diseases. shared responsibility of government,
Legislations family, community, professionals and
It is not that our government is civil society. In 2009 the central
indifferent to their vulnerabilities. In government gave the scheme its
fact, Government of India has also approval and has begun the
ratified UN Convention on the Rights extensive task of providing children
of the Child (UNCRC), 1989 in 1992. with protection and safe environment
Our Government has enacted many to develop and flourish. Child
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK, March 2011 Vol VII Issue 10

protection refers to protection from Components of ICPS

violence, exploitation, abuse and 1.Twenty four hour emergency
neglect. The purpose of the scheme helpline (Child helplines-1098) and
is to provide for children in difficult drop in centers in all districts and
circumstances, as well as to reduce cities.
the risks and vulnerabilities which 2.Cradle baby reception centers to
children experience in various receive abandon babies, those in
situations and actions that lead to crisis and vulnerable to trafficking.
abuse, neglect, exploitation, 3.Extension of childline services to
abandonment and separation of rural areas.
children. 4.Provision of resources to states
Objectives of ICPS and union territories for setting up
1. Reducing the vulnerability of the statutory bodies under the JJ Act.
child by converging provisions and 5.Setting up of National and State
services of various sectors. Commissions for protection of the
2. Promotion of non-institutional child rights to monitor and report on
care of the children. implementation of child rights in
3. Creating network of services India.
available at community level. ICPS for in need of care
4. Developing standards of care and The Integrated Child Protection
protection. Scheme (ICPS), like the Juvenile
5. Building and strengthening the Justice Act 2000, defines vulnerability
capacities of all those involved in the in two categories: children in need of
service delivery. care and protection and children in
6. Strengthening the crisis conflict with law.
management system. A child in need of care and protection
7. Creating a data base and is defined as a child who does not
knowledge base for child protection have a home or shelter; resides with
services. a person who has threatened to harm
8. Raising public awareness about him/ her; is mentally or physically
child rights, child vulnerabilities and challenged, or has an illness, terminal
child protection. or incurable disease and has no one
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK, March 2011 Vol VII Issue 10

to provide and care for him/ her; has minorities, children infected and/ or
a parent or guardian deemed unfit or affected by HIV/ AIDS, child beggars,
unable to take care of the child; is children of prisoners, and street and
an orphan, or is a runaway or missing working children. The Act bars death
child whose parents cannot be sentence, life imprisonment and
located after a reasonable search prohibits prison in default of payment
period; is being or is likely to be of fine or in furnishing security and
sexually, mentally, emotionally or publication of names, addresses of
physically abused, tortured or juveniles in any newspaper and
exploited; is being trafficked or magazines.
abusing drug substances; is a victim Service delivery structure
of arm conflict, civil unrest or a natural In order to ensure that the objectives
disaster. and approaches of ICPS are met, the
ICPS for delinquents scheme also calls for the
Children in conflict with law are establishment of new bodies within
juveniles who have allegedly a service delivery structure.
committed a crime under the Indian At the district level there would be:
Penal Code. The ICPS also àDistrict Child Protection Society
recognises a third category of (DCPS).
children: children in contact with law. à District Child Protection
These children are victims of or Committee (DCPC).
witnesses to crimes. ICPS outlines àSponsorship and Foster Care
that group of vulnerable children Approval Committee (SFCAC).
includes but are not limited to the à Block Level Child Protection
categories like children of potentially Committee.
vulnerable families and families at àVillage Level Child Protection
risk, children of socially excluded Committee.
groups like migrant families, families At the state level there would be:
living in extreme poverty, scheduled àState Child Protection Society
castes, scheduled tribes and other (SCPS).
backward classes, families subjected àState Adoption Resource Agency
to or affected by discrimination, (SARA).
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK, March 2011 Vol VII Issue 10

