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3.

JÙeefkeälelJe hejer#ee/ceewefKekeâ hejer#ee (kegâue Debkeâ 100) : Ùen hejer#ee DeYÙeefLe&ÙeeW keâer meeceevÙe peeie™keâlee, yegefæ,
Ûeefj$e, DeefYeJÙeefòeâ keâer #ecelee, JÙeefòeâlJe SJeb mesJee kesâ efueS meeceevÙe GheÙegkeälelee keâes Âef° ceW jKeles ngÙes meeceevÙe
DeefYe™efÛe kesâ efJe<eÙeeW mes mecyeefvOele nesieer~

ifjf'k"V&5
lfEefyr jkT;@izoj v/khuLFk lsok ijh{kk rFkk lgk;d ou laj{kd@ {ks=h;
ou vf/kdkjh lsok ijh{kk nksuksa ls lEcfU/kr izkjfEHkd ijh{kk gsrq ikB~;Øe
iz'ui=&1 lkekU; v/;;u&I
vof/k&nks ?k.Vs
vad & 200
Cont...
& jk"Vªh; ,oa vUrjkZ"Vªh; egRo dh lkef;d ?kVuk;sa 7. Words meanings
& Hkkjr dk bfrgkl ,oa Hkkjrh; jk"Vªh; vkUnksyu 8. Vocabulary & Usage
& Hkkjr ,oa fo'o dk Hkwxksy& Hkkjr ,oa fo'o dk HkkSfrd] lkekftd ,oa vkfFkZd Hkwxksy 9. Idioms and Phrases
& Hkkjrh; jktuhfr ,oa 'kklu& lafo/kku] jktuhfrd O;oLFkk] iapk;rh jkt] yksduhfr] vf/kdkfjd eqís 10. Fill in the Blanks
¼jkbV~l b';wt½ vkfn
& vkfFkZd ,oa lkekftd fodkl&lrr fodkl] xjhch] vUrfoZ"V tulkaf[;dh;] lkekftd {ks= ds lkekU; fgUnh ¼gkbZLdwy Lrj rd½ ds ikB~;Øe esa lfEEfyr fd;s tkus okys fo"k;
bfuf'k;sfVo vkfn ¼1½ fgUnh o.kZekyk] fojke fpUg
& i;kZoj.k ,oa ikfjfLFkfrdh lEcU/kh lkekU; fo"k;] tSo fofo/krk ,oa tyok;q ifjorZu bl fo"k; esa ¼2½ 'kCn jpuk] okD; jpuk] vFkZ
fo"k; fo'ks"kKrk dh vko';drk ugha gS ¼3½ 'kCn&:i
& lkekU; foKku ¼4½ laf/k] lekl
& jk"Vªh; ,oa vUrjkZ"Vªh; egRo dh lkef;d ?kVuk;sa% jk"Vªh; o vUrjkZ"Vªh; egRo dh lelkef;d ¼5½ fØ;k;sa
?kVukvksa ij vH;fFkZ;ksa dks tkudkjh j[kuh gksxhA ¼6½ vusdkFkhZ 'kCn
& Hkkjr dk bfrgkl ,oa Hkkjrh; jk"Vªh; vkUnksyu% bfrgkl ds vUrxZr Hkkjrh; bfrgkl ds lkekftd] ¼7½ foykse 'kCn
vkfFkZd ,oa jktuhfrd i{kksa dh O;kid tkudkjh ij fo'ks"k /;ku nsuk gksxkA Hkkjrh; jk"Vªh; vkUnksyu ¼8½ i;kZ;okph 'kCn
ij vH;fFkZ;ksa ls Lora=rk vkUnksyu dh izd`fr rFkk fo'ks"krk] jk"Vªokn dk vH;qn; rFkk Lora=rk izkfIr ds ¼9½ eqgkojs ,oa yksdksfDr;ka
ckjs esa lkekU; tkudkjh visf{kr gSA ¼10½ rRle ,oa rn~Hko] ns'kt] fons'kh ¼'kCn HkaMkj½
& Hkkjr ,oa fo'o dk Hkwxksy% Hkkjr ,oa fo'o dk HkkSfrd] lkekftd ,oa vkfFkZd Hkwxksy% fo'o Hkwxksy esa ¼11½ orZuh
fo"k; dh dsoy lkekU; tkudkjh dh ij[k gksxhA Hkkjr dk Hkwxksy ds vUrxZr ns'k ds HkkSfrd] lkekftd ¼12½ vFkZcks/k
,oa vkfFkZd Hkwxksy ls lEcfU/kr iz'u gksaxsA ¼13½ fgUnh Hkk"kk ds iz;ksx esa gksus okyh v'kqf);k¡
& Hkkjrh; jktuhfr ,oa 'kklu&lafo/kku] jktuhfrd O;oLFkk] iapk;rh jkt] yksduhfr] vkf/kdkfjd ¼14½ m0iz0 dh eq[; cksfy;k¡
izdj.k vkfn% Hkkjrh; jkT; O;oLFkk] vFkZO;oLFkk ,oa laLd`fr ds vUrxZr ns'k ds iapk;rh jkt rFkk
lkeqnkf;d fodkl lfgr jktuhfrd iz.kkyh ds Kku rFkk Hkkjr dh vkfFkZd uhfr ds O;kid y{k.kksa ,oa heefjefMe°-6
Hkkjrh; laLd`fr dh tkudkjh ij iz'u gksaxsA meefcceefuele jepÙe/ ØeJej DeOeervemLe mesJee hejer#ee keâer cegKÙe (efueefKele) hejer#ee nsleg efveoxMe leLee hee"Ùe›eâce
& vkfFkZd ,oa lkekftd fodkl& lrr fodkl] xjhch vUrfoZ"V tulkaf[;dh;] lkekftd {ks= ds 1] DeeÙeesie ØeJesMe he$e kesâ efyevee efkeâmeer Yeer DeYÙeLeea keâes cegKÙe (efueefKele) hejer#ee ceW meefcceefuele nesves keâer
bfuf'k;sfVo vkfn% vH;fFkZ;ksa dh tkudkjh dk ijh{k.k tula[;k] i;kZoj.k rFkk uxjhdj.k dh leL;kvksa Devegceefle veneR oWies~ efkeâmeer Yeer DeYÙeLeea kesâ hejer#ee ceW ØeJesMe nsleg Den&lee/ hee$elee kesâ mecyevOe ceW DeeÙeesie keâe
rFkk muds lEcU/kksa ds ifjizs{; esa fd;k tk;sxkA efveCe&Ùe Debeflece nesiee~ 2] DeYÙeefLe&ÙeeW keâes meÛesle efkeâÙee peelee nw efkeâ Gòej hegefmlekeâe ceW kesâJeue efveOee&efjle
& i;kZoj.k ,oa ikfjfLFkfrdh lEcU/kh lkekU; fo"k; tSo fofo/krk ,oa tyok;q ifjorZu% bl fo"k; esa mLeeve hej ner Dehevee Deveg›eâceebkeâ efueKeW DevÙeLee oC[mJe™he Gvekesâ DebkeâeW ceW keâšewleer keâer peeÙesieer~ DeYÙeLeea
fo"k; fo'ks"kKrk dh vko';drk ugha gSA vH;fFkZ;ksa ls fo"k; dh lkekU; tkudkjh visf{kr gSA Gòej hegefmlekeâe ceW keânerb Yeer Dehevee veece ve efueKeW DevÙeLee GvnW hejer#ee kesâ efueÙes Deven& Ieesef<ele efkeâÙee pee
& lkekU; foKku% lkekU; foKku ds iz'u nSfud vuqHko rFkk izs{k.k ls lEcfU/kr fo"k;ksa lfgr foKku ds mekeâlee nw~ 3] Ùeefo DeYÙeLeea keâer nmleefueefhe Demhe°/Dehe"veerÙe nw lees Gmekesâ ØeehleebkeâeW kesâ kegâue Ùeesie ceW mes
lkekU; ifjcks/k ,oa tkudkjh ij vk/kkfjr gksaxs] ftldh fdlh Hkh lqf'kf{kr O;fDr ls vis{kk dh tk keâšewleer keâer pee mekeâleer nw~ 4] DeYÙeLeea ØeMve-he$eeW kesâ Gòej Deb«espeer jesceve efueefhe ceW DeLeJee efnvoer osJeveeiejer
efueefhe ceW DeLeJee Got& heâejmeer efueefhe ceW efueKe mekeâles nw hejvleg GvnW Yee<ee kesâ ØeMve-he$e keâe Gòej peye lekeâ keâer
ldrh gS] ftlus oSKkfud fo"k;ksa dk fo'ks"k v/;;u ugha fd;k gSA
ØeMve ceW DevÙeLee efveefo&° ve nes DeefveJeeÙe& ™he mes Gmeer Yee<ee ceW efueKevee nesiee~ 5] ØeMve-he$e kesâJeue Deb«espeer
uksV% vH;fFkZ;ksa ls ;g visf{kr gksxk fd mÙkj izns'k ds fo'ks"k ifjizs{; esa mi;qZDr fo"k;ksa dk mUgsa lkekU; efueefhe ceW Je efnvoer osJeveeiejer efueefhe ceW nesbies~ 6] meeceevÙe DeOÙeÙeve SJeb Jewkeâefuhekeâ efJe<eÙe kesâ ØeMve-he$eeW keâe
ifjp; gksA hee"dÙe›eâce DevÙeLee GefuueefKele efJeJejCe kesâ Deefleefjòeâ, efkeâmeer efJeÕeefJeÅeeueÙe mes mveelekeâ ef[«eerOeejer DeYÙeLeea
mes Dehesef#ele mlej keâe nesiee~
iz'ui=&2
lkekU; v/;;u&II meeceevÙe efnvoer
vof/k&nks ?k.Vs
(1) efoÙes ngS ieÅe KeC[ keâe DeJeyeesOe SJeb ØeMveesòej~ (2) meb#esheCe~ (3) mejkeâejer SJeb DeOe&mejkeâejer he$e uesKeve, leej
vad & 200
uesKeve, keâeÙee&ueÙe DeeosMe, DeefOemetÛevee, heefjhe$e (4) Meyo %eeve SJeb ØeÙeesie (De) Ghemeie& SJeb ØelÙeÙe ØeÙeesie, (ye) efJeueesce
Meyo, (me) JeekeäÙeebMe kesâ efueS Skeâ Meyo (o) Jele&veer SJeb JeekeäÙe Megefæ (5) ueeskeâesefkeäle SJeb cegneJejs~
& dkfEizgsUlu ¼foLrkjhdj.k½
& vUroSZ;fDrd {kerk ftlesa lEizs"k.k dkS'ky Hkh lekfgr gksxkA efveyevOe
& rkfdZd ,oa fo'ys"k.kkRed ;ksX;rkA
& fu.kZ; {kerk ,oa leL;k lek/kkuA efveyevOe efnvoer, Deb«espeer DeLeJee Got& ceW efueKes pee mekeâles nQ~
& lkekU; ckSf)d ;ksX;rkA efveyevOe kesâ ØeMve-he$e ceW 3 KeC[ neWies~ ØelÙeskeâ KeC[ mes Skeâ-Skeâ efJe<eÙe hej 700 (meele meew) MeyoeW ceWs efveyevOe efueKevee
& izkjfEHkd xf.kr gkbZLdwy Lrj rd& vadxf.kr] chtxf.kr] js[kkxf.kr o lkaf[;dhA nesiee~ ØelÙeskeâ KeC[ 50.-50 DebkeâeW keâe nesiee~ leerveeW KeC[eW ceW efvecveefueefKele efJe<eÙeeW hej DeeOeeefjle efveyevOe kesâ ØeMve
& lkekU; vaxzsth gkbZLdwy Lrj rdA neWsies~
& lkekU; fgUnh gkbZLdwy Lrj rdA KeC[ (keâ) KeC[ (Ke) KeC[ (ie)
izkjfEHkd xf.kr ¼gkbZLdwy Lrj rd½ ds ikB~;Øe esa lfEefyr fd;s tkus okys fo"k;
1.meeefnlÙe Deewj mebmke=âefle 1. efJe%eeve heÙee&JejCe Deewj ØeewÅeesefiekeâer 1. je°^erÙe SJeb Debleje&°^erÙe Iešvee›eâce
1- vadxf.kr%
2.meeceeefpekeâ #es$e 2. DeeefLe&keâ #es$e 2. Øeeke=âeflekeâ DeeheoeSb Yet-mKeueve Yetkeâche,
¼1½ la[;k i)fr% izkd`frd] iw.kkZad] ifjes;&vifjes; ,oa okLrfod la[;k;sa] iw.kkZad la[;kvksa ds foHkktd
yeeÌ{, metKee, DeeefEo~
,oa vfoHkkT; iw.kkZad la[;k;saA iw.kkZad la[;kvksa dk y?kqÙke lekioR;Z ,oa egÙke lekioR;Z rFkk muesa
lEcU/kA 3. jepeveweflekeâ #es$e 3.ke=âef<e GÅeesie SJeb JÙeeheej 3.je<š^erÙe efJekeâeme ÙeespeveeSb SJeb heefjÙeespeveeSb
¼2½ vkSlr
¼3½ vuqikr ,oa lekuqikr
lkekU; v/;;u&A
1- Hkkjrh; laLd`fr ds bfrgkl esa izkphu dky ls vk/kqfud dky rd ds dyk izk:i] lkfgR; ,oa
¼4½ izfr'kr
okLrqdyk ds egRoiw.kZ igyw “kkfey gksaxsA
¼5½ ykHk&gkfu
2- vk/kqfud Hkkjrh; bfrgkl ¼1757 bZ0 ls 1947 bZ0 rd½& egRoiw.kZ ?kVuk,a] O;fDrRo ,oa leL;k,a
¼6½ C;kt& lk/kkj.k ,oa pØo`f)
bR;kfnA
¼7½ dke rFkk le;
3- Lora=rk laxzke& blds fofHkUu pj.k vkSj ns”k ds fofHkUu Hkkxksa ls blesa viuk ;ksxnku nsus okys
¼8½ pky] le; rFkk nwjh
egRoiw.kZ O;fDr@mudk ;ksxnkuA
2- chtxf.kr
4- Lora=rk ds i”pkr~ ns”k ds vanj ,dhdj.k vkSj iquxZBu ¼1965 bZ0 rd½A
¼1½ cgqin ds xq.ku[k.M] cgqinksa dk y?kqÙke lekioR;Z ,oa egÙke lekioR;Z ,oa muesa lEcU/k] 'ks"kQy 5- fo”o ds bfrgkl esa 18 oha lnh ls chloha lnh ds e/; rd dh ?kVuk,a tSls Ýkalhlh ØkfUr 1789]
izes;] ljy ;qxir lehdj.k] f}?kkr lehdj.k
vkS|ksfxd Økafr] fo”o ;q+)] jk’Vªh; lhekvksa dk iqu% lhekadu] mifuos”kokn] mifuos”kokn dh lekfIr]
¼2½ leqPp; fl)kUr% leqPp;] mi leqPp;] mfpr mileqPp;] fjDr leqPp;] leqPp;ksa ds chp
lafØ;k;sa ¼la?k] izfrNsn] vUrj] lfefer vUrj½] csu&vkjs[k jktuhfrd n”kZu “kkL= tSls lkE;okn] iwWthokn] lektokn] ukthokn] Qklhokn bR;kfn ds :i vkSj
3- js[kkxf.kr% lekt ij muds izHkko bR;kfn “kkfey gksaxsaA
¼1½ f=Hkqt] vk;r] oxZ] leyEc prqHkZqt ,oa o`Ùk dh jpuk ,oa muds xq.k lEcU/kh izes; rFkk ifjeki ,oa 6- Hkkjrh; lekt vkSj laLd`fr dh eq[; fo”ks’krk,aA
muds {ks=Qy] 7- efgykvksa dh lekt vkSj efgyk&laxBuksa esa Hkwfedk] tula[;k rFkk lEc) leL;k,a] xjhch vkSj
¼2½ xksyk] ledks.kh; o`Ùkkdkj csyu] ledks.kh; o`Ùkkdkj 'kadq rFkk /ku ds vk;ru ,oa i`"B {ks=QyA fodklkRed fo’k;] “kgjhdj.k] mudh leL;k,a vkSj muds j{kksik;A
4- lkaf[;dh% vkadM+ksa dk laxzg] vkadM+ksa dk oxhZdj.k] ckjEckjrk] ckjEckjrk caVu] lkj.kh;u] lap;h 8- mnkjhdj.k] futhdj.k vkSj oS”ohdj.k dk vfHkizk; vkSj mudk Hkkjrh; lekt ds vFkZ O;oLFkk] jkT;
ckjEckjrk] vkadM+ksa dk fu:i.k] n.MpkVZ] ikbZ pkVZ] vk;r fp=] ckjEckjrk cgqHkqt] lap;h ckjEckjrk O;oLFkk vkSj lekt lajpuk ij izHkkoA
oØ] dsUnzh; izo`fÙk dh eki& lekUrj ek/;] ekf/;dk ,oa cgqydA 9- Lkkekftd l”kDrhdj.k] lkEiznkf;drk] {ks=okn vkSj /keZfujis{krkA
10- fo”o ds izeq[k izkd`frd lalk/kuksa dk forj.k& ty]fefV~V;kW ,oa ou] nf{k.k ,oa nf{k.k iwoZ ,f”k;k esa
General English Upto Class X Level ¼Hkkjr ds fo”ks’k lanHkZ esa½A
1. Comprehension 11- HkkSfrd Hkwxksy dh izeq[k fof”k’Vrk,a& Hkwdai] lqukeh] Tokykeq[kh fØ;k,Wa] pØokr] leqnzh ty /kkjk,a]
2. Active Voice and Passive Voice iou ,oa fge lfjrk,aA
3. Parts of Speech 12- Hkkjr ds lkeqfnzd lalk/ku ,oa mudh laHkkO;rkA
4. Transformation of Sentences 13- Ekkuo izokl& fo”o dh “kj.kkFkhZ leL;k& Hkkjr& miegk}hi ds lanHkZ esaA
5. Direct and Indirect Speech 14- lhekUr rFkk lheka,& Hkkjr mi& egk}hi ds lanHkZ esaA
6. Punctuation and Spellings
15- tula[;k ,oa vf/kokl& izdkj ,oa izfr:i] uxjhdj.k]LekVZ uxj ,oa LekVZ xzkeA
Cont...

Page No. - 7
16- mRrj izns”k dk fo”ks’k Kku&bfrgkl] laLd`fr] dyk] lkfgR;] okLrqdyk] R;ksgkj] yksd&u`R; uSfrd vkSj jktuhfrd vfHk:fp] lkekftd izHkko vkSj lgefr iSnk djukA
lkfgR;] izknsf”kd Hkk’kk,a] /kjksgjsa] lkekftd jhfr&fjokt ,oa i;ZVuA · flfoy lsok ds fy, vfHk:fp rFkk cqfu;knh ewY;] lR;fu’Bk] fu’i{krk rFkk xSj& rjQnkjh]
17- m0iz0 dk fo”ks’k Kku& Hkwxksy&ekuo ,oa izzkd`frd lalk/ku] tyok;q] fefV~V;kWa] ou oU;&tho] [knku oLrqfu’Brk] lkoZtfud lsok ds izfr leiZ.k Hkko] detksj oxksZa ds izfr lgkuqHkwfr] lfg’.kqrk rFkk d:.kkA
vkSj [kfut] flapkbZ ds lzksrA · laosxkRed cqf)% vo/kkj.kk,a rFkk vk;ke] iz”kklu vkSj “kklu O;oLFkk esa mudh mi;ksfxrk vkSj iz;ksxA
lkekU; v/;;u&AA · Hkkjr rFkk fo”o ds uSfrd fopkjdksa rFkk nk”kZfudksa dk ;ksxnkuA
1- Hkkjrh; lafo/kku& ,sfrgkfld vk/kkj] fodkl] fo”ks’krk,a] la”kks/ku] egRoiw.kZ izko/kku rFkk vk/kkjHkwr · yksd iz”kkluksa esa yksd@flfoy lsok ewY; rFkk uhfr”kkL= % fLFkfr rFkk leL;k,a] ljdkjh rFkk futh
lajpukA lafo/kku ds vk/kkjHkwr izko/kkuksa ds fodkl esa mPpre U;k;ky; dh HkwfedkA laLFkkuksa esa uSfrd ljksdkj rFkk nqfo/kk,a] uSfrd ekxZn”kZu ds L=ksrksa ds :i esa fof/k] fu;e] fu;eu rFkk
2- la?k ,oa jkT;ksa ds dk;Z rFkk mRrjnkf;Ro] la?kh; <kaps ls lacaf/kr fo’k; ,oa pqukSfr;ka] LFkkuh; Lrj ij varjkZRek] tokcnsgh rFkk uSfrd “kklu O;oLFkk esa uSfrd ewY;ksa dk lqn`<+hdj.k] varjkZ’Vªh; laca/kksa rFkk
“kfDr;ksa vkSj foRr dk gLrkarj.k vkSj mldh pqukSfr;kaA fuf/k O;oLFkk ¼QafMx½ esa uSfrd eqn~ns] dkjiksjsV “kklu O;oLFkkA
3- dsUnz&jkT; foRRkh; lEcU/kksa esa foRr vk;ksx dh HkwfedkA · “kklu O;oLFkk esa bZekunkjh% yksd lsok dh vo/kkj.kk] “kklu O;oLFkk vkSj bZekunkjh dk nk”kZfud
4- “kfDr;ksa dk i`Fkd~dj.k] fookn fuokj.k ra= rFkk laLFkk,aA oSdfYid fookn fuokj.k ra=ks dk mn; ,oa vk/kkj] ljdkj esa lwpuk dk vknku&iznku vkSj ikjnf”kZrk] lwpuk dk vf/kdkj] uhfrijd vkpkj lafgrk]
mudk iz;ksxA vkpj.k lafgrk] ukxfjd ?kks’k.kk i=] dk;Z laLd`fr] lsok iznku djus dh xq.koRrk] yksd&fuf/k dk
5- Hkkjrh; laoS/kkfud ;kstuk dh vU; izeq[k yksdrkaf=d ns”kksa ds lkFk rqyukA mi;ksx] Hkz’Vkpkj dh pqukSfr;kaA
6- laln vkSj jkT; fo/kkf;dk& lajpuk] dk;Z] dk;Z&lapkyu] “kfDr;kW ,oa fo”ks’kkf/kdkj rFkk lacaf/kr · mi;qZDr fo’k;ksa ij ekeyk laca/kh v/;;u ¼dsl LVMh½A
fo’k;A ¼1½ d`f"k iz”ui= & izFke
7- dk;Zikfydk vkSj U;k;ikfydk dh lajpuk] laxBu vkSj dk;Z& ljdkj ds ea=ky; ,oa foHkkx] izHkkod ¼[k.M&v½
lewg vkSj vkSipkfjd@vukSipkfjd la?k rFkk “kklu iz.kkyh esa mudh HkwfedkA tufgr okn ikfjfLFkfrdh; foKku vkSj mldh izklafxdrkA izkd`frd lalk/ku ,oa mldk laj{k.k izcU/kuA Qlyksa ds
¼ih0vkbZ0,y0½A mRiknu rFkk forj.k esa okrkoj.kh; dkjdA Qlyksa dh o`f) ij tyok;qoh; rRoksa dk izHkkoA 'kL;Øe
8- tu izfrfuf/kRo vf/kfu;e dh eq[; fo”ks’krk,aA ij Ik;kZoj.kh; ifjorZu dk izHkkoA iznwf"kr i;kZoj.k rFkk mlls lEcfU/kr ck/kkvksa dk ekuo] i'kq rFkk
9- fofHkUu laoS/kkfud inksa ij fu;qfDr] “kfDr;kW] dk;Z rFkk muds mRrjnkf;RoA Qly ij izHkkoA
10- lkafof/kd] fofu;ked vkSj fofHkUu v/kZ&U;kf;d fudk;] uhfr vk;ksx lesr& mudh fo”ks’krk,a ,oa mRRkj izns'k ds fofHkUu d`f’k tyok;q {ks= esa 'kL;Øe iz.kkyh vf/kd mRiknu rFkk vYidkyhu
dk;ZHkkxA iztkfr;ksa dk 'kL;Øe iz.kkyh esa cnykoA cgq'kL;u] cgqeaftyh fjys rFkk varjk'kL; dh
11- ljdkjh uhfr;ksa vkSj fofHkUu {ks=ksa esa fodkl ds fy, gLr{ksi] muds vfHkdYiu rFkk dk;kZUo;u ds vo/kkj.kh; ,oa lexfr'khy [kk| mRiknu ls lEcfU/kr egRoA izns'k ds fofHkUu {ks=ksa esa [kjhQ rFkk
dkj.k mRiUu fo’k; ,oa lwpuk lapkj izkS|ksfxdh ¼vkbZ0lh0Vh0½A jch ekSleksa esa mRikfnr eq[; vukt] nygu] frygu] js ' kk] 'koZgjk rFkk uxnh Qlyksa ds mRiknu
12- fodkl izfØ;k,a&xSj ljdkjh lxaBuksa dh Hkwfedk] Lo;a lgk;rk lewg] fofHkUu lewg ,oa la?k] gsrq laLrqr fof/k;kWaA
vfHknkrk] lgk;rkFkZ laLFkk,a] laLFkkxr ,oa vU; va”k/kkjdA okfudh dk egRo ,oa fo'ks"krk,aA lkekftd okfudh rFkk d`f"k okfudh ds lUnHkZ esa fofHkUu izdkj ds
13- dsUnz ,oa jkT;ksa }kjk tula[;k ds vfr laosnu”khy oxksZ ds fy, dY;k.kdkjh ;kstuk,a vkSj bu okfudh ikS/kksa dk izo/kZuA [kjirokj mudh fo'ks’krk;sa rFkk fofHkUu Qlyksa ds lkFk mudk lg;ksx o
;kstukvksa dk dk;Z& fu’iknu] bu vfr laosnu”khy oxksZ dh j{kk ,oa csgrjh ds fy, xfBr ra=] fof/k] xq.kuA [kjirokj dk lao/kZu] tSfod rFkk jklk;fud fu;aU=.kA e`nk fuekZ.k dh fof/k;ka rFkk dkjd]
laLFkku ,oa fudk;A Hkkjrh; e`nkvksa dk oxhZdj.k] vk/kqfud ladYiukvksa lfgrA e`nkvksa ds [kfut yo.k rFkk dkcZfud
14- LokLF;] f”k{kk] ekuo lalk/kuksa ls lacaf/kr lkekftd {ks=@lsokvksa ds fodkl ,oa izca/ku ls lacf/kr la?kVd rFkk e`nk mRikndrk cuk;s j[kus es a mudh Hkw f edkA leL;kRed e` n k,a Hkkjr es a mudk
fo’k;A foLrkj ,oa lq / kkjA e` n k rFkk ikS / kks a es a vko';d iks " kd rRoks a ikni rRoks a o vU; ykHkdkjh rRoks a
15- xjhch vkSj Hkw[k ls lacaf/kr fo’k; ,oa jktuSfrd O;oLFkk ds fy, budk fufgrkFkZA dh iz k fIr rFkk muds forj.k dks iz H kkfor djus okys dkjd] mudh fØ;k,a rFkk pØ.kA
16- “kklu O;oLFkk] ikjnf”kZrk vkSj tokcnsgh ds egRoiw.kZ i{k] bZ&xousZl&vuqiz;ksx] ekWMy] lQyrk,a] ukbVª k s t u dk lgthoh rFkk vlgthoh fLFkjhdj.kA moZ j drk ds fl)kUr] ew Y ;ka d u rFkk
lhek,a vkSj laHkkouk,a] ukxfjd pkVZj] ikjnf”kZrk ,oa tokcnsgh vkSj laLFkkxr o vU; mik;A foos d iw . kZ moZ j d iz ; ks x A ty lEHkj ds vk/kkj ij e` n k la j {k.k iz c U/kuA igkM+ h ] in igkM+ h
17- yksdra= esa mHkjrh gqbZ izo`fRr;ksa ds lanHkZ esa flfoy lsokvksa dh HkwfedkA rFkk ?kkfV;ks a es vijnu o viokg dk iz c U/k rFkk budks iz H kkfor djus okyh fØ;k,a rFkk
18- Hkkjr ,oa vius iM+kslh ns”kksa ls mlds laca/kA dkjdA “kq ’ d Hkw f e d` f ’k rFkk mlls lEcfU/kr leL;k,aA o’kkZ/khu d`f’k {ks=ksa esa d`f’k mRiknu esa
fLFkjrk ykus dh rduhdA tSfod [ksrh dh vko”;drk rFkk voljA
19- f}i{kh;] {ks=h; vkSj oSf”od lewg vkSj Hkkjr ls lacaf/kr vkSj@vFkok Hkkjr ds fgrksa dks izHkkfor djus
okys djkjA ¼[k.M&c½
20- Hkkjr ds fgrksa ,oa vizoklh Hkkjrh;ksa ij fodflr rFkk fodkl”khy ns”kksa dh uhfr;ksa rFkk jktuhfr dk “kL; mRiknu ls lEcfU/kr ty mi;ksx {kerkA flpkbZ Øe ds vk/kkjHkwr ekud flapkbZ ty ds ckn
izHkkoA viokg dks de djus dh fof/k;ka] tykØkar Hkwfe ls ty fudklA d`f’k {ks= izcU/ku dk fu;kstu o ys[kk esa
egRo o y{k.k rFkk mldk {ks=] d`f’k fuos”kksa rFkk mitksa dk foi.ku vkSj ewY;ksa dk mrkj p<+ko ,oa mudh
21- egRoiw.kZ varjkZ’Vªh; laLFkku] laLFkk,a vkSj eap& mudh lajpuk] vf/kns”k rFkk mudk dk;Z HkkxA
ykxr O;;A lgdkfjrk dk d`f’k vFkZO;oLFkk esa egRo] fofHkUu izdkj dh d`f’k iz.kkfy;kas rFkk mudh
22- m0iz0 ds jktuSfrd] iz”kklfud] jktLo ,oa U;kf;d O;oLFkkvksa dh fof”k’V tkudkjhA
fdLeksa rFkk mudks izHkkfor djus okys dkjdA d`f’k foLrkj egRo rFkk Hkwfedk] d`f’k foLrkj dk;ZØeksa dk
23- {ks=h;] izkUrh;] jk’Vªh; ,oa vUrjkZ’Vªh; egRo ds lelkef;d ?kVukØeA
ewY;kadu] folj.k lapkj o ubZ rduhdksa dk vuqlj.kA d`f’k ;a=hdj.k rFkk d`f’k mRiknu o xzkeh.k
lkekU; v/;;u&AAA jkstxkj esa mudh HkwfedkA izlkj dk;ZdrkZvksa o fdlkuksa ds fy, izf”k{k.k dk;ZØeA izlkj fof/k;ka rFkk
1- Hkkjr esa vkfFkZd fu;kstu] mn~ns”; ,oa miyfC/k;kW] uhfr ¼,u0vkbZ0Vh0vkbZ0½ vk;ksx dh Hkwfedk] dk;ZØe izf”k{k.k ,oa Hkze.k] d`f’k foKku dsUnz] d`f’k Kku dsUnz ,u-,-Vh-ih-o- vkbZ oh-,y-ih-A
laiks’k.kh; fodkl ds y{;] ,l0Mh0th0 dh izkfIr ds iz;klA
d`f’k iz”u i= & AA
2- xjhch ds eqn~ns] csjkstxkjh] lkekftd U;k; ,oa lekos”kh lao`f)A
¼[k.M&v½
3- ljdkj ds ctV ds vo;o rFkk foRrh; iz.kkyhA
4- izeq[k Qlysa] fofHkUu izdkj dh flapkbZ fof/k ,oa flapkbZ iz.kkyh] d`f’k mRikn dk HkaMkj.k] <qykbZ ,oa vkuqokaf'kdrk vkSj fofHkUurk] esaMy dk vkuqokaf”kdrk fu;e] Øksekslkse vkuqokaf”kdrk fl)kUr]
foi.ku] fdlkuksa dh lgk;rk gsrq bZ&rduhdhA dksf”kdknzO;h oa”kkxfrA fyax lgyXu] fyax izHkkfor rFkk fyax lhfer xq.kA Lor% vkSj izsfjr mRifjorZuA
5- vizR;{k ,oa izR;{k d`f’k lgk;dh rFkk U;wure leFkZu ewY; ls tqM+s eqn~ns] lkoZtfud forj.k mRifjorZu esa jlk;uksa dk egRoA Qlyksa dk mn~xe rFkk ?kjsywdj.kA [ksrksa es mxk;h tkus okyh izeq[k
iz.kkyh&mn~ns';] fØ;kUo;u] ifjlhek,a] lqn`<+hdj.k [kkn~; lqj{kk ,oa cQj Hk.Mkj] d`f’k lEcfU/kr ikni tkfr;ksa ls lacaf/kr tkfr;ksa dh vkdkfjdh rFkk fofHkUurk ds Lo:iA Qly ds lq/kkj ds dkjd vkSj
rduhdh vfHk;ku VsDukykth fe”kuA buesa fofHkUurk dk mi;ksxA
6- Hkkjr esa [kkn~; izlaLdj.k o lacaf/kr m|ksx&dk;Z{ks= ,oa egRo] LFkku fu/kkZj.k] m/oZ o v/kksizokg izeq[k Qlyksa ds lq/kkj esa ikni&iztuu fl)kUrksa dk mi;ksxA Loijkx.k vkSj ijijkx.k okyh Qlyksa dh
vko”;drk,a] vkiwfrZ J`[kayk izca/kuA tuu fof/k;kaA iqu% LFkkiu] p;u] ladj.k] uj oU/krk rFkk Lo;a vlaxfrA iztuu esa mRifjorZu rFkk
7- Hkkjr esa Lora=rk ds i”pkr~ Hkwfe lq/kkjA cgqxqf.krrk dk mi;ksxA cht izkS|ksfxdh rFkk mldk egRoA chtksa dk mRiknu] lalk/ku] Hk.Mkj.k rFkk
8- Hkkjr essa oS”ohdj.k rFkk mnkjhdj.k ds izHkko] vkS|ksfxd uhfr esa ifjorZu rFkk buds vkS|ksfxd lao`f) ijh{k.kA jk’Vªh; o jkT; dh cht fuxeksa dh cht mRiknu esa HkwfedkA mUur fdLeksa ds chtksa dk lalk/ku
ij izHkkoA o foi.kuA
9- vk/kkjHkwr lajpuk% ÅtkZ] canjxkg] lM+d] foekuiRru rFkk jsyos vkfnA 'kjhj fØ;k foKku dk d`f’k foKku esa egRoA izksVksIykTe ds jlk;fud o HkkSfrd xq.k] fu’ks/k]
10- foKku ,oa izkS|ksfxdh&fodkl ,oa vuqiz;ksx ¼nSfud thou ,oa jk’Vªh; lqj{kk esa] Hkkjr dh foKku ,oa i`’Bryruko] izlkj vkSj vlelA ty dk vo”kks’k.k rFkk LFkkukUrj.k] ok’iksRltZu vkSj ty dh
izkS|ksfxdh uhfr½A ferO;f;rkA
11- foKku ,oa izkS|ksfxdh esa Hkkjrh;ksa dh miyfC/k;ka] izkS|ksfxdh dk ns”kthdj.kA uohu izkS|ksfxfd;ksa dk ¼[k.M&c½
fodkl] izkS|ksfxdh dk gLrkUrj.k] f}vuqiz;ksxh ,oa ØkfUrd vuqiz;ksx izkS|ksfxfd;kWaA izfØ.o ¼bUtkbZe½ vkSj ikni jatdA izdk”k la”ys’k.k dh vk/kqfud ladYiuk,¡ rFkk bu fØ;kvksa dks
12- lwpuk ,oa lapkj izkS|ksfxdh] varfj{k izkS|ksfxdh] daEI;wVj] ÅTkkZ L=ksrksa] uSuks izkS|ksfxdh] lw{e tho izHkkfor djus okys dkjdA ok;oh; o vok;oh; “oluA o`f) o fodkl] nhi dkfyrk vkSj clUrhdj.kA
foKku] tSo izkS|ksfxdh {ks= esa tkx:drkA ckSf)d lEink vf/kdkjksa ,oa fMftVy vf/kdkjksa ls lEcfU/kr ikni fu;kedksa dh dk;Zfof/k rFkk d`f’k mRiknu esa egRoA izeq[k Qy] lfCt;ksa rFkk “kksHkkdkjh Qlyksa dh
eqn~nsA visf{kr tyok;q rFkk budh [ksrh dh la>s’Vu izFkk] lewg vkSj bldk oSKkfud vk/kkjA Qy o lCth
13- i;kZoj.kh; lqj{kk ,oa ikfjfLFkfrdh ra=] oU; thou laj{k.k] tSo fofo/krk] i;kZoj.kh; iznw’k.k ,oa rksM+us ds igys o ckn dh laHkky o lalk/kuA lCth o Qyksa ds ifjj{k.k dh fof/k;kaA ifjj{k.k rduhdh
{kj.k] i;kZoj.kh; la?kkr vkadyuA rFkk midj.kA Hkwn`’; o iq’ih; ikS/kksa] blds lkFk “kksHkkdkjh ikS/kksa dh [ksrhA m|ku ,oa blds Hkkx]
14- vkink% xSj&ikjEifjd lqj{kk ,oa laj{kk dh pqukSrh ds :i esa] vkink mi”keu ,oa izcU/kuA m|ku dh vfHkdYiuk vkSj jpukA izns”k ds Qy] lCth o “kksHkkdkjh ikS/kksa dh chekfj;ka vkSj dhV
15- vUrjkZ’Vªh; lqj{kk dh pqukSfr;Wk%a vk.kqfod izlkj ds eqn~ns] vfrokn ds dkj.k rFkk izlkj] lapkj rU=] rFkk buds fu;a=.k djus dh fof/k;kaA ,dhd`r dhV o jksx izcU/kuA dhVuk”kh nokvksa dh lajpuk]
ehfM;k dh Hkwfedk rFkk lkekftd rU=h;rk] lkbcj lqj{kk ds vk/kkj] euh ykmUMfjax rFkk ekuo rLdjhA Qly lqj{kk ds ;a= rFkk mudh ns[k&js[kA vukt vkSj nygu ds Hk.Mkj esa uk”kd dhV] HkaMkj
16- Hkkjr dh vkUrfjd lqj{kk dh pqukSfr;ka% vkradokn] Hkz’Vkpkj] izfrfonzksg rFkk laxfBr vijk/kA xksnkeksa dh LoPNrk rFkk muds lEcU/k esa lko/kkuh vkSj vuqj{k.kA Hkkjr esa [kk| mRiknu vkSj
mi;ksx dh izo`fRr;kaA jk’Vªh; o vUrjkZ’Vªh; [kk| uhfr;kaA leFkZu ewY; ij vuktksa dh [kjhnnkjh]
17- lqj{kk cyksa dh Hkwfedk] izdkj rFkk “kklukf/kdkj] Hkkjr dk mPp j{kk laxBuA
forj.k laj{k.k o mRiknu dh leL;k,aA
18- mRrj izns”k ds vkfFkZd ifjn`’; dk fof”k’V Kku%& mRrj izns”k dh vFkZ O;oLFkk dk lkekU; fooj.k]
jkT; ds ctVA d`f’k] m|ksx] vk/kkjHkwr lajpuk ,oa HkkSfrd lalk/kuksa dk egRoA ekuo lalk/ku ,oa dkS”ky ¼2½ izkf.k foKku
fodkl] ljdkj ds dk;ZØe ,oa dY;k.kdkjh ;kstuk,aA ¼iz'u i=&1½
19- d`f’k] ckxokuh] okfudh ,oa i'kqikyu ds eqn~nsA ¼vdkMsZVk] dkMsZVk] ikfjfLFkfrdh] O;ogkfjdh tSo lakf[;dh vkSj vkfFkZd izkf.k foKku½
20- mRrj izns”k ds fo”ks’k lanHkZ esa dkuwu ,oa O;oLFkk vkSj ukxfjd lqj{kkA [k.M&v vdkMsZVk vkSj dkMsZVk
lkekU; v/;;u& IV 1- tho fofo/krk% fuEufyf[kr Qkbye ds lkekU; losZ{k.k] oxhZdj.k vkSj ijLij lEcU/k 2- izksVkstksvk%
· uhfr”kkL= rFkk ekuoh; vUr% lEcU/k] ekuoh; fØ;kdykiksa esa uhfr”kkL= dk lkjrRo] blds fu/kkZjd pyu] iks"k.k] tuu ekuo] ijthoh &izksVkstksvk ,oa jksx 3-iksfjQsjk& uky ra=] dadky rFkk tuu] 4-
vkSj ifj.kke % uhfr”kkL= ds vk;ke] futh vkSj lkoZtfud laca/kksa esa uhfr”kkL=A ukbMsfj;k% cgq:irk] izoky fHkfRr;ka] esVktsusfllA 5- IysVhgsfYeUFkht% ijthoh vuqdwyu rFkk ijiks"kh
ekuoh; ewY;&egku usrkvksa] lq/kkjdksa vkSj iz”kkldksa ds thou rFkk muds mins”kksa ls f”k{kk] ewY; fodflr &ijthoh lEcU/kA 6- ,susfyMk% ikWyhdhVk esa vuqdwyh fofdj.kA 7- vkFkksZiksMk% ØLVsf'k;k esa ykokZ& izk:i
djus esa ifjokj] lekt vkSj “kS{kf.kd laLFkkvksa dh HkwfedkA rFkk ijthfork ] >haxk ds mikax] vkFkksZiksMk esa n`f"V vkSj 'olu] dhVksa esa lkekftd thou rFkk
· vfHko`fRr% varZoLrq ¼daVsUV½] lajpuk] dk;Z] fopkj rFkk vkpj.k ds ifjizs{; esa bldk izHkko ,oa laca/k] dk;kUrj.kA 8- eksyLdk% 'olu] eqDRkk fuekZ.kA 9- bdkbuksMesZVk% lkekU; laxBu] ykokZ&izk:i rFkk
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Page No. - 8
ca/kqrkA 10- dkMsZVk% mRifRr] prq"iknksa dh mRifRrA 11- filht% 'olu] izokl] Qq¶Qql ehuA 12- 3d laØe.k /kkrq tfVyksa ds bysDVªkfud LisDVªe] bysDVªkfud mRrstu ds izdkj] bysDVªkfud mRrstu ds
,sfEQfc;k% fpjfMEHkrk rFkk 'kkodhtuu] iSr`r ns[kHkkyA 13- jsIVhfy;k% djksfV&izk:i] MkbukslkWjA 14- fy, lsysD”ku fu;eA
,soht% ok;oh; vuqdwyu] 'olu] izokl] mM~M;u&foghu i{khA 15- eSesfy;k% nUr &foU;kl] izksVksFkhfj;k tSo vdkcZfud jlk;u % tSfod izØeksa esa vfuok;Z rFkk lw{e ekf=d rRo /kkfRod gheksXyksfcu rFkk
rFkk esVkfFkfj;k] ;wFkhfj;k ds peZ O;qRiUUkA ek;kXyksfcu ds lUnHkZ esa /kkfRodikjfQzfjUl] dSfYl;e vk;u ds fo”ks’k lanHkZ esa {kkjh; rFkk e`nk{kkjh;
¼[k.M&c ikfjfLFkfrdh] O;ogkfjdh] tSo lakf[;dh rFkk vkfFkZd izkf.k foKku½ /kkrq vk;uksa dk tSfod egRoA
1- ikfjfLFkfrdh % vtSo rFkk tSo dkjd] varjktkrh; rFkk vakrjtkrh; lEca/k] ifjfLFkfrdh; vuqØe] fuEukafdr vdkcZfud ;kSfxdksa dk fuekZ.k] muds xq.k /keZ rFkk mi;ksx% Hkkjh ty] cksfjd ,flM] Mkbcksjsu]
thokse ds fofHkUu izdkj] thoHkwjlk;u pØ] [kk| tky] vkstksu irZ rFkk tho eaMy] ok;q] ty rFkk Fky gkbZMªkftu] gkbZMªkDlhySfeu] iksVSf”ke MkbØksesV] iksVSf”k;e ijeSxusV] Ce (iv) lYQsV rFkk Ti (III)
dk iznw’k.kA 2-O;ogkfjdh% izkf.k O;ogkj ds izdkj] O;ogkj esa gkeksZu RkFkk Qhjkseksu dh Hkwfedk] izkf.k lYQsVA
O;ogkj ds v/;;u dh fof/k;ka] tSfod y;A 3- tSo lakf[;dh % izfrp;u fof/k;ka] ckjackjrk&caVu rFkk cgqyd% volknu] izdk”k fodh.kZu] “;kurk rFkk ijlkj.k nkc] fof/k;kW }kjk cgqydksa ds v.kqHkkj dk Kkr
dsUnzh; izo`fRr ds eki] ekud fopyu rFkk ekud =qfV] lglEcU/k rFkk lekJ;.k] dkbZ&oxZ rFkk Vh& djukA la[;k ek/; rFkk Hkkj ek/; v.kqHkkj] cgqydkas dh izR;kLFkrk rFkk fØLVyrkA cksjkthu] flyhdksu
ijh{k.kA 4- vkfFkZd izkf.k foKku% Qlyksa ¼/kku] puk vkSj xUuk½ vkSj laxzfgr vuktksa ds dhV ihM+d] ekSu rFkk QkLQksukbfVªfyd gSykbM cgqydA
ikyu] js'kedhV ikyu] yk[k dhV ikyu] eRL; ikyu vkSj lhi ikyuA jklk;fud Å’ek xfrdh% Å’ek xfrdh Qyu] Å’ek xfrdh ds izFke rFkk f}rh; fu;e] laHkou]
izkf.kfoKku mnkfluhdj.k rFkk ngu Å’ek] Å’ek ;ksx dk gsl dk fu;e] rki nkc ,oa vk;ru ifjorZu ls ,UVªksih esa
¼iz'ui=&AA½ ifjorZuA fxCl gsYegkYV lehdj.k] lkE; ,oa Lor% vfHkfØ;k dh dlkSVh] fofHkUu HkkSfrdh& jlk;fud
¼dksf'kdk tSfodh] vkuqoaf'kdh] fodkl] oxhZdj.k foKku] tSojlk;u] dkf;Zdh rFkk ifjo/kZu tSfodh½ vfHkfØ;kvksa esa Å’ek xfrdh dk mi;ksx] jklk;fud foHko dh /kkj.kk] fxCt&M;wgse lehdj.k]
¼[k.M&v½ Dykfl;l& Dysisjku lehdj.k] ruqfoy;uksa ds lgtkr xq.k /keksZ dh Å’ekxfrdh foospukA
¼dksf'kdk TkSfodh] vkuqoaf'kdh] fodkl vkSj oxhZdj.k foKku½]
1- dksf'kdk tSfodh& izkddsUnzhdh rFkk lqdsUnzdh dksf'kdk;sa] lqdsUnzdh dksf'kdkvksa dh bYdsVªku ekbZØksa jklk;fud cy xfrdh % vfHkfØ;k dh v.kqdrk rFkk dksfV] osx fLFkjkad rFkk fof”k’V osx fLFkjkad] “kwU;
Ldksfid lajpuk] dksf'kdk f>Yyh& lajpuk] dk;Z RkFkk vfHkxeu fØ;kfof/k;ka] dksf'kdk vaxd& lajpuk dksfV] izFke dksfV rFkk f}rh; dksfV vfHkfØ;k;sa] v)Z vk;qdky] vfHkfØ;k dksfV Kkr djus dh fof/k;ka]
rFkk dk;Z] dksf'kdk dadky] dksf'kdk pØ dksf'kdk foHkktu& lelw=.k rFkk v/kZlw=.k] rdqZ& fuekZ.k rFkk rki xq.kkad] vkjghfu;l lehdj.k] lfØ;.k ÅtkZ] vfHkfØ;k osx dk laxV~V fl)kUr] fLFkj voLFkk
xq.klw= xfrA lfUudVu] vfHkfØ;k osx dk laØe.k voLFkk fl)kUr] izFke dksfV dh Øekxr mRØe.kh; rFkk ik”kZo
2- vkuqoaf'kdh % oa'kkxfr dh esaMy ds fu;e] lqdsUnzdh xq.klw=ksa dh lajpuk] egk xq.klw= rFkk ySEicqz'k vfHkfØ;k,aA
xq.klw=] lgyXurk] thu ladYiuk] thu ekufp=.k] fyax xq.klw= rFkk fyax fu/kkZj.k] fyax lgyXu izkoLFkk lkE;% izkoLFkk ?kVd rFkk Lora=rk dh dksfV] ,d ?kVd ¼ty rFkk lYQj½ rFkk nks ?kVd (Pb-
fo'ks"kd] thu vU;ksU;fØ;k ¼lgizHkkfork] cgq ,yhy ?kkrd thu] izcy thu] vcy thu rFkk vusd thoh Ag) fudk; dk izkoLFkk vkjs[k] uUlZV dk forj.k fu;eA forj.k fu;e dk vuqiz;ksxA
oa'kkxfr½ fofHkUurk& izdkj rFkk lzksr] xq.klw=h rFkk thuh mRifjorZu] ekuo ds vkuqoaf'kd jksx ¼nk= fo|+qr jlk;u% izcy fo|qr vi?kV~; dk fl)kUr& lfØ;rk xq.kkad dk fMckbZg~;wdy fl)kUr fo|qr
dksf'kdk vjDrrk] Mkmu] VuZj rFkk DykbuQsYVj ds lay{k.k½] izkddsfUnzfd;ksa rFkk lqdsUnzfd;ksa esa thu pkyu ds fu;e vfHkxeukad] vfHkxeukad Kkr djuk ¼fgVkQZ rFkk xfr”khy lhekad fof/k½ bysDVªksM rFkk
fu;eu rFkk vfHkO;fDRk] iqu;ksZxt Mh ,u , izkSn~;ksfXkdh &ewy fl)kUr ] midj.k] laokgd rFkk mi;ksx] bysDVªksM foHko] gkbZMªkstu bysDVªksM] dyksey bysDVªksM] xSycsfud lsy dk bZ0,e0,Q0] vfHkxeu lfgr
ikjthuh izkf.kA rFkk vfHkxeu jfgr lkUnz.k lsy] nzo taD”ku foHko rFkk bZ/ku lsyA
3- fodkl thouksRifRr& fl)kUr rFkk izk;ksfxd lk{;] fodkl& fl)kUr] izkd`frd oj.k] fofHkUurk ] Bksl voLFkk dk jlk;u% fØLVy ra= fØLVyksa esa lfefr ds rRo] f=foe tkyd rFkk ,dd lsy] xksydksa
,yhy ckjEckjrk x.ku ¼gkMhZ&okbuoxZ iz.kkyh½] tkfr rFkk mitkfr dh ladYiuk] tkfr mn~Hkou dh dk lqladqyu] ‘kVdks.kh; lqladqyu] ?ku lqladqyu] ckMh lsUVMZ D;wfcd iSfdax milgla;kstu Øaekd
fØ;kfof/k] }hih; tkfr] xksidrk& flagkoyksdu rFkk fofHkUu izdkj A rFkk f=T;k vuqikr izHkkoA ,Dl& fdj.k foorZu ds fy, czSx dk fu;e] ikoMj fof/k }kjk NaCI,KCI
4- oxhZdj.k foKku& ofxZdh ds fl)kUr] izkf.kukei)fr] thok'e] HkwoSKkfud egkdYi] v'o rFkk gkFkh rFkk ftad lYQkbM dh fØLVy lajpuk,aA
dh tkfro`Rr] ekuo dh mRifRr ,oa fodkl] tUrqvksa dk egk}hih; forj.k] fo'o ds izkf.k &HkkSxkSfyd i`’B jlk;u% dksvkxqys”ku] gkMhZ&lqYt :y& dksykbMksa dk LFkkf;Ro rFkk mu ij vkos’k dk mn~xe]
ifje.My rFkk mudh vfHky{kf.kd izkf.ktkrA fo|qr xfrdh foHko] fofHkUu izdkj ds vf/k”kks’k.k lerkih] mRizsj.k] ,Utkbe mRizsj.k ¼ekbdsfyl&esaVu
¼[k.M&c½ lehdj.k½
tSojlk;u] dkf;Zdh rFkk ifjo/kZu tSfodh
1- tSojlk;u% dkcksZgkbMsªV% izksVhu] olk RkFkk U;wDyhd vEyksa dh lajpuk] oxhZdj.k rFkk tSfod dk;Z] Mh LisDVªk % jeu LisDVªe % jeu izHkko] LVksd rFkk izfrLVksd js[kk;sa] rFkk rhozrk vUrj] ikjLifjd viotZu
,u , dk okVlu& fØd izfr:i] vkuqoaf'kdh dwV] izksVhu& tSo la'ys"k.k] tSfod vkDlhdj.k] dk fu;eA bysDVªkuh LisDVªe % bysDVªkuh mRrstu] QSad& dkW.Mke fl)kUr] izfrnhfIr rFkk LQqj nhfIrA
mPp&ÅtkZ ;ksfxd] bysDVªkWu vfHkxeu J`[kayk] vkDlhdj.kh QkLQksjhys'ku] Xykbdksfyfll] Vh lh ,@ lkE;koLFkk % HkkSfrdh rFkk jklk;fud vfHkfØ;kvksa esa lkE;koLFkk] lkE;koLFkk dk Mk;fufed izd`fr]
dzsCl pØ] ,Utkbe& ukei)fr] oxhZdj.k] ,Utkbe lfØ;rk izHkkou dkjd rFkk fØ;k dh fØ;kfof/k] jlk;fud lkE;koLFkk dk fu;e] lkE; fLFkjkad] lkE; dks izHkkfor djus okys dkjd] yh&”ksfVfy;j
foVkfeu&vkgkjh; lzksr tSojklk;fud dk;Z] vYirk y{k.k] vfrfoVkfeurk ,] lgt rFkk mikftZr fl)kUr] izcy rFkk nqcZy fo|qr vi?kV~;] dkeu vk;u izHkko] ikyhcsfld vEyksa dk vk;uhdj.k] vEyh;
izfrj{kk] izfrj{kk dksf'kdk;sa] bequksXykscqfyu] lkbVksdkbu ¼bUVjY;wfdu½A cy] ih0,p0 dh vo/kkj.kk] yo.kksa dk ty vi?kVu] cQj fcy;u] gs.Mjlu lehdj.k] vYi foys; dh
2- dkf;Zdh ¼Lrfu;ksa ds fo'ks"k lanHkZ esa½% leLFkkiu] [kqyk rFkk cUn ifjlapj.k ra=] raf=dktu rFkk foys;rk rFkk foys;rk xq.kkadA
is'khtud gn;] jDRk&lajpuk] dk;Z] Ldanu rFkk jDRk lewg] vkDlhtu rFkk dkcZuMkbZvkDlkbM jlk;u foKku& f}rh; iz”u i=
vfHkxeu] g`n&pØ] g`n; xfr dk ra=dh; rFkk gkeksZuh fu;eus] 'olu dh fØ;kfof/k rFkk mldk 1& lkekU; dkcZfud jlk;u % vfrla;qXeu] vLFkkuhdj.k ,oe~ buds vuqiz;ksx] bysDVªku Lusgh]
fu;eu] ew=&fuekZ.k] o`Dd ds leLFkSfrd dk;Z] rkivuqlkjd rFkk rkifu;ked izkf.k;ksa esa rkifu;eu] gkbZMªkstu cU/k] ,sjkseSfVdrk vkSj izfr ,sjkseSfVdrkA
raf=dk vkosx& raf=dk{kh; rFkk varxzZFkuh izs"k.k] raf=isz"kh] dkcksZgkbMsªV] izksVhu] olk rFkk U;wDyhd veyksa 2& jklk;fud fØ;k fof/k % ¼i½ jlk;fud vfHkfØ;kvksa ds fu/kkZj.k gsrq lkekU; fof/k;kW % xfrd
dk ikpu rFkk vo'kks"k.k] ikpd jlksa ds lzko dk fu;a=.k] is'kh&izdkj] lajpuk rFkk ladqpu &fØ;kfof/k] leLFkkfud izHkko] ikjxeu iz;ksx] e/;orhZ foik’ku ¼VSªfiax½] m’ekxfrdh fu;ed cuke xfrdh fu;ed
ekuo us= rFkk d.kZ dh lajpuk ,oa dk;Z] izdk'kxzg.k] Jo.k rFkk larqyu dh fØ;kfof/k] gkeksZu& varlzkoh] vfHkfØ;k;saA
ijklzkoh rFkk Lolzkoh] gkeksZu ds izdkj% gkeksZu fØ;k dh fØ;kfof/k] gkeksZu xzkgh ds izdkj] v/k'psrd] ¼ii½ fØ;k”khy e/;orhZ % dkoZ/kuk;u] dkcZ_.kk;u eqDr ewyd] dkoZfUl rFkk ostkbu ds LFkkf;Ro] cuus
ih;w"k] voVq] ijkoVq] vXU;k'k;] tun rFkk fifu;y xzfUFk;ksa ds gkeksZu dh HkwfedkA vkrZo pØ dk fu;eu] dh fof/k] T;kferh] izd`fr ¼bysDVªku Lusgh rFkk ukfHkd Lusgh½ rFkk vfHkfØ;k;saA
jtksn'kZu rFkk jtksfuo`fRrA ¼iii½ ;ksx vfHkfØ;k;sa % dkcZu % dkcZu f}vkoU/k ij czksehu] dkohZu ,oe ij ,sflM ¼vkDlhjsu dk cuuk½
3-ifjo/kZu tSfodh& czsfd;ksaLVksek] es<d rFkk dqDdqV esa ;qXedtuu] fu"kspu] fonyu rFkk xSLVqzyu dh bysDVªku Lusgh ;ksx vfHkfØ;k;sa] gkbMªksoksjslu& vkDlhdj.k] vkDlhejD;wjslu& MhejD;wjslu ,oe~
¼danqdu½] vaM ds izdkj] es<d rFkk dqDdqV ds xSLVqzyk ds fu;fr ekufp=] es<d rFkk dhVksa esa dk;karj.k vk;MksysDVksukbtsluA
rFkk mldk gkeksZuh fu;a=.k] dqDdqV esa Hkwz.k ckº; dykvksa dk fuekZ.k] Lruh esa vijk &izdkj] laxBd
czksehu dk la;qXeh MkbZu ds lkFk 1]2 vkSj 1]4 ;ksx vfHkfØ;k;saA HBr dh eqDreksyd ;ksx vfHkfØ;k;saA
ifj?kVuk] efLr"d] us= rFkk g`n; dk vaxfodkl] iqutZuu] ifjo/kZu dk vkuqoaf'kd fu;a=.kA
dkcZu] vkDlhtu] lYQj rFkk ukbVªkstu ukfHkd Lusgh vfHkdeZdksa dk dkcksfuy lewg ds lkFk ukfHkd
Lusgh ;ksx vfHkfØ;k;saA
¼3½ jlk;u foKku& izFke iz'u i= ¼iv½ foyksiu vfHkfØ;k;sa% E1,E2 rFkk E1cb vfHkfØ;kvksa dh fØ;k fof/k] E2 vfHkfØ;kvksa dk
ijek.kq lajpuk% n & czkXyh lehdj.k] gksbtsucxZ dk vfuf'prrk dk fl)kUr] Dok.Ve ;kakf=dh; vfHkfoUlk; ¼lsVtsQ rFkk gkQeSu½] dksi foyksiu vfHkfØ;kA
vkWijsVj rFkk JkWfMtj rjax lehdj.k] rjax Qyu dk HkkSfrd egRo rFkk bldh fo'ks"krk,a ¼lkekU;hd`r ¼v½ izfrLFkkiu vfHkfØ;k;sa%
ykWfEcd½ vjh; forj.k rFkk s, p, ,oa d d{kdksa dh vkd`fr;ka ,d foeh; ckDl esa d.k] bysDVªkfud]
¼a½ SN1 rFkk SN2 fØ;k fof/k A
ÅtkZvksa dk Dok.Vhdj.k ¼gkbMªkstu ijek.kq dk xq.kkRed v/;;u ikmyh dk viotZu fLk)kUr] vf/kdre
¼b½ bysDVªku Lusgh ,sjkseSfVd izfrLFkkiu vfHkfØ;k;sa % eksuks izfrLFkkfir csUthuksa ds fy;s
pØ.k dh cgqyrk dk gq.M fu;e] vkQckÅ fl)kUr] ijek.kqvksa dk bysDVªkfUkd foU;kl] ijkykjsf'k;e
rRoksa dks lfEefyr djrs gq, vkorZ rkfydk dh nh?kZ iz.kkyhA rRoksa ds xq.kksa esa vkorZrk tSls fd ijek.kq ,oa vfHkfoU;kl ,oe~ fØ;k”khyrkA
vk;fud f=T;k,a] vk;uu foHko] bysDVªkUk ca/kqrk rFkk ty;kstu ÅtkZA 3& vfHkfØ;k;sa ,oa iqufoZU;kl vfHkfØ;k;sa %
ukfHkdh; ,oa fofdj.k jlk;u% ukfHkdh; cy] ukfHkdh; LFkkf;Ro n/p vuqikr] ukfHkdh; ca/ku mtkZA rRoksa ¼I½ vfHkfØ;k;sa % ,yMksy la?kuu Dyslu la?kuu uksosukxsy vfHkfØ;k] fofVx vfHkfØ;k]
dk d`f=e rRokUrj.k rFkk ukfHkdh; vfHkfØ;k;sa] ukfHkd fo[k.MUk rFkk laxyu] jsfM;ks,fDVork dh cy ekbdsy ;ksx] ekful vfHkfdz;k] ijfdu] jk;ej&Vheku vfHkfdz;k] dSfutkjks vfHkfdz;k rFkk osUtksbu
xfrdh] jsfM;ksa ,fDVo leLFkkfud rFkk mudh mi;ksfxrk,] jsfM;ks dkcZu dky fu/kkZj.k] fofdj.k jlk;u la?kuuA
dh izkjfEHkd tkudkjhA ¼ii½ iqufoZU;kl vfHkfdz;k;sa % fiusdky & fiusdksyhu] gkQeku] csdeku] djfV;l iqufoZU;kl
jklk;fud vkca/ku% la;kstdrk vkcU/k fl)kUr ¼gkbVyj yanu rFkk ikmfyax &LysVj ds fl)kUr½ rFkk dkoZ/kuk;uksa dh iqufoZU;kl vfHkfdz;k;saA
ladj.k] oh-,l-bZ- ih vkj fl)kUr] lekax rFkk fo"keakx f}ijek.kqd v.kqvksa dh vkf.od d{kd ÅtkZ Lrj 4& f=foe jlk;u% dkbjy dsUnz ds dkj.k /kzqo.k ?kw.kZdrk% ,d rFkk nks dkbjy dsUnzks okys ;kSfxdksa dk
vkjs[k] vkca/k Øe] vkca/k nS/;Z] ,oa vkca/k lkeF;Z flXek rFkk ikbZ vkca/k] gkbMªkstu vkca/k] vk;fud vkca/k R,S ukedj.kA izfrfcEch rFkk vizfrfcEch :iksa dk xq.k/keZA jklk;fud fof/k }kjk jSlsfed feJ.k dk
dh fo”ks’krk,a] S rFkk P [k.M ds rRoksa dk jlk;u S rFkk P [k.M ds rRoksa dk lkekU; xq.k% rRoksa dh i`FkDdj.kA T;kferh leko;ork% E,Z ukedj.kA foo`r J`a[kyk okys ;kSfxdksa ¼n&C;wVsu]2&¶yksjksbFksuksy]
jlk;fud lfØ;rk rFkk lewg izo`fRr;ka] muds gkbMªkbMksa] gSykbMksa rFkk vkDlkbMksa dk jklk;fud 1]2& bFksu Mk;kRu] 1]2 MkbZ&¶yksjksbFksu½ dk la:i.kA lkbDyksgsDlsu] ,dy izfrLFkkfir rFkk
vkpj.kA f}izfrLFkkfir lkbDyksgsDlsuksa dk la:i.kA
ladze.k rRoksa dk jlk;u% lkekU; fo”ks’krk,a] ifjorhZ vkDlhdj.k voLFkk,a] tfVyksa dk fuekZ.k] mudk jax 5&LisDVªfedh%& ¼i½ UV LisDVªfedh% bysDVªkfud laØe.k ds izdkj] o.kZewyd ¼dzkseksQksj½] o.kZo/kZd
rFkk pqEcdh; ,oa mRizsfjdh; xq.kA vk;fud f=T;kvksa] vkDlhdj.k voLFkkvksa rFkk pqEcdh; xq.kksa dh ¼vkDlksdzkse½] o.kksZrd'khZ foLFkkiu] o.kZo/kZd foLFkkiuA la;qfXer ikyhuksa rFkk dkoksZfuy ;kSfxd ds λmax
n`f’V ls 4d vkSj 5d ladze.k rRoksa ,oa muds vuq:Ik 3d rRoksa dk rqyukRed v/;;uA dh x.kuk ds fy;s oqMoMZ rFkk Qkbtj fu;eA
ySFksukbMksa rFkk ,fDVukbMksa dk jlk;u% ySFksukbMksa] ladqpu] vkDlhdj.k voLFkk,a] ySFksukbMksa rFkk ¼ii½ buQzkjsM LisDVªfedh% ruu vko`fRk;ksa dks izHkkfor djus okys dkjdA
,fDVukbMksa ds i`FkDdj.k dk fl)kUr] muds ;kSfxdksa dk pqEcdh; rFkk LisDVªeh xq.kA ¼iii½ 1HNMR LisDVªfedh% ewy fl)kUr] dsfedy f”k¶V] fLiu&fLiuvU;ksU; fdz;k rFkk ;qXeukadA
mi lgla;kstu jlk;u% mi lgla;kstu ;kSfxdksa dk ouZj fl)kUr uke i)fr dh vkbZ-;w- ih,-lh- lk/kkj.k ;kSfxdksa dh lajpuk fu/kkZj.k ds fy, UV, IR rFkk 1HNMR ij vk/kkfjr iz”uA
(IUPAC) iz.kkyh izHkkoh ijek.kq Øekad] mi lg la;kstu ;kSfxdksa esa leko;ork] la;kstdrk ca/k fl)kUr 6&dkcZfud cgqyd% cgqyhdj.k dh fdz;kfof/k] vkS|ksfxd egRo ds cgqyd ¼ikfy,sekbM] ikfy,LVj]
rFkk mldh lhek,a] fØLVy {ks= fl)kUr v’VQydh;] prq’Qydh; rFkk oxZ ryh; tfVyksa esa d d{kdksa vkWjyku] ih0oh0lh0] Vs¶yku] ,l0ch0vkj0] ,u0ch0vkj0½
dk fØLVy {ks= foikVuA Δ rFkk blds eku dks izHkkfor djus okys dkjd d1 ls d9 rd ds fy, fØLVy 7& dkcksZgkbMªsVl% ekukslSdjkbMl ¼Xywdksl rFkk izDVksl½ dk jlk;uA Xywdksl rFkk QzDVksl dh pdzh;
{ks= LFkkf;Ro ÅtkZvksa dh x.kuk] nqcZy rFkk izcy {ks= ds v’VQydh; tfVy] LisDVªks jklk;fud Js.khA lajpukA ifjorhZ /kqzo.k ?kw.kZu] ,fiesjktslu] vekMksjh iqufoZU;kl] MkblSdjkbMl ¼ekYVksl rFkk lqdzksl½A
Cont...