àState Child Protection Committee Labour Prohibition and Regulation

(SCPC). Act, 1986 a ‘child’ is a person who
à State Adoption Advisory has not attained the age of fourteen
Committee. years of age. No minimum age for
At the regional level there would be: child labour has been specified.
àChild Protection Division in the Under The Prohibition of Child
four Regional Centres of National Marriage Act, 2006, the age of
Institute of Public Cooperation and marriage is 21 years for boys and
Child Development (NIPCCD). 18 years for girls. The age of
à Four Regional Centers of marriage in Muslim personal law is
CHILDLINE India Foundation (CIF). the age of puberty. Under Section
And lastly at the national level there 366 (A), procurement of a minor girl
would be: below 18 years of age is an offence.
àCHILDLINE India Foundation- Under the Juvenile Justice (Care
Headquarters. and Protection of Children)
àChild Protection Division in the Amendment Act, 2006, a ‘Juvenile
National Institute of Public in conflict with law’ means a juvenile
Cooperation and Child who has not completed his/ her
Development (NIPCCD). eighteenth year as on the date of
à Central Adoption Resource commitment of the offence. The
Agency (CARA). honourable Supreme Court has held
Challenges in that the lower age in the age bracket
implementing ICPS is to be taken into account, so that
Not much improvement has occurred the benefit of doubt favours the
in the lives of vulnerable children. victim. It is necessary that the
They are still denied of their rights definition of ‘child’ be in line with the
and are abused and exploited. Many Convention on the Rights of the
factors are responsible for it. Child.
1.One of the main factors is related 2.The development of infrastructure
to the definition of the child. Different is important for the implementation
laws have different definitions of the of ICPS. The Juvenile Justice (Care
child. For example under the Child and Protection) Act makes a
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK, March 2011 Vol VII Issue 10

provision of child protection units at children in their own wellbeing is the

district, village, state levels. But such most neglected aspect of the child
units are not established in many protection services.
districts. Conclusion
3.The powers of Juvenile Justice it is imperative to create enabling
Board, are very wide. A juvenile structures to serve the best interest
can be easily released without of the child, capacity building of the
correction and reformation. parents, children and communities,
4.The Act bars appeal from acquittal ensuring access to essential services
or from order of child welfare like health, nutrition and education,
committee in respect of finding that providing psycho-social and
the child is not neglected. The emotional support, economic
wrongdoer will be freed without strengthening of families and
reconsideration of matter. This children. Advocacy and social
provision takes away the right to mobilization to build supportive
appeal and there justice is denied. environment for child rights alone can
5.Ensuring active involvement of the ensure effective implementation and
children especially the ones at risk monitoring of laws, policies and
by greater participation of the programmes for children.
NIPCCD ( 2007): Statistics on Women in India, New Delhi: National Institute of
Public Cooperation and Child Development.
Kadri H A (2004): Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection) Act, 2000-An overview,
Kusuma trust, UK (2010): SAARATHI Manual for Training of Frontline Workers
from Child Development Agencies. Mumbai: Tata Institute of Social Sciences.
Government of India websites.
Future Focus
Month HSE Topic
Apr 2011 Sadhana Adhikary Attention Seeking Children
May 2011 Rekha Mistry RET and Problem Solving
Jun 2011 Dr Parthasarathy R Silent Children
Jul 2011 Dr (Capt) Raja D V P Yet to decide

Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK, March 2011 Vol VII Issue 10

Psycho-social Dimension of
Juvenile Delinquency
Narasimha Raju A V*
Dr Narasimha Raju A V, Head, Dept. of Social Work, PG Courses and Research
Center, DNR College, Bhimavaram – 534202, Andhra Pradesh.
e-mail: avnarasimharaju@yahoo.com
Introduction risk individuals and their
Juvenile delinquency refers to environments before delinquent
antisocial or illegal behaviour by activity and behaviour occur, and
children or adolescents which is a then removing such risk factors or
relatively new legal term for a very strengthening resistance to the risk
old phenomenon. There are a factors already present. The most
multitude of different theories for the logical starting place for prevention
causes of crime, most of which can efforts is the family.
be applied to the causes of youth Psychological dimension
crime. However, when a child is Conduct disorder usually develops
designated a juvenile delinquent by during childhood and manifests itself
the court he/ she is a ward of the during adolescence. Some juvenile
court, subject to its discretion. behaviour is attributed to conduct
Children often test the limits and disorder. Juvenile delinquents are
boundaries set by their parents and sometimes diagnosed with conduct
other authority figures. Among disorders because they show a
adolescents, some rebelliousness continuous disregard for their own
and experimentation is common. and others’ safety and property. Once
However, a few children consistently the juvenile continues to exhibit the
participate in problematic behaviours same behavioural patterns and turns
that negatively affect their familial, eighteen he is then at risk of
academic, social, and personal antisocial personality disorder and is
functioning. These children present much more prone to become a
great concern to parents and the criminal. One of the main
community at large. The prevention components used in diagnosing an
of delinquency requires identifying at- adult with antisocial personality
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK, March 2011 Vol VII Issue 10

disorder consists of presenting 3. Spending time idly beyond limit.

documented history of conduct 4. Use of vulgar language.
disorder before the age of 15. These 5. Wandering about rail roads,
two personality disorders are streets and market places.
analogous in their erratic and 6. Visiting gambling centers.
aggressive behaviour. Once the 7. Committing sexual offences.
juveniles reach maturation their 8. Shop-lifting.
socially unacceptable behaviour has 9. Stealing.
grown into a life style and they Psychoanalytic view
develop into career criminals. Career According to psycho-analytical view,
criminals begin exhibiting antisocial the delinquent is an individual who is
behaviour before entering middle governed by the pleasure principle.
school and are versatile in that they He wants to get immediate pleasure
engage in an array of destructive and immediate satisfaction for his
behaviours, offend at exceedingly needs. So he becomes victim to his
high rates, and are less likely to quit own impulses. Thus it may be said
committing crime as they age. that juvenile delinquency is also the
Delinquent and criminal behaviour result of environmental factors. A
among young people, as they grave problem such as juvenile
negotiate the transition from delinquency can’t be solved by
childhood to adulthood in an means of legislation and government
increasingly complex and confusing efforts alone. A juvenile delinquent
world. Overtly defiant to authority is a product of unwholesome
figures, lying and aggressive environment which is not congenial
behaviour are some of the common for the development of his faculties
symptoms of the onset of juvenile in conformity with social expectations
delinquency. and as such requires community
Symptoms at the early stage correction.
1. Running away from home without Sociological dimension
the knowledge of parents. Current positivist approaches
2. Habitual behaviour beyond the generally focus on the culture. A type
control of parents. of criminological theory attributes
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK, March 2011 Vol VII Issue 10

variation in crime and delinquency educational attainment in the first

over time and among territories to the place. More important is the fact that
absence or breakdown of communal many youth crimes do not have an
institutions (family, school and social economic motivation. Strain theory
groups) and communal relationships fails to explain violent crime, the type
that traditionally encouraged of youth crime which causes most
cooperative relationships among anxiety to the public.
people. School dissatisfaction
Five adaptations of Merton Some students get dissatisfied with
Merton suggests five adaptations to school life. Such dissatisfied
this dilemma: students become regular absentees
Innovation. Individuals who accept in schools and start wandering on
socially approved goals, but not their own and become gamblers,
necessarily the socially approved eve-teasers, pick pockets, alcoholics,
means. smokers and drug addicts.
Retreatism. Those who reject àParental irresponsibility,
socially approved goals and the àUnmanageable student teacher
means for acquiring them. ratio,
Ritualism. Those who buy into a àLack of entertainment and sports
system of socially approved means, facilities in school and
but lose sight of the goals. Merton àIndifference of the teachers
believed that drug users are in this may also contribute to this.
category. Social consequences
Conformity. Those who conform to Due to the small population of
the system’s means and goals. habitual adult and juvenile offenders
Rebellion. People who negate contributing to a large percentage of
socially approved goals and means violent crimes (murder and
by creating a new system of aggravated assault) the criminal
acceptable goals and means. justice system should supervise the
A difficulty with this theory is that it small population of career criminals
does not explain why children of low- in an effort to prevent the spawning
income families have poor of serious violent offenders. The
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK, March 2011 Vol VII Issue 10

majority of violent offenders exhibit These agencies are expected to

characteristics of antisocial discharge their duties keeping in
personality disorder and exhibit it no mind the best interest of the child.
later than age 15. Authors Alvarez The fact, however, remains that these
and Bachman found that one agencies have failed to do so. More
similarity among serial killers was than half the child population of India
their prior criminal convictions. In this is out of school, and they need to be
case conduct disorder can become rehabilitated. The first step towards
a probable constituent to serial rehabilitation is to send them to
murder if not diagnosed and treated school; and in all civilized countries
before it fully develops in adulthood it is the fundamental duty of the state
as antisocial personality disorder. to provide basic education to
Both conduct disorder and antisocial children; NGOs can and must lend a
personality disorder are categorized helping hand. Effective approaches
as personality disorders under the and measures for preventing juvenile
DSM-IV-TR. delinquency requires development of
Role of the society educational and community
The task of prevention of juvenile activities, improvements in family
delinquency has many dimensions relations and parenting skills.
and almost every institution of society Delinquency prevention
needs to be active and alert on this Delinquency prevention is the broad
issue. According to statistics, term for all efforts aimed at
delinquency complaints have preventing youth from getting
plunged 35 percent in the past three involved in criminal, or other
years while cases involving troubled antisocial activity. Increasingly,
youth have fallen 15 percent. Abuse governments are recognizing the
and neglect cases have dropped 21 importance of allocating resources
percent over the past few years. The for the prevention of delinquency.
provisions of the Juvenile Justice Act, Because it is often difficult for states
1986 are meant to be implemented to provide the fiscal resources
through Juvenile Courts, Juvenile necessary for prevention, NGOs,
Welfare Boards and Special Homes. communities and government
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK, March 2011 Vol VII Issue 10