Page No. - 9
8& isjhlkbfDyd vfHkfdz;k;sa% oxhZdj.k rFkk mnkgj.k] oqMoMZ&gkQeku fu;e] bysDVªkslkbfDyd csyuA dsUnzh; “kkadot] ijoy;t] “kkadot dk leryh; dkV] tud js[kk,Wa] laukfHk “kkadotA
vfHkfdz;k;sa] lkbDyks,Mh”ku ¼A 2$2 A rFkk A 4$2 A½ vfHkfdz;k;saA 4& lk/kkj.k vody lehdj.k& vody lehdj.k dh dksfV rFkk ?kkr] izFke dksfV rFkk izFke ?kkr dh
9& fo’kepØzh; ;kSfxd% ik;jkWy] ¶;wVku rFkk Fkk;ksQhu ds cukus dh fof/k;ka] ,sjkseSfVdrk rFkk jSf[kd ,oa ;Fkkor vody lehdj.k] izFke dksfV ds lehdj.k tks izFke ?kkr ds u gksa] fofPk= gy]
vfHkfdz;k;saA yEcdks.kh; la{ksnhA vpj xq.kkadks okys mPp dksfV ds jSf[kd lehdj.k] iwjd Qyu rFkk fo”ks’k lekdyA
10& Ik;kZoj.kh; jlk;u foKku% Okk;qiznw’kd ,oa muds fo'kkDr izHkko] vkstksu ijr dk fo?kVu] Pkj xq.kkadks okys f}dksfV ds jSf[kd vody lehdj.k % ,d Kkr gy ls nwljk Kkr djuk] izlkekU; :i]
ukbVªkstu ds vkDlkbM dk izHkko] ¶yksjks Dyksjks dkcZu rFkk vkstksu ijr ij mldk izHkko] iknix`g vfu/kkZfjr xq.kkad fof/k] izkpy fopj.k fof/kA
izHkko] vEy o’kkZA 5& lfn”k ,oa izfn”k fo”ys’k.k& lfn”k chtxf.kr] vfn”k pj ds lfn’k Qyuksa ds vodyu ,oa
lekdyu] xzsfM;aV] MkbotZsUl ,oa dyZ ds dkrhZ;] csyuh ,oa xksyh; funsZ”kkdksa esa fu:i.k rFkk muds
¼4½ HkkSfrd foKku% izFke iz”u&i= HkkSfrd fuoZpu] mPprj dksfV ds vodyt] lfn”k lfedk,a ,oa lfn”k lehdj.k] xkÅl rFkk LVksDl
;kaf=dh] Å’eh; HkkSfrdh rFkk rjax ,oa nksyu % ¼1½ ;kaf=dh % laj{k.k fu;e] la?kê] izkpy] izdh.kZu izes;A lef’V oØ] oØrk rFkk ,sBu] lsjsV&QsusV lw=A
izPNsn] nzO;eku dsUnz rFkk iz;ksx”kkyk ra= HkkSfrd jkf”k;ksa ds :ikUrj.k ds lkFkA jnjQksMZ 6&LFkSfrdh ,oa xfrdh& dfYir dk;Z] lUrqyu dk LFkkf;Ro] dSVujh] ,d leku lkEkF;Z dh dSVujh]
izdh.kZuA fu;r cy {ks= ds Hkhrj jkdsV dh xfrA jksVsfVax Ýse vkWQ fjQjsUlA dksfj;ksfyl cyA rhu foek esa cyksa dk larqyuA ljy js[kh; xfr] ljy vkorZ xfr] f=T; ,oa vuqizLFk fn”kkvksa rFkk
n`<+ fi.Mksa dh xfrA ?kq.kZu djrh oLrqvksa dh xfrdhA tM+Rok?kw.kZ] tM+Ro VsaljA xksyk] fjax] csyu] Li”khZ; ,oa vfHkyEc fn”kkvksa esa osx ,oa Roj.k] izfrjks/kh ek/;e esa xfr] O;o:) xfr] vkosxh cyksa ds
fMLd dk tM+Rok?kw.kZA dks.kh; laosx] cyvk?kw.kZ ¼cyk?kw.kZ] Vki dk izsfllu] xkbjkLdksi] dsUnzh; v/khu xfr dsiyj ds fu;e] dsUnzh; cyksa ds v/khu d{kk;sa] ifjorhZ nzO;eku dh xfrA
cyA O;qRØeoxZ fu;e ds vUrxZr xfr] dsiyj ds fu;eA d`f=e mixzg dh xfr ¼HkwfLFkj mixzg Hkh½] xf.kr& f}rh; iz”ui=
izR;kLFkrk fu;rkad ,oa muds chp vUrZlEcU/kA xSyhfy;u lkisf{kdrkA fof”k’V lkisf{kdrk 1& chtxf.kr% lewg] pØh; lewg] milewg] milewg dk lgleqPp;] ykxzkat izes;] izlkekU; milewg]
fl)kUr] ekbdsYlu eksjys dk iz;ksxA ykjsUt dk :ikUrj.k] osxksa ds ;ksx dk fu;eA nzO;eku dk lewgksa dh lekdkfjrk] [k.M lewg] vk/kkjh rqY;dkfjrk izes;] Øep; lewg] dsyh izes;A oy;] mioy;]
osx ds lkFk ifjorZu] nzO;eku&ÅtkZ lerqY;rk o rjy xfrdh] /kkjkjs[kh; ,oa fo{kksHk cgko] jsuksYM xq.ktkoyh] iw.kkZadh; izkar] iw.kkZadh; izkar dk foHkktu {ks=] ;wfDyMh; izkar] eq[; xq.ktkoyh izkar] {ks= ij
la[;k] “;kurk] ladh.kZ ufydk ls nzoksa ds izokg lEcU/kh ikbyksth dk lw=] cuksZyh dk lehdj.k cgqinh; oy;] vf}rh; xq.ku[kaMu izkarA
rFkk mlds lkekU; vuqiz;ksxA 2& okLrfod fo”ys’k.k% nwjhd lef’V ,oa vuqØeksa ds fo”ks’k lanHkZ esa mudh lkafLFkfrdh] vfHklkjh
¼2½ Å’ek HkkSfrdh % m’ekxfrdh ds fu;e] ,.Vªkih] dkuksZpØ] lerkih; rFkk :nzks’e ifjorZuA Å’ek vuqØe] dkS”kh vuqØe] vfHklj.k ds fy;s dkS”kh fud'k] vuUr Js.kh ,oa mudk vfHklj.k] nokWa in
xfrd foHko] gsYegksYt rFkk fxc ds QyuA eSDlosy lEcU/kA Dykfl;l& Dysijku lehdj.kA ijh{k.k] /kukRed inksa dh Js.kh] vuqikr ,oa ewy ijh{k.k] lhek rqyukRed ijh{k.k] y?kqx.kdh; vuqikr
mRØe.kh; lsyA twy& dsfYou izHkkoA LVhQku cksYeSu fu;eA xSlksa dk xR;kRed fl)kUrA osx ds ijh{k.k] la?kuu ijh{k.k] lkekU; vuqØe R esa fujis{k ,oa laizfrca/kh ijh{k.k] vkcsy ,oa fMfj[ys izes;]
forj.k dk eSDlosy fu;eA ÅtkZ dk lefoHkktu] xSlksa dh fof”k’V Å’ek] e/;&eqDr iFk czkmuh xfrA fdlh vUrjky ij Qyuksa ds vuqØe ,oa Js.kh dk ,d leku vfHklj.k] fo;jLVªkl M- ijh{k.k] vkcsy ,oa
d`f’.kdk fofdj.kA Bkslksa dh fof”k’V Å’ek] vkbUlVhu rFkk MhokbZ fl)kUr A ohu dk fu;e] IySad dk fMfj[ys ijh{k.k] lhek&Qyu ds fy;s lkarR;] in’k% lekdyuh;rk ,oa vodyuh;rk] ifjc) Qyuksa ds
fu;e] lkSj fu;rkadA lkgk dk Å’eh; vk;uhdj.k dk fl)kUr rFkk u{k=h; LisDVªeA :}ks’e fopqEcdu fy;s lekdyu dk jheku fl)kURk] lrr Qyu dh lekdyuh;rk] dyu dh ekSfyd izes;] vuqfpr
}kjk fuEu rki mRiknu rFkk ruq “khryuA _.kkRed rki dh vo/kkj.kkA lekdyu ,oa muds vfLrRo ds fy;s n”kk;sa] E;w ijh{k.kA
¼3½ rjax ,oa nksyu % nksyu ljy vkorZxfrA nzO;eku fLizax rFkk ,ylh ifjiFkA vizxkeh rFkk izxkeh 3& lfEeJ fo”ys’k.k% oS”ysf’kd Qyu] dkS”kh&jheku lehdj.k] dkS”kh izes;] dkS”kh dk lekdyu lw=]
rjaxsA voeafnr ljy vkorZxfr] iz.kksfnr nksyu rFkk vuquknA vuqukn dh rh{.krkA rjax lehdj.kA oS”ysf’kd Qyu dk ?kkr Js.kh fu:i.k] Vsyj Js.kh] ykWjsUV Js.kh] fofp=rkvksa dk oxhZdj.k] dkS”kh vo”ks’k
gkjeksfud gyA lery rFkk xksyh; rjaxs] rjaxksa dk v/;kjksi.kA nks vfHkyEcor ljy vkorZxfr;ka izes;] dUVwj lekdyuA
fylktw vkd`fr;kaA vkorhZ rjaxksa dk Qqfj;j fo”ys’k.k&oxZ rFkk f=dks.kh; rjaxsA dyk rFkk lewg osx] 4& vkaf”kd vodyu lehdj.k% vkaf'kd vody lehdj.kksa dks cukuk] izFke dksfV ds vkaf”kd vody
foLianA lehdj.k] izFke dksfV ds jSf[kd dYi vkaf”kd vody lehdj.kksa ds gy] izFke dksfV ds vjSf[kd
¼4½ izdkf'kdh% gkbxsu dk fl)kUrA vk;ke ,oa rjaxkxz dk foHkktu] Ýusy ckbfizTe U;wVu&fjax vkaf”kd vody lehdj.k ds fy;s “kkfiZ V fof/k] vpj xq.kkadksa okys f}rh; dksfV ds jSf[kd vkaf”kd
ekbdsylu b.VjQsjksehVj] Ýsczhijk] b.VjÝsjksehVjA foorZu&Ýusy rFkk ÝkugksaQj Qwfj;s :ikUrj.k vody lehdj.k rFkk muds fofgr :i] dafir rarq dk lehdj.k] rki lehdj.k] ykIykl lehdj.k
ds :i esa foorZuA vk;rkdkj ,oa o`Rrkdkj }kjdksa ls Ýusy rFkk ÝkugksaQj foorZuA lh/ksdksj] ,dy ,oa muds gyA
rFkk cgqfLyVksa ls foorZu] xzfVax dh foHksnu {kerkA izdkf”kr midj.kA jsys dk ekudA /kzqo.k] /kzqfor 5& ;kaf=dh% O;kihd`r funsZ”kkad] O;kihd`r xfr] gksyksukseh vkSj xSj&gksyksukseh fudk;] laj{kh {ks= esa
izdk”k ¼js[kh;] o`Rrh; rFkk nh?kZo`Rrh;½ dk mRiknu rFkk lalwpuA C:LVj&fu;e] f}oviorZu dk gksyksukeh fudk; ds fy;s Mh,sycVZ fl}kUr ,oa ykxzkat lehdj.k] O;kihd`r vkosx] gSfeYVu lehdj.k]
gkbxsu fl)kUrA izdk”kh; ?kw.kZu] iksykjhehVj]] yslj Jksr ¼ghfy;e uh;ksu] :ch rFkk v/kZ pkyd tM+Ro ,oa xq.ku vk?kw.kZ] eq[; v{k] fnd~ dksT;k (I,m,n) okyh js[kk ds ifjr% tM+Ro vk?kw.kZ] vkosxh;
Mk;ksM½ LFkkuh; ,oa lkef;d dyk lEc)rk dh vo/kkj.kkA gksyksxzkQh fl)kUr rFkk vuqiz;ksxA nh?kZo`Rrt] n`<+ fiaMksa dh f}foeh; xfrA
MkIyj izHkkoA 6& rjy xfrdh% lkarR; lehdj.k] xfr foHko] /kkjk xfr] iFk js[kk] laosx ,oa mtkZA v’;ku izokg%
HkkSfrd foKku% f}rh; iz”u&i= vk;yj vkSj cjukSyh dk xfr lehdj.k] f}foeh; nzoh; xfr] lfEeJ foHko] laosx ,oa mtkZ] mn~xe ,oa
¼oSn~;qr rFkk pqEcdRo] vk/kqfud HkkSfrdh rFkk bysDVªkfudh½ vfHkxe] f}d ,oa muds izfrfcEc ¼js[kk ,oa o`Rr ds lkis{k½A
1- oSn~;qr rFkk pqEcdRo% dwyEc dk fu;e] oSn~;qr {ks=] xkl dk fu;e] oSn~;qr foHko] le:i {ks= esa lekax 7& la[;kRed fo”ys’k.k % ,d pj ds chtxf.krh; rFkk vchth; lehdj.kksa dk f}foHkktu]
ijkoSn~;qr rFkk vukosf”kr xksyh; pkyd gsrq ik;lk ,oa ykIykl ds lehdj.k] fcUnq vkos”k rFkk vuUr jsxqyk&QkfYl rFkk U;wVu&jkQlu fof/k;ksa }kjk gy rFkk muds vfHklj.k] varosZ”ku ¼U;wVu vkSj ykxzkat½
lapkyd ryA oSn~;qr /kkjk] fdjpkQ dk fu;e rFkk blds vuqiz;ksx% âohV LVksu lsrq] dsfYou Mcy fczt] ,oa =qfV inksa lfgr la[;kRed vodyu lw=A
QSjhQkLVj fcztA ck;ks& lsoVZ fu;e rFkk mlds vuqiz;ksxA ,Eih;j dk ifjiFkh; fu;e rFkk vuqiz;ksxA la[;kRed lekdyu% leyach fu;e] flailu fu;e
pqEcdh; izsj.k rFkk {ks= rhozrk] pqEcdh; “ksy o`Rrkdkj dqaMyh ds v{k ij pqEcdh; {ks=] gsYe gksYt lk/kkj.k vody lehdj.kksa dk la[;kRed gy% vk;yj fof/k] :axs&dqV~Vk fof/kA
dqaMyh] oSn~;qr pqEcdh; izsj.k] QSjkMs ,oa ySUt dk fu;eA Lo ,oa vU;ksU; izsjdRo] izR;korhZ /kkjk] ,y lh
vkj ifjiFk] Js.kh ,oa lekUrj vuqukn ifjiFk] xq.krk xq.kkadA eSDlosy ds lehdj.k rFkk oSn~;qr pqEcdh; ¼6½ Hkwxksy % izFke iz”u &I=
rjaxkas dh vuqizLFk izd`frA ikbZf.Vax osDVjA nzO;ksa esa pqEcdh; {ks= izfr vuq Qsjksa izfrQsjks rFkk Qsjh
[k.M& v % HkkSfrd Hkwxksy
pqEcdRo ¼xq.kkRed mikxe ek=½] “kSfFkY;rkA
1- Hkw& vkdfjdh % i`Foh dh mRifRr ,oa lajpuk] Hkwlapyu] IysV foorZu rFkk ioZr fuekZ.k] Hkwlarqyu]
2- vk/kqfud HkkSfrdh% gkbMªkstu ijek.kq dk cksj fl)kUr] bysDVªku fLiuA LVuZ&xjySd iz;ksx rFkk Tokykeq[kh fØ;k] vi{k; ,oa vijnu] vijnu pØ] LFkykd`fr;ksa dk Øe& fodkl&unh;] fgekuh] iou]
LFkkfud Dok.Vhdj.kA ijek.kq dk osDVj ekMy] LisDVªeh in] izdkf”kr ,oa ,Dl&js LisDVªkA LisDVªeh lkxjh rFkk dkLVZ] iqu:RFkku ,oa cgqpØh; Hkw& vkd`fr;kWA
js[kkvksa dh lw{e lajpuk j-j rFkk I-s ;qXeuA theku izHkkoA ikmyh dk viotZu fl)kUrA nks lerqY; rFkk
2- tyok;q foKku % ok;qe.My dk la?kVu ,oa ljapuk] lw;kZfHkrki ,oa m’ek ctV] ok;qe.Myh; nkc ,oa
fHkUu bysDVªkuksa dh LtsDVªeh inA bysDVªkfud cS.M LisDVªk dh LFkwy rFkk lw{e lajpukA jeu izHkkoA
iou] vknzZrk ,oa o`f’V] ok;q jkf”k;kW ,oa okrkxz] pØokr& mRifRr] ifjlapj.k ,oa lEcfU/kr ekSle] fo”o
izdk”k oSn~;qr izHkko] ØkEiVu izHkko] Mh czkxyh rjaxsA rjaxd.k }SrrkA vfuf”prrk dk fl)kUrA Dok.Ve
tyok;q dk oxhZdj.k& dksisu rFkk FkkUFkZosVA
;kaf=dh dh vfHk/kkjk,aA JkSfMaxj lehdj.k dk vuqiz;ksx ¼1½ ckDl esa fLFkr d.k rFkk ¼2½ in foHko ds
3- leqnz foKku % leqnzry dk mPpkop Lo:i] yo.krk] leqnzh /kkjk,a ,oa Tokj&HkkVk] leqnzh fu{ksi ,oa
vkjikj xfr esaA ,d foeh; gkeksZfud nksyd] vkbxu ewY; rFkk vkbxu QyuA jsfM;ks/kkfeZrk] vYQk]
izoky fHkfRr;kWA
chVk rFkk xkek fofdj.kA vYQk {k; dk izkjfEHkd fl)kUr] ukfHkdh; cU/ku ÅtkZ] ekl LisDVªksLdksih] lseh
4- feV~Vh ,oa ouLifr% mRifRr] oxhZdj.k ,oa fo”o& forj.k] feV~Vh ,oa ouLifr dh lg&thfork] tSo
,Eihfjdy ekl QkewZyk] ukfHkdh; fo[k.Mu rFkk lay;uA izkjfEHkd fj,DVj HkkSfrdhA ewy d.k rFkk
leqnk; ,oa vuqØeA
muds oxhZdj.kA rhoz rFkk nqcZy vUrZfdz;kA d.kRofj=] LkkbDyksVªku] js[kh; Rofj=] vfrpkydrk dk
izkjfEHkd KkuA 5- ikfjfLFkfrdh rU= % ikfjfLFkfrdh dh ladYiuk] ikfjfLFkfrdh rU= dh lajpuk ,oa dk;Ziz.kkyh]
ikfjfLFkfrdh rU= ds izdkj] izeq[k thokse] ikfjfLFkfrd rU=ksa ij ekuo dk izHkko rFkk oSf”od
3- bysDVªkfudh % mtkZ cS.M ds vk/kkj ij Bkslksa dk pkyd] dqpkyd ,oa v/kZpkyd esa oxhZdj.kA uSt
ikfjfLFkfrdh; eqn~nsA
rFkk okã v)Zpkyd A ih ,u laf/k] i”o ,oa vXu vfHkur ih ,u laf/kA FkfeZLVj] tsuj Mk;ksM] lkSj lsyA [k.M & c % ekuo Hkwxksy
fn’Vhdj.k] izo/kZu nksyu] jsfM;ks vko`fRr rjaxksa ds ekMqys”ku rFkk lalwpu esa Mk;ksM rFkk VªkaftLVj dk 6- HkkSxksfyd fpUru dk dze& fodkl % Hkkjrh;] teZu] Qzkalhlh] fczfV”k rFkk :lh Hkwxksy osRrkvksa ds
mi;ksx] VªkaftLVj vfHkxzg.kA cqfy;u cht xf.kr] ykftd xsV rFkk muds lR; rkfydk muds dqN ;ksxnku] ekuo& Hkwxksy ds ijaijkxr fparu Qyd& fu”p;okn] lEHkookn] izns”kokn( le& lkekf;d
mi;ksxA ,Mj rFkk loVSªEVjA fparu Qyd% izR;{kokn] lkaf[;dh; ØkfUr( Hkwxksy esa ekWMy ,oa ra=( HkkSxksfyd fpUru esa vfHkuo
izo`fRr;ka ¼vkpkjijd] ØkfUrdkjh] ekuorkokn] mRrjvk/kqfudokn ,oa ikfjfLFkfrdh fpUru Qyd ds
¼5½ Xkf.kr & izFke iz”ui= fo”ks’k lUnHkZ esa½A
1& jSf[kd chtxf.kr ,oa vkO;wg& lfn”k lef’V;kWa] mi lef’V;kWa] vk/kkj ,oa foek] foHkkx lef’V] 7- Ekkuo Hkwxksy% izeq[k izkd`frd izns”kksa esa ekuo fuokL;] ekuo dk vH;qn; ,oa ekuo iztkfr;ka] lkaLd`frd
funsZ”kkadA jSf[kd :ikUrj.k] jSf[kd :ikUrj.k dh tkfr ,oa “kwU;rk] jSf[kd :ikUrj.k dk vkO;wg fodkl ,oa voLFkk,a% izeq[k lkaLd`frd ifje.My] tula[;k dh o`f) ,oa forj.k] vUrjk’Vªh; izotu]
fu:i.kA jSf[kd Qyud] }Sr lef’V] jSf[kd :ikUrj.k dk ifjorZ] vfHkyk{kf.kd eku] “kwU;dkjh cgqin] tukafddh; laØe.k rFkk le& lkef;d tula[;k leL;k;saA
dSys&gSfeYVu izes;A vkarj xq.ku lef’V] dk”kh&”koktZ vlfedk] ykafcd lfn”k] ykafcd iwjd] izlkekU; 8- vf/kokl Hkwxksy % vf/kokl Hkwxksy dh ladYiuk( xzkeh.k vf/kokl&izd`fr] mRifRr] izdkj ,oa izfr:i(
ykafcd leqPp; ,oa vk/kkj] ifjfer foeh; lef’V ds fy;s xzke&f”k’V ykafcdhdj.k izØeA vkO;wg dh uxjh; vf/kokl( mRifRr] izfr:i] izfØ;k;sa ,oa ifj.kke( dsUnz LFky fl)kUr] uxjksa dk oxhZdj.k] uxjksa
tkfr] lksikud :i] rqY;rk] laokZxlerk rFkk mi:irk] fofgr :iksa esa leku;u] ykafcd] lefer] fo’ke dk inkuqØe] uxjksa dh vkdkfjdh ] xzke&uxj lEcU/k& uxjh; izHkko {ks= ,oa uxj mikUr] Hkkoh
lefer gfeZVh ,oa fo’ke gfeZVh vkO;wg] muds vfHkyk{kf.kd eku] f}?kkrh rFkk gfeZVh :iksa ds ykafcd rFkk izo`fRr;kWA
,fdd leku;u] /kukRed fuf”pr f}?kkrh :i] lgdkfyd leku;uA 9- vkfFkZd Hkwxksy % vk/kkjHkwr ladYiuk;sa % lalk/ku dh ladYiuk] oxhZdj.k] laj{k.k ,oa izcU/ku( d`f’k dh
2& dyu& lhek,a] lkUrR;] vodyuh;rk] ek/;eku izes;] Vsyj izes;] vfu/kk;Z :i] mfPp’V ,oa izd`fr ,oa izdkj] d`f’k Hkwfe& mi;ksx ds vofLFkfrijd fl)kUr] fo'o ds d`f’k izns”k( izeq[k Qlysa( [kfut
fufEu’B] Li”khZ ,oa vfHkyEc] vuUrLi”khZ] oØrk] vUokyksi ,oa dsUnzt] vkaf”kd vodyu] oØ vuqjs[k.k] ,oa ÅtkZ lalk/ku& LFkkfud miyC/krk] Hk.Mkj rFkk mi;ksx ,oa mRiknu izfr:i( fo”o ÅtkZ ladV ,oa
cgqpjksa ds Qyuksa dh lkaUrR;rk ,oa vodyuh;rk] vkaf”kd vodyt ds Øe dh vkarfjd ifjorZu”khyrk] fodYi dh [kkst( m|ksx % vkS|ksfxd vofLFkfr ds fl)kUr] izeq[k vkS|ksfxd izns”k( izeq[k m|ksx&yksgk
varfufgZr Qyu izes;] tSdksfc;u] f}d ,oa f=d lekdy ¼dsoy izkfof/k;kWa½] ohVk ,oa xkek Qyuksa dk rFkk bLikr] dkxt] oL=] isVªks&jlk;u] Lopkfyr okgu rFkk iksr fuekZ.k& muds vofLFkfrd izfr:i(
vuqiz;ksx] {ks=Qy] odzi`’B ,oa vk;ru] xq:Ro dsUnzA varjjk’Vªh; O;kikj] O;kikfjd iz[k.M] O;kikfjd ekxZ] iRru ,oa Hkwe.Myh; O;kikfjd dsUnz] oS”ohdj.k
3& nks ,oa rhu foekvksa dh oS”ysf'kd T;kfefr& f}?kkr dk O;kid lehdj.k] “kkado fudk;] laukfHk ,oa fo”o esa vkfFkZd fodkl ds fl)kUr ,oa izfr:i] laofguh; fodkl dh ladYiuk ,oa mikxeA
“kkado dk /kqzoh; lehdj.k rFkk mlds xq.kA f=foeh; funsZ”kkad] lery] ljy js[kk] xksyk “kadq] vkSj 10- jktuhfrd Hkwxksy % jk’Vª ,oa jkT; dh ladYiuk] lhekUr] lhek;sa ,oa cQj {ks=] g`n;LFky ,oa Cont...

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fjeyS.M fl)kUr] la?kokn] fo”o ds le& lkef;d Hkw&jktuhfrd eqn~nsA fodkl] Hkkjr esa Je lq/kkjA
7- lsok {ks= rFkk Hkkjr esa fodkl % egRo rFkk fu’iknu] vUrjkZ’Vªh; rqyukA
Hkwxksy % f}rh; iz”u i= & Hkkjr dk Hkwxksy [k.M & [k
[k.M & ¼v½ HkkSfrd ,oa ekuo Hkwxksy 1- Hkkjr esa ekSfnzd laLFkk,Wa& Hkkjrh; fjtoZ cSad] okf.kfT;d cSad] cSfdx rFkk xSj cSfdax foRrh; laLFkk,Wa]
1- izkd`frd Lo:i % HkkSfedh; Øe ,oa lajpuk] mPpkop ,oa viokg] feV~Vh ,oa izkd`frd ouLifr] feV~Vh Hkkjr esa ekSfnzd uhfr ds mn~ns”; rFkk midj.k] u;h O;oLFkk ds vUrxZr Hkkjrh; fjtoZ cSad dh Hkwfedk]
voØe.k rFkk fuoZuhdj.k] Hkkjrh; ekulwu dh mRifRr ,oa izfØ;k] tyok;q izns”k] Hokd`frd izns”kA Hkkjr esa bZ&cSfdaxA
2- oU; tho] jk’Vªh; m|ku] vHk;kj.;] tSo eaMy vkjf{kr {ks=] tSo fofo/krk gkV&LikVA 2- Hkkjrh; ctVh; izo`fRr;kW rFkk jktdks'kh; uhfr] la?k ljdkj rFkk mRrj izns”k ljdkj dh lkoZtfud
3- osVySUM] i;ZVu& lalk/ku ,oa vkfFkZdh] izkd`frd ladV ,oa vkink rFkk izcU/ku] i;kZoj.kh; eqn~nsA vk; rFkk lkoZtfud O;; ds eq[; L=ksr o izo`fRr;kW] la?kh; ctV esa fofHkUu ?kkVs rFkk jktdks’kh;
4- tula[;k ,oa vf/kokl& forj.k ,oa o`f)] tula[;k dh lajpkukRed fo”ks’krk;sa] xzkeh.k vf/kokl& lqn`<+hdj.k] Hkkjrh; dj lajpuk] Hkkjr esa oLrq rFkk lsok dj] FRBM ,DV jktdks’kh; la?kokn rFkk Hkkjr
izdkj] izfr:i rFkk vkdkfjdh] uxjh; vf/kokl& uxjksa dh igpku ,oa oxhZdj.k] inkuqØe ,oa izHkko esa dsUnz& jkT; foRrh; lEcU/kA
{ks=] uxjhdj.k] uxjh; uhfr] uxj fu;kstu] NksVs uxjksa dh Hkwfedk] LekVZ flVh rFkk LekVZ foystA 3- Hkkjr esa fons”kh O;kikj& ek=k] la?kVd rFkk fn”kk] Hkqxrku lUrqyu dh fLFkfr] fons”kh O;kikj uhfr rFkk
5- jktuhfrd O;oLFkk& ,sfrgkfld ifjizs{; esa ,drk ,oa fofo/krk] jkT; iquxZBu] izknsf”kd psruk ,oa mik;] :i;s dh ifjorZuh;rk] d`f’k fu;kZr {ks=] fo'ks’k vkfFkZd {ks= vkfn A
jk’Vªh; leUo;u] dsUnz jkT; lEcU/k ds HkkSxksfyd vk/kkj] Hkkjr dh vUrjkZ’Vªh; lhek,a rFkk Hkw& 4- Hkkjrh; vFkZO;oLFkk ij TRIPS,TRIMS,GATS ds fufgrkFkZ] Hkkjrh; vFkZO;oLFkk rFkk fo”o O;kikj
jktuhfrd leL;k;sa] Hkkjr ,oa fgUn egklkxj dh Hkw&jktuhfr] Hkkjr ,oa n{kslA laxBu % eqn~ns rFkk izxfr] Hkkjr esa fons”kh iwWth& fons”kh izR;{k fuos”k ¼,dy czk.M rFkk cgq czk.M½] fons”kh
[k.M& ¼c½ vkfFkZd ,oa izknsf”kd Hkwxksy laLFkkxr fuo”k vkfn] Make in India rFkk Start ups dk;ZØeA
6- Hkkjrh; d`f’k dh fo”ks’krk,a] catj Hkwfe dh leL;k;sa ,oa lq/kkj] Qly izfr:i ,oa xgurk] d`f’kxr 5- Hkkjr esa vkfFkZd fu;kstu& vkSfpR;] fu’iknu rFkk ewY;kadu] fodsUnzhd`r fu;kstu] uhfr vk;ksx% blds
n{krk ,oa mRikndrk] gfjr ØkfUr ds izHkko] d`f’k izns”k] d`f’k& ifjfLFkfrdh izns”k] tksr& vkdkj izfr:i] dk;Z ,oa dk;Ziz.kkyh] lao`f) rFkk fodkl esa fu;kstu rFkk cktkj ds e/; lEcU/k] Lons”kh vo/kkj.kkA
Hkwfe lq/kkj] lL; la;kstu izns”k] d`f’k dk vk/kqfudhdj.k ,oa d`f’k fu;kstuA 6- Hkkjr esa xzkeh.k fodkl rFkk :ikUrj.k & fofHkUu dk;ZØe] eujsxk] dkS”ky fodkl dk;ZØe& /;s; rFkk
7- lalk/ku& forj.k izfr:i] lafpr Hk.Mkj ,oa mRiknu] [kfutksa dh ifjiwjdrk] ÅtkZ lalk/ku] dks;yk] miyfC/k;kWaA
isVªksfy;e] ty fo|qr] cgqns”kh; unh ?kkVh ifj;kstuk;sa] ÅtkZ ladV rFkk fodYi dh [kkst] leqnzh 7- u;h vkfFkZd uhfr& f}rh; ih<+h lq/kkj] Hkkjr esa fu/kZurk rFkk csjkstxkjh ds e/; lEcU/k] fu/kZurk
lalk/ku] tSfod lalk/kuA fuokj.k dk;ZØe] xzkeh.k etnwjh rFkk xzkeh.k jkstxkj] Hkkjr esa vkfFkZd lq/kkjksa dh izxfr] la?k ljdkj
8- m|ksx& vkS|ksfxd fodkl] izeq[k m|ksx& yksgk ,oa bLikr] oL=] dkxt] lhesUV] moZjd] phuh rFkk }kjk gky esa fy;s x;s dneA
isVªks& jlk;u] vkS|ksfxd laf'y’V ,oa izns”k] vkS|ksfxd uhfrA
9- ifjogu ,oa O;kikj & jsyekxZ ,oa lM+d ra=] ukxfjd mÏ;u ,oa ty ifjogu dh leL;k;sa ,oa ¼8½ lekt”kkL= % izFke iz”ui=
lEHkokuk,a] vUrjizknsf”kd O;kikj] vUrjkZ’Vªh; O;kikj] izeq[k cUnjxkg ,oa O;kikj dsUnz] mnkjhdj.kA lkekU; lekt”kkL= ¼[k.M&v½
10- izknsf”kd fodkl ,oa fu;kstu &izknsf”kd fodkl dh leL;k;sa ,oa {ks=h; fodkl j.kuhfr] cgqLrjh; 1- lkekftd ?kVukvks a dk v/;;u ,oa lekt”kkL= ds ewyHkwr vk/kkj] lekt”kkL= dk mn~Hko bldh
fu;kstu] fu;kstu izns”k] egkuxjh;] tutkrh;] ioZrh;] lw[kk ihfM+r izns”kksa gsrq fu;kstu rFkk tykxe iz d ` f r rFkk v/;;u {ks = A v/;;u fof/k% oLrqfu’Brk dh lEkL;k ,oa lkekftd foKkuksa esa ekiu lEcU/kh
{ks= izcU/ku] izknsf”kd fodkl esa fo’kerk;sa] iapo’khZ; ;kstuk,a rFkk lacguh; fodkl gsrq fu;kstuA fopkj] fun”kZu ,oa izdkj “kks/k izk:i& o.kZukRed] vUos'k.kkRed ¼xos'k.kkRed½ rFkk iz;ksxkRed] rF;ksa ds
ladyu dh izfof/k;ka& voyksdu] lk{kkRdkj vuqlwph ,oa iz”ukoyhA
¼7½ vFkZ”kkL=&izFke iz”ui= 2- lS)kfUrd ifjizs{; % izdk;Zokn% jsMfDyQ czkmu] eSfyuksLdh vkSj eVZuA la?k’kZ fl)kUr% dkyZekDlZ]
[k.M d% vkfFkZd fl)kUr jkYQ MsgjsuMkQZ vkSj ysfol dkstjA izrhdkRed vUr%fdz;kokn%] lh0 ,p- dwys] th0 ,p0 ehM] vkSj gcZVZ
1- vFkZ”kkL= esa larqyu] miHkksDrk O;ogkj& x.kukokpd rFkk Øeokpd izR;kxe] dher izHkko] ekWx dk Cyw e jA lajpuk okn % ysohLVªkl] ,l0,Q0 usMsy] iklZUl ,oa eVZuA
fu;e] ekWx dh yksp rFkk blds izdkj] miHkksDrk vfrjsdA 3- lekt”kkL= ds vxz.kh fopkjd % vxLr dksar& izR;{kokn ,oa foKkuksa dk laLrj.k] gjcVZ Lisalj&
2- mRiknu dk fl)kUr % mRiknu Qyu] izfrQy ds fu;e] mRiknu dk larqyu] ykxr oØ rFkk vk; lko;oh lkn`”;rk ,oa mn~fodkl dk fl)kUrA dkyZ ekDlZ& }UnkRed HkkSfrdokn ,oa fojlu ¼oSjkX;½]
oØA bekbZy nqj[khe& JefoHkktu] /keZ dk lekt”kkL=] eSDloscj& lkekftd fØ;k ,oa vkn”kZ izk:iA
3- cktkj dh lajpuk % iw.kZ izfr;ksfxrk] ,dkf/kdkj] ,dkf/kdkfjd izfr;ksfxrk] };kf/kdkj rFkk lkekftd Lrjhdj.k ,oa foHksnhdj.k % vo/kkj.kk] Lrjhdj.k ds fl)kUr& ekDlZ] oscj] Msfol ,oa ewj%
4-
vYikf/kdkj esa dher fu/kkZj.kA Lo:i] tkfr ,oa oxZ] izfLFkfr ,oa Hkwfedk] lkekftd xfr”khyrk&izdkj] O;kolkf;d xfr”khyrk&vUr%
4- miknku ds dkjdksa dh dhersa % etnwjh] yxku] C;kt rFkk ykHk] lef’VHkkoh forj.k fl)kUr& fjdkMksZ] ih<+hxr rFkk vUrjkih<+hxr xfr”khyrkA
ekDlZ rFkk dkYMj ds fl)kUrA [k.M&c
5- dY;k.k vFkZ”kkL= % ijsVks vuqdwyrerk] {kfriwjd fl)kUr & dkYMj] fgDl rFkk lfdrksOLdh mikxe] 5- fookg] ifjokj rFkk ukrs n kjh % fookg ds iz d kj ,oa Lo:i] lkekftd fo/kkuksa dk izHkko] ifjokj&lajpuk
lkekftd dY;k.k QyuA ,oa izdk;Z] ifjokj ds cnyrs izfreku] ifjokj lRrk ,oa ukrsnkjh] ledkyhu lekt esa fookg ,oa fyaxHksn
6- jk’Vªh; vk; % ladYiuk] vo;o rFkk vkdyu fof/k;kW] jkstxkj] vk; rFkk C;kt nj fu/kkZj.k ds fl)kUr dh HkwfedkA
& Dykfldh;] dsUlh; rFkk dsUlksijkUr ¼IS-LM½ fopkj] O;kikj pØksa ds fl)kUrA 6- lkekftd ifjorZu ,oa fodkl % vo/kkj.kk] lkekftd ifjorZu ds dkjd ,oa fl)kUr] lkekftd
7- eqnzk % eqnzk ifjek.k fl)kUr & fofHkUu mikxe ¼Mku isfVufdu rFkk feYVu ÝhMesu lfgr½] eqnzk vkiwfrZ vkUnksyu ,oa ifjorZu] lkekftd uhfr ,oa fodkl esa jkT; dk gLr{ksi] xzkeh.k :ikUrj.k dh j.kuhfr;ka
fl)kUr] eqnzk xq.kd] eqnzk&LQhfr ds fl)kUr & izdkj rFkk fu;a=.kA lkeqnkf;d fodkl dk;ZØe] lefUor xzkeh.k fodkl dk;ZØe] xzkeh.k ;qokvksa gsrq Lo;a jkstxkj rFkk
8- ekSfnzd rFkk cSfdax O;oLFkk % dsUnzh; cSad] okf.kfT;d cSdsa] eqnzk rFkk iwath cktkj ds dk;Z] lk[k fuekZ.k tokgj jkstxkj ;kstuk] lekos”kh fodkl ,oa lrr fodklA
rFkk lk[k fu;a=.k] ekSfnzd izcU/ku dh fof/k;kWA 7- vkfFkZd ,oa jktuSfrd O;oLFkk % laifRr dh vo/kkj.kk] JefoHkktu ds lkekftd vk;ke] fofu;e ds
[k.M % [k izdkj] vkS|ksxhdj.k] uxjhdj.k ,oa lkekftd fodkl] “kfDr dh izd`fr& oS;fDrd] lkeqnkf;d]
1- vkfFkZd fodkl ds ekid] fodkl”khy jk’Vªksa esa vkfFkZd fodkl dh izfØ;k] xqUukj feMZy rFkk dqtusV~l vfHktuksUeq[k] oxZxr] jktuSfrd lgHkkfxrk ds Lo:i& turkaf=d ,oa fujadq”kA
ds vkfFkZd fodkl lEcU/kh fopkjA 8- /keZ] foKku ,oa izkS|ksfxdh % vo/kkj.kk] iajijkxr ,oa vk/kqfud lektksa eas /kkfeZd fo”okl ,oa /kkfeZd
2- fu;kstu rFkk vkfFkZd fodkl] fu;kstu rFkk cktkj dh cnyrh Hkwfedk] futh rFkk lkoZtfud Hkwfedk,a] foKku dk vk/kkj] foKku dk lkekftd mRrjnkf;Ro ,oa fu;a=.k] foKku ,oa izkS|ksfxdh ds
lk>snkjhA lkekftd ifj.kkeA
3- vkfFkZd lao`f) ds fl)kUr& gsjkM Mksej ekMy] ysfol dk vkfFkZd fodkl ekMy] vkfFkZd lao`f) dh 9- tula[;k ,oa lekt % tula[;k dk vkdkj] izo`fRr;kWa] xBu ,oa izokl o`f)] Hkkjr esa tula[;k dh
n”kk,W& jksLVkso] larqfyr rFkk vlarqfyr lao`f) fl)kUrA leL;k,a] tula[;k f”k{kkA
4- ekuo iwath rFkk vkfFkZd lao`f)] “kks/k o fodkl ,oa vkfFkZd lao`f)] fuEu Lrjh; larqyu tky] ØkfUrd Lkekt”kkL= % f}rh; iz”u&i=
U;wure iz;kl izR;kxeA Hkkjrh; lkekftd O;oLFkk
5- lkoZtfud for% lkoZtfud oLrq,W ,oa ckg~;rk;sa % lkoZtfud O;; ds fl)kUr rFkk izHkko] djkjksi.k ds 1- Hkkjrh; lekt ds vk/kkj% ijaijkxr Hkkjrh; lkekftd laxBu&/keZ] deZ dk fla)kUr] vkJe O;oLFkk]
fl)kUr] djk?kkr] djkikr rFkk dj foorZu] djksa ds izHkkoA iq:’kkFkZ ,oa laLdkjA lkekftd lkaLd`frd xR;kRedrk& ckS)] bLyke rFkk if”pe dk izHkko] fujarjrk
6- jktdks’kh; uhfr rFkk vkfFkZd fodkl] ctV&?kkVksa ds izdkj rFkk muds vFkZO;oLFkk ij iM+us okys rFkk ifjorZu ds mRrjnk;h dkjdA
izHkko] lkoZtfud _.k rFkk mldk izcU/kuA 2- Lkkekftd Lrjhdj.k % tkfr O;oLFkk& mRifRr] lkaLd`frd lajpkukRed n`f’V] tkfr ds cnyrs
7- vUrjkZ’Vªh; O;kikj ds fl)kUr & rqyukRed ykHk] O;kikj dh “krsZa rFkk izLrko oØ] O;kikj ls YkkHk] izfreku] tkfr ,oa oxZ] lekurk rFkk lkekftd U;k; laca/kh fopkj] Hkkjr esa d`’kd ,oa vkS|ksfxd oxZ
O;kikj lao`f) ds batu ds :i esaA lajpuk] e/;e oxZ dk mn;] tutkfr;kas esa oxZ] nfyr psruk dk mn~Hko ,oa fodklA
8- fofue; nj fu/kkZj.k ds fl)kUr] Hkqxrku larqyu lek;kstu % oSdfYid fof/k;kWa] Lora= O;kikj cuke 3- fookg] ifjokj ,oa ukrsnkjh % fofHkUu u`tkrh; lewgksa esa fookg] bldh cnyrh izo`fRr;ka ,oa Hkfo’;]
laj{k.k] rVdj rFkk vH;a”k] fons”kh _.k rFkk fons”kh _.k izcU/ku] vUrjkZ’Vªh; ekSfnzd rFkk O;kikj ifjokj& lajpkukRed ,oa izdk;kZRed igyw] cnyrs izfreku] fookg ,oa ifjokj ij lkekftd fo/kkuksa dk
laLFkk,WaA izHkko] ukrsnkjh O;oLFkk esa {ks=h; vUrj ,oa mldk ifjofrZr Lo:iA
4- vkfFkZd ,oa jktuSfrd O;oLFkk% ttekuh O;oLFkk] HkwLokfeRo O;oLFkk] Hkwfelq/kkj] mnkjhdj.k ,oa
vFkZ”kkL= & f}rh; iz”ui= oS”ohdj.k ds lkekftd vkfFkZd ifj.kke] vkfFkZd fodkl ds lkekftd fu/kkZjd] lekos”kh fodkl ,oa
Hkkjrh; vFkZO;oLFkk lrr fodkl] gfjr ØkfUr] turkaf=d jktuhfrd O;oLFkk dh dk;Z iz.kkyh ,oa Lo:i] jktuSfrd ny ,oa
[k.M& d mudh jpuk] jktuSfrd vfHktuksa dh lajpuk] ifjorZu ,oa mUeq[krk] “kfDr dk fodsUnzhdj.k ,oa
1- vYi fodkl dh ewyHkwr fo”ks’krk,W ,oa Hkkjrh; vFkZO;oLFkk] jk’Vªh; vk; rFkk izfr O;fDr vk; % izk:i] jktuSfrd lgHkkfxrk] fodkl esa jktuSfrd izHkkoA
izo`fRr;kWa] lexz rFkk {ks=h; lfEeJ.k vkfn] Hkkjr esa vk; dh fo’kerk,W rFkk {ks=h; vlUrqyuA 5- f”k{kk vkSj lekt% ijaijkoknh ,oa vk/kqfud lekt esa f”k{kk ds vk;ke] “kS{kf.kd vlekurk ,oa ifjorZu]
2- tula[;k o`f) rFkk vkfFkZd fodkl] Hkkjr dh tux.kuk,W] Hkkjr dh tula[;k dh fo”ks’krk,W] f”k{kk ,oa lkekftd xfr”khyrk] lekt ds detksj oxksZ dh f”k{kk dh leL;k;saA
tukafddh; ykHkka”k rFkk tula[;k uhfr] Hkkjr esa ekuo lalk/ku fodkl] Hkkjr esa “kgjhdj.k rFkk vkfFkZd 6- tutkrh;] xzkeh.k ,oa uxjh; lkekftd laxBu % tutkrh; leqnk;ksa dh fof”k’V fo”ks’krk,a vkSj
fodkl] efgyk ,oa vkfFkZd fodklA mudk forj.k] tutkfr ,oa tkfr] ijlaLd`frxzg.k] lkRehdj.k ,oa ,dhdj.k dh izfØ;k,a] tutkfr;ksa
3- vk/kkfjd lajpuk rFkk Hkkjr eas vkfFkZd fodkl& gky dh j.kuhfr rFkk fu’iknu] “kgjh vk/kkfjd dh lkekftd leL;k,a vkSj vfLerkA xzkeh.k leqnk; ds lkekftd&lkaLd`frd vk;ke] ijEijkoknh
lajpuk fodkl rFkk lkoZtfud& futh Hkkxhnkjh] ÅtkZ {ks=&ÅtkZ ds L=ksr% ikjEifjd rFkk xSj& “kfDr lajpuk] tura=hdj.k ,oa usr`Ro] lkeqnkf;d fodkl dk;ZØe ,oa iapk;rhjkt] xzkeh.k :ikUrj.k
ikjEifjd ÅtkZ] ÅtkZ ladVA dh uohu j.kuhfr;kaA uxjh; leqnk;ksa esa ijEijkxr laLFkkvksa dh fujarjrk ,oa ifjorZu ¼ukrsnkjh] tkfr]
4- Hkkjr esa izkd`frd lalk/ku rFkk vkfFkZd fodkl] ikfjfLFkfrdh vlUrqyu rFkk i;kZoj.kh; iznw’k.k] O;olk; vkfn½ uxjh; leqnk; esa oxZ lajpuk ,oa xfr”khyrk] u`tkrh; fofo/krk ,oa lkeqnkf;d
i;kZoj.kh; vi{kj.k rFkk fu;a=.k ds mik;A ,dhdj.k] uxjh; iM+ksl] xzkeh.k uxjh;&fHkUurk] tukafddh; ,oa lkekftd lkaLd`frd izpyuA
5- Hkkjrh; d`f’k % mRiknu rFkk mRikndrk] Qly izk:i esa ifjorZu] d`f’k esa laLFkkxr lq/kkj] uohu d`f’k 7- /keZ vkSj lekt% fofHkUu /kkfeZd lewgks dk vkdkj] o`f) vkSj {ks=h; forj.k] vUrj /kkfeZd vUr% fØ;k,a
j.kuhfr] d`f’k lak[k rFkk minku] [kk| izlaLdj.k] d`f’k dher uhfr] [kk| lqj{kk] fo”o O;kikj laxBu vkSj mldh vfHkO;fDrA /keZ ifjorZu] lkEiznkf;d ruko] /keZ fujis{krk] vYila[;d in rFkk /kkfeZd
rFkk Hkkjrh; d`f’kA :f<+okfnRkk dh leL;k;saA
6- Hkkjr esa vkS|ksfxd fodkl rFkk lajpuk % vkS|ksxhdj.k dh j.kuhfr] futhdj.k] fofuos'k] lw{e] y?kq 8- tula[;k dh xR;kRedrk % fyax] vk;q oSokfgd fLFkfr] iztuurk ,oa e`R;q ds lkekftd lkaLd`frd i{k]
rFkk e/;e m|e] vkS|ksfxd uhfr izLrko rFkk muesa ifjorZu] Hkkjrh; m|ksxksa esa fons”kh iwath] izfof/k rFkk tula[;k foLQksV dh leL;k] lkekftd euksoSKkfud lkaLd`frd ,oa vkfFkZdA tukafddh; uhfr ,oa
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Page No. - 11
ifjokj dY;k.k dk;ZØe] tula[;k o`f) ds fu/kkZjd rRo ,oa ifj.kkeA xBu] lajpuk rFkk ukedj.kA izeq[k dk;Urfjr “kSyksa dh “kSy o.kZuk rFkk “kSy tuuA ft;ksykbV]
9- ukjh vkSj lekt% ukjh dk tula[;kRed fooj.k] mudh izfLFkfr esa ifjorZu] fof”k’V leL;k;sa& ngst xzhuf”kLV] ,EQhcksykbV] xzSuqykbV ,oa bDyksxkbV lay{kf.k;ksa dk fooj.kA
vR;kpkj] HksnHkko] ukjh ,oa cPpksa ds dY;k.k laca/kh dk;ZØe] ?kjsyw fgalk vf/kfu;e&2005] dk;ZLFky ij 5- vkfFkZd HkwfoKku &v;Ld [kfut] xSax rFkk VsujA [kfut fu{ksiksa ds fuekZ.k dh izfdz;k,aA v;Ld
;kSu mRihM+u&2013- lagfr;ksa dh vkd`fr ,oa lajpukA v;Ld fu{ksiksa dk oxhZdj.kA v;Ld LFkkuhdj.k ds fu;=a.kA
10- ifjorZu ,oa fodkl ds vk;ke% lkekftd ifjorZu ,oa vk/kqfudhdj.k] lwpd izo`fRr] lkekftd esVSykstsuhA /kkfRod ,oa v/kkfRod [kfut fu{ksiksa dk v/;;uA Hkkjr ds rsy] izkd`frd xSl ,oa dks;yk
ifjorZu ds lzksr&vkUrfjd ,oa ckáA lkekftd ifjorZu dh izfØ;k,a&laLd`frdj.k] if”pehdj.k ,oa {ks=ksa dk v/;;uA mRrj izns”k dh [kfut lEinkA [kfut vFkZ”kkL=] jk’Vªh; [kfut uhfr] [kfutksa dk
vk/kqfudhdj.kA ifjorZu ds izsjd&tulapkj] f”k{kk ,oa lEizs'k.kA vk/kqfudhdj.k ,oa fu;ksftr ifjorZu laj{k.k rFkk mi;ksfxrkA
dh leL;k;saA fu;kstu dh oSpkfjdh ,oa j.kuhfr] iapo'khZ; ;kstuk,a] xjhch mUewyu ds dk;ZØe] 6- vuqiz;qDr HkwfoKku& iwosZ{k.k ,oa vUos"k.k rduhdh dh ewy vko”;drk,aA [kuu ds izeq[k fl)kUrA
i;kZoj.k] csdkjh vkSj uxjh; fodkl ds dk;ZØe] lkekftd lq/kkj vkUnksyu% d`’kd] fiNM+k oxZ] efgyk lSaifyax] [kfut lTthdj.kA vfHk;U=.k dk;ksZ] cka/k] lqjax] lsrq rFkk lM+dksa gsrq HkwoSKkfud
rFkk nfyr ds fo”ks’k lanHkZ esaA dlkSfV;kWA e`nk foKku ,oa Hkwty foKku ds ewy rRoA ,fj;y QksVks rFkk mixzg fp=ksa dk
¼9½ n'kZu”kkL= % izFke iz”u&i= HkwoSKkfud vUos"k.kksa esa mi;ksxA
n”kZu”kkL= dk bfrgkl ,oa leL;k;sa
¼[k.M&v½ ¼11½ euksfoKku izFke iz”u&i=
1- IysVks % izR;;&fl)kUr] 2- vjLrw % vkdkj] nzO;] dkj.krk]3- MsdkVZ% i)fr] vkRek] bZ”oj] eu&”kjhj
ewyHkwr euksoSKkfud izØe
}Srokn] 4- fLiukstk% nzO;] xq.k vkSj i;kZ;] losZ”ojokn] 5- ykbcfuRt% fpn.kq] bZ”oj] 6- YkkWd%
Kku&fl)kUr] tUetkr izR;;ksa dk [k.Mu] nzO; ,oa xq.k] 7- cdZys% vewRrZ izR;; dk [k.Mu] tM+nzO; dk 1- euksfoKku % ifjp;] fo’k; oLrq] foKku esa euksfoKku dk LFkku] lS)kfUrd mikxe]
[k.Mu] ewyxq.k rFkk xkS.kxq.k ds Hksn dk [k.Mu] izR;;okn 8- áwe % Kku& fl)kUr] la”k;okn] vkRek] mn~nhiu&vuqfØ;k] ekuorkoknh] laKkukRed ,oa lwpuk izØe.kA
dkj.krk 9- dkaV % izkxuqHkfod ,oa vuqHkotU; Kku] fo”ys’k.kkRed ,oa la”ys’k.kkRed fu.kZ;] 2- fof/k;kWa % iznRr ladyu dh fof/k;kW] izd`froknh fujh{k.k rFkk lk{kkRdkj] O;fDro`Rr] ijh{k.k] ekifu;ka
la”ys’k.kkRed izkxuqHkfod fu.kZ; dh lEHkkouk] ns”k] dky ,oa dksfV;ka] izKk ¼jhtu½ ds izR;; ] rFkk iz”ukoyhA
bZ”oj&vfLrRo&lk/kd ;qfDr;ksa dh vkykspuk 10- gsxsy % }U}kRed i)fr] fujis{k izR;;okn] 11 ¼v½ ewj% 3- O;ogkj ds tSfod vk/kkj % dsUnzh;] ifj/kh; rFkk Lok;Rr rfU=dk&ra= dh :i js[kk] efLr’d ds
lkekU;xr er dk leFkZu] izR;;okn dk [k.Mu 11 ¼c½ jlsy % o.kZu&fl)kUr] viw.kZ izrhd] rkfdZd izdk;ksZ dk LFkkuhdj.k] izefLr’dh; xksyk/kksZ dh fof”k’Vrk,a] raf=dk vkosx ,oa mudk laogu] lxzkgdksa
ijek.kqokn] vk.kfod rF;A 12- foV~xsUlVkbu% ljy rdZokD;] vFkZ dk fp=&fl)kUr] dFku ,oa fun”kZu dh O;oLFkk] vUr%L=koh rU= ,oa “kkjhfjd o`f) ,oa O;fDrRo fuekZ.k esa mldh HkwfedkA
dk Hksn 13- rkfdZd Hkkookn % lR;kiu fl)kUr] rRoehekalk dk fujlu] vfuok;Z rdZokD;ksa dk Hkk’kk;h 4- O;ogkj dh mRifRr rFkk fodkl % iztuukRed vk/kkj] i;kZoj.kh; dkjd] ckyiks’k.k] oapu] lkaLd`frd
fl)kUr 14- lao`fRr”kkL= % gqlyZ&lar`fRr”kkL=h; iz.kkyh] psruk dh fo’k;kis{kkA 15- vfLrRookn % dkjd] is'kh; rFkk dkS”ky fodkl] Hkk’kk fodklA
¼fddsZxkMZ ,oa lk=Z½& vfLrRo ,oa lkj] LorU=rk ,oa p;u] mRrjnkf;Ro ,oa izkekf.kd vfLrRo] 16- 5- vo/kku ,oa izR;{kijd izfØ;k,a % Dykfldh euksHkkSfrdh rFkk ladsr laKkiu fl)kUr] vo/kkukRed
DokWbu % vkewy vuqokn] 17- LVªklu % O;fDr& fl)kUrA izfØ;k,a] p;ukRed vo/kku rFkk la?k`r vo/kku] izkR;f{kd laxBu] vkd`fr] o.kZ rFkk xgjkbZ ds izR;{k.k]
[k.M&c izR;{kijd LFkS;Z] fLFkjrk& vfLFkjrk fojks/kkHkkl] izR;{kijd laosnu”khyrk rFkk izR;{kkRed lqj{kk%
1- pkokZd% Kku& fl)kUr] HkkSfrdokn] 2- tSun”kZu % lr~ dk fl)kUr] L;k}kn rFkk lIrHkaxhu;] cU/ku dsUnzh; fu/kkZjdA
,oa eks{k] 3- ckS)n”kZu % izrhR;leqRikn] {kf.kdokn] uSjkRE;okn] ckS)n”kZu ds lEiznk;] 4- lka[;& ;ksx% 6- vf/kxe izfØ;k,a% vuqcU/ku% Dykfldh] uSfefDrd ,oa izs{k.kkRed] okfpd vf/kxe] fof/k;kWa ,oa izØe]
izd`fr] iq:’k] dkj.krk&fl)kUr] eks{k] v’Vkax;ksx] fpRrHkwfe] bZ”oj] 5- U;k;&oS”ksf’kd % izek.k] vkRek] foyksiu] foHksnu rFkk lkekU;hdj.kA
eks{k] bZ”oj rFkk bZ”oj ds vfLrRo ds fy;s ;qfDr;kWa] inkFkZ] dkj.krk&fl)kUr] ijek.kqokn] 6- ehekalk % 7- Le`fr % dwVladsru& lajpukRed] /oU;kRed rFkk “kCnkFkZ fo’k;d }Sr dwV ladsru] laosnh] Le`fr]
Kku& fl)kUr] izek] izek.k] Lor%izek.;okn] 7- osnkUr % “kadj] jkekuqt ,oa e/o&czge] bZ”oj] vkRek] vYidkfyd] nh?kZdkfyd Le`fr] o`RrkRed] “kCnkFkZ fo’k;d rFkk izfdz;kRed] jpukRedrk Le`fr] foLej.k%
tho] txr] ek;k] vfo|k] v/;kl] eks{kA ds fl)kUrA
n”kZu”kkL=% f}rh; iz”u i= ¼lkekftd& jktuSfrd n”kZu ,oa /keZ&n”kZu½ 8- leL;k lek/kku] rdZuk rFkk fpUru % leL;k lek/kku ds izØe rFkk fu/kkZjd vkxeukRed rFkk
¼[k.M&v½ fuxeukRed] rdZuk] ifjdYiuk ijh{k.k] Hkk’kk rFkk fopkj.k] g~oksfQZ;u fopkj rFkk mudh lekykspuk]
1- lkekftd vkSj jktuSfrd vkn”kZ% lekurk] U;k;] Lora=rk 2- laizHkqrk] 3- O;fDr rFkk jkT;] 4- yksdra=% fpUru esa lwpuk izØe.kA
vo/kkj.kk rFkk izdkj] 5- lektokn rFkk ekDlZokn] 6- ekuookn] 7- /keZfujis{krkokn] 8- cgqlaLd`frokn] 9- 9- laosx % Lo:i rFkk fodkl] laosx ds fl)kUr&nSfgd] laKkRed rFkk fojks/kh izØe] laosx ds ladsrd]
n.M ds fl)kUr] 10- fgalk] vfgalk] loksZn;] 11- fyax&lekurk] 12- oSKkfud n`f’V ,oa izxfr] 13- laosxksa dh igpkuA
ikfjfLFkfrdh&n”kZuA
10- vfHkizsj.k % vfHkizsfjr O;ogkjksa ds ekunaM] vfHkizsj.kk] izØe ,oa izdkj] vfHkizsj.kk dk ekiu] cfgjLFk
¼[k.M&c½ cuke vUrLFk vfHkizsj.kkA
1- /keZ] /keZ”kkL= rFkk /keZ n”kZu] 2- /keZ rFkk uSfrdrk] 3- bZ”oj fo’k;d vo/kkj.kk;sa % oS;fDrd]
11- euksoSKkfud izdk;ksZ esa oS;fDrd fofHkUuk;sa % lkekU; ekufld ;ksX;rk % lS)kfUrd mikxe% fLijeSu]
voS;fDrd] izd`froknh] 4- bZ”oj ds vfLrRo ds fy, izek.k] 5- vkRek dh vejrk] 6- eks{k] 7- /kkfeZd Kku %
FklZVu] fxyQMZ] tsUlu ouZu] LVuZoxZ vkSj ts0ih0 nkl rFkk fi;kts] l`tu”khyrk rFkk l`tukRed
cqf)] nsoh izdk'kuk rFkk jgL;okn] 8- bZ”oj foghu /keZ] 9- v”kqHk dh leL;k] 10- /kkfeZd lfg’.kqrkA
fpUruA
¼10½ Hkw& foKku % iz”ui=& izFke
lkekU; Hkw& foKku] Hkw vkd`fr] lajpuk Hkw& foKku] thok”e foKku vkSj Lrfjdh euksfoKku f}rh; iz”u&i=
1- lkekU; Hkw& foKku & czg~ek.M dh mRifRrA lkSj e.My ds xzgA i`Foh dh vkarfjd lajpukA “kSyksa dh vuqiz;qDr ifjizs{; esa euksfoKku
vk;q fu/kkZj.k dh fofHkUu fof/k;kW ,oa i`Foh dh vk;qA Tokykeq[kh% izdkj] dkj.k] ,oa mRikn] Tokykeq[kh 1- vuqiz;qDr foKku ds :i esa euksfoKku % vuqiz;qDr cuke ewyHkwr foKku] euksfoKku dk Lo:i ,oa
ifV~V;kW¡A HkwdEi % dkj.k] izHkko ,oa forj.kA }hi pki] leqnzh [kkb;k¡ ,oa e/; egklkxjh; dVd] {ks=&lkekftd] lkeqnkf;d] vkS|ksfxd] fo|ky;h] LokLF; rFkk i;kZoj.kh;A
egk}hih; foLFkkiu] leqnz ry foLrkj.k rFkk IysV foorZfudhA egk}hiksa ,oa egklkxjksa dh mRifRrA 2- oS;fDrd fHkUurk;sa ,oa ekiu % O;fDrxr fHkUurkvksa dk Lo:i ,oa lzksr] euksfoKkfud ekiuhdj.k
2- Hkw& vkd`fr foKku&vi{k; ,oa vijnuA Hkwvkd`frd izfdz;k,a ,oa Hkwvkd`fr pØA mPpkop y{k.k ,oa ijh{k.k fuekZ.k ,oa ekudhdj.k] fo”oluh;rk ,oa oS/krk] ekud ØkWl oS/khdj.kA
budk lajpukvksa ,oa vkf’edh ls lEcU/kA Hkkjr ds Hkwvkd`frd y{k.kA izokg iz.kkyh ,oa mudk egRoA 3- O;fDrRo ewY;kadu % O;fDrRo ewY;kadu ds eqn~ns] vkRe vfHkys[k eki] iz{ksi rduhd] vuqfØ;k “kSfy;ka]
ok;q] unh] fgeun] leqnzrVh; ,oa dkLVZ izfØ;k,a ,oa LFky:iA Vh , Vh] jks”kkdZ rFkk ,e0,e0ih0vkbZ0] tSls egRoiw.kZ ekidksa ls ifjp;A
3- lajpkukRed HkwfoKku& izfrcy rFkk fod`fr dh vo/kkj.kkA fod`fr lwpdA 2& ,oa 3& foekvksa esa 4- euksoSKkfud fod`fr;ka ,oa ekufld LokLF; % ekufld fod`fr;ksa dk oxhZdj.k ¼Mh ,l ,e prqFkZ½
fod`fr ,oa mudk HkwoSKkfud egRoA oyu] Hkza”k] ,oa laf/k;ksa dh T;kferh ,oa oxhZdj.kA fo’ke foU;kl euksLuk;qfod] euksfonyu ,oa euksnSfgd fod`fr;ksa ds y{k.k ,oa mudh mRifRr] izfrcy dk izokj.k ,oa
izdkj ,oa egRoA js[kh; ,oa ryh; lajpuk;sa vkSj mudk egRoA Hkkjr ds izeq[k foorZfud y{k.kA ekufld LokLF;A
4- thok”e foKku& lw{e& ,oa LFkwy& thok”e] lwpd thok”e] foLFkkfid thok”e ,oa mudk egRoA 5- lkekftd leL;k ,oa euksfoKku% vfHko`fRr ,oa iwokZxzg% laKkukRed ,oa vfHkizs.kkRed lzksr] lkekftd
thok”eksa ds ifjj{k.k dh ifjfLFkfr;k¡A ckbZokYo] xSLVªksikM] ,seksukbM] czSfd;ksikM] VªkbyksckbV] ,fdukbM iwokZxzg dk fuokj.k] lkekftd vUr}ZU}% dkj.k ,oa lek/kkuA
rFkk izokyksa dh vkd`fr] fodklh; izo`fRr ,oa HkwoSKkfud forj.kA dkykuqØe esa d”ks:dh thouA ?kksM+s ,oa 6- lkekftd izHkko% izHkko] fu;a=.k rFkk “kfDr] izHkko ds vk/kkj] lkekftd lqxehdj.k lewgksa ds usr`Ro
gkFkh dk fodklA xksaMokuk ouLifr ,oa mudk thokf’edh; egRoA fu’iknu easa lewg lEcU/kh dkjdA
5- Lrfjdh& Lrfjdh ds fl)kUr] Lrfjdh; oxhZdj.k] ukedj.k] Hkw& oSKkfud dkykuqØeA Hkkjr ds 7- m|ksxksa ,oa laxBuksa esa euksfoKku % deZpkjh p;u] izf”k{k.k ,oa fu’iknu vkdyu] lad`R; lEcU/kh
fofHkUu HkwoSKkfud “kSylewgksa dh vkf’edh] forj.k] thok’e/kkfjrk rFkk vkfFkZd egRo ¼/kkjokM+ lqijxzqi] vfHko`fRr;ksa ,oa O;ogkj] laxBuksa esa vfHkizsj.kkRed la:i] laxBukRed laizs’k.k] laxBukRed
dMIik lqijxzqi] foU/;u lqijxzqi] MsDdu VSªi ,oa f”kokfyd lqijxzqi½A izHkkoksRikndrkA
Hkw&foKku % iz”ui=&f}rh; 8- “kS{kf.kd ifjizs{; esa euksfoKku % fo|ky; lkekthdj.k ds vfHkdrkZ ds :i esa] fo|kyh; cPpksa dk
fØzLVyfoKku] izdk”kh; [kfut foKku] [kfut foKku] “kSy foKku] vkfFkZd Hkw& foKku ,oa vf/kxe] vfHkizsj.kk rFkk laosfxd leL;k,a] “kS{kf.kd miyfC/k dks izHkkfor djus okys dkjd] “kS{kf.kd
vuqiz;qDr HkwfoKkuA fu’iknu esa lq/kkj gsrq gLr{ksi] fof”k’V Js.kh ds cPpksa dh f”k{kkA
1- fØLVy foKku& fØLVyh; ,oa vfØLVyh; Bksl] f=foe lewg] tkydA fØLVyksa dk 32 lefefr oxksZ 9- uSnkfud ifjizs{; esa euksfoKku% euksfpfdRlk dk Lo:i ,oa y{;] euksfo'ys’.kkRed O;fDr dsfUnzr
esa oxhZdj.kA feyj] okbl] gjeu& ekSxsu izrhdA v{kh;] vfHky{k.kA ?kuh;] VSVªkxksuy] gsDlkxksuy] fpfdRlk] lewg rFkk O;ogkj euksfpfdRlk,a] lkeqnkf;d ekufld LokLF;] chekjh jksd&Fkke ,oa LokLF;
vkFkksZjksfEcd] ,dukrk{k] ,df=urk{k lewgksa ds lkekU; oxZ ds lefefr vo;o ,oa vkd`fr;kaA ;eyu ,oa izorZuA
;eyu fu;eA fØLVy folaxfr;k¡A fØLVy foKku esa ,Dljs foorZu dk vuqiz;ksxA 10- i;kZoj.kh; euksfoKku % O;ogkj esa i;kZoj.k dh Hkwfedk] oS;fDrd LFkku] /ofu iznw’k.k] HkhM+ rFkk
2- izdk”kh; [kfut foKku& izdkf”kdh ds lkekU; fl)kUrA lenSf”kdrk rFkk vlenSf”kdrkA lkekU; ok;qe.Myh; iznw’k.k dk izHkko] fu’ks/kkRed izHkkoksa dks de djus gsrq gLr{ksiA
iksysjkbTM izdk”k ,oa Økl iksylZ esa [kfutksa ds izdk'kh; xq.kA izdk”kh; b.MhdsfVªDlA
3- [kfut foKku& fØLVy jlk;u ds vo;oA [kfutksa esa izdh.kZuA ca/kksa ds izdkj] vk;ksfud f=T;k] ¼12½ ouLifr foKku % izFke iz”u&i=
leUo; la[;k] le:firk] cgq:firk rFkk dwV:firkA flfydsVksa dk lajpukRed oxhZdj.kA “kSy lw{e tho foKku] jksx foKku] ikni fofo/krk rFkk vkd`fr tuu
fuekZ.kdkjh [kfutksa ds HkkSfrd] jklk;u ,oa izdk”kh; xq.kksa dk v/;;u ¼vksyhfou] ,EQhcksy] QsYMLikj] 1- lw{ethoh foKku& lw{etho fofo/krk] ok;q ty rFkk e`nk lw{e foKku dk izkjafHkd Kku] lw{etho
QsYM~LiSFkk;M] DokVZ~t xkusZV] ekbdk rFkk ,Y;wfeuksa& flfydsV½A laØe.k rFkk jks/k {kerk foKku dk lkekU; fooj.k] d`f’k] m|ksx] vkS’kf/k rFkk i;kZoj.k ds fo”ks’k lanHkZ esa
4- “kSy foKku& eSXek& mRifRr rFkk HkkSfrd xq.kA ,d&nks&,oa rhu& dEiksusUV Qst] Mk;xzkeA lw{etho foKku ds vuqiz;ksxA
vYckbV& ,uksFkkZbV] isfjDyst&flfydk] Mk;IlkbM& vYckbV&,uksFkkZbV izØe ,oa mudh mi;ksfxrkA 2- ikni jksx foKku& laØe.k dh fof/k] cpko izfØ;k] ikni chekfj;ksa dk jksd&Fkke fo’kk.kq] thok.kq
ckosu dk vfHkfØ;k fl)kUrA eSXeh; foHksnu rFkk Lokaxhdj.kA vkXus; “kSyksa dk xBu] lajpuk rFkk dod rFkk xksyd`fe }kjk mRiUu egRoiw.kZ ikni jksx% rEckdw dk ekstSd] iihrs dh ifRr;ksa dk dyZ]
oxhZdj.kA Hkkjrh; mnkgj.kksa ds lkFk xzsukbV] cslkYV] vYdykbu] vYVªkeSfdd] ,ukFkksZlkbV ,oa flVªy oSâdj] xsgwWa dk jLV] tkS dk LeV] vkyw dk fiNSrh vaxekjh] xUus dk yky foxyu] xsgwW dh b;j
pkuksZdkbV vkXus; “kSyksa dk v/;;uA volknh “kSyksa ds fuekZ.k dh izfØ;k,aA Mk;tsusfll rFkk dkdy] cktjk dk bjxV] /kfu;k dk LVse xky vjgj dh Eykfu ds fo”ks’k lanHkZ esaA
fyfFkfQds”kuA volknh “kSyksa dk xBu ,oa lajpuk rFkk mudk egRoA volknh “kSyksa dk oxhZdj.kA
3- ikni fofo/krk& fo’kk.kq thok.kq] “kSoky dod] czk;ksQkbVk] VsfjMksQkbVk rFkk vuko`rchth thok”e
DykLVhd ,oa uku DykLVhdA Hkkjh [kfut rFkk mudk egRoA fu{ksi i;kZoj.k] volknh lay{k.kh rFkk
lfgr dk oxhZdj.k] lajpuk] iztuu] thou pØ rFkk vkfFkZd egRoA
mnxe {ks= dh izkjfEHkd vo/kkj.kk,aA volknh “kSyksa dh “kSy o.kZuk ¼dkaXyksesjsV] czsfD”k;k] lS.MLVksu]
vkdksZt] xzsosd] “ksy] ykbeLVksu ,oa ch0,p0D;w0A osUVoFkZ iSekukA dk;kUrjh izfdz;k;sa rFkk dk;karj.k ds 4- vkdkfjdh %& tM+] ruk] iRrh] Qy] Qwy dh vkdkfjdh] f}rh;d o`f)A
izdkj] dk;kUrj.k dh dksfV;ka] tksu rFkk lay{k.kh] ACF, AKF rFkk AFM vkjs[kA dk;karfjr “kSyksa dk 5- Hkzw.k foKku& y?kq chtk.kq/kkuh] y?kqchtk.kqtuu] uj;qXedksfn~Hkn] xq: chtk.kq /kkuh] xq: chtk.kq tuu
Cont...