agencies work more in collaboration grow up as responsible citizens and

with each other to prevent juvenile do not indulge in unlawful acts. In
delinquency. In view of the fact that short, the primary aim is not to punish
prevention of delinquency, not children. The middle class mindset
punishment, is to be society’s goal. appears to be allergic to the
Implementation of free and marginalised and deprived people’s
compulsory basic education to all entitlement to rights which include
children upto the age of fourteen child’s right to receive justice and fair
(Article 45 of our Constitution) will go treatment from legal institutions. The
a long way in tackling the problem. immediate reaction on the part of our
Prevention services include activities people is to inflict punishment on
such as substance abuse education children who have committed a
and treatment, family counselling, crime. It is in this context we may
youth mentoring, parenting briefly refer to the UN guidelines for
education, educational support, and the Prevention of Juvenile
youth sheltering. Delinquency (Adoption by the
Child-centred approach General Assembly as resolution 45/
Prevention of juvenile delinquency 12).
requires efforts by the entire society Conclusions
to ensure the harmonious The UN convention on the Rights of
development of adolescents, with the Child provides (Article 28-I):
respect for and promotion of their “States parties recognise the right of
personality from early childhood. A the child to education, and with a
child-centred orientation should be view to achieving this education, and
pursued. Policies and measures with a view to achieving this right
should involve educational and other progressively and on the basis of
opportunities. Government agencies equal opportunity, they shall, in
are to provide necessary services for particular:
homeless or street children. It a)Make primary education
should be clear that our primary aim compulsory and available free to all.
ought to be one of extending a b) Encourage the development of
helping hand to children so that they different forms of secondary
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK, March 2011 Vol VII Issue 10

education, make them available and Empowered police/ law-enforcing

accessible to every child, and take agencies and social welfare
appropriate measures such as the departments of the government have
introduction of free education and to establish juvenile welfare boards
offering financial assistance in case for neglected children and juvenile
of need. courts for delinquent children. In the
c) Make higher education accessible absence of these vital institutions, the
to all on the basis of capacity by entire system becomes
every appropriate means. dysfunctional. In districts where these
d) Make educational and vocational institutions do not exist children are
information and guidelines available tried under ordinary legal
and accessible to all children. proceedings and both neglected and
e) Take measures to encourage delinquent children are treated as
regular attendance to schools and ordinary criminals which is often in
the reduction of drop-out rates. contravention to the law.
Malinowski B (1926): Crime and Custom in a Savage Society, New York:
Humanities Press.
Brantingham P J and Brantingham P L (1991): Environmental Criminology.
Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.
Bursik Jr, Robert J(1988): Social Disorganization and Theories of Crime and
Delinquency: Problems and Prospects. Criminology
Garland, David (2002): Of Crimes and Criminals in Maguire, Mike, Rod Morgan,
Robert Reiner The Oxford Handbook of Criminology, 3rd edition. Oxford: Oxford
University Press.
Hall S, Winlow S and Ancrum C (2008): Criminal Identities and Consumer Culture,
Cullompton: Willan
Hayward K and Yar M (2006): The ‘Chav’ Phenomenon: Consumption, Media
and the Construction of a New Underclass, in Crime, Media, Culture, Vol. 2.
Ohlin L (1991): Human Development and Criminal Behaviour.
Presdee M (2000): Cultural Criminology and the Carnival of Crime, London:
Sutherland and D R Cressey (1968): Principles of Criminology, Sixth edition,
Bombay: Times of India press.
Siegel and Larry J (2003). Criminology, 8th edition.
Reiner, R. (2007) Law and Order, Cambridge.
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK, March 2011 Vol VII Issue 10