Page No. - 12
rFkk eknk& ;qXedksfn~Hkn fu’kspu] H:.k rFkk Hkzw.kiks'k dk fodklA 12- jktuf;d rFkk dklqayh; izfrfuf/kA
6- oxhZdj.k& oxhZdj.k ds fl)kUr] vko`rchth ds oxhZdj.k dh i)fr;kWa ¼ csUFke ,oa gwdj] r[rktku½ 13- laf/k;kWa % fuekZ.k mi;kstu rFkk i;ZolkuA
ouLifrd ukedj.k ds fu;e] dheksVsDlkukeh] jSuudqyslh] eSxzksfy;slh] czSfldslh] ekyoslh] Qscslh] 14- jkT; mRrjnkf;RoA
jkstslh] ,fi;slh] dqdjfcVslh] ,LVsjslh] :ch,slh] ,ikslkbuslh lksyuslh] ,sdSuFkslh] ochZuslh] ySfeuslh] 15- la;qDr jk’Vª mn~ns”; vkSj fl)kUr] izeq[k vax] mudh “kfDr;ka vkSj dk;ZA
;wQksacksa;slh] ,jhdslh] vkWfdZMslh] iks,lhA 16- vUrjkZ’Vªh; fooknksa ds “kkfUriw.kZ fuiVkjs dh jhfr;kaA
7- vkd`fr tuu& lglEcU/k] /kqfork] lefefrr] iw.kZ”kfDrrk] Årdks ,oe~ vaxks dk foHksnu rFkk 17- cy dk fof/kiw.kZ voyEc% vkØe.k] vkRej{kk vkSj gLr{ksiA
iqu:Riknu dksf”kdk] Ård] vax rFkk thonzO;d lac)Zu dh fof/k;ka vkSj vuqiz;ksxA lksekDyksuy
18- ijek.kq vL=ksa ds iz;ksx dh oS/krk] ijek.kq vkSj jklk;fud vL=ksa ds ijh{k.k ij jksd] ijek.koh;
fofHkUurk dkf;d ladj rFkk dksf”kdk nzO; ladjA
vizlkj lfU/k] lh0Vh0,l0Vh0A
ouLifr foKku % f}rh;& iz”u i=
19- vUrjkZ’Vªh; vkradokn] jkT; izofrZr vkradokn] vUrjkZ’Vªh; vkijkf/kd U;k;ky;
dksf”kdk tho foKku] vuqoaf”kdh dkf;Zdh] tSo jlk;u] ifjfLFkfrdh rFkk vkfFkZd ouLifr foKku
20- uo vUrjkZ’Vªh; vkfFkZd O;oLFkk vkSj ekSfnzd fof/k% fo”o O;kikj laxBu] Vh0vkj0vkbZ0ih0,l0] xSV]
1- dksf”kdk tho foKku& dksf”kdk thou dh lajpuk ,oa dk;Z dh bdkbZ ds :i esa vlhe dsUnzhdh rFkk vUrjkZ’Vªh; eqnzk dks’k vkSj fo”o cSad
lalhe dsUnzhdh dksf”kdkvksa dh vfrlw{e lajpuk] IykTek] f>Yyh] ,.MksIykfTed jsfVdqye] gfjr yod]
fof/k% f}rh;&iz”u&i=
ekbVksdkWf.Mª;k jkbckslkse] xkYthdk; rFkk dsUnzd dh lajpuk ,oa dk;Z] dksf”kdk pØ dk foLr`r
v/;;u] lq=h ,oe~ v)lw=h foHkktu xq.klq=ksa esas la[;kRed ,oe~ jpukRed ifjorZu rFkk muds dksf”kdk ¼d½ vijk/k fof/k & ¼v½ vijk/k dh ladYiuk] vko”;d RkRo] vijk/k dh rS;kjh ,oa iz;Ru ¼c½
foKkfud rFkk vkuqoaf”kd izHkkoA Hkkjrh; n.M lafgrkA
2- vkuqoaf”kdh& es.Msy ds oa”kkxfr ds fu;e] thuksa dh vU;ksU; v/kkeu fØ;k] lgyXurk rFkk thu 1- Lkk/kkj.k viokn]A
fofu;e] dodksa] thok.kqvksa vkSj fo'kk.kqvksa esa vkuqoaf”kd iqu;ksZtu] thu izfrfp=.k] fyax lgyXurk fyax 2- Lka;qDr ,oa vkUof;d nkf;RoA
fu/kkZj.k dksf”kdk nzO;h; oa”kkxr] ikYtehMl vuqokaf”kdh rFkk thu dh ladYiuk vkuqoaf”kdh dksMA 3- nq’izsj.kA
3- vk.kfod vkuqoaf”kdh & Mh ,u , vkuqoaf”kd inkFkZ ds :i esa Mh ,u , dh lajpuk rFkk izfrd`fr] izksVhu 4- vkijkf/kd "kM;U=A
la”ys’k.k esa U;wDyhf;d vEyksa dk dk;ZHkkj ¼VªkUlfØI”ku rFkk VªkUlys”ku½ vkSj thu vfHkO;fDr dk 5- jkT; ds fo:) vijk/kA
fofu;eu] mRifjorZu vkSj fodkl] Mh ,u , fod`r ,oe~ lq/kkj thu izo/kZu] thu iquZfoU;kl vkSj 6- yksd “kkafr ds fo:) vijk/kA
vkWUdksthuA vkuqoaf”kd vfHk;kaf=dh% jsfLVªD”ku ,Utkbe] dyksfuax thu okgd ¼PBR-322, PT1 7- ekuo “kjhj ds fo:) vijk/kA
ysEcMk&Qkt½ iqulZ;ksftr Mh ,u , thu LFkkuUrj.k] vkuqoaf”kd vfHk;kaf=dh dk ekuo dY;k.k esa 8- laifRr ds fo:) vijk/kA
vuqiz;ksxA
9- efgykvksa ds fo:) vijk/kA
4- dkf;Zdh vkSj tSo jlk;u& ikniksa dk tylaca/k] vo'kks’k.k] ty laogu vkSj ok’iksRltZu] [kfut iks’k.k
10- ekugkfuA
vkSj vk;u vfHkxeu] izdk”k] la'ysf’kr inkFkksZa dk LFkkukUrj.k] vko”;d ekbØks rFkk eSØks rRo vkSj
muds dk;ZA dkcksZgkbMªsV~l dh jlk;fudh vkSj oxhZdj.k] izdk”k la”ys’k.k% fØ;k fof/k] izdk”k 11- flfoy vf/kdkj laj{k.k vf/kfu;e 1955A
la”ys’k.k dks izHkkfor djus okys dkjd] C3 rFkk C4 pØ izdk”k “olu] izfd.o rFkk lgizfd.o] 12- Hkz’Vkpkj fujks/kd vf/kfu;e 1988A
izfd.o dh fØ;k fof/k] xkSM+ miiph ¼,YdsykW;M] LVhjkW;M] VihaUl] fyfiM~½ ikni “olu rFkk ¼[k½ vid`R; fof/k&
fd.ou] ukbVªkstu ;kSfxdhdj.k rFkk ukbVªkstu miip;] izksVhu dh lajpuk vkSj la”ys’k.k] ikni 1- vid`R;&nkf;Ro dh izd`frA
o`f) xfr;ka rFkk th.kZrk] o`f) gkWjeksu] o`f) fofu;eu vkSj mudh jklk;fud izd`fr d`f’k ,oe~ 2- nks’k ij vk/kkfjr nkf;Ro ,oa dBksj nkf;RoA
m|ku d`f’k esa mudk dk;ZHkkj vkSj egRo] iq’iu dh dkf;Zdh] ySfxad vfu'ksP;rk] cht dk vadqj.k 3- lkafof/kd nkf;RoA
vkSj izlqfIrA 4- jkT; nkf;Ro lfgr izfrfufgr nkf;RoA
5- ikfjfLFkfrdh & ikfjfLFkfrdh dk foLrkj] ifjfLFkfrdh dkjd] ikni leqnk; vkSj ikni vuqØe.k] 5- lkekU; izfrj{kkA
thoe.My dh ladYiuk] vtSfod vkSj tSfod ?kVd] ifjfLFkfr ra= lajpuk vkSj dk;Z] ifjfLFkfrra= esa 6- la;qDr vid`R; drkZA
ÅtkZ dk izokgA ikfjfLFkfrdh dh vuqiz;ksfxd vfHkeq[krk;sa& izkd`frd laink vkSj mldk laj{k.k
7- mis{kkA
ladVkiUu vkSj fo”ks’k {ks=h VSDlk] iznq’k.k vkSj mldk fu;a=.kA
8- mipkjA
6- vkfFkZd ouLifr foKku & ikniksa dk Hkkstu] rUrq fVEcj] vkS’k|] jcj] is; inkFkZ] elkys] jsftu vkSj
xksan jatd] ok’i”khy rsy] dhVuk”kh tSo moZjd] vydkjd ikni] ÅtkZjksi.k rFkk isVªks'kL; ds L+=ksr 9- ekugkfuA
ds :i esaA 10- mirki ¼U;wlsal½A
11- "kM;U=A
¼13½ fof/k izFke iz”u&i= 12- feF;k dkjkokl rFkk fo}s"kiw.kZ vfHk;kstuA
¼[k.M&v½ laoS/kkfud fof/k ,oa iz”kklfud fof/k ¼x½ lafonk fof/k ,oa okf.kfT;d fof/k&
1- lafo/kku lkafo/kkfud fof/k] lkafo/kkfud ifjikfV;kWa] lafo/kkuokn 1- lafonk dk Lo:i vkSj fuekZ.k@bZ&lafonkA
2- Hkkjrh; lafo/kku ds eq[; rRo rFkk izd`fr 2- ekud :IlafonkA
3- la?kokn] v/;{kh; cuke lalnh; izdkj dh ljdkj] “kfDr i`FkDdj.k dk fl)kUr] fof/k dk “kklu 3- lEefr nwf’kr djus okys dkjdA
4- ekSfyd vf/kdkj% izd`fr rFkk jkT; ds uhfr funs”kd rRo ,oa ekSfyd nkf;Roksa ls lEcU/kA ekSfyd 4- “kwU;] “kwU;dj.kh;] voS/k vkSj vizorZuh; lafonk;saA
vf/kdkj rFkk ekuokf/kdkj fof”k’Vr%] lerk dk vf/kdkj] Hkk’k.k ,oa vfHkO;fDr dh Lora=rk dk vf/kdkj] 5- lafonkvksa dk vuqikyuA
izk.k ,oa nSfgd Lora=rk dk vf/kdkj] /keZ] laLd`fr ,oa f”k{kk laca/kh vf/kdkj] lkafo/kkfud mipkj dk 6- lafonkRed nkf;Ro dk mUekspuA
vf/kdkj] lwpuk dk vf/kdkj] fu%”kqYd rFkk vfuok;Z f”k{kk dk vf/kdkj] efgykvksa rFkk cPpksa ds vf/kdkj 7- lafonk uSjk’;A
5- jk’Vªifr dh lkafo/kkfud fLFkfr rFkk eaf=ifj’kn ls mlds lEcU/k] jkT;iky dh lkafo/kkfud fLFkfr rFkk 8- lafonk dYiA
mldh “kfDr;kWa 9- lafonk Hkax ds fo:) mipkjA
6- mPpre U;k;ky; rFkk mPp U;k;ky;% mudh “kfDr;kWa rFkk vf/kdkfjrk] tufgrokn 10- {kfriwfrZ ¼bUMsfeuVh½] xkjaVh ,oa chek lafonkA
7- la?k rFkk jkT;ksa ds e/; fo/kk;h “kfDr;ksa dk forj.k] la?k] jkT;ksa rFkk Lok;Rr laLFkkvksa ds iz”kklfud 11- vfHkdj.k dh lafonkA
,oa foRrh; lEcU/kA 12- eky fodz; rFkk voØ; ¼gk;j ijpst½A
8- uSlfxZd U;k; ds fl)kUr% mHkjrs vk;ke rFkk U;kf;d izo`fRr;kWaA 13- Hkkxhnkj dk fuekZ.k] nkf;Ro rFkk fo?kVuA
9- izR;k;ksftr fo/kku] bldh lkafo/kkfudrk rFkk bl ij U;kf;d ,oa fo/kk;h fu;a=.kA 14- ijØkE; fyf[kr vf/kfu;e] 1881A
10- la?k rFkk jkT;ksa ds v/khu lsok;sa% fu;qfDr;kW] lsok “krsZ rFkk lkafo/kkfud lqj{kkA la?k yksd lsok vk;ksx ¼?k½ ledkyhu fof/kd fodkl&
rFkk jkT; yksd lsok vk;ksx% dk;Z rFkk “kfDr;kWa
1- tufgr ;kfpdk dh vo/kkj.kk rFkk Ik;kZoj.k fof/kA
11- vkikr micU/k
2- lwpuk dk vf/kdkj vf/kfu;e & 2005A
12- fuokZpu vk;ksx dk;Z RkFkk “kfDr;kWa
3- oSdfYid fookn lek/kku&ladYiuk] izdkj@laHkkouk,aA
13- lalnh; fo”ks’kkf/kdkj ,oa mUeqfDr;kWa
4- izfr;ksfxrk fof/k ds y{;] mn~ns”; rFkk eq[; fo”ks’krk,aA
14- lafo/kku dk la”kks/ku
5- vfHkopu lkSnkA
15- vEcqM~leSu% yksdiky] yksd vk;qDr bR;kfn
6- lwpuk izkS|ksfxd vf/kfu;e&2000 ds vUrxZr nhokuh nkf;Ro ¼/kkjk;sa 43 ls 64½ rFkk vkijkf/kd nkf;Ro
¼[k.M&c½ vUrjkZ’Vªh; fof/k ¼/kkjk,sa 65 ls 75½A
1- vUrjkZ’Vªh; fof/k dh izd`frA
2- lzksr% laf/k] :f<+ lH; jk’Vªksa }kjk ekU;rk izkIr fof/k ds lk/kkj.k fl}kUr] fof/k fu/kkZj.k ds fy;s ¼14½ i'kqikyu ,oa i”kqfpfdRlk foKku%
leuq'kaxh lk/kuA izFke iz”u&i=
3- vUrjkZ’Vªh; fof/k vkSj jk’Vªh; fof/k ds chp lEcU/k] Hkkjrh; lafo/kku esa vUrjkZ’Vªh; “kkfUr ,oa lqj{kk dk ¼Hkkx&v½
ifjo/kZu vkSj vUrjkZ’Vªh; djkjksa dks izHkkoh djus lEcU/kh fo/kk;u ds micU/kA ¼v½ i'kq iks’k.k % jkseUFkh ,oa vjkseUFkh i”kqvksa esa ikpu fdz;k] iks’kd rRokas dh nqX/k mRiknu ds fy;s
4- jkT; ekU;rk vkSj jkT; mRrjkf/kdkjA vko”;drk;sa] iks’kd rRo ,oa muds i”kq “kjhj esa dk;Z] [kk| inkFkksZ dk oxhZdj.k] [kk| ekud] vkgkj ds
5- jkT;ksa ds jkT; {ks=% vtZu vkSj [kksus dh jhfr;kaA fl)kUr vkSj larqfyr vkgkj dh x.kuk] lkbZyst ,oa ^gs* ds :i esa pkjksa dk laj{k.k] fuEu xq.koRrk okys
6- leqnz% vUrnsZ”kh; ty ekxZ] {ks=h; lehiLr {ks=] egk}hih; mirV] vuU; vkfFkZd ifj{ks= rFkk jk’Vªh; pkjksa dk mipkj] ikpu fdz;k esa fodjksa dk dk;Z] egRo] [kfut iks’k.k% i”kqvksa ds fy;s [kfut dk lzksr]
vf/kdkfjrk ls ijs leqnzA dk;Z] deh ds y{k.k o vko”;drk,a] fcVkfeu% i”kqvksa ds fy;s budk lzksr] dk;Z] deh ds y{k.k]
7- vkdk”kh; {ks= rFkk foeku lapkyuA vko”;drk,a] U;klxhZ ¼gkjeksUl½% U;klxhZ dk mRiknu ,oa izttu esa dk;Z] dkczksgkbVªsl] izksVhu ,oa
8- okg~; vUrfj{k% okg~; vUrfj{k dh [kkst rFkk mi;ksxA fy;sM~l ¼olk½ dk mikip;u] [kk| ;ksfxd ,oa ;ksxt {ks= ,oa deh ds y{k.k] vko”;drk,a] izksck;ksfVd
9- O;fDr] jk’Vªh;rk] jkT;ghurk] vUrjkZ’Vªh; ekuokf/kdkjoknh fof/k ds ekSfyd fl)kUr&vUrjkZ’Vªh; ,oa izhck;ksfVd dk Msjh i”kqvksa ds dqddqV ds iks’k.k esa mi;ksxA izkd`frd vkink esa i”kqvksa dk f[kykuk]
izlafonk;sa vkSj lelkef;d fodkl] ekuokf/kdkj vkSj jk’Vªh; fof/k esa bldk izorZu&jk’Vªh; ekuo ikpdrk fo”ks’k.kkad] xksoa”k cPpksa] vkslj] lkaM] xk;sa] HkSal dk [kkuik] izlo ds igys ,oa i”pkr xk;ksa dks
vf/kdkj vk;ksx f[kykuk] foVkfeUl ,oa [kfutksa dk vkilh lEcU/k] ÅtkZ ,oa izksVhu ds fy, [kk| inkFkksZ dk ewY;kaduA
vaMk nsus okyh eqxhZ ,oa czk;yj dh vko”;drk,a ,oa vkgkj dh x.kukA
10- jkT;ksa dh vf/kdkfjrk] vf/kdkfjrk dk vk/kkj] vf/kdkfjrk ls mUeqfDrA
¼c½ i”kq nSfgdh okrkoj.k lEcU/kh % vuqdwyu ,oa n”kkuqdwyu o bldk] o`f) dkjd] o`f) ds ekid]
11- izR;iZ.k rFkk vkJ;A
Cont...

Page No. - 13
rkidze QyLo:i ruko dk fu;a=.k ds <ax ¼lnhZ] xehZ½] i”kq “kjhj lEcU/kh% jkseUFkh o vjkseUFkh i”kqvksa esa lapkyu izfØ;k] “kks/k leL;kvksa] jSf[kd izksxzke leL;k rFkk ljy ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa vkjs[kh; gy] flEIysDl
dkcksZgkbMsV] izksVhu ,oa olk dk ikpu] “kks’k.kA uj ,oa eknk ds iztuu vaxksa dk dk;Z] nqX/k {kj.k nSfgdh] fof/k] jSf[kd izdeu leL;k dk }Sr] fu;ru ,oa ifjogu leL;kA “kwU;& ;ksx f}ekuoh; ØhM+k] “kq) ,oa
nqX/k dk fuldkju ,oa vojks/k ¼:dkoV½] “kqdzk.kq tuu] vaM tuu] oh;Z laxzg.k] ewY;kadu] ruohdj.k] fefJr ;qfDr;ka] ØhM+k dk eku] ewyHkwr izes; 2.2 fØM+kvksa dk gyA izfrn”kZ losZ{k.k dh izd`fr ,oa O;kfIr]
,oa laj{k.k] oh;Z dk fgehdj.k] oh;Z ruqdj.k] d`f=e xkHkkZ/kku fof/k;kW] LruxzkafFk;ksZ ds fu;a=.k] esa izfrp;u cuke laiw.kZ x.kuk] ifjfer lef’V;ksa esa izfrLFkkiu jfgr rFkk izfrLFkkiu lfgr ljy
U;klxhZd dk;Z] eklxq.koRrk] mRiknu ,oa iztuu ij budk izHkko] O;kuk ¼izlo½] tsj dk :duk] ;kn`fPNd izfrp;uA Lrfjr izfrp;u rFkk vkcaVu fl)kUr] leku ifj.kke ds xqPN gsrq xqPN izfrp;uA
fMLVksfd;k ¼vlkekU; izlo½ vkdyu dh vuqikr] xq.ku ,oa lekJ;.k fof/k;ka rFkk f)”k% izfrp;u] leku izFke pj.kh; bdkb;kssa okyh
¼Hkkx&c½ f}pj.kh; izfr p;u] Øec) izfrp;uA lkaf[;dh xq.krk fu;a=.k] pjksa rFkk izxq.kksa gsrq fu;a=.k& fp=]
¼l½ i”kq/ku mRiknu ,oa izcU/k% Hkkjr esa Msjh m|ksx dk fodflr ns”kksa ls rqyuk] fefJr ,oa fof”k’V Lohd`fr] izfrp;u] OC, ASN rFkk ATI oØ mRiknd rFkk miHkksDrk tksf[ke] AQL, AOQL rFkk LTPD
QkfeZx] Msjh QkfeZx dk vkjEHk ,oa laxBu] Msjh QkfeZx esa lkekU; dk ,df=rdj.k] Msjh i”kqvksa dh {kerk dh vo/kkj.kk] ,dy rFkk f)’k% izfrp;u ;kstukA lksiku& izfØ;k,a ijh{k.k& enksa dk lksikuhdj.k]
dks izHkkfor djus okys dkjd] twV¼>q.M½ dk vfHkys[ku] vk; O;; ctVhdj.k] dher fu/kkZj.k ;kstuk,a] ijh{k.k lead] ijh{k.k& fl)kUr] lekukUrj ijh{k.k] lR; lead] ijh{k.k dh fo”oluh;rk rFkk oS/krkA
dkfeZd izcU/ku] Msjh i'kqvksa ,oa dqddqVksa dk vkoklh; izcU/ku] Msjh i'kqvksa ds cPpksa] vkslj] xk;s dk ¼16½ izcU/k% izFke iz'u i=
izcU/ku] LoPN nqX/k mRiknu] dqDdVksa ,oa Msjh i'kqvksa dk vkfFkZd fo”ys’k.k] xksoa”k] HkSal] HksM+] cdjh] lwdj]
ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa ls vis{kk dh tkrh gS fd os izcU/k ds fofHkUu igyqvksa ls ifjfpr gksaxsA os fl)kUr dks O;ogkj
,oa dqddqVksa ds izcU/k lEcU/kh lkekU; leL;k;sa] xksdqy fe”ku] jk’Vªh; Msjh ifj;kstuk] vfHkys[ku esa fo'o O;oLkk; ds lanHkZ esa] lkekU;r% vkSj Hkkjr esa O;olk; ds fof'k"V lUnHkZ esa ykxw dj ldsxsA blds
izcU/ku] nqX/k iz.kkyh&<ax] fl)kUr] lkekU; Msjh izfdz;kvksa dk izcU/ku] nqX/k mRiknu dk ifjO;;] fy, muls vk'kk dh tkrh gS fd os ml okrkoj.k ls ftlesa Hkkjr esa O;oLkk; gksrk gS] Hkyh Hkkafr ifjfpr
pkjkxkg izcU/ku] gksaxsA mUgsa fofHkUu fØ;kRed {ks=ksa esa fo'ys"k.k vkSj fu.kZ;u dh izcU/kdh; fof/k;ksa ds Kku o mi;ksx ds
¼n½ nqX/k ,oa nqX/k mRikn izkS|ksfxdh % nw/k dk ladyu ,oa ifjokguA nw/k dk laxzg.k ,oa xq.koRrk ijh{k.kA lk/kuksa dh tkudkjh Hkh gksxhA
nw/k dh ifjHkk’kk] laxBu ,oa iks’kk/kZA nw/k ds HkkSfrd ,oa jklk;fud xq.kA nw/k dk vo”khru] fuL;Unu] 1- izca/k vo/kkj.kk ,oa fodkl& izca/k dh vko/kkj.kk ,oa egRo izcU/k& foKku ,oa dyk] izcU/k ,oa iz'kklu
fueZyhdj.k] izFkdhdj.k rFkk ekudhdj.kA nw/k dk laekxhdj.k] ikLrqjhdj.k] futZuhdj.k] iSdsftax ,oa esa vUrj] izcU/k dh Hkwfedk ,oa mRrjnkf;Ro izcU/k ds fl)kUr] izfrf"Br Ldwy] uo&izfrf"BRk Ldwy]
forj.kA nw/k ds nks’k] mlds dkj.k o fuLrkj.kA nw/k ds izdkj% ekudhd`r nw/k] VksUM nw/k] McyVksUM nw/k] vk/kqfud izcU/k Ldwy] izcU/k ds fo)kUkkas dk ;ksxnkuA
iqufufeZr nw/k] iqufefJZr nw/k] lqxfU/kr ,oa fQYM feYdA nw/k la;a= dh lQkbZ o futhZohdj.kA tkeu o 2- fu;kstu ,oa fu.kZ;u% fu;kstu & izd`fr] izdkj] egRrk ,oa lhek;sa] ;kstuk ds mn~ns';] uhfr;ka]
mldk mitkiu djukA [kksvk] Nsuk] iuhj] ngh] yLlh] Jh[k.M] o dqYQh dk mRiknu] iSdsftax] mit fu;kstu vk/kkj] iwokZuqeku dh rduhd] fu.kZ;u izdkj] izfØ;k] foosdiw.kZ fu.kZ;u bldh lhek;saA
,oa laxBuA ?kh dk mRiknu ,oa Js.khdj.kA vkblØhe] eD[ku] pht] la?kfur] ok’ihd`r ,oa “kq’d nq/k dk
3-laXkBu ,oa laxBUkkRed O;ogkj% laxBu& vo/kkj.kk] izcU/k dk foLrkj] vf/kdkj ,oa mRrjnkf;Ro]
mRiknu ,oa xq.koRrk ijh{k.kA ch0vkbZ0,l0 ,oa ,Q0,l0,l0vkbZ0,0 ds vuq:i nw/k ,oa nw/k inkFkksZ ds
vf/kdkj&vFkZ] izdkj] lzksr] vf/kdkj dk izR;k;kstu& izR;k;kstu ds ekxZ esa vojks/k] vf/kdkjksa dk
ekudA nw/k ds miksRiknksa dk mi;ksx&Ogs] NkN ,oa lizsVk nw/kA
dsUnzh;dj.k ,oa fodsUnzhdj.k] laxBUkkRed O;ogkj& vo/kkj.kk ,oa egRrk] O;fDRkxr ,oa lkewfgd
i'kqikyu ,oa i'kqfpfdRlk foKku% O;ogkj] laxBukRed ifjorZu] ifjorZu dk izfrjks/k] la?k"kZ izcU/kuA
f}rh; iz”u i=% 4- funs'ku% fl)kUr ,oa rduhdsa] vfHkizsj.k & fl)kUr] eSLyksa] glZcxZ eSdxzsxj] eSDYkhySaM rFkk vU;
¼Hkkx&v½ fo}kuksa ds ;ksxnku] vkdfLed fl)kUr] ,e-ch-vks- usr`Ro&izdkj] ,d lQy usrk ds xq.k] usr`Ro ds
¼v½ lkekU; vkuqoaf”kdh ,oa i”kq iztuu % i”kqvksa dk jk’Vªh; vFkZO;oLFkk esa ;ksxnku] ikS/kksa ,oa i'kqvksa dk
fofHkUu fl)kUr] laisz"k.k] izfØ;k] Lrj] izdkj] lEisz"k.k lEca/kh vojks/k] izHkkodkjh laizs"k.k ds mik;A
vkilh lEcU/k] i”kqvksa ,oa nw/k mRiknu lkaf[;dh] oa”kkxfr ,oa fofHkUurk] oa”kkxr esaMy fu;e] I;wVs”ku 5- fu;a=.k ,oa leUo;& fu;a=.k izfØ;k] izHkkodkjh fu;a=.k dh iwoZ n'kk;sa fu;a=.k dh fof/k;ka&ctVjh
¼mRifjorZu½] lkbVksiyktfed oa”kkukZrk] tuunzaO;] laj{k.k] xksoa”k] HkSlk] cdjh] HksM+] lwdj] ,oa dqDdqVksa rFkk xSj &ctVjh] leUo; &fl)kUr] rduhdsa rFkk leUo; lEcU/kh vojks/kA
dh tkfr;kW] iztuu dh fof/k;kWa ,oa iz.kkyh] p;u fof/k;ka] p;u xq.kkad ,oa vUr% iztuu xaq.kkd] oh;Z dk 6- O;olkf;d i;kZoj.k& O;olkf;d bdkbZ rFkk i;kZoj.k esa vUrlZEca/k] O;kolkf;d uSfrdrk rFkk
,d=hdj.k] ewY;kadu] d`f=e xHkkZ/kku dh fof/k;kW] gkMhZ ohuoxZ fu;e] tula[;k ,oa oh;Zer tksfu ,d 'kklu] ekSfnzd uhfr] jktdks’kh; uhfr] fons'kh iwath rFkk fons ' kh lg;ks x ] j.kuhfr &vo/kkj.kk ,oa
vUr% iztuu xq.kkad thuksVkbi ckjEckjrkA Lrj] SWOT fo'ys " k.k] iks V Z j dk Qkbo Qks l Z ekMy oS Y ;wpsu fo'ys"k.k] ch-lh-th- eSfVªDl] ewy
¼c½ LokLF; ,oa LoPNrk % xksoa”k ,oa dqDdqV dk “kkjhfjd lajpuk mRrd foKku rduhdh] fgehdj.k] n{krk,A
iSjkfQfudj.k] vUr% LFkfirZr djuk] jDr dh fQYe ¼ijr½ cukuk ,oa iz;kad esa vkus okys vfHkjatu] izcU/k% f}rh; iz'u i=
lkekU; mRrdh vfHkjatu] jDr xk; dh Hkzw.k foKku] jDr dh VkbZdh] i”kq LokLF; o ikpu] “kks’k.k]
[k.M&1
mRlZtu] “olu fØ;k] U;kL;kZ xzfUFk;ka] ty] ok;q rFkk vkDlh; osVujh LoPNrkA
foi.ku izca/k& foi.ku dh vo/kkj.kk] foi.ku feJ.k( foi.ku vuqla/kku( foi.ku okrkoj.k( foi.ku
¼Hkkx&c½
;kstuk( foi.ku foHkfDRkdj.k( yf{kr cktkj RkFkk fLFkfrdj.k( mRikn j.kuhfr;ka] mRikn thou pØ(
¼l½ i”kq chekfja;k % izfrj{kk ,oa Vhdkdj.k% izfrj{kk dh fof/k;kW ,oa fl)kUr] jksxksa dk oxhZdj.k] xkSo”ka] miHkksDRkk vfHkizsj.k( czk.M izcU/ku( foØ; lao/kZu( foKkiu( foozsârkvksa dk izca/ku( ewY; fu/kkZj.k(
HkSl] HksM+] cdjh] lwdj] dqDdqV dh chekfj;ksa dh yksdkpkj izd`fr] y{k.k] funku] fu;a=.k ,oa mipkj foi.ku J`[kayk&[kqnjk izcU/ku( b.VjusV foi.ku( xzkgd lEcU/k izcU/ku( Hkkjr esa xzkeh.k foi.ku(
fo”ks’krk,a& ,FkzsDV] xyk?kksVw] yxM+h cq[kkj] FkuSyk] Vhoh] tksUl chekjh] [kqjidk] eqWgiDdk] fLMjisLV] vUrjkZ"Vªh; foi.ku( foi.ku vads{k.k ,oa fu;a=.k( foi.ku uhfr'kkL=A
jscht] VªkabisUlksfe;kfll] ik;jksIykteksfll] Vªkbdkseksfu,fll] ,DVksuksoSf”yksfll] ,SDVksekbdksfll]
[k.M&2
iSjksa Qsflyksafyl] nqX/kToj] vQkjk] uotkyk cU/k dh chekfj;kW% dqDdqV chekfj;ka% ys vkpkj izd`fr] funku
y{k.k] fu;a=.k] mipkj fo”ks’krk% jkuh[ksr] Qkxqu ikul] jkfo;u Y;wdksfll] esjsDl] xqEckjksa ds fy;s] mRiknu izcU/k% mRiknu izca/k dk vFkZ ,oa izd`fr( mRiknu iz.kkfy;ksa ds izdkj( mRiknu fu;kstu rFkk
lwdj dh chekfj;kWa LokbZuToj] gke dkyjk] [kqtyh] gke¶yw] [kqjidk] eqgiDdk] ikDl] fu;a=.k ] yhu rFkk yphyh mRiknu iz.kkfy;ka( fofHkUu mRiknu iz.kkfy;ksa ds fy, ekxZ fu/kkZj.k]
ynku rFkk vuqØe.k( LFky p;u rFkk la;U= foU;kl( lkexzh izcU/ku( mRiknu lajpuk] jgfr;k
¼n½ osVjujh yksd LokLF; % tquksfll] ifjHkk’kk] tqusfVd chekfj;ksa dk i'kqvksa o if{k;ksa QSyko o oxhZdj.k]
izcU/ku( vkiwfrZ J`[kyk izcU/ku( m|e Jksr fu;kstu( lEiw.kZ xq.koRrk izcU/ku] N% flxek] ihbZvkjVh
i”kq fpfdRlk /keZ”kkL=% i”kq jksx ds jksdFkke rFkk i”kq ds xq.kksa dks lq/kkjus ds fy, fu;e ,oa vf/kfu;eA
¼iVZ½ lhih,e( vif'k"V izcU/kuA
i'kq fpfdRlk fof/kd ijh{k.k gsrq uewuk ysus ds fy, izfdz;k rFkk fof/k;daA i”kq fpfdRld ds drZO; ,oa
HkwfedkA o/k”kkyk ls izkIr miksRikn rFkk mudk vkfFkZd mi;ksxA [k.M 3 foRrh; izcU/k% vFkZ ,oa {ks=] QeZ dh foRrh; vko';drkvksa dk vuqeku( iwath <akps dk fu/kkZj.k(
iawth ykxr( dk;Z'kkhy iawth dk izcU/ku( iawth cktkj] lsch dh fou;eu Hkwfedk] osUpj iawth] E;wpqvy
¼;½ izlkj % izlkj ds fl)kUr] /kkj.kk] mn~ns”; rFkk ewy n”kZu] xzkeh.k fdlkuksa dks f”kf{kr djus dh
Q.M] ykHkakl uhfr] usV cSfdax rFkk ,uih, izcU/ku] m|eksa dk iquXkZBu foy; ,oa vf/kxzg.k] fuos'k
fofHkUu fof/k;kaA u;h] rduhd dk fuekZ.k] mldk LFkkukUrj.k rFkk iqu% ewY;kadu] u;h rduhd ds
fu.kZ;] tksf[ke dk fo'ys"k.k] yht dh foRr O;oLFkk] fons'kh foue; cktkjA
LFkkukUrj.k esa leL;k,a ,oa ck/kk;sA xzkeh.k fodkl ds fy, i”kqikyu ifj;kstuk;saA
[k.M& 4& ekuo lalk/ku izcU/k% ekuo lalk/ku dh izd`fr] ekuo lalk/ku ds izcU/ku dk {ks=] dk;Z
fo'ys"k.k rFkk dk;Z vfHkdYi] HkrhZ rFkk p;u] izf'k{k.k rFkk fodkl] dSfj;j ;kstuk] 360 va'k fu"iknu
¼15½ Lkakf[;dh% iz”u i= izFke% izkf;drk fl)kUr rFkk lakf[;dh ds iz;ksx vkdyu] Jfedksa dh izcU/ku esa Hkkxhnkjh] blksi] Hkkjr eas Je la?k] lqj{kk dY;k.k] gM+rky] NVuh]
[k.M ¼v½%& izkf;drk fl)kUr rkykcUnh] lek/kku] ekuo lalk/ku vads{k.k] yphyh dk;Zdkjh 'krZ] Lox`g ls dk;Z] LosPNk ls vodk'k
izfrn”kZ lef’V rFkk ?kVuk,a] izkf;drk dh fpj izfrf’Br ,oa vfHkx`ghrh; ifjHkk’kk;sa] ;ksx izkf;drk ds xzg.k ¼oh-vkj*-,l-½ okg; lzksrhdj.kA
fu;e] izfrcaf/kr izkf;drk] ?kVukvksa dh vukfJrrk] la;qDr izkf;drk izes;] cs;t izes; rFkk blds
iz;ksxA ;kn`fPNd pj& vlr~r rFkk lr~rA bldk caVu Qyu] caVu Qyu ds ewy xq.k/keZ] f}pjh; caVu ¼17½ jktuhfr foKku ,oa vUrjkZ’Vªh; lEcU/k iz”u i=&A
rFkk lacaf/kr mikar ,oa izfrcaf/kr caVuA izR;k”kk] vk?kwZ.k tud rFkk vfHky{k.k Qyu] ekdksZo rFkk “ksch”kso
¼Hkkx&v½
vlfedk] izkf;drk esa vfHklj.k] vukfJr ,oa le:ih cafVr ;kn`fPNr pjksa gsrq o`gr la[;kvksa dk fucZy
fu;e rFkk dsUnzh; lhek izes;A dqN ekud vlrr rFkk lrr caVu ;Fkk f}in] Iokalk] gkbijT;kferh;] jktuhfrd fl)kUr & jktuhfrd foKku dh ifjHkk’kk izd`fr ,oa fo’k; {ks=] jktuhfr foKku ds v/;;u
T;kferh;] _.kkRed f}in] cgqin ,dleku] izlkekU;] pj ?kkrkadh;] xkek] chVk rFkk dkW”khA f}pj ds fofHkUu mikxe&ijEijkxr] O;ogkjoknh] O;oLFkk fl)kUr o ekDlZoknh fl)kUrA
izlkekU; caVuA jkT; & ifjHkk’kk] mRifRr ds fl)kUr rFkk jkT; ds dk;kZs ls lEcfU/kr fl)kUr&mnkjoknh] O;fDroknh]
[k.M& ¼c½%& lakf[;dh ds iz;ksx lektoknh
U;wure oxZ fof/k] lglaca/k rFkk jSf[kd lekJ;.k] vk?kw.kZ xq.ku lglaca/k] dksfV lglaca/k] varoxZ lEizHkqrk dk vFkZ] izdkj o fl)kUr
lglaca/k rFkk lglaca/k vuqikr] rhu pjksa gsrq vkaf”kd ,oa cgq lglaca/k rFkk lekJ;A izR;sd dks’B esa vf/kdkj & vFkZ] izdkj o fl)kUr
izs{k.kksa dh leku la[;k okyk ,d & fn”k ,oa f}& f”k izlj.k fo”ys’k.k] izk;ksfxd vfHkdYiuk& izk;ksfxd Lora=rk& vFkZ] izdkj o fl)kUr
vfHkdYiuk ds ewy fl)kUr] iw.kZr ;kn`fPNdhd`r vfHkdYiuk] ;kn`fPNdhd`r [k.Md vfHkdYiuk] ySfVu lekurk & vFkZ] izdkj o fl)kUr] lekurk o Lora=rk esa lEcU/k
oxZ vfHkdYiuk] 22 rFkk 23 cgqmiknkuh iz;ksx] vizkIr {ks= dh izkfof/kdA tukaddh; vkadM+ks ds lzksr] U;k;& vFkZ] izdkj o fl)kUr
fLFkr ,oa LFkkoj lef’V;ka] iztuu rFkk eR;Zrk ds eki] thou lkj.kh] lkekU; lef’V o`f) izk:iA iztkra= dk vFkZ] izdkj o fl)kUr& mnkjokn] lektokn o ekDlZokn
lwpdkad rFkk blds mi;ksx] ySlfi;j] ik'ks] ek”kZy] ,MoFkZ vkSj fQ”kj ds lwpdkad] lwpdkad gsrq
ljdkj ds izdkj& ,dkRed o la?kkRed] lalnkRed ,oa v/;{kkRedA
ijh{k.k] ewY; lwpdkad rFkk thou fuokZg lwpdkad dh lajpukA dky Js.kh rFkk blds ?kVd] miufr
rFkk ekSleh lwpdkad Kkr djuk] vkofrZrk& oØ rFkk lglaca/k& fp= fo”ys’k.k] fopjkarj fof/kA jktuhfrd laLFkk;sa& O;oLFkkfidk] dk;Zikfydk o U;k;ikfydk] jktuhfrd ny o ncko lewg] fuokZpu
iz.kkyh
Lkakf[;dh% iz”u i= f}rh;%& lkaf[;dh; vuqefr rFkk izcU/ku
jktuhfrd n”kZu&
[k.M%& ¼v½ lkaf[;dh; vuqefr
¼v½ Hkkjrh; jktuhfrd fpard& euq] dkSfVY;] xkW/kh] ,e0,u0 jkW;] vEcsMdj
vkdydksa ds xq.k/keZ] laxrrk] vufHkurrk] n{krk] i;kZI;rrk rFkk iw.kZrk] Øsej jko ifjca/k U;wure
izlj.k vufHkur vkdyu& jko&CySdosy izes;A vkdyu fof/k;ka vk?kw.kZ fof/k rFkk vf/kdre laHkkfork ¼c½ ik”pkR; fopkjd& IysVks] vjLrw] eSfd;kosyh] gkWCl] ykWd] :lks] fey] ghxy] xzhu] ykLdh] ekDlZ]
fof/k] varjky vkdyuA ljy ,oa la;qDr ifjdYiuk] =qfV;ksa ds nks izdkj] Økafrd Js=] lkFkZdrk Lrj] xz k E”kh] gUuk vkjs
ifjeki ,oa “kfDr Qyu& vufHkur ijh{k.k] “kDre vkSj ,d lekur% “kDre ijh{k.k] usesu& fi;lZu ¼Hkkx&c½
izesfjdk rFkk blds iz;ksx laHkkfor& vuqikr ijh{k.kA t, dkbZ oxZ] z vkSj F caVuksa ij vk/kkfjr ijh{k.k] Hkkjrh; “kklu vkS j jktuhfr%&
o`gr izfrn”kZ ijh{k.kA Øe izfrn”kZt rFkk ijkl dk caVu] vizkpyh; ijh{k.k ;Fkk fpUg ijh{k.k] ekf/;dk Hkkjrh; jk’Vªokn& jk’Vªokn ds mn; ds dkj.k] caxHkax vkUnksyu] vlg;ksx vkUnksyu] lfou; voKk
ijh{k.k] ju ijh{k.k] foYdkDlu& eke fgoVuh U ijh{k.kA vkUnksyu
[k.M& ¼c½ lkaf[;dh; izcU/ku Hkkjrh; lafo/kku dk fuekZ.k& fczfV”k “kklu dh fojklr] lafo/kku dh fo”ks’krk,a] ekSfyd vf/kdkj o
Cont...

Page No. - 14
drZO;] jkT; ds uhfr funsZ”kd rRo] lafo/kku la”kks/ku] dsUnz&jkT; lEcU/k 7- nks egk;q)ksa ds chp Hkkjr dh vFkZO;oLFkk% m|ksx rFkk laj{k.k dh leL;k] d`f’k lEcU/kh ladV] xzsV
la?k ljdkj&jk’Vªifr] iz/kkuea=h o eaf=ifj’kn] laln] loksZPp U;k;ky; fMizs”ku] vksVkokdjkj rFkk i{kikriw.kZ laj{k.k] Je laxBuksa dk fodkl] fdlku vkUnksyuA
jkT; ljdkj& jkT;iky] eq[;ea=h o eaf=ifj’kn] jkT; fo/kku e.My] mPp U;k;ky; 8- gkse :y vkanksyu] xkW/kh ds usr`Ro esa jk’Vªokn& xkW/kh ds fopkj vkSj tu tkx:drk dh fof/k;kW ,oa
LFkkuh; Lo”kklu& uxjikfydk o uxj fuxe] 74okW lafo/kku la”kks/ku] iaph;rhjkt&73oka lafo/kku vU; vkUnksyu] jkT;ksa esa gq, tu vkanksyu rFkk jk’Vªh; vkanksyu ds vU; rRo% ¼,½ Hkkjr ,oa fons”k esa gq,
la”kks/ku dzkfUrdkjh vkanksyu ¼ch½ LojkftLV] mnkjoknh] izfrlaosnh lg;ksx ¼lh½ Hkkjr esa okeiaFk dk mn; ¼Mh½
jktuhfrd izfØ;k& jktuhfr esa tkfr] {ks=okn] Hkk’kkokn] lkEiznkf;drk] jktuhfrd ny ,oa ncko lewg lqHkk'k pUnz cksl ,oa bf.M;u us”kuy vkehZA
vkSj mudh Hkwfedk] jk’Vªh; ,dhdj.k 9- lkEiznkf;drk dk fodkl& dkj.k vU; lEcfU/kr ?kVuk;sa] eqfLye yhx] fgUnw egklHkk vkfn] jk’Vªh;
la?k yksd lsok vk;ksx] m0iz0 jkT; yksd lsok vk;ksx] fuokZpu vk;ksx] uhfr vk;ksx] ekuokf/kdkj vkanksyu ,oa efgyk;saA
vk;ksxA
jktuhfr foKku ,oa vUrjkZjk’Vªh; lEcU/k iz”u i=&AA 10- lkfgfR;d ,oa lkaLd`frd fodkl& VSxksj] izsepUn] lqczkefu;e Hkkjrh] bdcky mnkgj.k ds :i esaA
¼Hkkx&v½ 11- Lora=rk dh vksj& 1935 dk vf/kfu;e] dkaxzsl dk eaf=e.My ¼1937&1939½] ikfdLrku vkanksyuA
vUrjkZ’Vªh; lEcU/k& vFkZ] izd`fr rFkk {ks= 12- 1945 ds ckn dh ygj ¼RIN fonzksg] rsyaxkuk fonzksg vkfn½] laoS/kkfud okrkZ;sa rFkk lRrk gLrkUrj.k]
vUrjkZ’Vªh; jktuhfr ds fl)kUr& vkn”kZoknh] ;FkkFkZoknh] O;oLFkk rFkk fu.kZ; fuekZ.k fl)kUrA Lora=rk ,oa foHkktuA
fons”kuhfr ds fu/kkZjd rRo& jk’Vªfgr o oSpkfjdh]
¼[k.M [k½
jk’Vªfgr ds lk/ku& jk’Vªokn] lkezkT;okn] mifuos”kokn]
“kfDr larqyu dk fl)kUr] lkewfgd lqj{kk] 13- iqutkZxj.k] /keZ lq/kkj vkanksyu ,oa izfr/keZ lq/kkj vkanksyu] *izcks/ku^& dky] dkUV] :lks vkfn] ;wjksi
vUrjkZ’Vªh; lEcU/k esa vUrjkZ’Vªh; fof/k ,oa jktu; dh Hkwfedk] ds ckgj *izcks/ku^& dk foLRkkj] lektoknh fopkjksa dk mn;A
la;qDr jk’Vª dk xBu rFkk Hkwfedk 14- vk/kqfud jktuhfr dk mn;& ;wjksih; jkT;&iz.kkyh] vesfjdh dzkfUr] Qzklhlh dzkfUr ¼1789&1815½
“khr;q)ksRrj dky esa cnyrh gqbZ vUrjkZ’Vªh; jktuhfrd O;oLFkk] ,oa mlds ifj.kkeA
“kL= nkSM+ o “kL= fu;a=.k] 15- vkS|ksfxd dzkfUr& dkj.k ,oa lekt ij izHkko] vU; ns”kksa esa gq, vkS|ksxhdj.kA
fuxqZV vkUnksyu dh Hkwfedk o izklafxdrk]
16- jk’Vª jkT; iz.kkyh& 19oha “krkCnh esa jk’Vªokn dk mn;] teZuh ,oa bVyh dk ,dhdj.k] jk’Vªh;rkvksa
{ks=h; laxBu& bZ0;w0] vkfl;ku] ,isd] lkdZ
ds vkfoHkkZo ls lkezkT;ksa dk fo?kVuA
ubZ vUrjkZ’Vªh; vkfFkZd O;oLFkk& MCyw0Vh0vks0] mnkjhdj.k] futhdj.k o fo”ohdj.k
vUrjkZ’Vªh; jktuhfr esa ledkyhu eqn~ns& ekuokf/kdkj] i;kZoj.k] vkradokn] ijek.kq izlkj 17- lkezkT;okn ,oa mifuos”kokn& ,VykafVd ikj dk nkl O;kikj] ,f”k;kbZ fot;] lkezkT; ds izdkj%
¼Hkkx&c½ cLrhokys ,oa cLrh jfgr % ykrhuh vesfjdk] nf{k.kh vQzhdk] b.Mksusf”k;k] vkLVªsfy;k vkfnA
1- la;qDr jkT; vesfjdk] :l o phu dh fons”k uhfr;kW 18- dzkfUr;kW rFkk izfr dkzfUr;kW] 19oha “krkCnh esa ;wjksih; dzkfUr;kW& 1917 dh :lh dzkfUr] Qklhoknh izfr
2- Hkkjr dh fons”k uhfr rFkk vejhdk] :l rFkk phu ds lkFk lEcU/k dzkfUr& bVyh rFkk teZuh] 1949 dh phuh dzkfUr] 19- izFke ,oa f}rh; fo”o;q)& dkj.k] ifj.kke ,oa
3- Hkkjr dk iM+kslh ns”kksa ls lEcU/k vU; ?kVuk;saA
4- fQfyLrhu leL;k rFkk vjc btjk;y la?k’kZ 20- “khr;q)& nks xqVksa dk vkfoHkkZo ,oa vU; lacaf/kr ?kVuk;sa] r`rh; nqfu;kW dk mn; ,oa xqV fujis{krk]
5- r`rh; fo”o vkSj vUrjkZ’Vªh; lEcU/kksa esa bldh Hkwfedk la;qDr jk’Vªla?k ,oa fooknksa dk lek/kkuA
6- mRrj nf{k.k laokn] nf{k.k&nf{k.k lg;ksx 21- mifuos”k ,oa mudh Lora=rk& ykrhuh vesfjdk ¼cksfyfo;k½] vjch nqfu;k ¼felz½] nf{k.k vQzhdk%
7- fgUn egklkxj leL;k;sa vkSj lEHkkouk;sa jaxHksn uhfr ,oa yksdra= dh vksj] nf{k.kh&iwoZ ,f”k;k ¼fo;ruke½A
22- mifuos”kokn dk var rFkk vfodklhdj.k& vkSifuosf”kd lkezkT;ksa dk fo?kVu] fodkl ds vojks/k
¼18½ bfrgkl iz”u i=& 1 ¼[k.M&d½ dkjd&¼ykrhuh vesfjdk] vQzhdk ,oa ,f”k;k½A
1- Hkkjrh; bfrgkl ds vkjafHkd dky ds v/;;u ds lzksr ,oa n`f’Vdks.kA 2- vkjafHkd i”kqpkj.k ,oa d`f’k
leqnk;] iqjkrfRod lk{; ¼uoik’kf.kd ,oa rkez ik’kf.kd laLd`fr;ka½A 3- flU/kq lH;rk% blds mn~xe rFkk 23- lksfo;r la?k dk fo?kVu ,oa ,d /kzqoh; fo”o& dkjd] ifj.kke ,oa vU; ?kVuk;as] oS”ohdj.kA
izd`fr ,oa âklA 4- Hkkjr esa ¼2000bZ iwoZ ls 500 bZ iwoZ rd ½ cLrh dk Lo:i] vFkZO;oLFkk] lkekftd ¼19½ u` foKku % iz”u i=&A
laxBu] /keZ% iqjkrkfRod ifjizs{;A 5- mRrj Hkkjrh; lekt rFkk laLd`fr dk fodkl% oSfnd xzaFkks dk lk{; 1- ¼1½ ekuofoKku% vFkZ] {ks= ,oa fodkl
¼lafgrkvksa ls lw=ksa rd½A 6- egkohj rFkk cq) dh f”k{kk ledkyhu lekt jkT; fuekZ.k rFkk uxjhdj.k ds ¼2½ ekuofoKku dk vU; fo’k;ksa ls lEcU/k% bfrgkl] vFkZ”kkL=] lekt”kkL=] euksfoKku] jktuhfr foKku]
izkjfEHkd pj.kA 7- ex/k dk mn; ekS;Z lkezkT;] v”kksd ds f”kykys[k] mldk /kEe ¼/keZ½ ekS;Z dkyhu tSo foKku rFkk vkS’kf/k foKkuA
jkT; dh izd`frA 8&9 mRrjh rFkk izk;}hih; Hkkjr esa ekS;ksZRrj dky jktuhfrd ,oa iz”kklfud bfrgkl]
¼3½ ekuofoKku dh izeq[k “kk[kk,a] muds {ks= ,oa izklafxdrkA
lekt] vFkZO;oLFkk] laLd`fr rFkk /keZ rfeyde ,oa bldk lekt laxe xzaFkA 10&11 xqIrdky esa rFkk
xqIrksRrj dky esa Hkkjr ¼750 bZ0 rd½ mRrjh rFkk izk;}hih; Hkkjr dk jktuhfrd bfrgkl] lkearh 2- ¼1½ ekuo mn~fodkl rFkk ekuo dk vkfoHkkZo % tSfod mn~fodkl] mn~fodkl ds fl)kUr& izkxMkfoZuh
O;oLFkk rFkk jktuhfrd lajpuk esa ifjorZu] vFkZO;LFkk] lkekftd lajpuk] laLd`fr] /keZA 12- vkjafHkd MkfoZuh] rFkk mRrj MkfoZuhA mn~fodkl dk vk/kqfud laf”y’V fl)kUrA
Hkkjrh; lkaLd`frd bfrgkl dh fo’k;oLrq Hkk’kk,a ,oa xzaFk dyk rFkk LFkkiR; ds fodkl ds izeq[k pj.k] ¼2½ O;ofLFkrh foKku ,oa ofxZdh] izeq[k izkbesV ofxZdh] gksfeukbfMvk ,oa gksfefuMh dh O;ofLFkrdh]
izeq[k nk”kZfud fopkjd ,oa fopkj/kkjk,a foKku rFkk xf.kr lacaf/kr fopkjA ekuo ,oa okujkHk esa “kjhj&jpukRed rqyuk] m/oZ lafLFkrh ds dkj.k dadky esa gq, ifjorZu ,oa blds
¼[k.M&[k½ ifj.kkeA
13- 750bZ0 ls 1200 bZ0 rd mRrj Hkkjr ds izeq[k jktoa”k rFkk jktuhfrd lajpuk] jktiwr jktoa”kksa dk ¼3½ ekuo dh mRifRr ,oa mn~ f odkl] fuEufyf[kr iw o Z iz f ruw r u thok’e iz b es V ~ l dh tkfro` f Rrd
mn; rFkk pksy lkezkT;A fLFkfr] y{k.k ,oa forj.k& vkfjvks f iFks d l] nf{k.k ,oa iw o Z vQz h dh
gks f efuM~ l &Iyhft;uFkz k W i l] vkW L Vª s y ks f iFks d l vQz h dkul] is j kUFkz k il] vkW L Vª s y ks f iFks d l
14- vjcksa dh fla/k fot; vkSj xtuoh lkezkT;] bLyke dk vkxeu vkSj lwQhokn] vycs:uh rFkk mldk
jks c LVl rFkk lEcfU/kr fLi”kht
Hkkjrh; foKku rFkk lH;rk dk v/;;uA
3- ¼1½ gkseks dk mn; % gkseks bjsDVl ,oa ledkyhuA
15- Hkkjr ¼750bZ0 ls 1200bZ0 rd½% vFkZO;oLFkk] lekt] lkfgR;] izeq[k ,sfrgkfld xzUFk] LFkkiR; dyk
dh izeq[k “kSfy;ka] /kkfeZd fopkj rFkk laLFkk,a] HkfDr vkUnksyu dk mn;A ¼2½ fu;UMjFky ekuo% gkseks fuUMjFkysfUll ,oa vU; iqjkru gkseks lsfi;Ul] izksxzsflo
fu;UMjFky&Dykfld fu;UMjFky ¼yk&”kSikys&vkWlk½ izksxzsflo fu;UMjFky ¼ekmUV dkjesykbV~l½
16- Xkksj vkØe.k% vkfFkZd] lkekftd vkSj lkaLd`frd ifj.kke rFkk lYrur dh LFkkiukA
¼3½ jksMsf”k;u ekuo A
17- lYrur dky rFkk jktuSfrd jktoa”k% xqyke] f[kyth] rqxyd] lS;n rFkk yksnh oa”k] izeq[k
,sfrgkfld lzksr rFkk fons”kh ;kf=;ksa ds o`RrkUr] lYrurdkyhu lekt ,oa laLd`frA ¼4½ gkseks lsfi;Ul lsfi;Ul ¼mPp izkfruwru½ dkzs&eSXuu] pkUlysM ,oa xzhekYMh
18- {ks=h; jktoa”kks dk mn;% cgeuh rFkk fot;uxj jkT;A 4- ¼1½ ekuo vkuqoaf”kdh % vFkZ] {ks= ,oa “kk[kk,a] bldk vU; foKkuksa ls lEcU/k
19- eqxydky% ckcj] gqek;wW] lwjdky] vdcj] tgkaxhj] “kkgtgka] vkSjxatsc] eqxy lkezkT; dk iru ¼2½ ekuo ifjokj esa vkuqoaf”kdh fl)kUrksa ds v/;;u dh i)fr ¼oa”ko`{k v/;;u] ;qXe v/;;u] ikfyr
eqxydkyhu lekt] laLd`fr iz”kklu ,oa vkfFkZd ifjorZu] ;wjksih; O;kikfjd dEifu;ksa dk vkxeuA larku] lg&;qXe i)fr] tSo jklk;fud i)fr;kW] izfrj{kd i)fr;kW] Mh ,u , rduhdA½
20- f”kokth vkSj is”kokvksa rFkk ejkBksa dk mRd"kZ] fl[k “kfDr dk mn;] ikuhir dk rhljk ;q)A ¼3½ ekuo & ifjokj v/;;u lEcU/kh esUMsfy;u vkuqoaf”kdrk] ,dy dkjd] cgq dkjd] ekuo esa cgq
vkuqoaf”kdrkA vkuqoaf”kd cgq:iokn ,oa ifjo/kZu] esUMyh; ikWiqys”ku gkMhZ& osucxZ fu;e] vUr%
21- eqxydky ds bfrgkl ds lzksr% Qkjlh rFkk ns”kt] fons”kh ;kf=;ksa ds o`RrkUrA
ladjrk] vkuqoaf”kd Hkkj] jDr&lEcU/kksa rFkk eesjs&QqQsjs HkkbZ&cguksa ds oSokfgd lEcU/kksa esa vkuqoaf”kdrk
bfrgkl iz”u i=&AA dk izHkkoA
¼[k.M d½
¼4½ ekuo esa xq.klw= ,oa xq.klw=h; foiFkxeu i)fr rFkk forj.k] vkuqoaf”kdh ijke”kZA
1- Hkkjr esa vaxszth “kklu dh LFkkiuk& bZLV bf.M;k dEiuh vkSj {ks=h; “kfDr;ksa ds lkFk lEcU/kA 5- iztkfr dh vo/kkj.kk% iztkfr rFkk iztkfrokn] iztkrh; oxhZdj.k] ekuo eas u`tkrh; oxZ& fo”ks’krk,W ,oa
2- vkSifuosf”kd vFkZ O;oLFkk& fVªcwV iz.kkyh] lEifRr dk viokg ¼Mªsu vkQ osYFk½ rFkk vukS|ksxhdj.k] forj.kA
foRrh; ,oa Hkw& jktLo O;oLFkk;sa ¼tehankjh] jS;rckjh vkSj egkyokjh O;oLFkk½] iz”kklfud uhfr;kW ,oa 6- ikfjfLFkfrdh; ekuofoKku% vo/kkj.kk ,oa i)fr;k¡] tSo& lkaLd`frd vuwdwyuA
1857 rd fczfV”k jkT; dh lajpuk ¼laoS/kkfud fodkl lfgr½A 7- ¼1½ ekuo o`f) rFkk fodkl % vo/kkj.kk rFkk o`f) ,oa fodkl dks izHkkfor djus okys dkjd] o`f) ds
3- vkSifuosf'kd “kklu dk fojks/k& vkjfEHkd fonzksg] dkj.k] Lo:i ,oa 1857 ds fonzksg dk izHkko] 1858 v/;;u dh i)fr;kW
,oa mlds ckn fczfV”k jkT; dk iquxZBuA ¼2½ tuu”kfDr iztuu{kerk] tUenj ,oa e`R;qnj dks izHkkfor djus okys tSfod ,oa lkekftd&
ikfjfLFkfrdh; dkjdA
4- vkSifuosf”kd “kklu dk lkekftd& lkaLd`frd izHkko% “kkldh; lkekftd lq/kkj ds mik;] izkP; 8- “kkjhfjd ekuofoKku rFkk ekuo vkuqoaf”kdh dh mi;ksfxrkA
vkafXyd fookn] vaxzsth f”k{kk ,oa izsl dk vkxeu] bZlkbZ fe”kufj;ksa ds fdz;kdyki] caxky ,oa ns”k ds
9- ¼1½ izkxSfrgkfld iqjkrRo ds fl)kUr izkxSfrgkfld laLd`fr;ksa dh foLr`r :ijs[kk % ¼A½ iqjkik’kk.k ¼AA½
vU; Hkkxksa esa gq, lkekftd ,oa /kkfeZd lq/kkj vkUnksyuA
e/;ik’kk.k ¼AAA½ uo ik’kk.k ¼iv½ rkezik’kk.k¼pkYdksfyfFkd½ ¼v½ rkez&dkaL; ;qx
5- vkfFkZd uhfr;kW& 1858 ls 1914 rd% jsyos] Hkkjrh; d`f’k dk O;olk;hdj.k] Hkwfeghu Jfedksa ,oa ¼2½ frfFk% fu/kkZj.k dh izfof/k;k¡& lkis{k rFkk fujis{k frfFk fu/kkZj.kA
xzkeh.k _.kxzLrrk esa c<+ksRrjh] vdky] fczfV”k m|ksx ds fy, Hkkjr ,d cktkj] Mªsu fl)kUrA 10- ¼1½ laLd`fr dh izd`fr% laLd`fr vkSj lH;rk dh vo/kkj.kk ,oa fo”ks’krk,a] u`tkrh; dsUnzLFkrk ,oa
6- Hkkjrh; jk’Vªokn dk vkjfEHkd pj.k& lkekftd i`’BHkwfe] jktuhfrd laxBuksa dk xBu] izkjfEHkd LkakLd`frd lkis{koknA
jk’Vªoknh ;qx ds nkSjku d`’kd ,oa tutkrh; fonzksg] Hkkjrh; jk’Vªh; dkaxzsl dh LFkkiuk] dkaxzsl dk ¼2½ lekt dh izd`fr% lekt dh vo/kkj.kk] lekt vkSj laLd`fr] lkekftd laLFkk] lkekftd lewg]
ujeiaFkh pj.k] eqfLye yhx dk tUe] 1909 dk Hkkjrh; ifj’kn~ vf/kfu;e] 1919 dk Hkkjr ljdkj lkekftd laLrj.kA
vf/kfu;eA ¼3½ fookg% ifjHkk’kk ,oa lkoZHkkSfedrk] fookg ds fu;e] vUrfoZokg] cfgfoZokg] vuqykse] foykse]
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Page No. - 15
fudVkfHkxeu] fookg ds izdkj&¼,dfookg] cgqfookg½] fookg ds izdk;Z] fookg ds fu;e ¼vf/kekU;½ vkSj Cantilever and Counter-fort type retaining walls.
fookg vnk;xh ¼o/kw/ku] ngst½ Water Tanks: Design requirements for rectangular and circular tanks resting on ground.
¼4½ ifjokj] x`gLFkh ,oa x`glewg% ifjHkk’kk vkSj lkoZHkkSfedrk] izdk;Z vkSj izdkj ¼lajpuk] jDr lEcU/k] Prestressed Concrete: Methods and systems of prestressing, anchorages, Analysis and
fookg vkSj mRrjkf/kdkj ds lanHkZ esa½] uxjhdj.k dk izHkkoA design of sections for flexure based on working stress, loss of prestress. Earthquake
¼5½ ukrsnkjh% jDr lEcU/kh ,oa fookg lEcU/kh] oa”k ds izdkj ,oa fu;e ¼,dh;] f}i{kh;] f}js[kh;] Resistant Design of Buildings as per BIS codes.
mHk;i{kh;½] oa”k lewg ds izdkj ¼yhfu;st] xks=] QSzVjh] ekWbVh rFkk fdUMªsM½] ukrsnkjh “kCnkoyh Introduction to computer aided design of structure
¼o.kkZukRed vkSj oxkZRed½A (c) Steel Structural : Factors of safety and load factors. Riveted, bolted and welded joints
11- vkfFkZd laxBu% vkfFkZd ekuofoKku dk vFkZ] {ks= vkSj egRo] vkSipkfjd rFkk rkfydk ppkZ] f”kdkj and connections. Design of tension and compression members, beams of built up section,
vk[ksVd rFkk [kk|&laxzgd] eNyh idM+us okys] pkjkxkg] ikS/k ckxokuh] rFkk d`f’k ij fuHkZj jgus okys riveted and welded plate girders, gantry girders, stancheons with battens and lacings.
leqnk;ksa esa mRiknu] forj.k rFkk fofu;e; dks fu;af=r j[kus okys fu;e ¼ikfjLifjdrk] iqufoZrj.k rFkk PART-B
cktkj½ (a) Fluid Mechanics: Fluid properties, types of fluids and their role in fluid motion.
12- jktuSfrd laxBu % izdkj&cS.M] tutkfr] vf/kuk;dokn] jkt”kkgh] jkT;] lRrk] izkf/kdkj ,oa oS/krk Kinematics and dynamics of fluids flow: velocity and acceleration, stream lines,
dh vo/kkj.kk] lkekftd fu;U=.k] ljy lektksa esa dkuwu ,oa U;k;A equation of continuity, irrotational and rotational flow, velocity potential and stream
13- /keZ% /keZ ds v/;;u esa ekuo”kkL=h; n`f’Vdks.k ¼fodkloknh] euksoSKkfud rFkk izdk;Zoknh½] functions.
,dbZ”ojokn] cgqnsoRookn] feFkd ,oa vuq’Bku] tutkrh; ,oa d`’kd lektksa esa tknqbZ& /kkfeZd fo”oklkas Continuity, momentum, energy equations Navier Stokes equation, Euler's equation
ds :i ¼vkRekokn] thookn] oLrqiwtkokn] izd`frokn ,oa VksVeokn½] /keZ] tknw rFkk foKku esa vUrj] of motion Bernoulli's equation. Applications to fluid flow problems e.g. pipe flow, sluice
tknqbZ& /kkfeZd fdz;kvksa ds fu’iknd ¼iqtkjh] “kkeu] fpfdRld] tknwxj o vks>k½ gates, weirs, etc.
14- ekuo”kkL=h; fl)kUr % i “kkL=h; mn~fodklokn&ekWxZu] Vkbyj]Qzstj] ii& izlkjokn& fczfV”k] Laminar Flow: Laminar and turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate, laminar sub-layer,
teZu] rFkk vesfjdu iii izdk;Zokn& eSfyuksoLdh]lajpukRed izdk;Zokn& jsMfDyQ czkmu iv& smooth and rough boundaries, submerged flow, drag and lift forces.
lajpukokn& ysoh LVªkWl v& laLd`fr o O;fDrRo& csusfMDV]ehM] fyUVu] dkfMZuj] dksjk&Mq&ckW;t vi&
Turbulent flow through pipes: Characteristics of turbulent flow, velocity distribution and
uomn~fodklokn&pkbYM] OgkbV]LVqoVZ vii lkaLd`frd HkkSfrdrkokn& ekfou gSfjl
variation of pipe friction factor, Hydraulic grade line and total energy line.
15- ¼1½ lkaLd`frd ekuofoKku esa vuqlU/kku i)fr%& ekuofoKku esa {ks=& dk;Z ijEijk] izfof/k] i)fr
(b) Hydraulics: Uniform and non-uniform flows, momentum and energy correction
rFkk i)fr”kkL= esa vUrj] rF; ladyu ds rjhds& ifjos{k.k] lk{kkRdkj] vuqlwph] iz”ukoyh] dslfgLVªh]
factors, specific energy and specific force, critical depth, gradually varied flow,
dslLVMh rFkk oa”kkoyh] lwpukvksa ds f}rh;d L=ksrA
classification of surface profiles, control section, step method of integration of varied flow
¼2½ vUrZ& lkaLd`frd v/;;u ,oa fu;fU=r rqyukA equations, rapidly varied flow, hydraulic jump. Surges.
u` foKku iz”u i=&II Hydraulic Machines and Hydropower: Hydraulic turbines and their classification,
1- Hkkjrh; laLd`fr vkSj lH;rk dk mn; ,oa fodkl% izkxSfrgkfld ¼iqjkik’kk.k] e/;ik’kk.k] uoik’kk.k ,oa choice of turbines, performance parameters, controls, Characteristics, specific speed,
rkezik’kk.k½] vk| ,sfrgkfld ¼flU/kq lH;rk½A Principles of hydropower development.
2- Hkkjr dk tulkaf[;dh; js[kk fp=% Hkkjrh; tula[;k esa u`tkrh; rFkk Hkk’kk;h rRo vkSj mudk (c) Geotechnical Engineering: Soil types and structure, gradation and particle size
forj.kA distribution, Atterberg's limits.
3- ikjEifjd Hkkjrh; lekt dh lajpuk ,oa izdk;Z% o.kkZJe] iq:’kkFkZ] deZ] _.k vkSj iqutZUeA Flow through porous media: Effective stress and pore water Pressure, permeability
4- Hkkjr esa tkfr O;oLFkk% lajpuk ,oa fo”ks’krk,a% o.kZ ,oa tkfr] izHkqtkfr] tkfr&xfr”khyrk] ttekuh concept, field and laboratory determination of permeability, Seepage pressure, quick sand
izFkk] tutkfr&tkfr fujUrjrkA condition.
5- ifo= ladqy] izd`fr% ekuo vkSj thokRe ladqyA Compaction of soil: Laboratory and field tests. Compressibility and consolidation theory,
6- Hkkjrh; lekt ¼tutkfr;ksa lfgr½ ij /keksZ dk izHkko% ckS)] tSu] bLyke rFkk bZlkb;rA consolidation settlement analysis. Shear strength determination Mohr coulomb theory.
7- Hkkjr esa ekuo foKku dk mn; ,oa fodkl% vkjfEHkd fo}ku&iz”kkldksa dk ;ksxnkuA tutkfr&tkfr Stress distribution in soils Boussinesque and Westergaard's analysis, Earth pressure
v/;;uksa esa ekuo “kkfL=;ksa dk ;ksxnkuA theory and analysis for retaining walls, application for sheet piles and Braced excavation.
8- Hkkjrh; xzke ds i{k% lkekftd] vkfFkZd] jktuSfrd ,oa /kkfeZdA cLrh ,oa vUrtkZrh; ifjorZu ds Bearing capacity of soil: Approaches for analysis, fields tests, settlement analysis, stability
izfrekuA laLd`frdj.k] if”pehdj.k] vkSj vk/kqfudhdj.kA iapk;rh jkt ,oa lkekftd ifjorZuA of slopes.
9- 1- Hkkjr esa tutkfr;ksa dh vofLFkfr% tutkrh; tula[;k dh Hkk’kkbZ vkSj lkekftd&vkfFkZdh Foundation: Type and selection criteria for foundation of structures, Design criteria for
fo”ks’krk,W vkSj mudh tSo&vkuqoaf”kdh fHkUurk,aA foundation, Analysis of distribution of stress for footings and pile, pile group action, pile
2- tutkfr;ksa dh leL;k,a% Hkwfe&gLrkraj.k] fu/kZurk] fuEu lk{kjrk] csjkstxkjh] LokLF; vkSj iks’k.kA load tests.
3- fodkl lEcU/kh ifj;kstuk,a% tutkfr;ksa dk foLFkkiu rFkk muds iquokZl lEcU/kh leL;k,aA uohu Subsuface exploration of soils, Ground improvement and soil stablisation techniques.
ouuhfr vkSj tutkfr;kWA tutkrh; tula[;k ij uxjhdj.k rFkk vkS|ksxhdj.k dk izHkkoA efmeefJeue DeefYeÙeeef$ebkeâer (CIVIL ENGINEERING)
10- 1- vuqlwfpr tkfr;ksa] vuwlwfpr tutkfr;ksa rFkk vU; fiNM+s oxksZ ds “kks’k.k rFkk oapu dh leL;k,aA PAPER-II
vuqlwfpr tkfr;ksa ,oa vuqlwfpr tutkfr;ksa gsrq laoS/kkfud lqj{kkA PART-A
(a) Construction Technology, Planning and Management:
2-lkekftd ifjorZu rFkk ledkyhu tutkrh; lekt% vk/kqfud iztkrkaf=d laLFkkvksa dk izHkko rFkk
Building Materials: Physical Properties of construction materials with respect to their
detksj oxksZ ds fy, dY;k.kdkjh dk;ZdzeA efgykvksa dh lgHkkfxrkA
use, Stones, Bricks, Tiles, Lime, Cement, Mortars, Concrete,
3-u`tkrh; Hkkouk dh ladYiuk% tutkfr;ksa esa vlarks’k rFkk tutkrh; vkUnksyuA d`f=e tutkfr;rkA Timber: Properties, defects and common preservation treatments, Ferro cement, fibre
mifuos”kokn ds nkSjku rFkk Lok/khurksijkUr tutkfr;ksa esa lkekftd ifjorZuA reinforced cement High strength concrete.
11- tutkrh; {ks=ksa] tutkrh; uhfr;ksa] ;kstuk,a rFkk fodkl dk;Zdze vkSj muds fdz;kUo;u ds iz”kklu Use and selection of materials for various uses e.g. Low cost housing, mass housing, High
dk bfrgklA laosnu”khy tutkrh; lewgA rise buildings.
12- tutkrh; fodkl esa ,u0th0vks0 dh HkwfedkA Building Constructions: Masonry Constructions using Brick, stone construction
13- tutkrh; vkSj xzkeh.k fodkl esa ekuo “kkfL=;ksa dh HkwfedkA detailing and strength characteristics.
Paints, varnishes, plastics, water proofing and damp proofing materials, Detailing of walls,
floors, roofs staircases doors and windows. Plastering, pointing , flooring , roofing and
20.efmeefJeue DeefYeÙeeef$ebkeâer (CIVIL ENGINEERING) construction features.Common repairs in buildings.
PAPER-I Principle of planning of buildings for residents and specific use, Building code provisions
PART-A and use.
(a) Theory of Structures: Simple stress and strain, Elastic constants, Axially loaded Basic principles of detailed and Approximate estimating, specifications, rate analysis,
compression members, Shear force and bending moment, Theory of simple bending, principles of valuation of real property. Machinery for earthwork, concreting and their
Shear stress distributions across sections, Beams of uniform strength. specific uses, Factors affecting selection of construction equipments, operating cost of
Deflection of beams: Mecaulay's method, Mohr's moment area method, Conjugate beam equipments.
method, Unit load method, Elastic stability of columns, Construction activity, schedules, organizations, Quality assurance principles. Basic
principle of network, CPM and PERT uses in construction monitoring, Cost optimization
Castiglianio's theorems I and II, unit load method of consistent deformation applied to
and resource allocation. Basic principles of Economic analysis and methods.
beams and pin jointed trusses. Slope-deflection and moment distribution methods.
Project Profitability: Basic principles of financial planning, simple toll fixation criterions.
Rolling loads and influences lines: Influence lines for shear Force and Bending moment at (b) Surveying: Common methods and instruments for distance and angle measurement
a section of a beam. Criteria for maximum shear force and bending moment in beams for Civil Engg.works, their use in plane table, traverse survey, leveling, triangulation,
traversed by a system of moving loads. Influences lines for simply supported plane pin contouring and topographical maps. Basic principles of photogrammetry and remote
jointed trusses. sensing. Introduction to Geographical information system.
Arches: Three hinged, two hinged and fixed arches, rib shortening and temperature (c) Highway Engineering: Principles of Highway alignments, classification and
effects. geometrical design, elements and standards for roads.
Matrix mehods of analysis: Force method and displacement method of analysis of Pavement structure for flexible and rigid pavements, Design principles and methodology.
indeterminate beams and rigid frames. Construction methods and materials for stabilized soil, WBM, Bituminous works and CC
roads.
Plastic-analysis of beams and frames: Theory of plastic bending, Plastic analysis statical
Surface and sub-surface drainage arrangements for roads, culvert structures.
method, Mechanism method.
Pavement distresses and strengthening by overlays.
Unsymmetrical bending: Moment of inertia, position of Neutral axis and Principal axes, Traffic surveys and their application in traffic planning, Typical design features for
Calculation of bending stresses. channelized, intersection rotary etc., signal designs, standard traffic signs and markings.
(b) Design of Concrete structures: Concept of mix design. Reinforced concrete: Working (d) Railway Engineering: Permanent way, ballast, sleeper, chair and fastenings, points
stress and limit state method of design. Recommendation of B.I.S. Codes. Design of one- crossings, different types of turn outs, cross-over, setting out of points, Maintenances of
way and two-way slabs, stair-case, slabs, simple and continuous beams of rectangular, T track, super elevation, creep of rails, ruling gradients, track resistance, tractive effort,
and L sections. Compression members under direct load with or without eccentricity. curve resistance, Station yards and station, station buildings, platform sidings turn outs,
Cont...

Page No. - 16
Signals and interlocking, Level Crossings. jet and air refrigeration systems, Desirable properties of refrigerants, eco- friendly
PART- B refrigerants, Analysis of compressors, condensers, expansion valves and evaporaters.
(a) Water Resources Engineering: (PART- B)
Hydrology: Hydrologic cycle, precipitation, evaporation , transpiration, infiltration, overland 5. I.C Engines: Classification, Thermodynamic cycles of operation, Performance
flow, hydrograph, flood frequency analysis, flood routing through a reservoir, channel flow Calculations, Heat balance sheet, Combustion in S.I and C.I Engines, normal and
routing- Muskingam method. abnormal combustion, knocking and detonation. Effect of variables on knocking and
Ground Water flow: Specific yield, storage coefficient, coefficient of permeability, detonation, Fuels used in S.I and C.I Engines, Fuel injection, carburetion and multi point
confined and unconfined aquifers, radial flow into a well under confined and unconfined fuels injection (MPFI) Supercharging, Engine cooling, Emission and Control, Turboprop
conditions. Open wells and Tubewells. and Rocket Engines.
Ground and surface water resources, single and multipurpose projects, storage capacity of 6. Steam Engineering: Modern steam Generators, Rankine cycle, Modified Rankine
reservoirs, reservoir losses, reservoir sedimentation. cycle and analysis, Natural and artificial draught, flow of steam in convergent and divergent
Water requirements of crops, consumptive use, duty and delta, irrigation methods and their nozzles, pressure at throat for maximum discharge, super saturated flow in nozzles,
efficiencies. Wilson line.
Canals: Distribution systems for canal irrigation, canal capacity, canal losses, alignment of 7. Turbomachines: Classification, Continuity, momentum and energy equations, Flow
main and distributory canals, most efficient section, lined canals and their design, regime analysis in axial and centrifugal compressors and turbines, Dimensional analysis and
theory, critical shear stress, bed load. modelling. Performance of Pumps, Compressors and turbines.
Water logging: causes and control, salinity. 8. Power Plant Engineering: Site selection for Steam, Hydro Nuclear and Gas Power
Canal structures: Design of head regulators, canal falls, aqueducts, metering flumes and Plants, dust removal equipments, fuel handling and cooling water system.
canal outlets. Thermodynamic analysis of steam and gas turbine power plants, governing of turbines.
Diversion head work: Principles and design of weirs on permeable and impermeable
Solar, Wind and Nuclear Power Plants, Economic power generation.
foundation, Khosla's theory. 22. (efJeÅegle DeefYeÙeebef$ekeâer) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING:
Storage works: Types of dams, design, principle of gravity and earth dams, stability PAPER-I
analysis. (IE.M. Theory: Analysis of Electrostatic and magetostatic Fields, Laplace, Poisson &
Spillways: Spillway types, energy dissipation. Maxwell's equation. Electromagnetic wave equations. Poynting's Theorem. Waves on
River training: Objectives of river training, methods of river training and bank protection.
transmission lines. Wave-guides. Microwave resonators.
(b) Environmental Engineering: (ii) Networks & Systems: Systems and signals, Network Theorems and their
Water Supply: predicting demand for water, impurities of water and their significance,
applications. Transient and steady-state analysis of systems. Transform techniques and
physical, chemical and bacteriological analysis, waterborne diseases, standards for
circuit analysis, Coupled circuits. Resonant circuits, Balanced three-phase circuits.
potable water.
Network functions. Two-port network. Network parameters. Elements of network
Intake of Water: Water treatments: principles of coagulation, flocculation and
synthesis. Elementary active networks.
sedimentation, slow, rapid and pressure filters, chlorination, softening, removal of tests,
(iii) Electrical & Electronic Measurement & Instrumentation: Basic methods of
odour and salinity.
Measurement. Error analysis, Electrical Standards. Measurement of voltage, current,
Sewerage Systems: Domestic and industrial wastes, storm sewage, separate and
power, energy, power-factor, resistance, inductance, capacitance, frequency and loss-
combined systems, flow through sewers, design of sewers.
angles. Indicating instruments. DC and AC Bridges, Electronic measuring instruments.
Sewage Characterisation: BOD,COD, solids, dissolved oxygen, nitrogen and TOC.
Multi-meter, digital voltmeter, frequency counter, Q-meter, oscilloscope, techniques,
Standards of disposal in normal water course and on land.
Sewage Treatment: Working principle, units, chambers, sedimentation tank, trickling special purpose CRO's. Transducers and their classifications. Thermo-couple, thermistor,
filters, oxidation ponds, activated sludge process, septic tank, disposal of sludge, recycling RTD, LVDT, strain-gauges. Piezo-electric transducers etc., Application of tranducers in the
of waste water. measurement of non-electrical quantities like pressure, temperature, displacement,
Solid waste management: Collection and disposal in rural and urban contexts, velocity acceleration, flow-rate etc.; Data-acquisition systems.
management of solid waste. (iv) Analog & Digital Electronics: semiconductors, semiconductor diodes & zener-diode,
Environmental pollution: Sustainable development, Radioactive wastes and disposal. Bi-polar junction transistor and their parameters. Transistor biasing, analysis of all types of
Environmental impact assessment for thermal power plants, mines, river valley projects. amplifiers including feedback and D.C. amplifiers; Operational amplifiers and their
Air and water pollution control acts. application; Feedback oscillators: Colpitts and Hartley types, waveform generators; Multi-
21. (Ùeebef$ekeâ DeefYeÙeeef$ebkeâer) MECHANICAL ENGINEERING: PAPER-I vibrators; Boolean algebra. Logic gates Combinational and sequential digital circuits.
(PART-A) Semiconductor memories. A/D & D/A converters; Microprocessor. Number system and
1. Theory of Mechines: Kinematic and dynamic anyalysis of planer mechanisms, belt and codes, elements of microprocessors & their important applications.
chain drives, gears and gear train, cams, flywheel and governors. Balancing of rotating and (v) Electrical Machines: D.C. Machines: commutation and armature reaction,
reciprocating masses, single and multi cylinder Engines. characteristics and performance of motors and generators; Applications, starting and
2. Mechanical Vibrations: Vibrating systems, single degree freedom systems, natural speed control. Synchronous generators: Armature reaction, voltage regulation, parallel
frequency, damped and forced vibrations, resonance, force transmissibility, two degree of operation. Single- and Three-phase Induction motors: Principle of operation, performance
freedom systems, vibration absorbers, whirling of shafts and critical speeds. characteristics, starting, speed control. Synchronous Motors: Principle of operation,
3. Mechanics of Solids: Stress and strain, elastic constants, uniaxial loading, thermal performance analysis, Hunting, Synchronous condenser. Transformers: Construction,
stress, two dimensional stress analysis, principal stresses, generalised Hook's law, total phasor diagram, equivalent circuit, voltage regulation, Performance, Auto-transformers,
and distorsion strain energy, theories of failures, bending and shear stresses in beams, instrument transformers. Three-phase transformers.
Torsion of shafts, Close coiled Helical springs, Thin and thick pressure versels, rotating (vi) Material Science: Theory of Semiconductors, Conductors and insulators.
discs, Buckling of columns. Superconductivity. Various insulators used for Electrical and Electronic applications.
4. Engineering Materials: Basic concept of structure of solids, crystalline materials, Different magnetic materials, properties and applications. Hall Effect.
crystal defects, alloys and binary phase diagrams, structures and properties of common (efJeÅegle DeefYeÙeebef$ekeâer) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING:
engineering materials. Basics of polymers, ceramics and composite materials; Iron- PAPER-II: (SECTION-A)
Carbon equilibrium diagram, heat treatment of steels. 1. Control Engineering: Mathematical Modeling of physical dynamic systems. Block
(PART-B) diagram and signal flowgraph. Transfer function. Time-response and frequency-response
5. Manufacturing Science: Machine tool Engineering, Merchant's force analysis, Taylor's of linear systems. Error evaluation, Bode Plot, Polar Plot and Nichol's chart, Gain Margin
tool life equation, conventional machining, NC and CNC machining Processes, jigs and and Phase Margin, Stability of linear feedback control systems. Routh-Hurwitz and Nyquist
fixtures, standard forming and welding processes. criteria. Root locus technique. Design of compensators. State variable methods in system
6. Non Convensional Machining Processes: EDM, ECM, Ultrasonic machining, water modeling, analysis and design. Controllability and Observability and their testing methods.
jet machining etc, application of lasers and plasmas, energy rate calculations. Metrology: Pole placement, design using state variables feedback. Control system components
concept of fits and tolerances, tools and gauges, comparators, inspection of length, (Potentiometers, Tachometers, Synchros & Servomotors).
position, profile and surface finish. 2. Industrial Electronics: Various power semiconductor devices. Thyristor & its
7. Manufacturing Management: Product development, value analysis, Break-even protection and series-parallel operation. Single-phase and poly-phase uncontrolled
analysis, forecasting techniques, Operation Scheduling, Capacity Planning, Assembly line rectifiers. Smoothing filters, D.C. regulated power supplies. Controlled converters and
balancing, CPM and PERT, Inventory control, ABC Analysis, EOQ model, material inverters, choppers. Cyclo-converters, A.C. voltage regulators. Application to variable
requirement planning, job design, job standards, method study and work measurements. speed drives. Induction and Dielectric heating.
8. Quality Management: Quality analysis, control charts, acceptance, sampling, total quality SECTION-B: (HEAVY CURRENT)
management, Operations research, linear programming, graphical and simplex methods, (3) Electrical Machines: (IFundamentals of Electro-Mechanical energy conversion.
Transportation and assignment models, single Serve queueing model, Value Engineering. Analysis of Electro-Magnetic torque and induced voltages. The general torque equation.
(Ùeebef$ekeâ DeefYeÙeeef$ebkeâer) MECHANICAL ENGINEERING: PAPER-II (ii). Three- Phase Induction motors: Concept of revolving field. Induction motor as
(PART-A) transformer. Phasor diagram and equivalent circuit. Performance evaluation. Correlation
1. Thermodynamics: Laws of thermodynamics and their applications; T-ds equations,
of induction motor operation with basic torque relations. Torque-speed characteristics.
Maxwell and Clapeyron equation and their uses; Availability and irreversibility.
Circle diagram, starting and speed-control methods. (iii). Synchronous Machines:
2. Fluid Mechanics: Properties and classification of fluids, Manometry, forces on
Generation of e.m.f.; Equivalent circuit, Experimental determimation of leakage and
immersed sunfaces, stability of floating bodies, Kinematics and dynamics of
synchronous reactances. Theory of salient-pole machines. Power equation. Parallel
incompressible fluids. Laminar and turbulent boundary layer flows. Bernoulli's equation,
operation. Transient and sub-transient reactances and time constants. Synchronous
fully developed flow through pipes.
motor. Phasor diagram and equivalent circuit. Performance, V-curves. Power factor
3. Heat Transfer: Modes of heat transfer, One dimensional steady and unsteady
control, hunting. (iv). Special Machines: Two-phase A.C. servomotors.-Equivalent circuit
conduction. Heat transfer through extended surfaces. Free and forced convective heat
and performance; Stepper motors. Methods of operation, Drive amplifiers. Half stepping.
transfer, Empirical correlations in laminar and turbulent flows, Heat Exchangers, Radiation
Reluctance type steppor motor, Principles and working of universal motor. Single-phase
heat transfer laws, shape factor, heat exchange between black and gray surfaces.
4. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning: Vapour compression, vapour absorption, steam A.C. compersated series motor.
(4) Electric Drives: Fundamentals of electric drive, Rating estimation. Electric braking.
Cont...