Relegated to Crime -
Some Case Studies
Udaya Mahadevan*
*Dr Udaya Mahadevan, Associate Professor, Department of Social Work, Loyola
College and Director, Center for Social Inclusion and Dalit Studies, Loyola College.
Introduction categorized as juvenile offenders or
Rani, (name changed) 13 years was children in conflict with the law. An
found begging and also soliciting impartial review of all these three
male customers. A volunteer from case studies indicates that these
a local NGO saw, rescued and children are not offenders but they
admitted her in a child welfare are the sad victims of a faulty social
organization. Further enquiries system that facilitates the abuse and
revealed that Rani was under the exploitation of children, and forces
influence of a gang that had them to resort to behaviours that are
trafficked her and was using her for not acceptable to society.
drug peddling and commercial sex Additional information
work. Rani, Prabhu and Selvan hail from
Prabhu (name changed) 11 years families that have subjected them
was beaten up by a group of railway to torture and trauma. Rani’s
passengers for stealing a cell mother a widow worked as a
phone under the pretext of cleaning domestic worker in four houses to
up a railway compartment. He was support her three children. Rani
later handed over to the RPF. being her eldest child was forced by
Selvan (name changed) 14 years her mother to stay at home in order
was accused of stealing snacks to look after her younger siblings.
from a roadside food stall. He was Therefore Rani had to discontinue
severely beaten up by the public and her school studies and stay at home.
within a few days, he complained of Rani’s life turned traumatic when her
chest pain and died. mother’s paramour visited the
An objective analysis house frequently and abused Rani
Rani, Prabhu and Selvan have been physically, verbally and sexually.
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK, March 2011 Vol VII Issue 10

Rani’s mother expressed her Some more information

helplessness in this situation and Selvan’s mother was the third wife
asked Rani to adjust. Unable to of a mason. She was deserted by
bear this agony any further, Rani her partners and was living alone
boarded a suburban train and with her two children. Due to
landed up at the city station. chronic arthritis she could not take
Subsequently she was trafficked by up any regular employment.
a gang and was forced into sex work Selvan was forced to discontinue his
and drug peddling. studies in order to take up a job to
Further information support his family. Selvan worked
Prabhu is a school dropout. His as an assistant in a tailor’s shop. He
parents had separated when he was could not be regular to work as he
10 years old. His father, a road side had to attend to his sick mother. He
barber hardly returned home. was dismissed from his job. The
Being an alcoholic, he spent his family was pushed to starvation.
nights on the roadside. Prabhu and The pangs of hunger drove Selvan
his little sister were left to fend for to grab the snacks from the roadside
themselves. They went to bed food stall. He was mercilessly
hungry and had no adult at home to beaten up and branded as a thief
look after their needs or to comfort by the public. Subsequently he
them. One day Prabhu shared his died.
difficulties with one of his friends in Conclusion
the community. His friend gave him Lack of positive parental role models,
a readymade solution to all his poor family support, disintegrated
problems. Prabhu was introduced family system and vicious social
to a gang that indulged in begging conditions have driven these three
and also resorting to petty thefts in children to resort to negative
trains. In course of time, Prabhu behaviour patterns. All the three
learnt the art of stealing articles and case studies presented here indicate
coins from railway compartments that these children have lost out on
under the pretext of begging and their school life for no fault of theirs.
cleaning. This highlights the urgent need for
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK, March 2011 Vol VII Issue 10

appointing trained school social handled with care. The media should
workers so that the families could be create awareness about the use of
counselled about the importance of the child helpline services so that
education and suitable rehabilitation children in conflict with the law can
measures could be planned for such be treated in a sensitive and sensible
children in crisis situation. These manner.
children need not be beaten up. The A fitting conclusion is the appeal
media has an important role in made by the Children’s Forum at the
consciousness-raising as to how UN General Assembly’s special
such special children need to be session on children held in May 2002:
“We are the world’s children
We are the victims of exploitation and abuse
We are street children
We are the victims and orphans of HIV/ AIDS
We are denied good quality education and health care.
We are the victims of political, economic, cultural, religious and
environmental discrimination.
We are children whose voices are not being heard;
it is time we are taken into account.
We want a world fit for children,
because a world fit for us is a world fit for everyone.”
Let us join hands to save our children from entering the world of crime.
Bose A B, Manohar. (2003): The State of Children in India. New Delhi: Manohar
Krishna S (1996): Restoring Childhood. New Delhi: Konark Publications.
UNICEF (2002): A World Fit for Children. New Delhi: UNICEF Publications
World Bank (2004): Reaching out to the Child. New Delhi: Oxford University
UNICEF (2006): State of the World’s Children. New York: UNIECF Publications
Regarding References
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along with name of the publisher and volume number in case of journals.
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK, March 2011 Vol VII Issue 10

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Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK, March 2011 Vol VII Issue 10