Page No. - 17
Electro-mechanical transients during starting and braking, time and energy calculations. 8. A.K. Ramanujan. The following poems: “Looking for a Cousin on a Swing”, “On The
Load equalization. Solid-State control of D.C., Three-phase Induction and Synchronous Death of a Poem”
motors. Applications of electric motors. 9. John Osborne: Look Back in Anger.
(5) Electric Traction: Various Systems of track electrification and their comparison. 10. Eugene O'Neill: Desire Under the Elms
Mechanics of train movement. Estimation of tractive effort and energy requirement. 11. Girish Karnad: Hayavadana
Electrification and their comparison, Traction motors and their characteristics. 12. Thomas Carlyle: “Hero as a Poet”
(6) Power System and Protection: (a). Types of Power Station. Selection of site. General 13. John Ruskin: “ The Veins of Wealth” (Essay II from Unto This Last)
Section-C
layout of Thermal, Hydro and Nuclear Stations. Economics of different types. Base load
Texts for non-detailed study are listed below:
and peak load of stations. Pumped-storage Plants. (b). Transmission and Distribution: A.C.
1. Graham Greene: The Power and the Glory
and D.C. Transmission systems. Transmission line parameters and calculations. 2. William Golding: Lord of the Flies
Performance of Short, Medium and Long transmission lines, A-, B-, C-, D-parameters. 3. Raja Rao: Kanthapura.
Insulators. Mechanical design of overehead transmission lines and Sag calculation, 4. Nathaniel Hawthorne: The Scarlet Letter
Corona and its effects, Radio interference. EHVAC and HVDC transmission lines, under- ¼24½ mnwZ lkfgR;% izFke iz'u& i=
ground cables. Per unit representation of power system. Symmetrical and unsymmetrical ¼Hkkx&v½
fault analysis. Symmetrical components and their application to fault analysis. Load flow 1&¼v½ mnwZ Hkk"kk dk fodkl % ¼v½ if'peh fgUnh vkSj mldh mi Hkk"kk;sa & [kM+h cksyh] cztHkk"kk vkSj
analysis using Gauss-Seidel and Newtor-Raphson methods. Fast de-coupled load flow. gfj;k.kohaA ¼c½ mnwZ Hkk"kk esa Qkjlh &vjch rRo] ¼l½ mnwZ Hkk"kk lu~ 1600 bZ ls 1900 bZ0 rd ¼n½ mnwZ Hkk"kk
Steady-state and transient stability. Equal area criterion, Economic operation of power dk mn~Hko& fofHkUu fopkj/kkjk;saA
system, incremental fuel costs and fuel rate. Penalty factors. ALFC and AVR control for
2&¼v½ ndu esa mnwZ lkfgR; dk fodkl ¼c½ mnwZ 'kk;jh ds nks Dykfldh Ldwy% nsgyh vkSj y[kuÅ ¼l½
real-time operation of inter-connected power system. (c). Protection: Principle of arc
mnwZ x| dk fodkl & xkfyc rd A
3&¼v½ vyhx<+ rgjhd] ixzfr'khy vkUnky s u rFkk budk mnZw lkfgR; ij iHzkko ¼c½ Lor=a;kRsrj dk mnZw lkfgR;A
extinction, Classification of circuit breakers. Restriking phenomenon. Calculation of ¼Hkkx&c½
restriking and recovery voltages. Interruption of small inductive and capacitive currents 1-mnwZ 'kk;jh dh izeq[k fo/kk;sa & xty] dlhnk] eflZ;k] eluoh] :ckbZ] drk uTe] vrqdkUr dfork ,oa
Testing of Circuit Breakers. (d). Relaying Principles: Primary and back-Up relaying, over- eqDr NUn dforkA 2 mnwZ x| dh izeq[k fo/kk;sa & nkLrku] miU;kl] y?kq dFkk] ukV~; lkfgR;] lkfgR;
current, differential, impedance, and direction relaying principles. Constructional details. leh{kk] thou pfj=] fucU/k] [kkdk] ba'kkbZ;kA 3 Loar=rk vkUnksyu esa mnwZ lkfgR; dk ;ksxnkuA
Protection schemes for transmission line, transformer, generator, and bus protection. mnwZ lkfgR;% f}rh; iz'u& i=
Current and potential transformer and their applications in relaying. Traveling waves. bl iz'u &i= esa ewy ikB dk v/;;u visf{kr gksxkA blesa ,sls iz'u iwNs tk;saxs ftuls ijh{kkFkhZ dh
Protection against surges, Surge impedance. vkykspukRed {kerk dk vkadyu fd;k tk ldsA
(OR) ¼Hkkx&v½
SECTION-C (Light Current) ¼x|½& 1 ehj vEeu% ckxks cgkj] 2 xkfyc% bars[kkc & ,& [kqrwrs xkfyc] lEiknd &m0iz0 mnwZ vdkMeh]
(7) Communication System: Amplitude, Frequency and Phase modulation and their 3- gkyh% eqdnek&,&'ksjks 'kk;jh 4- :lok% mejkotku vnk 5- izsepUnz% izsepUnz ds uqekbUnk vQlkus]
comparison, Generation and detection of amplitude, frequency, phase and pulse lEiknd& dej jbZl 6- vcqy dyke vtkn% xqckj & ,& [kkfrj] 7- bfEr;kt vyh rkt& vukjdyh
modulated signals. Modulators and demodulators, Noise problems, Channel efficiency. 8- dqjZrqy,su gSnj% vkf[kj & ,& 'kc ds gelQjA
Sampling theorem. Sound and vision broadcost, transmitting and receiving systems. ¼Hkkx&c½
Antennas and feeders. Transmission lines at Audio, Radio and ultra-high frequencies. (I9- ehj% bars[kkc &,&dyke&,&ehj] lEiknd &vCnqy gd 10 lkSnk% dlkbZn& ,& lkSnk gToh;kr
Fiber-optics and optical communication systems. Digital communications, pulse code lfgr &bUrs[kkc &,& dalk;n% m0iz0 mnwZ vdkneh y[kuÅ] 11 xkfyc% nhoku &,& xkfyc] 12-
modulation. Data communication, satellite communication. Computer communication bdcky% dqfYy;kr&,& bdcky ¼dsoy cky &,& ftczkby½ 13- tks'k eyhgkcknh% lSQ&vks&lqcw 14-
system- LAN, ISDN etc. Electronic Exchanges. (a) Microwaves: Electromagetic waves, fQjkd xksj[kiqjh % xqy &,&uxek 15- QSTk% nLr&,&lck] 16 v[rj &my& bZeku% ¼dsoy nks UkTesa%
unguided media, wave guides. Cavity resonators and Microwave tubes, Magnetrons, rkjhd l¸;kjk] fcUr&,&yEgkr½A
Klystrons and TVVT. Solid-State microwave devices. Microwave amplifiers. Microwave ¼25½ fgUnh lkfgR; izFke iz'u i=
receivers. Microwave filters and measurements. Microwave antennas.
Hkkx&1 fgUnh Hkk"kk rFkk ukxjh fyfi dk bfrgkl& 1- ikfy] ikzdr` ,oa viHk'zak rFkk ijqkuh fgUnh dk lfa{kIr
(23) English Literature
ifjp;A 2- e/;dky eas ct z vkjS vo/kh dk dkO; Hkk"kk ds :i eas fodklA 3- [kMh+ cky s h lkfgfR;d Hkk"kk ds :i eas
Paper-I fodklA 4- jktHkk"kk] lEidZ Hkk"kk] jk"VHªkk"kk ,oa ekud Hkk’kk ds :i es fgUnhA 5- oK S kfud vkjS rduhdh {k= s eas
Answers must be written in English. fgUnh Hkk"kk dh fLFkfrA 6- fgUnh Hkk"kk dk {k=s vkjS vo/kh] ct z ] [kMh+ cky
s h] Hkkt
s ijqh] cUqny
s h dk {k=
s ,oa Hkkf"kd
Section-A fo'k"skrk,Aa 7- ekud fgUnh dk O;kdjf.kd Lo:iA 8- ukxjh fyfi dk mnH~ko vkjS fodkl] nosukxjh fyfi dh
Candidates will be required to show adequate knowledge of the following topics and oKS kfudrk] leL;k;as vkjS lek/kku A 9- fgUnh 'kCn & lEinkA
movements: ¼Hkkx&2 fgUnh lkfgR; dk bfrgkl½
The Renaissance: Elizabethan and Jacobean Drama; Metaphysical Poetry; The Epic and 1- fgUnh lkfgR; ds bfrgkl ys[ku dh ijEijkA 2- fgUnh lkfgR; ds bfrgkl esa dky& foHkktu rFkk
the Mock-epic; Neo-classicism; Satire; The Romantic Movement; The Rise of the Novel; ukedj.k A 3- vkfndky] HkfDrdky] jhfrdky] vk/kfqud dky dh iez[qk iozf`r;kAa 4- vk/kfqud dky% iuqtkZxj.k
The Victorian Age. vkjS HkkjrUsnq ;x
q ] f}onsh ;x
q ] Nk;kokn] ixz frokn] i;zkx s okn] u;h dfork ,oa ijorhZ dkO;/kkjk;saA
Section-B
Texts for detailed study are listed below: ¼d½ fgUnh miU;kl] fgUnh dgkuh] fgUnh ukVd ,oa jaxeap% mn~Hko &fodkl ,oa budh v/kqukru izo`fRr;ka
1. William Shakespeare: Twelfth Night, King Henry IV, Pt I, Macbeth and the Tempest. ¼[k½ fgUnh fucU/k rFkk vU; x| fo/kk;sa% thouh] vkREkdFkk] js[kkfp=] laLej.k ;k=k o`rkaUrA ¼x½ fgUnh
2. John Donne. The following poems: “Canonization”, “Death be not proud”, “The Good vkykspuk dk izkajEHk vkSj fodklA izeq[k vkykspd % jkepanz 'kqDYk] UkUnnqykjs cktis;h] gtkjh izlkn
Morrow” and “The Relic”. f}osnh] uxsUnz] jkefoykl 'kekZ] ukeoj flag] jkeLo:i prqosZnhA
3. John Milton: Paradise Lost, Book-I fgUnh lkfgR;% f}rh; iz'u i=]
4. John Dryden: All for Love ¼Hkkx& izFke½
5. Alexander Pope: The Rape of the Lock
6. William Wordsworth. The following poems: “Tintern Abbey”, “Three Years She Grew”, bl iz'u&i= esa fu/kkZfjr jpukvksa esa ls O;k[;k ,oa mu ij vkykspukRed iz'u iwNs tk;saxsA dchj
“Michael” and “Milton, Thou Shouldst be Living at This Hour” xzUFkkoyh] lEiknd &';ke lqUnj nkl] lk[kh la[;k 1 ls 100 rd vkSj in la[;k 1 ls 20 rdA
7. P B Shelley: “To a Skylark” and “Ode to the West Wind” lwjnkl ¼Hkzejxhr lkj½ lEiknd&jkePkUnz 'kqDy] in la[;k 51 ls 100 ¼dqy 50 in½
8. Alfred Tennyson: “Ulysses” and “Lotos Eaters” rqylhnkl& jkepfjrekul mRrjdk.M& ¼nksgk la[;k& 75 ls vUr rd½ A tk;lh ¼inekor½]
9. Robert Browning: “My Last Duchess” and “The Lost Leader” lEiknd & jkePkUnz 'kqDYk ¼flagynhi [k.M vkSj ukxerh fo;ksx [k.M½] fcgkjh laxzg ¼izkjEHk ls 100
10. Francis Bacon: “Of Studies” and “Of Truth”
nksgs rd ½ fgUnh ifj"kn izdk'ku] bykgkcknA
11. Charles Lamb: “ Dream Children” and “Poor Relations”
Section-C t;'kadj izlkn & dkek;uh & ¼J)k vkSj bM+k lxZ½ lqfe=kuUnu iUr& ukSdk fcgkj] ifjorZu] fujkyk &
Text for non-detailed study are listed below: jke dh 'kfDRk iwtk] vKs; & vlk/;oh.kk] eqfDRk cks/k& vU/ksjs esa] ukxktqZu&ckny dks f?kjrs ns[kk gS]
1. Jane Austen. Pride and Prejudice. vdky ds cknA
2. Charles Dickens. Great Expectations. ¼Hkkx f}rh;½
3. Thomas Hardy: Far from the Madding Crowd
ukVd& HkkjrsUnq gfj'pUnz & vU/ksj uxjh] t;'kadj izlkn&LdUn xqIr]
4. Mark Twain: The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.
Subject: English Literature fucU/k& jkePkUnz 'kqDYk] fpUrkef.k Hkkx&,d ¼dfork D;k gS] J)k vkSj HkfDRk½A gtkjh izlkn f}osnh
Paper-II &dqVqt ¼fucU/k½
Answers must be written in English. miU;kl& izsepUnz&xksnku] Q.kh'ojukFk js.kq& eSyk vkapyA
Section-A fgUnh dh dgkfu;ka& 1& izsepUnz& ekW] 2& t;'kadj izlkn& vkdk'knhi] 3&vKs;&jkst]
Candidates will be required to show adequate knowledge of the following topics and
4& jktsUnz ;kno& tgka y{eh dSn gS] 5& m"kk fiz;Ecnk&okilhA
movements:
Pre-Raphaelite Movement, Modernism; Poets of the Thirties; The stream-of-
consciousness Novel; Absurd Drama; Colonialism and Post-Colonialism; Indian Writing in ¼26½ laLd`r&lkfgR;% izFke iz'ui=
English; Feminist approaches to Literature. [k.M&d& Hkk"kk foKku& Hkk"kk dk mn~Hko vkSj fodkl] Hkk"kkkvksa dk oxhZdj.k] Hkkjksih; ,oa e/;dkyhu
Section-B Hkkjrh; vk;ZHkk"kk,a] vFkZifjorZu dh fn'kk,a rFkk dkj.k] /ofufu;e] /ofuifjorZu ds dkj.k] laLd`r
Texts for detailed study are listed below: &/ofu;ksa ds fo'ks"k lUnHkZ esa ekuoh; okX;U=] LkaLd`r&/ofu;ksa ds mPpkj.k & LFkku ,oa iz;Ru] oSfnd ,oa
1. William Butler Yeats. The following poems: “The Second Coming”, “Sailing to ykSfdd laLd`r dh rqyukA
Byzantium”, “A Prayer for my Daughter”, “Meru” and “Lapis Lazuli”
[k.M&[k& laLd`r O;kdj.k& lfU/k] lekl] d`nUr] rf)r] L=hizR;; ,oa dkjd ¼y?kqfl)kUrdkSeqnh
2. T.S. Eliot, The following poems: “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” and “Journey of the
ls½A
Magi”
3. W.H. Auden. The following Poems: “The Unknown Citizen” and “In Memory of W.B. [k.M&x& Hkkjrh; n'kZu& fuEufyf[kr ikB~;xzUFkksa ds vk/kkj ij Hkkjrh; n'kZu dk lkekU; v/;;u&
Yeats” rdZHkk"kk &ds'ko feJ ¼vuqekUki;ZUr½] lak[;dkfjdk &bZ'ojd`".k] osnkUrlkj&lnkuUn]
4. Philip Larkin. The Following poems: “Afternoons” and “Deceptions” dBksifu"kn~&izFke v/;k;& f}rh;k oYyh] Jhen~Hkxon~xhrk&f}rh; v/;k;A
5. Sylvia Plath. The following poems: “Mirror” and “Daddy” [k.M&?k& laLd`r&dkO;'kkL=& ¼d½ vkuUno/kZud`r /oU;kyksd] izFke m|ksr ds vk/kkj ij /ofu vkSj
6. Derek Walcott. The Following Poems: “A Far Cry from Africa” and “Sea Grapes” mlds Hksnksa dk lkekU; v/;;u ¼[k½ eEeVd`r dkO;izdk'k ls fuEufyf[kr fo"k;% dkO;iz;kstu]
7. Nissim Ezekiel. The following poems “Background, Casually”, “Night of the Scorpion”
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dkO;y{k.k] dkO;gsrq] dkO;Hksn] 'kCn'kfDRk;ka] jlfl)kUr] xq.k rFkk vuqizkl] 'ys"k] ;ed] miek] :id] ,oa muds lg;ksxh½] vf/kdkjh ra= dk fl)kUr ¼eSDl oscj vkSj mlds vkykspd½ ekuo lEca/k fl)kUr
mRisz{kk] vig~uqfr] vfr'k;ksfDRk O;frjsd] vFkkZUrjU;kl] foHkkouk] fo'ks"kksfDRk] LoHkkoksfDRk] leklksfDRk] ¼,YVu es;ks vkSj muds lkFkh½ O;oLFkk n`f"Vdks.k ¼psLVj cjukMZ½A
vizLrqriaz'klk] n`"VkUr] nhid ,oa ifjla[;k vyadkjA 3- laxBu ds fl)kUr& in lksiku] vkns'k dh ,drk] fu;U=.k dk {ks=] lRrk] izkf/kdkj ,oa mRrjnkf;Ro]
[k.M&M-& laLd`r esas fucU/k& laLd`r esa fucU/k 250 'kCnksa ls de dk ugha gksuk pkfg,A leUo;] lEizs"k.k] i;Zos{k.k] dsUnzh;dj.k ,oa fodsUnzhdj.k] izR;k;kstuA
laLd`r&lkfgR; % f}rh; iz'ui= 4- iz'kklfud O;ogkj& gjcVZ lkbeu ds ;ksxnku ds fo'ks"k lUnHkZ esa fu.kZ;u] lEizs"k.k] eukscy] vfHkizsj.k
[k.M d& x| ,oa i|& fuEufyf[kr xzUFkksa dk v/;;u% 1 dknEcjh ¼'kqduklksins'k½] 2- f'kojktfot;e~ vkSj usr`Ro ds fl)kUrA
¼izFke fu%'okl½ 3 uypEiw ¼izFke mPN~okl½ 4 es?knwre~ ¼iwoZes?k½] 5 fdjkrktqZuh;e~ ¼izFke lxZ½ 6- 5- laxBu dh lajpuk& eq[; dk;Zdkjh ,oa muds dk;Z] lw=] ea=.kk ,oa lgk;d vfHkdj.k foHkkx] fuxe]
uhfr'krde~A ¼25 vadks ds ,d iz'u dk mRrj laLd`r esa fy[kuk gksxk½A dEiuh cksMZ ,oa vk;ksx] eq[;ky; & {ks= lEcU/kA
[k.M&[k&ukV~;lkfgR;&ukV~;&lkfgR; dh fuEufyf[kr jpukvksa dh ikB;lkexzh dk v/;;u% 1- 6- dkfeZd iz'kklu& ukSdj'kkgh rFkk yksd lsok] oxhZdj.k] HkrhZ] izf'k{k.k] o`fRk fodkl] fu"iknu
vfHkKku”kkdqUrye~ ¼prqFkZ vad½ 2- mRrjjkepfjre~ ¼r`rh; vad½] 3- izfrekukVde~ ¼izFke ,oa f}rh; vad½] ewY;kadu] inksUufr] osru lajpuk] lsok 'krsZ] lR;fu"Bk ,oa vuq'kklu] fu;ksDRkk&deZpkjh lEcU/k]
4- e`PNdfVde~ ¼izFke vad½A lsokfUko`fRr ykHk] lkekU;K ,oa fo'ks"kK rVLFkrk ,oa vukerkA
[k.M& x& ikfjHkkf"kd 'kCn& laLd`r ds fuEufyf[kr ikfjHkkf"kd 'kCnksa dk Kku% egkdkO;] [k.MdkO;] 7- foRrh; iz'kklu& ctV dh ladYiuk] ctV fuekZ.k] fo/kk;u rFkk dk;kZUo;u] fu"iknu ctV] 'kwU;
dFkk] vk[;kf;dk] pEiw] izLrkouk] fo"dEHkd] izos'kd] lw=/kkj] oLrqHksn] uk;dHksn] fonw"kd] vk/kkfjr ctV] ys[kk ,oa ys[kk ijh{k.kA
irkdkLFkkud] vFkZizd`fr;kW] dk;kZoLFkk,a] iaplfU/k;ka] fu;rJkO;] Loxr] tukfUrd] vkdk'kHkkf"kr] 8- mRrjnkf;Ro rFkk fu;a=.k& mRrjnkf;Ro ,oa fu;a=.k dh vo/kkj.kk] iz'kkklu ij fo/kk;h] dk;Zdkjh]
usiF;] ukVd] izdj.k ,oa ukfVdkA U;kf;d rFkk ukxfjd fu;a=.kA
[k.M&?k& laLd`r lkfgR; dk bfrgkl& osn ,oa osnkaxksa dk lkekU; ifjp;] fuEufyf[kr lkfgfR;d 9- iz'kklfud lq/kkj& ladYiuk,a ,oa izfØ;k;sa] vks rFkk ,e] dk;Z v/;;u vkSj mldh rduhd] leL;k;sa
fo/kkvksa dk mn~Hko] fodkl vkSj mudh fo'ks"krk,a% vk"kZegkdkO;] egkdkO;] x| dkO;] xhfrdkO;] ukVd ,oa lEHkkouk;saA
,oa dFkk& lkfgR;A 10- iz'kklfud fof/k& vo/kkj.kk ,oa egRo] izR;k;ksftr fo/kk;u] vFkZ] izdkj] ykHk] lhek;sa ,oa lqj{kk]
fVIi.kh% ¼bl [k.M esa 25 vadks dk ,d iz'u fof'k"V jpuk@ jpukdkj ds fo"k; es afVIi.kh ds :i esa iz'kklfud vf/kdj.kA
iz"VO; gksxk½A 11- rqyUkkRed ,oa fodkl iz'kklu& vFkZ] izd`fr ,oa {ks=] fizteSfVd&lkyk] izfr:i ds fo'ks"k lUnHkZ esa
[k.M ³& fgUnh ls laLd`r esa vuqoknA QszM fjXl dk ;ksxnku] fodkl iz'kklu dh vo/kkj.kk% {ks=] egRo] fodkl iz'kklu dk jktuhfrd] vkfFkZd
,oa lkekftd & lakLd`frd lUnHkZ] iz'kklfud fodkl dh ladYiukA
¼27½ Okkf.kT; ,oa ys[kkadu 12- yksd uhfr& ladYiuk,a ,oa egRo] yksd uhfr ds fl)kUr] yksd uhfr& fu/kkZj.k] dk;kZUo;u ,oa
izFke iz”ui= ewY;kaduA
¼ys[kkadu ,oa foRrh; izcU/k½ yksd iz'kklu iz'u i=&2 Hkkjrh; iz'kklu
Hkkx&1% ys[kkadu 1- Hkkjrh; iz'kklu dk Øfed fodkl& ekS;Z] eqxy ,oa fczfV'k dkyhu iz'kklu dh izeq[k fo'ks"krk,A
1- ys[kkadu dh izd`fr] vo/kkj.kk,a ,oa “kk[kk,a] foRrh; ykxr ,oa izcU/kdh; ys[kkadu ls lEcU/k] ys[kkadu 2- laoS/kkfud ifjos'k& lalnh; yksdra=] la?kokn] iaFkfujis{k] lektoknA
ds ykHk ,oa ifjlhek,a] ys[kkadu O;ogkj izdVhdj.k ¼,0,l0&1½ 3- la?k Lrj ij jktuhfrd dk;Zikfydk& jk"Vªifr] iz/kkuea=h ] eaf=ifj"kn] eaf=e.My lfefr;kaA
2- vf/kdkj “kqYd& izdkj] fofo/k vf/kdkj “kqYd gsrq ys[kkadu O;ogkj 4- dsUnzh; iz'kklu dh lajpuk& dsUnzh; lfpoky;] eaf=e.My lfpoky;] ea=ky; ,oa foHkkx cksMZ rFkk
3- fdjk;k Ø; iz.kkyh& vo/kkj.kk ,oa y{k.k] foØsrk ,oa Øsrk ds iqLrdksa esa ys[kkadu izfØ;k] fdjk;k Ø; vk;ksx] {ks=h; laxBuA
cuke fdLr Hkqxrku i)fr 5- dsUnz& jkT; lEcU/k% fo/kk;h] iz'kklfud ,oa foRrh;A
4- “kk[kk ys[kkadu& vkfJr] vukfJr ¼Lora=½ ,oa fons”kh “kk[kk,a] ys[kkadu O;ogkj& “kk[kk [kkrk] vfUre 6- yksd lsok;sa& vf[ky Hkkjrh;] dsUnzh; rFkk jkT; lsok;sa] la?k ,oa jkT; yksd lsok vk;ksx] yksd lsodksa
[kkrk] LdU/k ,oa nsunkj] Fkksd fcdzh “kk[kk fof/k;ka dk izf'k{k.kA
5- ,dhdj.k ,oa iqu% fuekZ.k dh leL;k,a ¼,0,l0&14½] lw=/kkjh dEiuh ds ys[ks] jksdM+ izokg fooj.k 7- ;kstuk ra=& jk"Vªh; Lrj ij ;kstuk fu/kkZj.k] uhfr vk;ksx] jk"Vªh; fodkl ifj"kn] jkT;] ftyk Lrj
¼,0,l0&3½ ij ;kstuk ra=A
6- ykxr ys[kkadu dh izd`fr ,oa dk;Z] LdU/k ewY;kadu fof/k;ka] ykxr i= dk fuekZ.k] lhekUr 8- yksd {ks= miØe& izdkj] mPp Lrjh; izcU/ku] fu;a=.k ,oa leL;k;saA
ykxrkadu&vo/kkj.kk] egRo] lhekUr cuke vo”kks’k.k ykxrkadu] va”knku] ykHk ek=k vuqikr ,oa lqj{kk 9- yksd O;; ij fu;U=.k& lalnh; fu;a=.k] foRr ea=ky; dh Hkwfedk] fu;a=d ,oa egkys[kk ijh{kdA
lhek& mikUr 10- dkuwu ,oa O;oLFkk lEcU/kh iz'kklu& dkuwu ,oa O;oLFkk cuk;s j[kus esa dsUnzh; rFkk jkT; vfHkdj.kksa
Hkkx&2% foRrh; izcU/k% dh HkwfedkA
1- foRrh; izcU/k dh izd`fr] {ks= ,oa mn~ns”;] iwath ctVu fu.kZ;& egRo] izfØ;k ,oa ifjlhek,a] i)fr;kW& 11- jkT; iz'kklu& jkT;iky] eq[;ea=h] eaf=ifj"kn] eq[; lfpo] lfpoky;] funs'kky;A
izR;korZu vof/k] “kq) orZeku ewY;] vkUrfjd izR;k; nj] vkSlr izR;k; nj 12-ftyk iz'kklu& Hkwfedk ,oa egRo] ftykf/kdkjh] HkwjkTkLo] dkuwu ,oa O;oLFkk rFkk fodkl lEcU/kh
2 vYi] e/;e ,oa nh?kZdkyhu for ds lzksr] iwokZf/kdkj ,oa lerk va”k] _.ki= ,oa ck.M foRrh;u dk;Z] ftyk xzkE; fodkl vfHkdj.k rFkk xzkeh.k {ks=ksa ds fy;s fo'ks"k dk;ZØeA
3- dk;Z”khy iwath izcU/ku& oxhZdj.k] vi;kZIr dk;Z”khy iwath ds [krjs] dk;Z”khy iwath vko”;drk 13- LFkkuh; iz'kklu& iapk;rh jkt ,oa uxjh; LFkkuh; 'kklu] y{k.k] izdkj ,oa LkeL;k;sa] LFkkuh;
vuqeku ds mikxe] jksdM+] LdU/k vkSj izkI; izcU/ku ds midj.k fudk;ksa dh Lok;RkrkA
4- iwath dh ykxr& oxhZdj.k ,oa fu/kkZj.k] Hkkfjr vkSlr iwath ykxr dh x.kuk] mRrksyd ,oa blds izdkj 14- dY;k.k gsrq iz'kklu& vuqlwfpr tkfr] vuqlwfpr tutkfr ds fo'ks"k lUnHkZ esa detksj oxksZ ds
5- ykHkka”k uhfr& fu/kkZjd] okYVj] xkMZu] eksnhXykuh vkSj feyj mikxe] fLFkj ykHkka”k uhfr ds xq.k ,oa dY;k.k ds fy, iz'kklu] efgyk dY;k.k gsrq dk;ZØeA
nks’k 15 Hkkjrh; iz'kklu ds izklafxd eqn~ns& jktuhfrd ,oa LFkk;h dk;Zikydksa ds e/; lEcU/k] iz'kklu esa
6- Hkkjrh; iwath cktkj& izeq[k fo”ks’krk,a] iwath ,oa eqnzk cktkjksa esa Hksn] iwath cktkj dh [kkfe;ka] Hkkjrh; lkekU;K ,oa fo'ks"kK] iz'kklu esa lR;fu"Bk] iz'kklu esa tulgHkkfxrk] turk dh f'kdk;rksa dk fuokj.k
LdU/k fofue;ksa dh dk;Ziz.kkyh] lsch ,d fu;ked :i esaA yksdiky ,oa yksd vk;qDRk] Hkkjr esa iz'kklfud lq/kkjA
Okkf.kT; ,oa ys[kkadu
f}rh; iz”ui= ¼2+9½ fpfdRlk foKku iz”u i=&izFke
¼laxBukRed O;ogkj rFkk ekuo lalk/ku izcU/k½ 1- ekuo “kjhj % ldy”kjhj] vuqiz;qDr “kjhj] lDrlaHkj.k ,oa ftg~ok dk fyQh; viokg] Fkk;jkWbM] Lru
xzafFk] tBj] ;d`r] izkWLVsV] tuuxzafFk xHkkZ'k;] g`n; ,oa QsQM+sA
Hkkx&1% laxBukRed O;ogkj
mifj ,oa v/kks”kk[kkvksa] Lda/klaf/k;ksa] dwYgs ,oa dykbZ esa jDr ,oa raf=dk laHkj.k lesr vuqiz;qDr “kjhjA
1- laxBu dh izØfr ,oa vo/kkj.kk] laxBukRed fl)kUr& ijEijkoknh] uoijEijkoknh] vQlj”kkgh
,oa iz.kkyh mikxe] dsUnzh;dj.k ,oa fodsUnzh;dj.k ds xq.k ,oa voxq.k Mk;kQzke] isjhfu;e ,oa oa{k.kizns”k dk vuqiz;qDr “kjhjA
2- “kfDr dk vk/kkj ,oa lzksr] “kfDr lajpuk] ck/kk,a ,oa jktuhfr o`Dd] ew=k”k;] xHkkZ”k; ufydkvksa] “kqdzokfgdkvksa dk vuqiz;qDr “kjhjA
Hkzw.kfoKku % vijk ,oa vijk jks/kA g`n;] vka=] o`Dd] xHkkZ”k;] fMacxzafFk] o`’k.k dk fodkl ,oa mudh
3- laxBukRed y{;& izkFkfed] xkS.k] ,dy ,oa ogq y{;] y{;ksa dk foLFkkiu] mRrjkf/kdkj]
lkekU; tUetkr vlkekU;rk,aA
foLrkj ,oa xq.ku
dsUnzh; ,oa ifjljh; Lolapkfyr raf=dk ra=%
4- laxBu& izdkj] lajpuk] js[kk ,oa LVkQ] dk;kZRed] lfefr] vkO;wg ,oa ifj;kstuk] vkSipkfjd
,oa vukSipkfjd laxBu] laxBukRed }Un&dkj.k ,oa lek/kku efLr’d ds fuy;ksa] izefLrdes: nzo ds ifjHkze.k dk ldy ,oa jksxy{k.k “kjhj] raf=dk ekxZ ,oa Roph;
laosnu] Jo.k ,oa n`f’V fof{kr] diky raf=dk,a] forj.k ,oa jksxyk{kf.kd egRo] Lolapkfyr raf=dk ra=
5- laxBukRed ifjorZu& izd`fr] egRo] dkj.k] fuokj.k] ifjorZu dk izfrjks/k ,oa vuqdwyu
ds vo;o] baVjuy dSIlwy ,oa lsfjczy dkVsZDlA
Hkkx&2% ekuo lalk/ku izcU/k
2- â;weu fQth;ksyksth
1- ekuo lalk/ku izcU/k& vo/kkj.kk] mn~ns”;] egRo] dk;Z ,oa ekuo lalk/ku izcU/kd dh pqukSfr;ka
1- CyM& bE;qfefuVh] Vhlsy] chlsyA
2- HkrhZ ,oa p;u] izf”k{k.k dh fof/k;ka ] vf/k”kklh fodkl dk;ZØe 2- lh0oh0,l0& dkfMZ;d lkbfdy]
3- vfHkizsj.kk& vo/kkj.kk] fl)kUr&ekLyks dh vko”;drk Øec)rk] gtZoxZ dk LokLF; ,oa vkjksX; 3- jSLihjs”ku& vkClVSªfdfVo Mhtht] ,flMcsl cSysUlA
rFkk ,YMjeSu dk tsM fl)kUr] eukscy ds fu/kkZjd] eukscy vkSj mRikndrk
fdMuh& fedV;wjs”ku jhQysDl] jhuy LVksu]
4- usr`Ro& izdkj ,oa “kSyh] etnwjh&etnwjh Hkqxrku dh i)fr;ka] foHksnkRed etnwjh rFkk Hkkjr esa
TkhvkbZVh& yhoj Qsfy;j] tkSufMl] ¼vkClVªSfdfVo] fgiSfVd] gheksykbfVd½ ,D;wV isufdzVkbfVl
etnwjh uhfr
,.Mksdzkbu& XokbVj ekbykbVsl] vklfV;kseysf”k;k] ekLVjxyS.M
5- vkS|ksfxd lEcU/k& izd`fr] mn~ns”;] {ks= ,oa egRo
uoZl&flLVe & lSfjczy LVªksd] ikfdZUlu Mhtht] gSehfiyhft;k] iSjkihfyft;k
6- lkewfgd lkSnsckth& vo/kkj.kk] fo”ks’krk,a] lQy lkSnsckth dh vko”;drk,a] izcU/k esa Jfedksa
Lis”ky lsUlsl& ukbV Cykb.Musl] dSVjsDV] ek;ksfi;kA gkbij eSVªksfi;k] ,Ecky;ksfi;k
dh Hkkxsnkjh& Hkkxsnkjh ds Lrj ,oa Lo:i] Hkkjr esa Jfedksa dh Hkkxsnkjh
fjizksMD”ku& izsxusUlh VsLV] ySDVs”ku] ,ehuksfj;k] LVjfyVh bu esy ,oa fQesy] vksO;wys”ku] LieZ
7- vkS|ksfxd fookn& fookn ds dkj.k] gM+rky] rkykcUnh] vkS|ksfxd fooknksa dh jksd& Fkke ,oa
dkm.VA
fuiVkjk] Je la?k& vo/kkj.kk] izdkj] Hkkjr esa Jela?k vkUnksyu
3 -TkSo jlk;u %&
¼28½ yksd iz'kklu iz'u i=&1 ¼iz'kklfud fl)kUr½ 1- vaxdk;Z ijh{k.k& ;d`r] o`Dd] Fkk;jkWbMA
1- ewy vo/kkj.kk& yksd iz'kklu dk vFkZ] {ks= ,oa egRo] yksd iz'kklu dk ,d fo"k; ds :i esa 2- izksVhu la”ys’k.k
Øe&fodkl ¼uohu yksd iz'kklu] uohu yksd izcU/ku] uohu yksd lsok;sa½ yksd vkSj futh iz'kklu] 3- foVkfeu ,oa [kfut
fodflr ,oa fodkl'khy lektksa esa bldh Hkwfedk] iz'kklu dh ikfjfLFkfrdh& lkekftd] jktuhfrd] 4- ikyhesjst J`a[kyk izfrfØ;k ¼ihlhvkj½
vkfFkZd ,oa lakLd`frdA 5- fd.od ,oa tSo fpUg
2- iz'kklu ds fl)kUr& 'kkL=h; fl)kUr ¼gsujh Q;ksy] ywFkj xqfyd rFkk vU;½ oSKkfud izcU/ku] ¼Vsyj 6- e/kqesg ,oa jDr “kdZjk Lrj
Cont...

Page No. - 19
7- Mh ,u , izfr:i dk funku ,oa iz c a / kA lxHkZ r k dk iz h ,DyS f Il;k ,oa ,DyS f Il;k vkj0,p0 fuxs f Vo] e/kq e s g o
8- vkj ,u , izfrfyfi vf/kla [ ; xHkZ / kkj.kA ba V ª k & ;w V S j hu ;q f Dr;kW xks f y;kW ] V~ ; w c s D VkW e h ,oa oS l s D VkW e hA lxHkZ r k dk
9- Mh ,u , ejEer ra= fpfdRldh; lekiu ftles a fof/kd igyw “kkfey gS A xHkkZ ” k; dk fodkl] fod` f r;kW ,oa mudk
funku] xHkZ i kr ,oa ,DVkfid iz s x us U lh dk dkj.k ,oa fuokj.k] ;w u h ls Jki] is f Yod is u ] oa / ;rk]
10- fyfiM izksQkby
,cukeZ y ;w V s j hu jDrL=ko ¼AUB½] vehuksfj;k] ;wVjl dk rarqis”kh ¼Qk;czk;M½vcqZn ,oa Hkza”kA
11- iks’k.k jtksfuo`R;qRrj lay{k.k dk izca/k] xzhok dSalj] xHkkZ”k; ,oa v.Mk”k; dk dSalj
12- :f/kj of.kZdk 6- leqnk; dk;fpfdRlk ¼fuokjd ,oa lkekftd dk;Z fpfdRlk½
13- eqDr d.k ,oa vkDlh dj.k jks/kh 1- LokLF; ,oa jksxksa lEcU/kh vo/kkj.kk;saA
4- fod`fr foKku % FkksFk ,oa fojksg.k] o`f) fo{kksFk ,oa dSUlj jg;weSfVd ,oa bLdhfed g`n; jksx ,oa 2- fl)kUr] iz.kkyh ] mikxe ,oa tuifnd jksx foKku dk ekiuA
Mk;fcVht esfyVl dk fod`frtuu ,oa Årdfod`fr foKkuA lqnE;] nqnZe] izkFkfed ,oa fo{ksih nqnZerk esa
3- [kkn~; ,oa iks’k.k lqj{kk] iks’k.k lEcU/kh jksx@fodkl ,oa jk’Vªh; iks’k.k dk;ZdzeA
foHksnu] “oluhtU; dkflZuksek dk fod`frtuu ,oa Årdfod`fr foKku] Lru dkflZuksek] eq[k dSalj]
xzhok dSlj] Y;wdhfe;k] ;d`r fljksfll] LrDdo`Dd”kksFk] ;{ek rhoz vfLFkeTtk”kksFk dk gsrq] fod`frtuu 4- Ik;kZoj.k ds ?kVd] iznw’k.k lEcU/kh jksx ,oa lEiw.kZ LoPNrk vfHk;ku] vLirky ,oa m|ksx vif'k’V
,oa Ård fod`fr foKku] jDrvYirk] FkSyslhfe;k]QSVh yhoj] visfUMDl “kksFk] fiRr dh FkSyh dh iFkjh] izcU/kuA
Loizfrjf{kr jksx] LVse dksf”kdkA 5- LokLF; lwpuk iz.kkyh] LokLF; lkaf[;dh] tulkaf[;dh] lwpuk izlkj ,oa lEizsj.kk ls lacaf/kr ewyHkwr
5- lq{e tSfodh%& nsgnzoh ,oaa dksf”kdk ek/;fer jksx{kerk] dkDl ik”pqysV ckrsaA
fuEufyf[kr jksxdkjd ,oa mudk iz;ksx”kkyk funku% 6- LokLF; izcU/ku ,oa iz”kklu& rduhd] lk/ku] dk;Zdze] dk;ZUo;u ,oa ewY;kaduA
& esfuZxksdkDdl] lkyeksusyk 7- LokLF; ns[kHkky iznk; iz.kkyh dk Økafrd ewY;kaduA
& V;cwjdy w kfs”kl] f”kxay
s k] giht
Z ] Mxas]w ikfsy;k]s cDSVhªfj;kQ
s t
s l
s ]~ bUQy
s ,qUtk ok;jl] tiSkuht ,UlQ
s ykbfVl 8- tuu ,oa f”k”kq LokLF; ds mn~ns”;] ?kVd] y{; ,oa fLFkfr] jk’Vªh; LokLF; fe”ku] lgkJk’nh ,oa lrr
fodkl y{;A
& ,p0vkbZ0oh0@,M~l] eysfj;k] ,UVvehck fgLVksfyfVdk] fx;kfMZ;k
9- jk’Vªh; LokLF; laca/kh dk;Zdzeksa ds mn~ns”;] ?kVd ,oa dzkafrd fo”ys’k.k ¼d½ lapkjh jksx
& dSafMMk] fdzIVksdkWDdl] ,sLiftZyl
¼dhVtufr jksx fu;a=.k jk’Vªh; dk;Zdze] us0os0 ckuZ Mhtht dUVªksy dk;ZØe½] ¼[k½ xSj laØked
6- Hks’ktxq.k foKku% jksx ¼xSj laØked jksx ds fu;a=.k gsrq jk’Vªh; dk;Zdze] jk’Vªh; ekufld LokLF; dk;Zdze] o`)koLFkk
· vkS’kf/k ukedj.k ekufld LokLF; dk;Zdze½
· izfrdwy vkS’kf/k izfrfØ;k 10- O;olk; lEcfU/kr LokLF;A
· vkS’kf/k vf/kfu;e ,oa vkS’kf/k vuqlwph 11- vkink izoa/ku ,oa esys ,oa R;ksgkjksa esa LokLF; izcU/kuA
· vkS’kf/k dk uSnkfud ijh{k.k 12- LokLF; ls lEcfU/kr uhfr;kW] vf/kfu;e ,oa dkuwuA
· vkS’kf/k dh vk;q 13- jk’Vªh; ,oa varjk’Vªh; LokLF; laxBuA
· vkS’kf/k dk izpkj
· eknd inkFkkZsa dh yr ¼Mªx ,MfD”ku½ ifjf”k’V&7
· QkeksZdksfoftysUl dk;Zdze lgk;d ou laj{kd@{ks=h; ou vf/kdkjh lsok ijh{kk ls lEcfU/kr eq[; ¼fyf[kr½ ijh{kk dh ijh{kk
· vkS’kf/k gsrq ipkZ fy[kuk ;kstuk ,oa ikB~;Øe
· fuEufyf[kr vkS’kf/k;ksa dk ik”oZizHkko% eq[;¼fyf[kr½ ijh{kk dh ijh{kk ;kstuk
&,sfUVik;jsfVDl ,oa] ,UkkYtsflDl] ,sfUVck;ksfVDl] ,sfUVeysfj;k] ,sfUVdkyktkj] ,sfUVMk;kcsfVDl Ø0 iz”u&i= le;kof/k iw.kkZad
& ,sfUVgk;ijVsaflo] ,sfUVokbjy] ,sfUViSjkflfVd] ,sfUVQaxy] bE;wukslizsa”kSVl] ,sfUVdSalj] 01 isij& I lkekU; fgUnh ,oa fucU/k ¼ijEijkxr½ 3-00 ?k.Vs 200 vad
,sUVhMk;fj;y] ,sUVhVqcjdqyj] Mk;;wjsfVdA 02 isij& II lkekU; v/;;u izFke ¼oLrqfu’B½ 2-00 ?k.Vs 200 vad
7- U;k; lac/kh vkS’k/k ,oa fo’kfoKku% fpfdRldh; vkpkj lafgrk vkSj dkuwu] xHkkZoLFkk] izlo ,oa 03 isij& III lkekU; v/;;u f}rh; ¼oLrqfu’B½ 2-00 ?k.Vs 200 vad
xHkZikr&fpfdRlk fof/kd lanHkZ esa] ;kSu vijk/k] {kfr ,oa ?kkoks a dh U;k; la c a / kh ijh{kk] jDr ,oa 04 isij& ¼iv½ oSdfYid fo’k; izFke ¼ijEijkxr½ 3-00 ?k.Vs 200 vad
“kq d z /kCcks a dh ijh{kk] fo’kkDrrk] “kked vfrek=k] Qka l h] Mw c uk] tyuk] Mh0,u0,0 ,oa
¼izFke iz”ui=½
fQaxjfizV v/;;uA
isij& ¼v½ oSdfYid fo’k; izFke ¼ijEijkxr½ 3-00 ?k.Vs 200 vad
¼f}rh; iz”ui=½
& fpfdRlk foKku iz”ui=& f}rh;
05 isij& ¼vi½ oSdfYid fo’k; f}rh; ¼ijEijkxr½ 3-00 ?k.Vs 200 vad
1- lkekU; dk; fpfdRlk%&
¼izFke iz”ui=½
¼v½ dkj.k] jksx ds y{k.k] funku ,oa izcU/ku ¼fuokj.k ,oa jksdFkke lfgr½ o fl)kUr % fVVusl]
jScht] ,pvkbZoh@,M~l] MsUxw] tkikuh bUlssQykbfVl] Vk;QkbM] dq’Bjksx] risfnd] eysfj;k] is i j& ¼vii½ oSdfYid fo’k; f}rh; ¼ijEijkxr½ 3-00 ?k.Vs 200 vad
Hkkjrh; dkyktkj]:g~;qesfVd g`n; jksxA ¼f}rh; iz”ui=½
¼c½ dkj.k] jksx ds y{k.k] funku ,oa izcU/ku ds fl)kUr % g`n; /kefu;ksa ds vojks/k ¼IHD½ jDrpki] e/kqesg] lHkh iz”ui=ksa ds dqy vadksa dk ;ksx 1400 vad
gkbZij Fkk;ksjkbMfle] gkbZiks Fkk;ksjkbMfle] fexhZ] vLFkek] dzkfud vkClVsfDVo yax jksx ¼COPD½] O;fDrRo ijh{k.k ¼lk{kkRdkj½%& 150 vadA
fiY;qjy bQ;qtu okbjygsiVkbfVl ;d`r fljksfll isfIVd jksx] U;qeksfu;k] vD;wis”kuy] QsQM+k jksxA lEiw.kZ ;ksx 1400+150 = 1550
¼l½ dkj.k jksx ds y{k.k] funku ,oa izcU/ku ds fl)kUr % Xyksew:yksusQjkbfVl] usQzksfVd@usQzjsfVd oSdfYid fo’k;ksa esa fuEufyf[kr dqy 16 fo’k; lfEefyr gSa] ftuesa ls vH;fFkZ;ksa dks dksbZ 02 oSdfYid
flUMªkse] o`Ddikr] gkbiksusfVªfe;k] FkSysflfe;k] ,fufe;k] fgeksfQfy;k] jDr daSlj] fyEQksek ] xfB;kjksx] fo’k; ysus gksaxs%&
vkfLV;ksaiksjksfll] ew= ufydk ladze.k] esusutkbfVl] bUlsQsykbfVl]
1- d`f’k foKku
¼n½ esfMdy vkdfLed jksx % yw] Mwcuk] vkjxsuks QklQksjl fo’kDrrk] vyewfu;k QklQkbM fo’kDrrkA
2- d`f’k bathfu;fjax
¼;½ ,axtkbfVl] lkbdkslfll] fMesfUl;k
3- ouLifr foKku
¼j½ esfMdks yhxy fo’k;d% xys dh QkWlh] vYdksgfyLe
4- jlk;u foKku
¼o½ dk; fpfdRlk esa ijh{k.k % vYVªklkmUM] lh Vh LdSu] ,e vkj vkbZ] bdksdkfMZ;kxzkQh] bUMksLdksih]
5- jlk;u bathfu;fjax
cksu eSjks ,fLijs”ku]lh,l,Q Q~ywM ijh{k.k] iw.kZ jDr ijh{k.k ¼CBC½-
6- flfoy bathfu;fjax
2- ckyjksx foKku % jksxizfrjks/khdj.k] csch&QzsMyh vLirky] Lruiku] tUetkr ‘;ko g`n; jksx] “olu
fo{kksHk lay{k.k] “oluh&QqQ~Qql”kksFk] ¼czksUdksU;weksfu;k½] uotkr f”k”kq dkeyk] izefLr’dh; uotkr 7- okfudh
dkeyk] IMNCI oxhZdj.k ,oa izca/ku] PEM dksfVdj.k ,oa izca/k] ARI ,oa nLr ¼vfrlkj½ ikWp o’kZ ls 8- Hkw&foKku
NksVs cPpksa esa ,oa izca/kA 9- xf.kr
3- Ropk foKku% L=ksfj,fll] Ldscht] ,Dthek] fofVfyxks] LVhou tkulu flUMªkse ,oa Vh0bZ0,u0] 10- ;kaf=dh bathfu;fjax
ykbdsu IysulA dq’B jksx] Ropk ds cSDVsfj;y] ok;jy ,oa Qaxy ladze.kA 11- HkkSfrdh
4& lkekU; “kY; fpfdRlk% [kaMrkyq [kaMks’B dh jksxy{k.k fo”ks’krk] dkj.k ,oa izca/k ds fl)kUrA 12- lkaf[;dh
Loj;a=h; vcqZn] eq[k ,oa bZlkSQSxl vcqZnA ifj/kh; /keuh jksx] osfjdkst osUl] Fkk;jkbM] vf/ko`Dd xzafFk ds 13- izkf.k foKku
vcqZnA QksM+k] dSalj] Lru dk rarqxazfFk vcqZn ,oa xzafFkyrk isfIVd vYlj jDrlzko] vka= ;{ek] vYljsfVo 14- i”kqikyu ,oa i”kq fpfdRlk foKku
dksykbfVl] tBj dSalj] o`Dd ekl] izksLVsV dSalj] lqlk/; izkLVsV gkbijIysfl;k ¼ch0ih0,p0½A
15- m|ku foKku
gheksFkkSjsDl] fiRrk'k;] o`Dd] ;wjsVj ,oa ew=k”k; dh iFkjhA jsDVe] ,ul] ,uy dSuky] fiRrk”k; ,oa
fiRrokfguh dh “kY; n”kkvksa dk izca/kA 16- i;kZoj.k foKku
iksVZy vfrjDrnkc] ;d`r QksM+k] isjhVksukfVl] isjh,Eiqyjh dkflZukekA fdUrq “krZ ;g gS fd mEehnokjksa dks fuEufyf[kr fo’k;ksa dks ,d lkFk ysus dh vuqefr ugha nh
tk;sxh%&
jh<+ foHkax] dksyh foHkax ,oa vfLFk V~;wej
¼d½ d`f’k foKku] d`f’k bathfu;fjax ,oa m|ku foKku
,aMksLdksih] ySizksLdksfid ltZjhA
¼[k½ xf.kr ,oa lkaf[;dh
mUur vk?kkr thou leFkZu iz.kkyh ¼,0Vh0,y0,l0½A
¼x½ jlk;u foKku vkSj jlk;u bathfu;fjax
lftZdy ,FksfDlA ¼?k½ bathfu;fjax fo’k;ksa tSls d`f’k bathfu;fjax] jlk;u bathfu;fjax] flfoy bathfu;fjax rFkk ;kaf=d
5& il z fwr foKku ,oa ifjokj fu;kt s u lers L=h jkx s foKku%& QfVZykbts”ku o bEIykUVs”ku] IyslsUVk bathfu;fjax esa ls ,d ls vf/kd fo’k; ughaA
dk fodkl] dk;Z] fod`fr;kW o mudk funkuA xHkkZoLFkk esa ns[kHkky lxHkZrk dk funku izlo izca/k] uksV%& Åij fy[ks fo’k;ksa dk Lrj vkSj ikB~; fooj.k bl foKkiu ds ifjf”k’V&8 dh vuqlwph esa fn;k x;k
r`rh; pj.k minzo] izloiw.kZ ,oa izlosRrj jDr L=ko] uotkr dk iqu:Tthou] vlkekU; fLFkfr ,oa gSA
dfBu izlo dk izca/k] dkyiwoZ izlo] de c<r okys uotkr dk iz c a / kA cFkZ bUth;w j hlA vjDrrk
Cont...

Page No. - 20
ifjf'k"V&8 fofo/k izdkj ds ou jksiu tSls ou foLrkj] lkekftd okfudh] d`f"k okfudh rFkk izkd`frd ouksa
lgk;d ou laj{kd@{ks=h; ou vf/kdkjh lsok ijh{kk dh dh eq[; fo'ks"krk,¡] {ks= rFkk foLrkjA
eq[; ¼fyf[kr½ ijh{kk gsrq lkekU; vuqns'k ,oa ikB~;Øe [kjirokj] mudh fo'ks"krk,¡] izdh.kZu rFkk fofHkUu Qlyksa ds lkFk mudh lEc)rk] mudk
1- eq[; ¼fyf[kr½ ijh{kk ds lHkh fo"k;ksa ds iz'u&i= ijEijkxr ¼fucU/k 'kSyh½ izdkj ds gksaxs fdUrq lkekU; xq.ku] [kj& irokjksa dk d"kZ.k] tSfod rFkk jklk;fud fu;a=.kA
v/;;u fo"k; ds iz'u&i= oLrqfu"B izdkj ds gksaxsA e`nk& HkkSfrd] jlk;fud rFkk tSfod xq.k e`nk jpuk ds izØe rFkk dkjd Hkkjrh; e`nkvksa dk
2- lHkh iz'u&i=ksa ds mÙkj fgUnh ;k v¡xzsth esa gh fy[kus gksaxsA iz'u&i= fgUnh vkSj v¡xzsth esa gksaxsA vk/kqfud oxhZdj.k e`nk ds [kfut rFkk dkcZfud la?kVd vkSj e`nk dh mRikndrk cuk;s j[kus esa
mudh Hkwfedk ikS/kksa ds fy, vko';d iks"kd inkFkZ rFkk e`nk vkSj ikS/kksa ds vU; ykHkdkjh rRo e`nk
3- Åij mfYyf[kr izR;sd iz'u&i= ds fy, rhu ?k.Vs dk le; fn;k tk;sxk fdUrq lkekU; v/;;u gsrq moZjrk ds fl)kUr rFkk foosdiw.kZ moZjd iz;ksx vkSj lekdfyr iks"kd izcU/k dk ewY;kadu] e`nk esa
nks ?k.Vs dk le; fn;k tk;sxkA ukbVªkstu dh gkfu] ty eXu /kku&e`nk esa ukbVªkstu mi;ksx {kerk] e` n k es a ukbVª k s t u
O;fDrRo ijh{k.k ;kS f xdhdj.k] e` n kvks a es a QklQks j l rFkk iks V s f l;e dk ;kS f xdhdj.k rFkk mudk n{k mi;ksx
mEehnokjksa dk lk{kkRdkj lq;ksX; vkSj fu"i{k fo}kuksa ds cksMZ }kjk fd;k tk;sxkA O;fDrRo ijh{k.k&150 leL;ktud e`nk;sa rFkk muds lq/kkj ds rjhdsA
vadksa dk gksxkA ty foHkktu ds vk/kkj ij e`nk laj{k.k ;kstuk ioZrh;] fxfjiknksa rFkk ?kkfV;ksa esa vijnu rFkk
vuqlwph viokg izcU/ku( budks izHkkfor djus okys izØe rFkk dkjd] ckjkuh d`f"k rFkk mlls lEcfU/kr leL;k,a]
lkekU; fgUnh vkSj lkekU; v/;;u ds iz'u&i=ksa dk Lrj ,slk gksxk ftldh Hkkjrh; fo'ofo|ky; ds o"kkZ iksf"kr d`f"k {ks=ksa esa d`f"k mRiknu esa fLFkjrk ykus dh izkS|ksfxdhA lL; mRiknu ls lEcfU/kr ty
foKku ;k bathfu;fjax xzstq,V ls vk'kk dh tkrh gSA mi;ksx {kerk] flapkbZ dk;ZØe ds ekun.M] flapkbZ ty dh viokg gkfu dks de djus dh fof/k;k¡ rFkk
bl ijh{kk ds oSdfYid fo"k;ksa ds iz'u&i= yxHkx vkulZ fMxzh Lrj ds gksaxs vFkkZr~ cSpyj lk/ku ¼mik;½ fMªi ¼Vidkdj½ rFkk fNM+dko }kjk flapkbZ tykØkar Hkwfe ls ty dk fudkl] flapkbZ
ty dh xq.koÙkk] e`nk rFkk ty iznw"k.k ij vkS|ksfxd cfglzkoksa dk izHkkoA
fMxzh ls dqN vf/kd vkSj ekLVj fMxzh ls dqN deA bathfu;fjax fo"k;ksa ds ekeys esa ;g Lrj cSpyj fMxzh
dk gksxkA fdlh Hkh fo"k; esa izk;ksfxd ijh{kk ugha yh tk;sxhA QkeZ izcU/k] fo"ke {ks=] egRo rFkk fo'ks"krk,a] QkeZ vk;kstuk] lalk/kuksa dk b"Vre mi;ksx rFkk
ctV cukuk fofHkUu izdkj dh d`f"k iz.kkfy;ksa dh vFkZ O;oLFkkA
d`f"k fuos'kksa vkSj mRiknksa dk foi.ku vkSj ewY; fu/kkZj.k] ewY; mrkj&p<+ko rFkk mudh ykxr(
oSdfYid fo"k;
d`f"k vFkZ O;oLFkk esa lgdkjh laLFkkvksa dh Hkwfedk( d`f"k ds izdkj rFkk iz.kkfy;ksa vkSj mldks izHkkfor djus
od
S fYid fo"k;ksa ds iz'u&i=ksa esa iz'uksa dh dqy la[;k vkB gksxhA lHkh iz'uksa ds vad okys dkjdA
cjkcj gksaxsA izR;sd iz'u&i= ds nks Hkkx gksaxs vFkkZr~ Hkkx ¼d½ vkSj Hkkx ¼[k½A izR;sd Hkkx esa pkj
d`f"k foLrkj] bldk egRo rFkk Hkwfedk] d`f"k foLrkj dk;ZØeksa ds ewY;kadu dh fof/k;k¡]
iz'u gksaxsA vkB iz'uksa esa ls ik¡p iz'uksa ds mÙkj nsus gksaxsA izR;sd Hkkx esa ,d iz'u vfuok;Z gksxkA
lkekftd] vkfFkZd losZ{k.k rFkk NksVs&cM+s vkSj lhekUr d`"kdksa o Hkwfeghu d`f"k Jfedksa dh fLFkfr] QkeZ
izR;sd Hkkx ls de ls de ,d&,d iz'u ysrs gq, mEehnokjksa dks 'ks"k N% iz'uksa esa ls rhu vkSj iz'uksa
;a=hdj.k rFkk d`f"k mRiknu vkSj xzkeh.k jkstxkj esa mudh Hkwfedk foLrkj dk;ZdrkZvksa ds fy, izf'k{k.k
ds mÙkj nsus gksaxsA bl izdkj izR;sd Hkkx esa ls de ls de nks iz'uksa ds mÙkj nsus gksaxs vFkkZr~ ,d dk;ZØe( iz;ksx'kkyk ls [ksrksa rd dk dk;ZØeA
vfuok;Z iz'u rFkk ,d vU; iz'uA
d`f"k foKku
lkekU; fgUnh ,oa fucU/k
iz'u i=&2
izFke [k.M lkekU; fgUnh fu/kkZfjr vad 100
dksf'kdk fl)kUr] dksf'kdk lajpuk] dksf'kdk vaxd rFkk muds dk;Z] dksf'kdk foHkktu]
1- vifBr x|k'ak dk l{akis.k] mlls lEcfU/kr i'zu] j[skkfadr v'akkas dh O;k[;k ,oa mldk mi;Dqr 'kh"kd Z A U;wDyhd vEy& lajpuk rFkk dk;Z] thu lajpuk rFkk mudk dk;Z] vkuqoaf'kdrk ds fu;e rFkk ikni
2- 'kkldh;] v)Z'kkldh;] oS;fDrd rFkk O;olkf;d leL;kvksa ds fujkdj.k gsrq lEcfU/kr dks lEcksf/kr iztuu esa mudh lkFkZdrk xq.k lw= ¼Øksekslkse½ lajpuk] xq.k lw= foiFku] lgyXurk ,oa thu fofue;
i=] dk;kZy; vkns'k] vf/klwpuk vkSj ifji= lEcU/kh i=ys[ku@vkys[kuA rFkk iqu;ksZtu iztuu esa mudh lkFkZdrk cgqxqf.krk] lqxqf.kr rFkk vlqxqf.kr lw{e ,oa xq# mRifjorZu
3- vusdkFkhZ 'kCn] foykse 'kCn] i;kZ;okph 'kCn] rRle ,oa rn~ H ko] {ks = h;] fons ' kh ¼'kCn Hk.Mkj½] rFkk Qly lq/kkj esa mudh Hkwfedk fofo/krk] fofo/krk ds ?kVd oa'kkxfrRo] cU/;rk rFkk vla;ksT;rk]
orZ u h] vFkZ c ks / k] 'kCn&:i] la f /k] lekl] fØ;k;s a ] fgUnh o.kZ e kyk] fojke fpUg] 'kCn jpuk] oxhZdj.k rFkk Qly lq/kkj esa mudk vuqiz;ksx dksf'kdknzO;h oa'kkxfr] fyax lgyXu] fyax izHkkfor rFkk
okD; jpuk] vFkZ ] eq g kojs ,oa yks d ks f Dr;k¡ ] m-iz - dh eq[; cksfy;k¡ rFkk fgUnh Hkk"kk ds iz;ksx esa fyax lhfer y{k.kA
gksus okyh v'kqf);k¡A ikni iztuu dk bfrgkl tuu dh fof/k;k¡] Lofulspu rFkk ladj.k rduhdsa Qlyh ikS/kksa
f}rh; [k.M fgUnh fucU/k fu/kkZfjr vad 100 dk mn~Hko ,oa fodkl] mn~Hko dk dsUnz] letkr Js.kh ds fu;e] lL; vkuqoaf'kd lalk/ku&laj{k.k
blds vUrxZr nks mi[k.M gksaxsA izR;sd mi[k.M ls ,d&,d fucU/k ¼dqy feykdj nks fucU/k½ fy[kus rFkk mi;ksx izeq[k Qlyksa ds lq/kkj esa ikni iztuu ds fl)kUrksa dk vuqiz;ksx 'kq) oa'kØe oj.k]
gksaxsA izR;sd fucU/k dh foLrkj lhek 700 'kCn gksxhA fucU/k gsrq fuEuor~ {ks= gksaxs%& oa'kkoyh] lewg rFkk iqujkorhZ oj.k] la;ksth {kerk] ikni iztuu esa mldk egRo] ladj vkst ,oa
¼v½ ¼ i ½ lkfgR;] lLadf`r ¼ii½ jk"Vhª; fodkl ;kt s uk;@as fØ;kUo;u ¼iii½ df`"k] m|kx s ,oa O;kikjA mldk mi;ksx] iztuu dh izrhi ladj.k fof/k] jksx ,oa ihMd izfrjks/k ds fy, iztuu vUrjktkrh;
¼c½ ¼i½ foKku] i;koZj.k ¼ii½ ikzdf`rd vkink;as ,oa muds fuokj.k ¼iii½ jk"Vhª;] vUrjk"ZVhª;] rFkk vUrjkoa'kh; ladj.k dh Hkwfedk ikni iztuu esa tSo izkS|ksfxdh dh Hkwfedk fofHkUu Qlyh
ikS/kksa dh mUur fdLesa] ladj] feJA cht izkS|ksfxdh ,oa mldk egRo] fofHkUu izdkj ds cht rFkk
lkef;d lkekftd
cht mRiknu vkSj lalk/ku dh rduhdsa Hkkjr esa cht mRiknu] lalk/ku rFkk foi.ku esa ljdkjh ,oa
leL;k;sa@funkuA futh {ks= dh HkwfedkA
lkekU; v/;;u& iz'u&i= & I 'kjhj fØ;k foKku vkSj d`f"k foKku esa bldk egRo var% 'kks"k.k] i`"B ruko] fo"kj.k vkSj
1- Hkkjr dk bfrgkl ¼izkphu] e/;dkyhu ,oa vokZphu½A ijk’kj.k] ty dk vo'kks"k.k vkSj LFkkukUrj.k] ok"iksRltZu vkSj ty dh ferO;f;rkA
2- Hkkjrh; jk"Vªh; vkUnksyu ,oa Hkkjrh; laLd`frA izfd.o ¼,Utkbe½ vkSj iknd o.kZd( izdk'k la'kys"k.k vk/kqfud ladYiuk;sa vkSj blds izØe
3- tula[;k] i;kZoj.k ,oa uxjhdj.k ¼Hkkjrh; ifjizs{; esa½A dks izHkkfor djus okys dkjd] vDlh o vukDlh 'olu( lh3] lh4 rFkk lh,,e fØ;k fof/k dkcksZgkbMsªV]
4- fo'o dk Hkwxksy] Hkkjr dk Hkwxksy ,oa izkd`frd lalk/kuA izksVhu rFkk olk mikip;A
5- jk"Vªh; ,oa vUrjkZ"Vªh; egRoiw.kZ ?kVukØeA o`f) o ifjo/kZu] fnfIrdkfyrk vkSj clUrhdj.k vkfDlu] gkeksZu vkSj vU; ikni
6- Hkkjrh; d`f"k] O;kikj ,oa okf.kT;A fu;ked&budh fØ;k dh fØ;k fof/k rFkk d`f"k esa egRo] cht ifjo/kZu rFkk vadqj.k dh dkf;Zdh( izlwfr
tyok;oh; vko';drk;sa rFkk izeq[k Qyksa] lfCt;ksa vkSj iq"ih ikS/kksa dk d"kZ.k( iSdst jhfr;k¡ vkSj mudk
7- mÙkj izns'k ds fo'ks"k lUnHkZ esa f'k{kk] laLd`fr] d`f"k] O;kikj] okf.kT; ,oa jgu&lgu rFkk lkekftd
oSKkfud vk/kkj Qyksa o lfCt;ksa ds laHkyko rFkk foi.ku dh leL;k;sa egRoiw.kZ Qyksa rFkk lfCt;ksa ds
izFkkvksa dh fof'k"V tkudkjh Hkkjr ds bfrgkl vkSj Hkkjrh; laLd`fr esa yxHkx mUuhloha 'krkCnh ds
mRiknksa ds ijh{k.k dh eq[; fof/k;k¡] lalk/ku rduhdsa rFkk miLdj] ekuo iks"k.k esa Qyksa vkSj lfCt;ksa dh
e/; Hkkx ls ysdj ns'k dk O;kid bfrgkl jgsxk vkSj lkFk esa xka/kh] VSxksj vkSj usg: ls lEcfU/kr
Hkwfedk] 'kksHkkdkjh ikS/kksa dks mxkuk] ykWu vkSj ckx&cxhpksa dk vfHkdYiu rFkk vfHkfoU;klA
iz'u Hkh lfEefyr gksaxsA jk"Vªh; o vUrjkZ"Vªh; egRo dh ?kVukvksa esa [ksy&dwn ls lEcfU/kr lkekU;
Kku ds iz'u Hkh jgsaxsA Hkkjr esa lfCt;ksa] Qyks|kuksa vkSj jksi.k Qlyksa dh chekfj;k¡ vkSj ihMd ¼uk'kd thu½ ikni
ihMdksa rFkk chekfj;ksa ds dkj.k rFkk oxhZdj.k ikni ihMdksa rFkk chekfj;ksa ds fu;a=.k ds fl)kUr ihMdksa
lkekU; v/;;u&iz'u&i= & II
vkSj jksxksa dk tSfod fu;a=.k ihMdksa o jksxksa dk lekdfyr izcU/ku tkuifnd jksx funku ,oa iwokZuqeku
1- Hkkjrh; jkt O;oLFkkA ihMdukfl;ksa] la:i.k ,oa fØ;k fof/k] jkbtksfc;eh fuos'k nzO; ds lkFk mudh laxrrk] lw{e thoh
2- Hkkjrh; vFkZO;oLFkkA vfo"kA
3- lkekU; foKku] Hkkjr ds fodkl esa foKku vkSj izkS|ksfxdh dh Hkwfedk vkSj izHkko ,oa nSfud thou esa vukt o nkyksa ds Hk.Mkj ihMd rFkk jksx vkSj mudk fu;a=.kA Hkkjr esa [kk| mRiknu rFkk
foKku dh egÙkkA miHkksx dh izo`fÙk;k¡ jk"Vªh; rFkk vUrjkZ"Vªh; [kk| uhfr;k¡ mRiknu izk"k.k forj.k vkSj lalk/ku ds vojks/k
4- lkekU; ckSf)d ;ksX;rkA jk"Vªh; vkgkj izfreku ls [kk| mRiknuksa dk lEcU/k] dSyksfj;ksa vkSj izksVhu dh fo'ks"k dfe;kaA
5- lkaf[;dh fo'ys"k.k] ys[kkfp= ¼xzkQ½ rFkk vkjs[k ¼Mk;xzke½ Hkkjrh; jkt O;oLFkk ls lEcfU/kr [k.M esa
Hkkjr dh jktuhfrd O;oLFkk ls lEcfU/kr iz'u gksaxsA Hkkjrh; vFkZO;oLFkk esa ns'k dh vkfFkZd uhfr ds d`f"k bathfu;fjax
lkekU; y{k.kksa dk lekos'k gksxkA Hkkjr ds fodkl esa foKku vkSj izkS|ksfxdh dh Hkwfedk vkSj mlds izHkko iz'u i=&1
ls lEcfU/kr [k.M esa ,sls iz'u iwNs tk;saxs] tks vH;FkhZ dh bl {ks= esa tkudkjh dh ijh{kk djsaA blesa
[k.M&d
izk;ksfxd i{k ij cy fn;k tk;sxkA lkaf[;dh; fo'ys"k.kksa esa vkjs[k o fp= :i esa izLrqfr rFkk lkexzh ds
vk/kkj ij lgt cqf) dk iz;ksx djrs gq;s dqN fu"d"kZ fudkyus vkSj mlesa ik;h x;h dfe;ka] lhekvksa vkSj 1- e`nk rFkk ty laj{k.k % e`nk rFkk ty laj{k.k dk {ks= Hkwfe dVko dh izfØ;k rFkk izdkj vkSj muds
folaxfr;ksa dk fu:i.k djus dh {kerk dh ijh{kk gksxhA dkj.k o"kkZ] viokg rFkk volknu lkis{krk vkSj mudk ekiu Hkwfe dVko ds tSfod rFkk vfHk;kaf=dh
fu;a=d mik; ftuesa /kkjk&fdukjk laj{k.k] ouLifrd ¼osftVsfVo½ vojks/kd] leksP; cka/k] leksP;
d`f"k foKku
[kkb;k¡] leksP; iFkjhyh nhokjsa] osfndk,a ¼VSjsl½] fudklh rFkk ?kklkPNkfnr tyekxZ 'kkfey gS ]
iz'u i=&1 ukyh fu;a = .k la j puk,a & vLFkk;h rFkk LFkk;h& LFkk;h e` n k la j puk,a tS l s <+ y oha ukyh ¼'kw V ½]
ifjfLFkfr foKku vkSj ekuo ds fy, mldh izklafxdrk] izkd`frd lalk/ku] mUgsa dk;e j[kus tyiz i kr rFkk os x &fu;a = d] mRFkw y o ekxZ dk vfHkdYi QkeZ rkykc rFkk vUr%lz k oh rkykcks a
dk izcU/k rFkk laj{k.k] Qlyksa ds mRiknu rFkk forj.k ds dkjd ds :i esa HkkSfrd rFkk lkekftd dk vfHkdYi] ck<+ fu;a = .k&ck<+ vuq ' khyu ds fl)kUr] ty foHkktu iz c U/k&vUos " k.k] ;ks t uk
i;kZoj.k Qlyksa dh o`f) esa tyok;oh; ewy rRoksa dk izHkko] i;kZoj.k ds ladsrd ds :i esa lL; Øe ij rFkk dk;kZ U o;u&iz k Fkfedrkvks a ij {ks = ks a dk p;u rFkk ty foHkktu dk;Z ;ks t uk] ty
ifjorZu'khy i;kZoj.k dk izHkko Qlyksa] izkf.k;ksa o ekuoksa ds i;kZoj.kh iznw"k.k ls lEc) ladVA gkcs Z f LVa x rFkk vknZ z r k la j {k.k] Hkw f e fodkl&leryu] [kuu feêh vk;ru dk vkdyu vkS j
ns'k ds fofHkUu d`f"k tyok;q {ks=ksa esa lL; Øe esa foLFkkiu ij vf/kd iSnkokj okyh rFkk ykxr fu/kkZ j .k] ok;q dVko iz Ø e&'ks Y Vj cS Y Vks rFkk ok;q vojks / kks a dk vfHkdYi rFkk mudk
vYikof/k fdLeksa dk izHkko cgq&lL;u] cgqLrjh;] vuqin rFkk varjk lL;u dh ladYiuk rFkk [kk| izcU/k] ou ¼laj{k.k½ vf/kfu;eA
mRiknu esa budk egRo ns'k ds fofHkUu {ks=ksa esa [kjhQ rFkk jch ekSleksa esa mRikfnr eq[; vukt] nygu] 2- ok;oh; QkVskx s zkQh rFkk lqnjw loansu % QkVskx s zkfQd Nfo dh ey
w Hkrw fo'k"skrk,]a O;k[;k 'kSfy;k¡] O;k[;k
frygu] js'kk] 'kdZjk] O;kolkf;d rFkk pkjk Qlyksa ds mRiknu gsrq iSdst jhfr;k¡A
Cont...

Page No. - 21
ds fy, miLdj] Hkwfe mi;ksx] HkwfoKku] e`nk rFkk okfudh ds fy, Nfo O;k[;k] lqnwj laosnu&ijEijkxr ySVsDl] lsyqyksl] eaM vkSj muds mRikn] b=lkth] Hkkjr ds lUnHkZ esa u`dqyuouLifrdh dk
rFkk lqnwj laosnh mixeu ds xq.k rFkk voxq.k] mixzg Nfo;ksa ds izdkj mixzg Nfo O;k[;k ds ewy egRo] ÅtkZ o`{kjksi.k] okuLifrd m|ku vkSj ikniky;A
fl)kUr] e`nk ty rFkk Hkwfe mi;ksx ds izcU/k ds fy, n`'; rFkk vadh; fuoZpu dh rduhdsa ou O;oLFkk] 5- vkdkjtuu% iw.kZ'kDrrk /kzqo.krk] lefefr vkSj foHksnu] dksf'kdk] Ård] vax ,oa thonzO;d lao/kZu]
tylzksrksa vkfn lfgr ty foHkktdksa] ouksa dh ;kstuk rFkk fodkl esa thvkbZ,l dk mi;ksxA dkf;d ladj vkSj nzO;ladjA
[k.M&[k ouLifr foKku
3- flapkbZ rFkk tyfudkl ¼Mªsust½% flapkbZ ds fy, ty ds lzksr] y?kq flapkbZ ifj;kstukvksa dh ;kstuk iz'u&i=&2
rFkk fMtkbu&e`nk vknZzrk ekiu dh rduhds a & iz ; ks x 'kkyk rFkk LoLFkkus a ] e` n k&ty&ikni 1- dksf'kdk tSfodh% dksf'kdk tSfodh dh izfof/k;k¡] izkdsUnzdh vkSj lqdsUnzdh dksf'kdk,a&lajpukRed vkSj
lEcU/k] Qly dh ty vis { kk,a ] Hkw r y rFkk Hkw f exr ty ds da t fDVo iz ; ks x dh ;ks t uk] ijklajpukRed ckjhfd;k¡] dksf'kdkckg~; vk/kk=h vFkok bZlh,e ¼dksf'kdkfHkÙk½ rFkk f>fYy;ksa dh lajpuk
fla p kbZ ty dk ekiu] ekius ds lk/ku eq [ kNs n ] ca / kkjk rFkk voufydk] fla p kbZ dh vkSj dk;Z@dksf'kdk vklatu] f>Yyh vfHkxeu rFkk vkl;h vfHkxeu] dksf'kdk vaxdksa ¼gfjryod]
i)fr;k¡ & lrgh] fNM+ d ko rFkk Viduk] QfVZ x s ' ku] fla p kbZ dq ' kyrk,a vkS j mudk vkdyu] lw=df.kdk,a] bZvkj] jkbckslkse] var%dk;] y;udk;] ijvkDlhlkse gkbMªksftukslkse½ dh lajpuk vkSj
ugjks a ] [ks r ks a es a tyekxZ ] Hkw f exr ikbiykbu] fudkl}kj] fn'k ifjorZ u d{k rFkk lM+d ikj dk;Z] dsUnzd] dsfUnzd] dsUnzdh ja/kz lfEeJ] ØksesfVu ,oa U;wfDy;kslkse] dksf'kdk ladsru vkSj dksf'kdk
djus dh lajpukvksa dk fMtkbu rFkk fuekZ.kA xzkgh] ladsr ikjØe.k ¼th&1 izksVhUl vkfn½] lelw=.k vkSj v/kZlw=.k] foHkktu] dksf'kdk pØ dk
Hkwty dh izkfIr] dqvksa dh ty O;oLFkk] dqvksa ds izdkj ¼V~;wcoSy rFkk vksisu osy½ vkSj mudk vkf.od vk/kkj] xq.klw=ksa esa la[;kRed vkSj lajpukRed fofHkUurk,a rFkk mudk egRo] cgqiêh;] ySEiczq'k
fuekZ.k dqvksa dk fodkl vkSj ijh{k.k] iEiksa ds izdkj] p;u rFkk LFkkiuk] #X.k rFkk foQy dqvksa dh rFkk ch&xq.klw=ksa dk v/;;u&lajpuk] O;ogkj vkSj egRoA
iquZLFkkiuk] ty fudkl ty xzlu ds dkj.k rFkk yo.k leL;k,a] ty fudkl dh i)fr;k¡&flafpr 2- vkuqoaf'kdh] vkf.od tSfod vkSj fodkl% vkuqoaf'kdh dk fodkl vkSj thu cuke ;qXefodYih
rFkk vflafpr Hkwfe dk ty fodkl] lrg] milrg rFkk m/okZ/kj ty fudkl i)fr;k¡] fud`"V ty dk vo/kkj.kk ¼dwVfodYih½ ifjek.kkRed vkuqoaf'kdh rFkk cgqdkjd] lgyXurk rFkk fofue;&vkf.od
lq/kkj rFkk mi;ksx] lsyhu vkSj vYdkyh e`nkvksa dk m)kj] flapkbZ rFkk ty fudkl iz.kkfy;ksa dk ekufp= ¼ekufp=.k izdk;Z dh vo/kkj.kk½ lfgr thu ekufp=.k dh fof/k;k¡] fyax xq.klw= rFkk fyax
vFkZ'kkL=@O;FkZ ty dk flapkbZ ds fy, mi;ksx&nh?kZof/k flapkbZ] laxrrk rFkk vFkksZik; ds fy, O;FkZ lgyXu oa'kkxfr] fyax fu/kkZj.k vkSj fyax foHksn dk vkf.od vk/kkj] mRifjorZu ¼tSo jklk;fud vkSj
ty ds ekud LrjA vkf.od vk/kkj½ dksf'kdknzO;h oa'kkxfr ,oa dksf'kdknzO;h thu ¼uj ca/;rk dh vkuqoaf'kdh lfgr½ izkslad
4- d`f"kd lajpuk,a% QkeZ izfr"Bku] QkeZ gkml] i'kqx`g] Ms;jh HkqlkSjk] eqxhZ&x`g] 'kwdj x`g] e'khusa rFkk izkslad ifjdYiuk] U;wDyhd vEyksa vkSj izksVhuksa dh lajpuk rFkk la'ys"k.k] vkuqoaf'kdh dwV vkSj thu
rFkk miLdj LFky ds fy, LFkku dk p;u] fMtkbu o fuekZ.k] [kk|kUuksa] Hkkstu rFkk pkjs ds fy, vfHkO;fDr dk fu;eu] cgqthu oxZA
HkaMkj.k lajpuk,a] ckM+k rFkk d`f"k lM+dksa ds fy, fMtkbu vkSj fuekZ.k] ikni i;kZoj.k ds fy, tSo fodkl&izek.k] fØ;kfof/k rFkk fl)kUr] mn~Hko rFkk fodkl esa vkj0,u0,0 dh HkwfedkA
lajpuk,a] xzhu gkml] ikWyh gkml rFkk 'ksM gkml] fuekZ.k esa iz;ksx dh tkus okyh lkekU; Hkou 3- ikni iztuu] tSo izkS|ksfxdh rFkk tSo lkaf[;dh% ikni iztuu dh fof/k;k¡&vkizos'k] p;u vkSj
fuekZ.k lkexzh] fVEcj] b±V] iRFkj] Vkbysa] daØhV vkfn vkSj muds xq.k/keZ] ty vkiwfrZ] tyfudkl ladj.k ¼oa'kkoyh] izrhi izladj.k] lkewfgd p;u] O;kid i)fr½A
rFkk LoPNrk izcU/k i)fr;k¡A uj ca/;rk rFkk ladj vkst iztuu] ikni iztuu esa vlaxtuu dk mi;ksx] lw{eizo/kZu rFkk
d`f"k bathfu;fjax vkuqoaf'kd bathfu;jh&thu varj.k dh fof/k;k¡ rFkk ijthuh lL;] ikni iztuu esa vkf.od fpg~ud dk
iz'u i=&2 fodkl ,oa mi;ksxA
[k.M&d ekud fopyu rFkk fopj.k xq.kkad ¼lhoh½ lkFkZdrk ijh{k.k] ¼tSM&ijh{k.k] Vh ijh{k.k rFkk dkbZ&oxZ
1- QkeZ ikoj rFkk e'khujh% d`f"k ;a=hdj.k vkSj bldk {ks= QkeZ ikoj ds lzksr&ltho rFkk bysDVªks ijh{k.k½] izkf;drk rFkk forj.k ¼lkekU;] f}inh vkSj Ioklksa caVu½ lEcU/ku rFkk lekJ;.kA
;kaf=d] rkixfrdh] vkarfjd ngu baftuksa dh lajpuk vkSj dk;Ziz.kkyh vkarfjd ngu baftuksa ds fy, 4- 'kjhj fØ;k foKku rFkk tSo jklk;fudh% ty lEcU/k] [kfut iks"k.k rFkk vk;u vfHkxeu] [kfut
b±/ku] izToyu] Lusgu] 'khryu rFkk fu;a=.k iz.kkyh] fofHkUu izdkj ds VªSDVj rFkk ikoj fVªYyj ikoj U;wurk,aA
Vªklfe'ku] xzkm.M Mªkbo] ikoj Vsd&vkWQ rFkk daVªksy flLVe izkFkfed rFkk f}rh;d tqrkbZ ds fy,A izdk'k la'ys"k.k&izdk'k jklk;fud vfHkfØ;k,a] QksVks&QkLQksfjys'ku ,oa dkcZu ikFkos ftlesa
QkeZ e'khujh dk ip z kyu rFkk j[k&j[kko] d"k.Zk fl)kUr cv q kb]Z ifzrjkis.k rFkk fujkb&
Z xMqk+bZ midj.k 'kkfey gSa lh&ikFkos ¼izdk'k 'olu½ lh 3] lh 4 vkSj dSe fn'kkekxZ] 'olu ¼fd.ou lfgr vok;qthoh;
rFkk vkt S kj] ikni lja{k.k ;= a fNMd + ko rFkk id
z h.kuZ] Qly dVkb]Z Fkfszlxa rFkk dEckbu midj.k] vFk& Z efwox
a vkSj ok;qthoh;½& bysDVªku vfHkxeu [k vkSj vkDlhdj.kh] QkWLQksfjys'ku] jlksijklj.kh fl)kUr rFkk
rFkk Hkfwe fodkl e'khujh&i)fr;k¡ rFkk ykxr vkd a yu vxkuZskfeDl vkQ W eus&e'khu flLVe ckxokuh rFkk ,Vhih la'ys"k.k] ukbVªkstu fLFkjhdj.k ,oa ukbVªkstu mikip;] fd.o] lgfd.o] ÅtkZ&varj.k rFkk
df`"k okfudh ds fy, midj.k] HkkTs; ,oa pkjk] df`"k rFkk ou mRiknka s dh <yq kbAZ ÅtkZ&laj{k.k] f}rh; mikip;tksa dk egRo] izdk'kxzkfg;ksa ds :i esa o.kZd ¼IySfLVfM;y o.kZd rFkk
iknio.kZd½ nhfIrdkfyrk rFkk iq"iu] olarhdj.k] th.kZu] o`f) inkFkZ&mudh jklk;fud izd`fr] d`f"k
2- d`f"k ÅtkZ% d`f"k lEcU/kh dk;ks± rFkk d`f"k lalk/kuksa dh ÅtkZ t:jrsa] d`f"k vuqiz;ksxksa ds fy, fctyh
ckxokuh esa mudh Hkwfedk vkSj vuqiz;ksx] o`f) ladsr] o`f) xfr;k¡] izfrcy 'kjhjfØ;k foKku ¼rki] ty]
dh eksVjksa dk pquko] vf/k"Bkiu] lqj{kk rFkk j[k&j[kko] lkSj ¼FkeZy rFkk QksVksoksYVsd½ iou rFkk
yo.krk] /kkrq½] Qy ,oa cht 'kjhj fØ;kfoKku chtksa dh izlqfIr] HkaMkj.k rFkk mudk vadqj.k] Qy dk
ck;ksxSl ÅtkZ vkSj d`f"k esa mudk mi;ksx] vkbZlh baftuksa ds izpkyu rFkk bySfDVªd ikoj mRiknu ds
iduk&bldk vkf.od vk/kkj rFkk eSfuiqys'kuA
fy, ck;ksxSl dk xSlhdj.k ÅtkZ n{k dqfdax LVkso rFkk fodYih dqfdax b±/ku] d`f"k rFkk d`f"k m|ksx
vuqiz;ksxksa ds fy, fctyh dk forj.kA 5- ifjfLFkfrfoKku rFkk ikni Hkwxksy% ifjfLFkfrd dkjd] leqnk; dh vo/kkj.kk;sa vkSj xfrdh] ikni
vuqØe.k] thoe.My dh vo/kkj.kk] ikfjra= vkSj mudk laj{k.k] iznw"k.k vkSj mldk fu;a=.k
[k.M&[k ¼QkbVksjsfefM,'ku lfgr½A
3- d`f"k lalk/ku bathfu;fjax% Qlyksa dh mitksÙkj izkS|ksfxdh vkSj bldk {ks=] d`f"k mRiknksa vkSj mRiknksa Hkkjr ds ouksa ds iz:i&oujksi.k] ouksUewyu rFkk lkekftd okfudhA ladVkiUu ikS/ks]
ds bathfu;fjax xq.k/keZ] ;wfuV izpkyu&d`f"k mRiknksa rFkk miksRiknksa dh lQkbZ] xzsfMax] vkdkj] U;wuu] LFkkfudrk rFkk jsM MkVkcqdA tSo&fofo/krkA tSo fofo/krk] izHkqlÙkk vf/kdkjh rFkk ckSf/kd lEink
?kuhdj.k lkanz.k] 'kq"du@futZyhdj.k] ok"iu] fQYVju] iz'khru rFkk laos"Vu&lkexzh laHkkyus ds vf/kdkjksa ij lEesyuA tSo&Hkwjklk;fud pØ&oSf'od rkiuA
midj.kA
cSYV rFkk LØwokgd] ckYVh mRFkkid] mudh {kerk rFkk 'kfDr vis{kk,a jlk;u foKku
nqX/k rFkk Ms;jh mRiknksa dk lalk/ku&lekaxhdj.k] Øhe i`FkDdj.k] ik'P;qjhdj.k] iz'u&i=&1
futZehZdj.k] Lizs rFkk jksyj 'kqLdu] eD[ku cukuk] vkbZlØhe] iuhj rFkk Jh[k.M cukuk vo'ks"k rFkk 1- ijek.kq lajpuk% DokaVe fl)kUr] gkbZlsucxZ vfuf'prrk fl)kUr] JksfMaxj rjax lehdj.k ¼dky
miksRikn mi;ksx&pkoy dh Hkwlh] pkyo dk pksdj] xUus dh [kksbZ] ikni vof'k"V rFkk Øks;j eTtkA vukfJr½ rjax Qyu dh O;k[;k] ,dy foeh; ckDl esa d.k] DokaVe la[;k,a] gkbMªkstu ijek.kq rjax
4- d`f"k bathfu;fjax esa eki ;a=.k rFkk dEI;wVj vuqiz;ksx% bysDVªkfud lk/ku rFkk muds y{k.k& QyuA ,lih vkSj Mh d{kksa dh vkd`frA
fn"Vdkjh] izo/kZd] nksfy=] cgqdfEi=] vadh;&lfdZV&vuqØfed rFkk la;qDr iz.kkfy;k¡] vkadM+s izkIr 2- jklk;fud vkcU/k% vk;uh vkcU/k] vk;uh ;kSfxdksa ds vfHky{k.k] vk;uh ;kSfxdksa dh fLFkjrk dks
djus rFkk d`f"k bathfu;jh izØe fu;a=.k esa ekbØksizkslsljksa dk vuqiz;ksx] ry] izokg] fod`fr] cy] izHkkfor djus okys dkj.k] tkyd ÅtkZ] ckuZgScj pØ] lg&la;kstd vkcU/k rFkk blds lkekU;
cy&vk?kw.kZ] 'kfDr] ncko] fuokZr rFkk rkieku ds fy,] eki i)fr;k¡] dEI;wVj&ifjp;] vfHky{k.kA v.kqvksa esa vkcU/k dh /kzqo.kk rFkk mlds f}/kzqo vk?kw.kZA la;ksth vkcU/k fl)kUr] vuqukn rFkk
buiqV@vkmViqV fMokblsl] lsUVªy izkslsflax ;wfuV] eSeksjh fMokblsl] vkijsfVax flLVe] izkslslj vuqukn ÅtkZ dh vo/kkj.kkA v.kq d{kd fl)kUr ¼,ylh,vks i)fr½] leU;wDyh; v.kqvksa esa vkcU/k%
dh&cksMZ rFkk fizUVlZ] d`f"k bathfu;jh esa dyufof/k izokg pkVZ fofunsZ'k] izksxzke :ikUrj.k rFkk leL;k H2+, H2 ls NC2, NO, CO, HF, CN, CH, BeH2 rFkk CO2AA la;ksth vkcU/k rFkk v.kq d{kd
fo'ys"k.k] eYVhehfM;k rFkk JO;n`'; lgk;d lkexzhA fl)kUrksa dh rqyuk] vkcU/k dksfV] vkcU/k lkeF;Z rFkk vkcU/k yEckbZA
ouLifr foKku 3- Bksl voLFkk ¼lksfyMLVsV½% Bkslksa ds izdkj] varjkQyd dks.kksa ds fLFkjkad dk fu;e] fØLVy i)fr
iz'u&i=&1 rFkk fØLVy oxZ ¼fØLVyksxzkfQd lewg½ fØLVy Qydksa] tkyd lajpukvksa rFkk ;wfuV lsy dk Li"V
1- lw{etSfodh ,oa ikni jksx foKku% fo"kk.kq] thok.kq ,oa IykfTeM&lajpuk ,oa tuu] laØe.k dk mYys[k] ifjes; lwpdksa ds fu;e] cszx dk fu;e] fØLVy }kjk ,Dl&js foorZu] Dykst iSfdax ¼lqladqfyr
lkekU; o.kZu] ikni izfrj{kk foKku] d`f"k] m|ksx] fpfdRlk rFkk ok;q ,oa e`nk ,oa ty esa jpuk½ v)ZO;kl vuqikr fu;e] fyfefgax v)ZO;kl vuqikr ewY;ksa ds vkdyuA NaCL,ZnS, CsCL,
iznw"k.k&fu;a=.k esa lw{etSfodh ds vuqiz;ksxA CaF2,CdL2 rFkk LVkby dh lajpukA fØLVyksa esa viw.kZrk] LVkbfd;ksehVªhd rFkk ukuLVkbfd;ksehfVªd
fo"kk.kqvksa] thok.kqvksa] ekbdksIykTek] dodksa rFkk lw=d`fe;ksa }kjk gksus okys izeq[k ikni jksx] nks"k] v'kq)rk nks"k] v)Zpkyd] nzo joksa dk izkjfEHkd v/;;uA
laØe.k rFkk jksx izfrjks/k@izfrj{kk dh fof/k;k¡] ijthfork dh dkf;Zdh vkSj fu;a=.k ds mik;A dod 4- xSl voLFkk% okLrfod xSlksa dh voLFkk dk lehdj.k] vUrjk&v.kqd ikjLifjd fØ;k] xSlksa dk
vkfo"kA nzohdj.k rFkk Økafrd ?kVuk] eSDlosy dk xfr forj.k] vUrjk.kqd la?kê] nhokj ij la?kê rFkk
2- fØIVksxsEl% 'kSoky] dod] ck;ksQkbV] VsfjMksQkbV&lajpuk vkSj tuu ds fodklkRed igyw] Hkkjr esa vfHkLiUnuA
fØIVksxsEl dk forj.k vkSj muds vkfFkZd egRo dh lEHkkouk,aA 5- Å"ekxfrdh rFkk lkaf[;dh; Å"ekxfrdh% Å"ekxfrdh i)fr] voLFkk,a vkSj izØe dk;Z] Å"ek rFkk
3- iq"iksn~fHkn % vuko`rchth % iwoZ vuko`rchth dh vo/kkj.kk] vuko`rchth dk oxhZdj.k vkSj forj.k] vkUrfjd ÅtkZ] Å"ekxfrdh dk izFke fu;e] fudk; ij fd;k x;k dk;Z rFkk fofHkUu izdkj ds izØeksa esa
lkbdSMsyht] dksuhQSjsyht vkSj uhVsyht ds eq[; y{k.k] lajpuk o tuu] lkbdSMksfQfydsyht] 'kksf"kr Å"ek] dSyksjhfefr] fofHkUu izØeksa esa ÅtkZ ,oa ,s;kYih ifjorZu vkSj mudh rki ij fuHkZjrkA
cSUusfVVsyht rFkk dkMsZyht dk lkekU; o.kZuA Å"ekxfrdh dk nwljk fu;e% ,aVªksih ,d voLFkk Qyu ds :i esa fofHkUu izØeksa esa ,aVªksih
vko`rchth ¼,saft;ksLieZ½% ofxZdh] 'kjhj] Hkzw.k foKku] ijek.kq foKku vkSj tkfr o`ÙkA ifjorZu] ,aVªksih& mRØe.kh;rk rFkk vuqRØe.kh;rk] eqDr ÅtkZ Qyu] lkE;koLFkk dk ekin.M] lkE;
fLFkjkad rFkk Å"ekxfrdh jkf'k;ksa ds chp lEcU/k] usUlVZ Å"ek izes; rFkk Å"ekxfrdh dk rhljk fu;eA
vko`rchft;ksa ds oxhZdj.k dh fofHkUu iz.kkfy;ksa dk rqyukRed fooj.k] vko`rchth dqyksa dk v/;;u&
lw{e rFkk LFkwy voLFkk,a% fofgr leqnk; rFkk fofgr foHkktu Qyu] bysDVªkfud] ?kw.khZ rFkk dEifud
eSXuksfy,lh] jSuudqySlh] czSlhdslh ¼ØwlhQsjh½] jkstslh] ysX;wfeukslh] ;wQkfcZ,lh] ekyoslh]
foHkktu Qyu rFkk Å"ekxfrdh jkf'k;k¡] vkn'kZ xSl vfHkfØ;kvksa esa jklk;fud lkE;A
fMIVsjksdkiksZlh] ,fi,lh ¼vEcsyhQsjh½] ,LDysfifM,lh] ocZfulh] lksySuslh] #fc u,lh] dqdqjfcVslh]
,sLVhajlh ¼daiksftVh½] iks,lh ¼xzkfeuh½ ,sjhdslh ¼ikeh½] fyfy,lh ¼E;wtslh½] vkdhZMslhA ja/kz vkSj muds 6- izkoLFkk lkE; rFkk foy;u% 'kq) inkFkks± esa izkoLFkk lkE;] Dykfl;l&Dysfiju lehdj.k] 'kq) inkFkks±
izdkj] folaxr f}rh;d o`f)] lh&3 vkSj lh&4 ikS/kksa dk 'kjhjA ds fy, izkoLFkk vkjs[k] f}vk/kkjh i)fr esa izkoLFkk lkE;] vkaf'kd feJ.kh; nzo&mPprj rFkk fuEurj
ØkfUrd foy;u rki] vkaf'kd eksyj jkf'k;k¡] mudk egRo rFkk fu/kkZj.k] vkf/kD; Å"ekxfrdh Qyu vkSj
uj vkSj eknk ;qXedksn~fHkn dk ifjo/kZu] ijkx.k] fu"kspu] Hkzw.kiks"k&bldk ifjo/kZu vkSj dk;ZA mudk fu/kkZj.kA
Hkzw.k ifjo/kZu dk Lo:iA cgq&Hkzw.krk] vlaxtuu] ijkxk.kq foKku ds vuqiz;ksxA
7- fo|qr jlk;u% izoy fo|qr vi?kV~;ksa dk MsokbZ gqdsy fl)kUr] fofHkUu lkE; rFkk vf/kxeu xq.k/keks± ds
4- ikni mi;ksfxrk rFkk nksgu% d`"V ikS/kksa dk mn~Hko] mn~Hko lECkU/kh oSohykso ds dsUnzA [kk|] pkjk] js'kksa] fy, MsokbZ gqdsy lhekUr fu;eA
elkyksa] is; inkFkksZa] vkS"kf/k;ksa] Lokidksa ¼u'khys inkFkksZa½] dhVukf'k;ksa] bekjrh ydM+h] xksan] jsftuksa rFkk
xSyosfud lsy] lkUnzrk lsy] bysDVªksdsfedy lhjht] lsyksa ds bZ,e,Q dk ekiu vkSj mldk
jatdksa ds lzksrksa ds #i esa ikS/ksA Cont...

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vuqiz;ksx] b±/ku lsy rFkk cSVfj;k¡A bysDVªksM ij izØe] vUrjki`"B ij f}Loj] pktZ VªkaLQj dh nj] fo|qr jklk;fud bathfu;fjax
/kkjk ?kuRo] vfrfoHko] oS|qr fo'ys"k.k rduhd oksYVkfefr] iksyjksxzkQh] ,Eijksfefr] pØh;&oksYVkfefr] iz'u i=&1
vk;u o.kkZRed bysDVªksM vkSj muds mi;ksxA [k.M&d
8- jklk;fud cyxfrdh% vfHkfØ;k nj dh lkUnzrk ij fuHkZjrk] 'kwU;] izFke] f}rh; rFkk vkaf'kd dksfV dh ¼d½ rjy rFkk d.k xfrdh% jyksa dh ';kurk] Lrjh; vkSj fo{kqC/k izokg] vfofPNUurk lehdj.k rFkk
vfHkfØ;kvksa ds fy, vody vkSj lekady nj lehdj.k] mRØe] lekUrj] Øekxr rFkk Ja`[kyk usfo;j&LVksDl lehdj.k&cjukSyh dk izes;] izokg ekih] rjy lad"kZ rFkk nkc g~jkl&jsukYM la[;k
vfHkfØ;kvksa ds nj lehdj.k] nj fLFkjkad ij rki vkSj nkc dk izHkkoA LVkWi&¶yks vkSj fjysDls'ku i)fr rFkk ?k"kZ.k xq.kd&ikbi ¼uy½ dh #{krk dk izHkko& ykHkizn uy O;kl] iEi] ty] ok;q@Hkki tsV
}kjk nzqr vfHkfØ;kvksa dk v/;;uA la?kêu vkSj laØe.k voLFkk fl)kUrA fu"dkld ¼batsDVj½] laihMd ¼dEizslj½] vk/ekrk ¼Cyksvj½ rFkk ia[ks] nzo inkFkks± dk foyksMu vkSj
9- izdk'k jlk;u% izdk'k dk vo'kks"k.k] fofHkUu ekxks± }kjk mÙksftr voLFkk dk volku] gkbMªkstu vkSj feJ.k&Bksl inkFkks± rFkk ysiksa dk feJ.k&lanuy rFkk ihluk&fl)kUr rFkk miLdj] fjfVUtj rFkk
gsykstuksa ds e/; izdk'k jlk;u vfHkfØ;k vkSj DokUVeh yfC/kA ckaM ds fu;e&fuL;anu rFkk fuL;anu miLdj] rjy d.k ;kaf=dh&eqDr rFkk vo#) fu"knu ¼lSVfyax½&
10- i`"Bh; ifj?kVuk rFkk mRizsjdrk% Bksl vf/k'kks"kdksa ij xSlksa vkSj foy;uksa dk vf/k'kks"k.k] vf/k'kks"k.k rjyhdj.k rFkk U;wure rjyhdj.k osx&lEihM~; rFkk vlEihM~; izokg dh ladYiuk&Bksl inkFkks± dk
lerki js[kk&ySaxE;wj rFkk chbZVh vf/k'kks"k.k js[kk] i`"Bh; {ks=Qy dk fu/kkZj.k] fo"kekaxh mRizsjdksa ij ifjoguA
vfHkfØ;k ds vfHky{k.k vkSj fØ;kfof/kA ¼[k½nzO;eku vUrj.k% vk.kfod folj.k xq.kkad&folj.k dk izFke rFkk f}rh; fu;e&nzO;eku varj.k
11- tSo&vdkcZfud jlk;u% tSfod rU=ksa esa /kkrq vk;u rFkk fefÙk ds ikj vk;u xeu ¼vkf.od fØ;k xq.kkad&nzO;eku varj.k ds fQYe rFkk vUrosZ'ku vklou] ljy vklou] vkisf{kd ok"i'khyrk] vkaf'kd
fof/k½] vkbuksQkslZ] QksVksflafFkflt&ih,l I] ih,l II] ukbVªkstu fQDls'ku] vkWDlhtu viVsd izksVhu] vklou] vklou ds IysV rFkk ladqfyr LrEHk] IysVksa dh U;wure la[;k dk vkadyu] nzo&nzolkE;koLFkk]
lkbVksØkse rFkk QsjksMksfDlu esa mudh HkwfedkA fu"d"kZ.k&fl)kUr rFkk O;ogkj] xSl&vo'kks"k.k LrEHk dk vfHkdYiu 'kq"du] vknzhZdj.k] vuknZzdj.k]
12-leUo; jlk;u% ¼d½ bysDVªkfud foU;kl] laØe.k /kkrq ladqy esa vkcU/k fl)kUrksa dk ifjp;] fØLVyhdj.k] miLdj dk vfHkdYiuA
la;kstdrk vkcU/k fl)kUr] fØLVy QhYM fl)kUr vkSj mlesa la'kks/ku] /kkrq ladqy ds pqEcdh; rFkk ¼x½ Å"ek varj.k% pkyu] rkih; Å"ek pkydrk] foLr`r lrg Å"ek varj.k] eqDr rFkk iz.kksfnr
bysDVªkfud LisDVªe dh O;k[;k esa fl)kUrksa dk vuqiz;ksxA laogu@Å"ekUrj.k xq.kkad& ulSYV la[;k&,y,eVhMh rFkk izHkko'khyrk] f}ikbi vkSj [kksy rFkk V~;wc
¼[k½ leUo;h ;kSfxdksa esa vkblksesfjTe ¼leko;drk½] leUo;h ;kSfxdksa dk vkbZ;wih,lh ukedj.k] 4 rFkk Å"ek fofuef;= ds vfHkdYiu ds fy, ,uVh;w i)fr;ksa] Å"ek rFkk laosx varj.k ds chp lkn`";rk]
6 lek;kstu okys ladqyksa dk fHkfoe jlk;u] fdysV izHkko rFkk cgqukfHkdh; ladqy] ijk&izHkko vkSj mlds DoaFku ¼ckW;fyax½ rFkk la?kuu rkih; Å"ek vUrj.k] ,dy rFkk cgqy izHkkoh ok"id]
fl)kUr] oxZ leryh ladqy esa izfrLFkkifud vfHkfØ;kvksa dh cyxfrdh] ladqyksa dh rkixfrdh rFkk fofdj.k&LVhQu&cksYVteSu fu;e] mRltZdrk rFkk vo'kks"kdrk&Hkêh ds rkih; vk/kkj ij
cyxfrdh fLFkjrkA vkdyu&lkSj rkidA
¼x½ eSVy dkcksZfuyksa dk la'ys"k.k rFkk mudh lajpuk] dkcksZfDlysV ,sfu;u] dkcksZfuy gkbMªkbM rFkk [k.M&[k
esVy ukbVªkslhy ;kSfxdA ¼?k½ uohu i`FkDdj.k izfØ;k,a% lkE; i`FkDdj.k izfØ;k,a&vk;u&fofu;e] ijklj.k] bysDVªks Mk;fyfll]
¼?k½ ,jkseSfVd iz.kkyh ds ladqy] eSVy vksysfQu ladqyksa esa la'ys"k.k] lajpuk rFkk ca/k ,ydkbu rFkk mRØe ¼foijhr½ ijklj.k] ijk fuL;Unu rFkk vU; f>Yyh ¼eSEcjsu½ izfØ;k,a] vk.kfod vklou] vfr
lkbDyksisUVkMk;fud ladqy] leUo;h vlarqIrrk] vkfDlMsfVo ;ksxkRed vfHkfØ;k,a] fuos'ku Økafrd ¼lqij fØfVdy½ rjy fu"d"kZ.kA
vfHkfØ;k,a] izokgh v.kq vkSj mudk vfHky{k.ku] eSVy&eSVy vkca/k rFkk eSVy ijek.kq xqPNs okys ;kSfxdA ¼³½ izfØ;k miLdj vfHkdYiu% ckfgdk ¼oSly½ vfHkdYiu ¼fMtkbu djus½ ds fud"k dks izHkkfor djus
13- ,Q Cykd rRoksa dk lkekU; jlk;u% ysUFksukbM vkSj ,DVhukbM% i`FkDdj.k] vkDlhdj.k voLFkk,a] okys dkjd] ykxr lEcU/kh fopkj] lap;u okfgdkvksa dk vfHkdYiu&m/okZ/kj] {kSfrt rFkk xksy Hkwfexr
pqEcdh; rFkk LisDVªeh xq.k/keZ] ysUFksukbM ladqpuA okfgdk ¼oSly½] ok;qe.Myh; rFkk mPp nkc ds fy, laojdksa dk vfHkdYiu] piVh rFkk nh?kZo`Ùkh; 'kh"kZ
14- futZy foyk;d % nzo NH3, HF, SO2 rFkk H2SO4 esa vfHkfØ;k;sa] foyk;d fudk; vo/kkj.kk dh okyh lao`fÙk;ka] vk/kkjksa ¼liksVZl½ dk vfHkdYiu ¼fMtkbu½] fuekZ.k lkexzh&vfHky{k.k rFkk p;uA
vlQyrk] futZy foyk;dksa dk leUo;u ekMy] dqN mPp veyh; ek/;e] DyksjkslY¶;qfjd ,flM rFkk ¼p½ izfØ;k xfrdh rFkk fu;a=.k% izfØ;k ifjoR;ks± ds fy, ekiu;a=& tSls ry] nkc] izokg] rkieku] ih,p
lqij ,flMA ¼PH½ rFkk lkanzrk dks n`';@ ok;qpkfyr@ lkn`';@vadh; lwpd :iksa esa n'kkZrs gq,] fu;af=r ifjoR;Z]
jlk;u foKku ;qfDr iz;qDr ifjoR;Z rFkk Hkkjkf/kD; ikfjoR;Z] jSf[kd fu;a=.k fl)kUr] ykIykl&:ikUrj ¼VªklQkeZl½]
iz'u i=&2 ihvkbZMh fu;a=d] [k.M vkjs[k ¼CykWd Mk;xzke½ fu:i.k] vYiLFkk;h rFkk vko`fÙk vuqfØ;k] cUn ywi
i)fr dk LFkkf;Ro] mUur fu;a=.k uhfr;ka] dEI;wVj vk/kkfjr izfØ;k fu;a=.kA
1- foLFkkfud lgla;kstd cU/k% ,sjkseSfVdrk] izfr ,jkseSfVdrk] ,U;wyhu] ,tsyhu] VªksiksyksUl] dsdqyhu
QqYohu] flMuksuA jklk;fud bathfu;fjax
2- ¼d½ vfHkfØ;k fØ;kfof/k% mnkgj.kksa }kjk dkcZfud vfHkfØ;kvksa dh fØ;kfof/k;ksa ds v/;;u dh lkekU; iz'u i=&2
fof/k;ksa ¼xfrd ,oa xSj&xfrd nksuksa½ lekLFkkfudksa dk mi;ksx] Økl&vksoj iz;ksx] e/;orhZ Vªsfiax] f=foe [k.M&d
jlk;u] lkekU; dkcZfud vfHkfØ;kvksa ds ÅtkZ Mk;xzke&¼js[kkfp=½ laØkeh voLFkk,a ,oa e/;orhZ] ¼d½ lkexzh rFkk ÅtkZ lek;kstu% iqu'pØ.k@mi ekxZ@jatu ¼itZ½ okyh izfØ;kvksa esa lkexzh rFkk ÅtkZ
lafØ;.k ÅtkZ] vfHkfØ;kvksa dk Å"ekxfrdh fu;a=.k rFkk xfrd fu;a=.kA larqyu dk vkdyu] Bksl@nzo@ xSl b±/kuksa dk ngu] jlleksdj.kfefr ¼LVkbZfd;ksehVªh½ lehdj.k vkSj
¼[k½ vfHkfØ;k'khy e/;orhZ% dkcksZfu;e rFkk dkcksZfu;e vk;uks] dkcksZfu;uksa] eqDr ewydksa ¼Ýh jsfMdy½ vf/kd ok;q vko';drk,a&#)ks"i Tokyk rkiekuA
dkchZuks] csUtkbuks rFkk ukbVªsuks dk mRiknu] T;kfefr] fLFkjrk rFkk vfHkfØ;kA ¼[k½ jklk;fud bathfu;fjax Å"ek xfrdh% Å"ek xfrdh ds fu;e&'kq) vo;oksa rFkk feJ.k ds fy,
¼x½ izfrLFkkiu vfHkfØ;k;sa % SNI, SN2, SNi, SNI, SN2, SNi rFkk SRNI fØ;k fof/k;k¡] izfros'kh lewg nkc&vk;ru&rkieku ¼ihohVh½ lehdj.k] ÅtkZ Qyu rFkk ijLij lEcU/k] eSDloSy&lehdj.k]
Hkkxhnkjh] ikbZjksy] ¶;wju] fFk;ksQhu] baMksy tSls gsVªkslkbfDyd ;kSfxdksa lfgr ,jkseSfVd ;kSfxdksa dh iyk;urk] lfØ;rk rFkk jklk;fud foHko] vkn'kZ@vukn'kZ] 'kq)&vo;o rFkk cgq&vo;o feJ.k ds
bysDVªksfQfyd rFkk U;wfDy;ksfQfyd vfHkfØ;k,aA fy, ok"i&nzo lkE;koLFkk] jklk;fud vfHkfØ;k lkE;koLFkk ds ekun.M] lkE; fLFkjkad rFkk lkE;koLFkk
¼?k½ foyksiu vfHkfØ;k,a % E1, E2 rFkk E1cb fØ;kfof/k;k¡] lstsQ rFkk gkWQeu E2 vfHkfØ;kvksa esa fnd~ :ikUrj.k] Å"ek xfrdh pØ&iz'khru rFkk 'kfDrA
foU;kl] ikbjksfyfVd SYN foyksiu&,flVsV ikbjksfyfllA pwXxh; rFkk dks"k foyksiuA ¼x½ jklk;fud vfHkfØ;k bathfu;fjax% /kku ¼cSp½ fj,DVj] lekaxh vfHkfØ;kvksa dh xfrdh rFkk xfrdh
¼³½ ladyu vfHkfØ;k;sa% C-C rFkk C=C ds fy, bysDVªksfQfyd ladyu] C=O, C-N ds fy, vkadM+ksa dh O;k[;k] vkn'kZ izokg fj,DVj& lrr foyksfMr fj,DVj ¼lh,lVhvkj½] Iyx izokg fj,DVj
U;wDy;ksfQfyd ladyu] la;qXeh vkSfyfQUl rFkk dkcksZfuYlA rFkk muds fu"iknu lehdj.k&rki izHkko rFkk vfu;af=r vfHkfØ;k,a] fo"kekaxh vfHkfØ;k,a] mRizsfjr rFkk
vuqRizsfjr vfHkfØ;k,a rFkk Bksl&xSl] nzo&xSl vfHkfØ;k,a] uSt xfrdh rFkk lkoZHkkSfed vfHkfØ;k nj
¼p½ iqufoZU;kl% fiukdksy&fiukdksyksu] gkWQeu] csdeu] cs;j&fofyxj] QSoksLdhZ] ÝkbZl] Dyslsu] dksi]
ladYiuk] fu"iknu ds fy, ,d izkoLFkk ls nwljh izkoLFkk esa rFkk d.k ds Hkhrj nzO;eku varj.k dk egRo]
LVhosUt rFkk okXuj&esjckbu iqufoZU;klA
izHkkfork ?kVd] lerkih; rFkk xSj&lerkih; fj,DVj rFkk fj,DVj fLFkjrkA
3-ijjEHkh; vfHkfØ;k,a ¼Pericyclic reactions½% oxhZdj.k vkSj mnkgj.k] oqMoMZ&gkWQeu fu;e&
[k.M&[k
bysDVªkslk;fDyd vfHkfØ;k,a&lkbDyks,Mhlu vfHkfØ;k,a ¼2$2 rFkk 4$2½ rFkk flXekVªksfid f'k¶V ¼1]
3] 3] 3 rFkk 1] 5½ FMO mixeuA ¼?k½ jklk;fud izkS|ksfxdh% izkd`frd dkcZfud mRikn&dk"B rFkk dk"B vk/kkfjr jlk;u&yqxnh rFkk
dkxt@d`f"k m|ksx&'kdZjk] [kk| rsy fu"d"kZ.k ¼o`{k vk/kkfjr chtksa lfgr½] lkcqu rFkk fMVtsZUVA
4- jlk;u foKku rFkk vfHkfØ;kvksa dh fØ;kfof/k% ,YMksy la?kuu ¼Mk;jsDVsM ,YMksy la?kuu lfgr½]
lqxU/k rsy] ck;ksekl xSlhdj.k&¼ck;ksxSl lfgr½] dks;yk rFkk dks;yk jlk;u&isVªksfy;e rFkk izkd`frd
DySlsu la?kuu Mhdeu] ijfdu] uksosustsy] fofVt] Dyhesalu] oksYQ&fd'kuj] dsfutkjksa rFkk
xSl&isVªksfy;e ifj'kks/ku ¼ok;qe.Myh; vklou@Hkatu@'kks/ku½] isVªksjlk;u m|ksx&iksfyfFkyhu ¼,y
Qku&fjDVj vfHkfØ;k,a] LVkWc] csUtksbu rFkk ,flyksbu la?kuu( fQ'kj bZMksy la'ys"k.k] Ldjki la'ys"k.k]
Mh ih bZ@,p Mh ih bZ@,y ,y Mh ih bZ½ iksfyfoukby DyksjkbM] iksfyLVkbjhu] veksfu;k dk vkS|ksfxd
fo"yj&usfi,jkLdh] l¡Mes;j] jsesj&Vkbeu rFkk jsQkWjekLdh vfHkfØ;k,aA
fuekZ.k] lhesaV] rFkk pwuk m|ksx&jksxu rFkk okfuZ'k&dkap rFkk e`frdk f'kYi] fd.ou&vYdksgy rFkk
5- cgqyd iz.kkyh% ¼d½ cgqydksa dk HkkSfrd jlk;u% cgqyd foy;u vkSj muds Å"ekxfrd xq.k/keZ] izfrtSfod ¼,aVhck;fVDl½A
cgqydksa dh la[;k vkSj Hkkj vkSlr v.kqHkkjA volknu ¼lSfMesaVs'ku½] ykbV LdsVfjax] vkWleksfVd izs'kj]
¼³½ i;kZoj.kh; bathfu;fjax rFkk lqj{kk% ikfjfLFkfrdh rFkk i;kZoj.k] ok;q rFkk ty esa iznw"k.k ds lzksr]
';kurk ¼FMO½] vaR; lewg fo'ys"k.k i)fr }kjk v.kqHkkj dk fu/kkZj.kA
rki izHkko ¼xzhu gkml bQsDV½] vkstksu ijr dk g~jkl] vEy ckSNkj] lw{e ekSle foKku rFkk i;kZoj.k esa
¼[k½ cgqydksa dk fuekZ.k vkSj xq.k/keZ% dkcZfud cgqyd&iksfy,fFkyhu] ikWyhLVkbjhu] iksyhfoukby iznw"kd rRoksa dk izlj.k ¼iznw"k.k dk QSyko½] iznw"k.k Lrj dks ekius dh fof/k;ka rFkk mu ij fu;a=.k dh
DyksjkbM] VsQykWu] ukbykWu] Vsjhyhu] laf'y"V rFkk izkd`frd jcM+A vdkcZfud uhfr;ka] Bksl vif'k"V] muds tksf[ke vkSj muds fuiVku ds rjhds] iznw"k.k fu;a=.k miLdjksa dk
cgqyd&QksLQksfufVªfyd gsykbM~l] cksjktkbu] flfydksu vkSj flfydsVA vfHkdYiu ¼fMtkbu½ rFkk fu"iknu fo'ys"k.k] vfXu rFkk foLQksV tksf[ke fu/kkZj.k] ,p , tSM vks ih rFkk
¼x½ tSo cgqyd% izksVhu] Mh,u,] vkj,u, esa ewyHkwr cU/kA ,p , tSM , ,u] vkikrdkyhu ;kstuk] vkink izcU/k] i;kZoj.kh; fo|ku] ty] ok;q rFkk i;kZoj.k laj{k.k
6- vfHkdkjdksa ds lka'ysf"kd mi;ksx% OsO4, HIO4, CrO3, Pb{OAc}4, SeO2, NBS, B2H6, Naa nzo vf/kfu;e] ou ¼laj{k.k½ vf/kfu;eA
veksfu;k LiALH4, NaBH2, n-Buli, MCPBAA ¼p½ izfØ;k bathfu;fjax vFkZ'kkL=% izØe m|ksx ds fy, fu;r ¼fQDlM½ rFkk dk;Z'khy iwath vko';drk,a
7- izdk'k jlk;u% lk/kkj.k dkcZfud ;kSfxdksa dh izdk'k jklk;fud vfHkfØ;k,a] mÙksftr vkSj fuEure rFkk vuqeku i)fr;k¡A ykxr vuqeku vkSj fodYiksa dh rqyuk] fMLdkmaVsM dS'k ¶yks }kjk fuoy orZeku
voLFkk,a] ,dd vkSj f=d voLFkk,a] uksfj'k Vkbi&1 vkSj Vkbi&2 vfHkfØ;k,aA ewY;] okil Hkqxrku fo'ys"k.k] vkbZ vkj vkj ewY; gzkl] dj rFkk chek] lhekUr fcUnq fo'ys"k.k] ifj;kstuk
8- LisDVªfedh fl)kUr vkSj lajpuk ds Li"Vhdj.k esa mudk vuqiz;ksx vuqlwpu] ih bZ vkj Vh rFkk lh ih ,e] ykHk rFkk gkfu ys[kk] rqyu i= rFkk foÙk fooj.k] ikbi yxkus
¼d½ ?kw.khZ LisDVªe% f}ijek.kqd v.kq% leLFkkfud izfrLFkkiu rFkk ?kw.khZ fLFkjkadA lfgr la;a= LFky rFkk la;a= vfHkU;klA
¼[k½ dkaifud LisDVªe% f}ijek.kqd vkf.od] jSf[kd f=ijek.kqd v.kq] cgq ijek.kqd v.kqvksa esa dk;kZRed
lewgksa dh fof'k"V vko`fÙk;k¡A flfoy bathfu;fjax
¼x½ bysDVªksfud LisDVªe% ,dd vkSj f=d voLFkk,a% N->P rFkk P->P laØe.k( la;qfXer f}vkcU/k rFkk iz'u i=&1
la;qfXer djcksuhy esa vuqiz;ksx&oqMoMZ&Qh'kj fu;eA Hkkx&d
¼?k½ ukfHkdh; pqEcdh; vuqukn% vkblksØksul vkSj ,fulksØksuksl izksVkWu% dSfedy f'k¶V vkSj difyax ;kaf=d bathfu;fjax] inkFkZ&lkeF;Z rFkk lajpukRed fo'ys"k.k
fLFkjkad] HNMR dk lk/kkj.k dkcZfud v.kqvksa esa vuqiz;ksxA ;kaf=dh bathfu;fjax% ek=d rFkk foek,a] ,l vkbZ ek=d] lfn'k] cy dh ladYiuk] d.k rFkk n`<+ fi.M
¼³½ nzO;eku LisDVªk% isjsaV ihd] csl ihd] MkWVj ihd] esVkLVscy ihd] lk/kkj.k dkcZfud v.kqvksa dk ladYiuk] laxkeh] vlaxkeh rFkk lery ij lekUrj cy] cy vk?kw.kZ rFkk oSfjxuksu izes;] eqDr fi.M
[k.Mu] &fDyost] eSdySQVhZ iqufoZU;klA vkjs[k] laizfrcU/k lkE;koLFkk] dfYir dk;Z dk fl)kUr] lerqY; cy iz.kkyhA
¼p½ bysDVªkWu pØ.k vuqokn% vdkcZfud ladj rFkk eqDr ewydA izFke rFkk f}rh; {ks= vk?kw.kZ] nzO;eku tM+Ro vk?kw.kZ] LiSfrd ?k"kZ.k] vkur ry rFkk cs;fjaxA
'kq)xfrdh rFkk xfrd% dkrhZ; 'kq)xfrdh rFkk /kzqoh; funs'kkad] leku rFkk vleku Roj.k ds v/khu xfr]
Cont...

Page No. - 23
xq#Rok/khu xfr] xfrd d.k% laosx rFkk ÅtkZ fl)kUr] Mh ,YecVZl fl)kUr] izR;kLFk fi.Mksa dk la?kVu] ikn vuqikyu] foyfxr rFkk la;qDr ikn] jS¶Vl] mRIykoDrk jSIVl] LFkw.kk uhao] LFkw.kk ds izdkj]
n`<+ fi.Mksa dk ?kw.kZu] ljy vkorZ xfr] xfr ikyd pØA LFkw.kk /kkfjrk] LFkSfrd rFkk xfrd fo'ys"k.k] LFkw.kk lewgksa ds vfHkdYi] LFkw.kk Hkkjr ifj{k.k] LFkw.kk
inkFkZ&lkeF;Z% ljy izfrcy rFkk fod`fr] izR;kLFk fLFkjkad] v{khr% Hkkfjr laihMkax] vi:i.k cy rFkk fu"knu] ikf'od /kkfjrk] iqyksa gsrq uhao] Hkwfe lq/kkj rduhd&iwoZ Hkkj.k] ckyw ukyh] iRFkj&LrEHk]
cadu vk?kw.kZ] ljy cadu dk fl)kUr] vauqizLFk dkV dk vi:i.k] izfrcy forj.k] lelkeF;Z /kj.k] vfHkiwj.k] e`nk LFkk;hdj.kA
iÙkhnkj dekuh] izR;{k izfrcy esa fod`fr ÅtkZ] cadu rFkk vi:i.kA flfoy bathfu;fjax
/kju fo{ksi% eSdkys fof/k% eksj dh vk?kw.kZ {ks= fof/k] vuq:i /kj.k fof/k] ,dkad Hkkj fof/k] 'kk¶V dh ,saBu] iz'u i=&2
lapj.k {kerk] l?ku dq.Mfyr dekuh] LrEHkksa dk izR;kLFk LFkkf;RoA vkW;yj] jsudkbZu rFkk lhdsaV lw=] Hkkx&d
nks foekvksa esa izeq[k izfrcy rFkk fod`fr] eksj dk o`Ùk] izR;kLFk Hkax ds fl)kUr] LFkwy rFkk ruq flfyaMj% fuekZ.k rduhd] midj.k] ;kstuk vkSj izcU/k
vkarfjd rFkk ckg~; nkc ds dkj.k izfrcy&ykesa lehdj.kA 1- fuekZ.k rduhd% bathfu;fjax lkexzh% fuekZ.k lkexzh ds HkkSfrd xq.k/keZ% iRFkj] b±V rFkk Vkby]
lajpukRed fo'ys"k.k% dkfLVfy;kuksl izes; I rFkk II ,dkad Hkkj fof/k] /kj.k vkSj dhy laf/k;qDr dSaph pwuk] lhesaV rFkk lqj[kh elkyk] pwuk daØhV rFkk lhesaV daØhV] rktk fefJr rFkk dBksfjr daØhV
¼Vªl½ esa iz;qDr laxr fod`fr dh fof/kA <ky fo{ksi] vk?kw.kZ forj.k] vifjfer /kj.k rFkk n`<+ <kapksa esa iz;qDr ds xq.k/keZ] Q'kZ dh Vkbysa] izcfyr lhesaV] rarq izcfyr rFkk ikfyej daØhV] mPp lkeF;Z daØhV
dfu dh fo'ys"k.k fof/k rFkk LrEHk lkn`'; fof/kA rFkk gYdh daØhV] izdk"B dk iz;ksx] bekjrh ydM+h% xq.k/keZ ,oa iz;ksx] bekjrh ydM+h esa nks"k]
ossyu Hkkj vkSj izHkko js[kk,a% /kj.k ds [k.M ij vi:i.k cy rFkk cadu vk?kw.kZ ds fy, izHkko js[kk,a] bekjrh ydM+h dk la'kks"k.k ,oa laj{k.k] IykfLVd] jcM+ ,oa vknzrkjks/kh lkexzh] varLFk jks/kh] de
xfr'khy Hkkj iz.kkyh }kjk /kj.k pØe.k esa vf/kdre vi:i.k cy rFkk cadu vk?kw.kZ gsrq ekun.M] ljy ykxr ds vkokl gsrq lkexzhA
vkyfEcr lery dhy laf/k;qDr dSaph ¼VªWl½ gsrq izHkko js[kk,aA fuekZ.k% Hkou ds ?kVd vkSj muds dk;Z] b±V&fpukbZ] cU/ku] tksM+] iRFkj fpukbZA vkbZ,l dksMksa
MkV% f=dhy] f}dhy rFkk vkc) MkV] i'kqZdk y?kh;u rFkk rkieku izHkko MkV esa izHkko js[kk,aA fo'ys"k.k ¼iqfLrdkvksa½ ds vuqlkj nhokj dh b±V&fpukbZ dk fMtkbu] lqj{kk xq.kd] mi;qDrrk rFkk lkeF;Z
dh eSfVªDl fof/k% vifjfer /kj.k rFkk n`<+ <kapksa dk cy fof/k rFkk foLFkkiu fof/k ls fo'ys"k.k] /kj.k vkSj vko';drk,a] IykLVj] Vhi] Q'kks± ,oa Nrksa ds izdkj] laokru] Hkouksa dh ejEerA
<kapksa dk IykfVd fo'ys"k.k% IykfVd cadu fl)kUr] IykfLVd fo'ys"k.k] LFkSfrd iz.kkyh] ;kaf=dh fof/kA Hkou dh dk;Zewyd ;kstuk% Hkou vfHkU;kl] ifjlapj.k] {ks=ksa dk lewgu] xqIr ladYiuk rFkk ÅtkZ n{k
vlefer cd a u% tMRo vk?k.wk]Z tMR+o mRikn] mnklhu v{k vkjS e[q; v{k dh fLFkfr cd
a u ifzrcy dh ifjx.kukA Hkou dk fMtkbu] jk"Vªh; Hkou dksM O;oLFkk] Hkou vkdyu ,oa fofunsZ'ku] dk;Z dh ykxr] ewY;kaduA
Hkkx&[k 2- fuekZ.k midj.k% ekud ,oa fo'ks"k izdkj ds midj.k] fujks/kd vuqj{k.k ,oa ejEer] midj.k ds p;u
lajpuk vfHkdYi% bLikr] daØhV rFkk fpukbZ lajpuk dks izHkkfor djus okys dkjd] larqfyr vk;q] le; ,oa xfr v/;;u] iawth ,oa vuqj{k.k ykxrA
lajpukRed bLikr vfHkdYi% lajpukRed bLikr% lqj{kk xq.kd vkSj Hkkj xq.kd] dofpr] dkoyk rFkk daØhV midj.k% rkSy cSpj] feJd] dEiu] cSfpax la;a=] daØhV iEiA
osfYMr tksM+ rFkk la;kstu] ruko rFkk laihMkax bdkb;ksa dk vfHkdYi] la?kfVr ifjPNsn dk /kj.k] dofpr feêh dk;Z ds midj.k% fo|qr] QkoM+k] dqnky] cqyMkstj] MEij] Vªsyj vkSj VªªSDVj] jksyj] es"k ikn osYyuA
rFkk osfYMr IysV xMZj] xSanzh xMZj] cÙkk vkSj cU/kd] LySc ,oa xlsfVM ¼LrEHk vk/kkj½ dkye csl lfgr 3- fuekZ.k ;kstuk vkSj izcU/k% fuekZ.k lfØ;rk] dk;ZØe] dk;Z vfHkU;kl] ckj pkVZ lafonk djus okys Qeks±
LVafp;UlA dk laxBu] ifj;kstuk fu;a=.k ,oa i;Zos{k.kA ykxr de djus ds mik;A
jktekxZ rFkk jsyos iqyksa dk vfHkdYi% Fkzw ,aM Msd Vkbi IysV xMsZj] okjsu xMZj] izkaV dSaphA uo dk;Z fo'ys"k.k% lhih,e ,oa ihbZvkjVh fo'ys"k.k] Iyoh le;] lfØ;rk /oal ykxr] b"Vrehdj.k
daØhV rFkk fpukbZ lajpuk dk vfHkdYi% feJ vfHkdYi dh ladYiuk] izcfyd daØhV% dk;Zdkjh izfrcy vk/kqfudhdj.k gsrq usVodZ ladqpu] ykxr fo'ys"k.k vkSj lk/ku fu;ru] bathfu;jh vFkZ'kkL= ds
rFkk lhek voLFkk fof/k ls vfHkdYi& vkbZ,l iqfLrdkvksa dh flQkfj'ksa@ou os ,oa Vw os LySc dk rRo] ewY; fu/kkZj.k dh fof/k;ka] orZeku ewY;] okf"kZd ykxr] ykHk ykxr] okf/kZd fo'ys"k.k] vuqeki
fMtkbu] lksiku&LySc] ljy rFkk vk;rkdkj lrr /kju] Vh] ,oa ,y dkV ds ljy ,oa lrr /kj.k] ,oa vkdkj dh vFkZ O;oLFkk] fuos'k Lrj lfgr fodYiksa dks pquuk] ifj;kstuk ykHknkf;drkA
mRdsUnzrk lfgr vFkok jfgr izR;{k Hkkj ds vUrxZr laihMkax bdkb;ka] foyfxr ,oa la;qDr uhc] Hkkx&[k
losZ{k.k ,oa ifjogu bathfu;fjax
dsUVhfyoj ,oa i'kqZdk ;qDr ifrZ/kkjd fHkÙkhA
losZ{k.k% nwjh ,oa dks.k ekius dh lkekU; fof/k] Iysu Vscy losZ] leryu] pØe losZ{k.k] f=dks.ku losZ{k.k]
ty Vadh% i`Foh ij j[ks vk;rkdkj ,oa xksykdkj Vafd;ksa ds vfHkdYiu ds fy, 'krs±A la'kks/ku ,oa lek;kstuk] :ijs[k.k] LFkykd`frd ekufp=] mi;qZDr mís';ksa ds fy, losZ{k.k midj.k]
iwoZ izfrcfyr daØhV% iwoZizfrcfyr ds fy, fof/k;ka vkSj iz.kkfy;ka vkufr vk/kkfjr ifjPNsn ij fo'ys"k.k Vdhfefr] o`Ùkkdkj ,oa laØe.k pØ QksVksxzkfefr ds fl)kUrAjsyos% jsyiFk] Lyhij] jsy vkcU/ku] fxêh]
vkSj vfHkdYi ds }kjk dk;Zdkjh izfrcy] iwoZ izfrcfyr gkfuA dkaVs rFkk Økflax] mRØke vfHkdYi] LVs'ku rFkk ;kMZ] ¼VuZVscy½ HkwfeiVy] flXuy rFkk vUr%ik'ku]
vkbZ ,l ¼iqfLrdkvksa½ dksM ds vuqlkj b±V dh fpukbZ dk vfHkdYiuA lery ikjdA jsyiFk dk fuekZ.k ,oa vuqj{k.k] ckg~;ksRFkku] jsy dk foliZ.k] fu;a=d izo.krk] VªSd
fpukbZ izfr/kkjd fHkfÙk vfHkdYiuA izfrjks/k] lad"kZ.k iz;kl] VªSd fjysdj.k ¼izfolkj.k½
Hkkx&x jktekxZ bathfu;fjax% jktekxZ ;kstuk ds fl)kUr] jktekxZ ljs[ku] T;kfefrd vfHkdYi] vuqizLFk dkV]
rjy ;kaf=dh] eqDr okfgdk izokg ,oa nzopkfyr e'khusa rjy ;kaf=dh% rjy xq.k/keZ rFkk rjy xfr esa mHkkj ¼dSEcj½] ckg~;ksRFkku] {kSfrt ,oa m/okZdkj oØ] ekxks± dk oxhZdj.k] de ykxr ekxZ] uE; dqfVVe]
mudh Hkwfedk] rjy LFkSfrdh ftlesa lery rFkk oØ lrg ij dk;Z djus okys cy Hkh 'kkfey gSaA rjy n`<+ dqfVVe] dqfVVe ¼isoesaV½ fMtkbu ,oa mudk fuekZ.k] dqfVVe eaxyk vkSj etcwrh dk ewY;kaduA
izokg dh 'kq)xfrdh ,oa xfrd% osx vkSj Roj.k] lfjrk js[kk,a] lkarR; lehdj.k] vk?kw.khZ rFkk ?kw.khZ izokg] lM+d viokg% cfgLry ,oa v?kLry viokgA ;krk;kr bathfu;jh% iwokZuqeku rduhd] mnxe ,oa
osx foHko ,oa lfjrk vfHky{kd] izokg tky] vkjs[k.k izokg tky fof/k] lzksr vkSj fuXeu] izokg i`FkDdj.k] xUrO; losZ{k.k jktekxZ {kerk] lj.khd`r ,oa vlj.khd`r ifjPNsn] ?kw.khZ vfHkdYiu vo;o] vadu] fpg~u
eqDr rFkk izfrcfyr HkaojA flXuy] ekxZ izdk'k O;oLFkk% ;krk;kr losZ{k.k] jktekxZ foÙk O;oLFkk ds fl)kUrA
vk;ru fu;a=.k lehdj.k] lkarR;] laosx] vk;ru fu;a=.k lehdj.k ls ÅtkZ rFkk laosx Hkkx&x
vk?kw.kZA ty foKku] ty lalk/ku ,oa bathfu;fjax
usfo;j LVksDl lehdj.k] vkW;yj vk?kw.kZ lehdj.k] rjy izokg leL;kvksa dk vuqiz;ksx] ikbi ty foKku] ty pØ] vo{k.k] ok"ihdj.k] ok"iksRltZu] voueu lap;u] vUr%LiUnu]
izokg] lery] cØ] vpy ,oa py osu] Lywbl xsV] fo;j] vkL;ekih rFkk osaVqjh ekihA vf/kHkkj izokg] tykjs[k] ck<+ vko`fÙk fo'ys"k.k] ck<+ vkodyu] tyk'k; }kjk ck<+ vuqlhyu] okfgdk
foeh; fo'ys"k.k ,oa le:irk% cfdZxge ih&izes; foekjfgr izkpy] leL;k fl)kUr] fun'kZ izokg ekxkZfHkxeu& efLdaXe fof/kA
fu;e] vfod`r ,oa fod`r izfr:iA Hkw ty izokg % fof'k"V yfC/k] lap;u xq.kkad] ikjxE;rk xq.kkad] ifj#) rFkk vifj#) tyokgh Lrj]
Lrjh; izokg% lekUrj] vpy ,oa py IysVksa ds chp Lrjh; izokg] Vw;wc }kjk izokgA lzkoh tyjks/kh Lrj] ifj#) rFkk vifj#) fLFkfr;ksa ds vUrxZr ,d dwi ds Hkhrj vjh; izokg] uydwi]
ifjlhek ijr% piVh IysV ij Lrjh; ,oa fo{kqC/k ifjlhek ijr] Lrjh; mi&ijr] el`.k ,oa #{k ifjlhek,a] iEiu rFkk iquKkfIr] ijh{k.k] Hkwty foHkoA
fod"kZ ,oa fy¶VA ty lalk/ku bathfu;fjax% Hkw rFkk /kjkry ty lalk/ku] ,dy rFkk cgqmís'kh; ifj;kstuk,a] tyk'k; dh
ikbiksa }kjk fo{kqC/k izokg% fo{kqC/k izokg ds vfHky{k.k] osx forj.k ,oa ikbi ?k"kZ.k xq.kd dh fofo/krk] lap;u {kerk] tyk'k; gkfu;k¡] tyk'k; volk/ku] ty lalk/ku ifj;kstuk dk vFkZ'kkL=A
tynkc izo.krk js[kk rFkk iw.kZ ÅtkZ js[kk] lkbQu] ikbi izlkj.k vkSj ladqpu] ikbi tkydk;Z] ikbiksa flapkbZ bathfu;fjax% Qlyksa ds fy, ty dh vko';drk% ty dk {k;h mi;ksx] flapkbZ ds fy, ty dh
vkSj mYyksy dq.Mksa esa tyk?kkrA xq.koÙkk] d`fÙk rFkk MSYVk] flapkbZ ds rjhds rFkk mudh n{krk,aA
eqDr okfgdk izokg% leku ,oa vleku izokg] vk?kw.kZ ,oa ÅtkZ la'kqf) xq.kd] fof'k"V ÅtkZ rFkk fof'k"V ugjsa% ugj flapkbZ ds fy, vkoaVu i)fr] ugj {kerk ugj dh gkfu;ka] eq[; rFkk forfjdk ugjksa dk
cy] ØkfUrd xgjkbZ] izfrjks/k lehdj.k rFkk #{krk xq.kkad dh fofo/krk] rhoz ifjorhZ izokg] ladqpu esa ljs[ku&vR;f/kd n{k dkV] vLrfjr ugjsa] muds fMtkbu] fjthe fl)kUr] ØkfUrd vi:i.k izfrcy]
izokg] vifPNUu voikr izokg] tyksPNky vkSj blds vuqiz;ksx] izksRd"kZ ,oa rjax] Øe'k% ifjorhZ izokg] ryHkkj] LFkkuh; rFkk fuyfEcr Hkkj ifjogu] vLrfjr rFkk vukLrfjr ugjksa dh ykxr dk fo'ys"k.k]
i`"B ifjPNfndk oxhZdj.k] fu;a=.k dkV] ifjorhZ izokg lehdj.k ds lekdyu dh lksiku fof/k] py vLrj ds ihNs ty fudkl] ty xzLrrk% dkj.k rFkk fu;a=.k] ty fudkl i)fr dk fMtkbu] yo.krkA
izksRd"kZ ,oa nzopkfyr cksjA ugj lajpuk% Økl fu;a=d dk fMtkbu] eq[; fu;ked] ugj izikr] tyokgh lsrq] voufydk dk ugj
nzopkfyr ;a= rFkk ty 'kfDr% vidsUnzh iEi& izdkj] vfHky{k.k] usV ikftfVo lD'ku gkbV ¼,u ih ,l fudkl esa ekiuA
,p½] fof'k"V xfr] lekUrj iEiA f}ifjorhZ 'kh"kZ dk;Z% ikjxE; rFkk vijkxE; uhaoksa ij ckf/kdk ds fl)kUr vkSj fMtkbu]
izR;xkeh iEi] ok;q HkkaM] nzopkfyr jSx] n{krk izkpy] ?kw.khZ ,oa /kukRed foLFkkiu iEi] Mk;kÝke rFkk [kkslyk&fl)kUr] ÅtkZ {k;] leu nzks.kh] volkn viotZuA
tsV iEiA lap;u dk;Z% cka/kksa dh fdLesa] fMtkbu] n`<+ xq#Ro rFkk Hkw&cka/kksa ds fl)kUr] LFkkf;Ro fo'ys"k.k] uhaoksa dk
nzopkfyr Vjckbu] izk:i oxhZdj.k] Vjckbu p;u] fu"iknu izkpy] fu;a=.k] vfHky{k.k] fof'k"V xfrA ¼VªhVesaV½ mipkj] tksM+ rFkk nh?kkZ,a] fuLianu dk fu;a=.kA
ty 'kfDr fodkl ds fl)kUr] izdkj] vfHkU;kl rFkk ?kVd dk;Z] izksRd"kZ VSad] izdkj vkSj p;u] izokg mRiyo ekxZ% mRiyo ekxZ dh fdLesa] ¼f'k[kj }kj½ ØsLV xsV] ÅtkZ {k;A
vof/k oØ rFkk vkfJr izokg( Hk.Mkj.k rFkk ty lap;u] iEiu Hk.Mkj.k la;a=] y?kq] lw{e&ty oS|qr unh izf'k{k.k% unh izf'k{k.k ds mís';] unh izf'k{k.k dh fof/k;kaA
la;a= ds fo'ks"k y{k.kA Hkkx&?k
Hkkx&?k i;kZoj.k bathfu;fjax
Hkw&rduhdh bathfu;fjax ty iwfrZ% Hkw&i`"B rFkk mi Hkw&i`"B ty lzksrksa dk vkdyu] ty ekax dh izkxqfDr] ty dh v'kq)rk rFkk
e`nk ds izdkj] dyk lEcU/k] xk<+rk lhek,a] d.k vkdkj forj.k] e`nk oxhZdj.k] lajpuk rFkk mldk egRo] HkkSfrd] jklk;fud rFkk thok.kq foKku lEcU/kh fo'ys"k.k] ty ls gksus okyh chekfj;ka]
e`fÙkdk [kfut foKkuA dksf'kdh; ty rFkk lajpukRed ty] izHkkoh izfrcy rFkk ja/kz ty nkc] is;ty ds fy, ekudA
Mkjlh fu;e] ikjxE;rk dks izHkkfor djus okys dkjd] ikjxE;rk dk fu/kkZj.k] Lrfjr e`nk fu{ksiksa ty dk varZxzg.k% iaiu rFkk xq#Ro ;kstuk,aA ty mipkj% Ldanu ds fl)kUr] Å.kZu rFkk lknu]
dh ikjxE;rkA ean&nzqr] nkc fQYVj] Dyksjhuhdj.k] e`n`dj.k] Lokn] xa/k rFkk yo.krk dks nwj djukA
fjlu nkc] ckyw iad voLFkk] laihM;rk rFkk laguu] Vsjtk?kh dk ,d foeh; fl)kUr] laguu ijh{k.kA ty laxzg.k rFkk forj.k% laxzg.k ,oa larqyu tyk'k;&izdkj] LFkku vkSj {kerkA
e`nk laguu] laguu {ks= fu;a=.k] dqy izfrcy rFkk izHkkoh izfrcy ikjxE;rk] ja/kz nkc forj.k iz.kkfy;ka% vfHkU;kl ikbi ykbZuksa dh nzo bathfu;jh] ikbi fQfVax] jks/kd rFkk nkc de djus
xq.kkadA e`nk dk lkeF;Z vi:i.k] eksj dwykac Hkaxrk fl)kUr] vi:i.k ijh{k.k] Hkw nkc fcjke] okys okYoksa lfgr vU; okYo] ehVj] forj.k iz.kkfy;ksa dk fo'ys"k.k] {kj.k vfHkKku] forj.k iz.kkfy;ksa dk
lfØ; rFkk fuf"Ø; nkc] jsudkbu fl)kUr] dwykac dk QUuh fl)kUr] izfr/kkjd fHkfÙk ij Hkw nkc] vuqj{k.k] iaiu dsUnz rFkk mudk ifjpkyuA
pkjnh LFkw.kk fHkfÙk] ca/ku;qDr [kuuA fnDeku /kkfjrk] Vsjtk?kh rFkk vU; egRoiw.kZ fl)kUr] 'kq) okfgrey O;oLFkk% ?kjsyw rFkk vkS|ksfxd vif'k"V] >a>kor okfgrey&i`Fkd vkSj la;qDr iz.kkfy;ka]
rFkk dqy fnDeku nkcA vklUu rFkk la?kuu izcU/kA <ky] LFkkf;Ro] dqy izfrcy rFkk izHkkoh lhojksa }kjk cgko] lhojksa dk fMtkbu] lhoj miLdj] eSugksy] varxZe taD'ku] lkbQu] lkoZtfud
izfrcy fof/k] Lykblksa dh :<+ fof/k] LFkkf;Ro vadA va/k Lry vUos"k.k] izca/ku fof/k] izfrp;u] Hkouksa esa IyfEcaxA
vUrosZ'ku ijh{k.k] nkc ekih ijh{k.kA lhost y{k.k% ch vks Mh] lh vks Mh] Bksl inkFkZ] foyhu vkWDlhtu] ukbVªkstu vkSj Vh vks lh] lkekU; ty
uhao ds egRoiw.kZ y{k.k] uhao ds izdkj] vfHkdYiu ekin.M] uhao ds izdkj dk p;u] e`nk ekxZ rFkk Hkwfe ij fu"dklu ds ekudA
esa izfrcy forj.k] ckfluLd fl)kUr] U;wekdZ pkVZ] nkc cYd] laLi'kZ nkc] fofHkUu fnDeku /kkfjrk lhost mipkj% dk;Zdkjh fu;e] bdkb;ka] dks"B volknu VSad] Pok'kh fQYVj] vkDlhdj.k iks[kj]
fl)kUrksa dh vuqiz;ksT;rk] {ks= ijh{k.k ls fnDeku /kkfjrk dk ewY;kadu vuqKs; fnDeku /kkfjrk] fu"knu mRizsfjr voiad izfØ;k] lSfIVd VSad] voiad fuLrkj.k] vof'k"V ty dk iqu% pkyuA
fo'ys"k.k] vuqKs; fu"knuA Bksl vif'k"V% xkoksa vkSj 'kgjksa esa laxzg.k ,oa fuLrkj.k] nh?kZdkyhu dqizHkkoksa dk izcU/kA
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Page No. - 24
i;kZoj.kh; iznw"k.k% voyfEcr fodkl] jsfM;ks,fDVo vif'k"V ,oa fu"dklu] m'eh; 'kfDr la;a=ksa] lalk/kuksa dk cgq&mn~ns';h; fodkl rFkk ou m|ksx fodkl( dk;Z vk;kstu rFkk dk;Z ;kstuk] izd`fr
[kkuksa] unh ?kkVh ifj;kstukvksa ds fy, i;kZoj.k lEcU/kh izHkko ewY;kadu] ok;q iznw"k.k] ok;q iznw"k.k laj{k.k esa mudh Hkwfedk( tSo fofo/krk rFkk vU; vk;ke] rS;kjh rFkk fu;a=.k] e.Myh; dk;Z vk;kstu]
fu;a=.k vf/kfu;eA dk;Z lapkyu dk okf"kZd vk;kstuA
3- ou foLrkj& dyu ¼esUlqjs'ku½ rFkk nwj&laosnu% ekiu i)fr;ka&isM+ksa dk O;kl] ?ksjk] Å¡pkbZ rFkk
okfudh vk;ru( :i fo/kku] jcM+ ¼LVSUM½ vk;ru ¼okY;we½ vkdyu] orZEkku okf"kZd o`f)] ¼ek/;½ okf.kZd o`f)]
iz'u i=&1 izfrp;u fof/k rFkk izfrn'kZ Hkw[k.M ¼IykV½] mit x.kuk] mit rFkk jcM+ ¼LVS.M½ lkjf.k;ksa] lqnwj laosnu
[k.M&d }kjk ou vkPNknu vuqJo.k( izcU/k rFkk izfrn'kZ ds fy, HkkSxksfyd lwpuk ra=A
1- ou o/kZu&lkekU;% lkekU; ou o/kZu fl)kUr&ouLifr dks izHkkfor djus okys ifjfLFkfrdh rFkk 'kjhj 4- losZ{k.k rFkk ou bathfu;jh% ou losZ{k.k& losZ{k.k ds fofHkUu rjhds] ekufp= rFkk ekufp= vadu] ou
foKkuh; dkjd] ouksa dk izkd`frd rFkk d`f=e iqul±pj.k] izlkj dh i)fr;ka] xzkf¶Vad rduhd] LFky bathfu;jh ds ewyHkwr fl)kUr] Hkou lkexzh rFkk fuekZ.k] lM+dsa rFkk iqy] ydM+h ds iqyksa ds lkekU;
dkjd] ulZjh rFkk jksi.k rduhd& ulZjh D;kfj;ka] iksyh cSx ,oa vuqj{k.k] ikS/kksa ds fy, ty fu/kkZj.k] fl)kUr] mn~ns';] izdkj] izfrn'kZ vfHkdYiuk rFkk fuekZ.kA
Js.khdj.k rFkk ikS/kksa dk n`f<+dj.k] fo'ks"k vk/kkj] izLFkkiuk,a rFkk ns[kHkkyA [k.M&[k
2- ou o/kZu&iz.kkfy;ka% lEiw.kZ dVku ¼fcy;j QSfyax½] le:i Nk;k dk"B p;u] xqYiou rFkk :ikUrj 1- ou ikfjfLFkfrdh rFkk u`tkfr ouLifr% ou ikfjfLFkfrdh% tSo rFkk vtSo la?kVu] ou ifjfLFkfrra=]
i)fr] 'khrks".k] mi&m".k dfVcU/kh] vknzZ&m".k dfVcU/kh] 'kq"d&m".k dfVcU/kh rFkk rVh;&m".k ou leqnk; ladYiuk] ouLifr ladYiuk] ikfjfLFkfrdh oa'kØe rFkk pjeksRd"kZ] izkFkfed mRikndrk]
dfVcU/kh ouksa ds o`{kkjksi.k ou o/kZu] iztkfr p;u] ekudksa dh LFkkiuk rFkk O;oLFkk] mitkÅiu dh iks"kkd pØ.k rFkk ty lEcU/k] izfrcy okrkoj.k esa 'kjhj jpuk ¼lw[kk] ty Hkjko] yo.krk rFkk
i)fr;ka] rduhdh vM+pusa] xgu ;a=hd`r] i)fr;ka] gokbZ cht fNM+dko] fcjyu ds fo'ks"k lUnHkZ esa ou {kkjh;rk½] Hkkjr esa ouksa ds izdkj] iztkfr;ksa dh igpku] la;kstu rFkk lg&;kstu] o`{kfoKku] ofxZdh
o/kZu iz.kkfy;ksa dk izcU/kA foHkktu] ouLifr laxzgky; rFkk ouLifr&okfVdk ¼gcksfj;k o vkjcksjsVk½ ds LFkkiu ds fl)kUr] ou
3- ou o/kZu&dPN ouLifr rFkk 'khr e#LFky% dPN ouLifr okl rFkk y{k.k] dPN ouLifr ikS/k ifjfLFkfrra= dk laj{k.k] d`Urd m|ku ¼Dyksuy ikdZ½] u`tkfr ouLifr dh Hkkjrh; vk;qfoZKku i)fr;ksa
LFkkiuk& fud`"B dPN ouLifr Lo:iksa dh LFkkiuksa rFkk iquZLFkkiuk] dPN ouLifr ds fy, ouo/kZu esa] Hkwfedk] vk;qosZn rFkk ;wukuh lqxfU/kr rFkk vkS"k/kh; ouLifr;ksa dk ifjp;] uke i)fr] vkokl] forj.k
i)fr] izkd`frd vkinkvksa ds fo#) okl dk laj{k.k] 'khr e#LFky& iztkfr;ksa ds y{k.k] igpku rFkk rFkk okuLifrd fo'ks"krk,a] vkS"k/k ouLifr;ksa ds vlj dkjd rRo vkSj fo"kkDrrk dks izHkkfor djus okys
O;oLFkkA ?kVd vkSj muds jklk;fud la?kVdA
4- o`{kksa dk ouo/kZu% m".kdfVcU/kh; ou o/kZu 'kks/k rFkk O;ogkj esa ijEijkxr rFkk uohrue fodkl] Hkkjr 2- ou lalk/ku rFkk mi;ksxhdj.k% okrkoj.kh; ¼izcy@lkanz ou mit izfØ;k,a&ykWfxUx rFkk fuLlkj.k
esa vkfFkZd :i ls egRoiw.kZ dqN iztkfr;ksa dk ouo/kZu tSls [kSj@dRFkk ¼,sdsfl;k dSVspw½] ccwy izfof/k;ka vkSj fl)kUr( ifjogu i)fr;ka] Hk.Mkj.k rFkk fcØh] xSj&ydM+h ou mRikn ¼,u Vh ,Q ih½&
¼,sdsfl;k fuyksfVdk½] ,sdsfl;k vkfjadqyhQkfeZl] fljl ¼,fYcft;k yScsd½] ,sfYcft;k izkslsjk] dnac ifjHkk"kk vkSj {ks=] xksan jky] rSyhjky js'kk] frygu] n`<+Qy ¼uV½] jcM+] csar] ckal] vkS"k/kh; ouLifr
¼,sUFkkslsQsyl dnZck½] ,uksxkbll ySVhQksfyok] uhe ¼,stkfMjsDVk bf.Mdk½] ckal iztkfr] dkBdks;yk] yk[k vkSj piM+k dRFkk vkSj chM+h iRrs&laxzg.k] lalk/ku rFkk fuiVku] dk"B la'kks"k.k vkSj
<kd@¶yk'k ¼O;wfV;k eksuksLiekZ½] dSfl;k fl,fe;k] dStwokjkbuk bD;wlSVhQksfy;k] nsonkj ¼lhMªl ifjj{k.k dh vko';drk vkSj egRo] la'kks"k.k ds lkekU; fl)kUr( vk;q rFkk HkV~Vk la'kks"k.k] lkSj&
nsvksnkj½ pqdjkfl;k VScqykfjl] 'kh'ke ¼MSyoftZ;k fllks½] fMIVSjksdkeZl iztkfr;ka] ,Echfydk vuknzZrkdj.k] ekih; rkfir rFkk fo|qr HkfV~V;ka] fefJr dk"B( vklatd fuekZ.k] xq.k] mi;ksx] IykboqM
vkdflukfyl ;wdsfyIVl iztkfr;ka] xaekjh ¼esykbuk vkcksZfj;k½] gkMZfcfd;k foukVk] yktLZVªhfi;k fuekZ.k] xq.k mi;ksx] Qkbcj cksMZ&fuekZ.k] xq.k mi;ksx( fuikr ¼ikVhZdy½ cksMZ&fuekZ.k] xq.k mi;ksx]
ySufloksykVk] ikbul ¼phM+oa'k½ jkdloxhZ] iksI;wyl iztkfr;ka Ik{kQyh Qy?kkuh ¼VsjksdkiZl Hkkjr esa fefJr dk"B m|ksx dh orZeku fLFkfr vkSj Hkfo"; esa foLrkj dh ;kstuk,a] yqXnh dkxt rFkk
eklZwfFk;e½] foyk;rh dhdj ¼ikslksfFkl t~;wyh¶yksjk½] pUnu ¼lSUVsye ,yce½ flfedkiZl js'ke( m|ksx dks dPps eky dh vkiwfrZ dh orZeku fLFkfr dk"B izfrLFkkiu] ckxku ydM+h dh mi;ksfxrk(
,ukdkfMZ;e] lky ¼lksfj;k jksckLVk½] lsey ¼lsYiSfy;k ekykcsfjde½] lkxksu ¼VsDVksuk xzSfUMl½ leL;k,a rFkk laHkkO;rk,aA
VfeZusfy;k VksesUVkslk] beyh ¼VsekfjUMl bf.Mdk½A dk"B dh dkf;d jpuk] dk"B ds nks"k rFkk vlekurk,a izdk"B ¼fVEcj½ dh igpku &lkekU; fl)kUrA
[k.M&[k 3- ou laj{k.k rFkk oU; tho foKku% ouksa dh {kfr&vtSo rFkk tSo] fo/oald 'kk[kk,a ¼,tsalh½]
1- d`f"k okfudh] lkekftd okfudh la;qDr ou izcU/k rFkk Vªkbcksyksth% d`f"k okfudh% dk;Z{ks= rFkk dhM+s&edksM+s rFkk chekfj;ka] ok;q iznw"k.k dk ouksa ij izHkko rFkk QksjsLV MkbZ cSadA ouksa dh {kfr dh
vko';drk] tu vkSj ikyrw tkuojksa ds thou rFkk lefUor Hkwfe mi;ksx esa Hkwfedk] fo'ks"k :i ls lqxzkfgrk] {kfr dk Lo:i] dkj.k] jksdFkke] lqj{kkRed mik; rFkk jklk;fud rFkk tSfod fu;a=.k ls
fuEufyf[kr dh ;kstuk ds lUnHkZ esa% ykHk] vfXu ls ouksa dh lkekU; lqj{kk&midj.k rFkk fof/k] vfXu ds fu;af=r mi;ksx] vkfFkZd rFkk
¼i½e`nk rFkk ty laj{k.k( i;kZoj.kh] ykxr] izkd`frd vkinkvksa ds ckn fVEcj cpko lp a kyu] ou jkis.k rFkk oukas ds iuq% lp a j.k dh
¼ii½ ty iquHkZj.k ¼jhpktZ½( dkcu Z &Mkbv Z kD
W lkbM ¼ CO2 ½ d s foy;u ea s Hkf
w edk] pØh; rFkk fu;f a =r pjku ¼xf
s z txa ½] ?kkl pkjd rFkk iRrk
¼iii½ Qlyksa esa iks"k.k miyC/krk( pkjd tkuojkas ij fu;= a .k dh fofHkUu fof/k;k(a oU; thok]as ekuo iHzkko] vfrØe.k] vukf/kdkj f'kdkj ¼ikfspx a ½]
¼iv½ uk'kh tho&ijHk{kh ds lEcU/k ds }kjk ifjfLFkfrdh larqyu lfgr izd`fr rFkk ifjfLFkfr ra= laj{k.k pjku ckMk+ yxkuk] ¼ykbo Qfa S lx
a ½ pkV s h] LFkkukUrjh trq kb Z dk ouk a s d s lp
a j.k ij iH z kko vkj S fu;=
a .kA
rFkk 4- ou vFkZO;oLFkk rFkk fo/kku% ou vFkZO;oLFkk&ekSfyd fl)kUr&ykxr&ykHk fo'ys"k.k] ekax vkSj iwfrZ
¼v½ tSo&fofo/krk] vkS"k/khu rFkk vU; ouLifr vkSj tho tUrqvksa ds o/kZu ds fy, volj iznku djukA dk vkdyu] jk"Vªh; rFkk vUrjkZ"Vªh; cktkj esa fo'ys"k.kksa dk :[k rFkk mRiknu ,oa miHkksDrk izfreku
fofHkUu d`f"k&ikfjfLFkfrdh {ks=ksa ds vUrxZr d`f"k okfudh ra=] iztkfr;ksa dk p;u rFkk cgqmn~ns'kh; o`{kksa ¼iS V uZ½ esa ifjorZu( cktkj lajpukvksa dk ewY; fu/kkZj.k rFkk iz{ksi.k( futh {ks= rFkk lgdkfjrkvksa dh
dh Hkwfedk& vkSj ,u Vh ,Q ih ,l izfof/k;ka] vUu] pkjk rFkk bZa/ku lqj{kk] vuqla/kku rFkk foLrkj Hkwfedk( fuxfer foRr iks"k.k dh Hkwfedk] ouksa dh mRikndrk vkSj n`f"Vdks.k dk lkekftd&vkfFkZd
vko';drk,aA fo'ys"k.k( ouksa dh oLrqvksa rFkk lsokvksa dk ewY;kadu fo/kku&ou fodkl dk bfrgkl( 1894& 1952 rFkk
1990 dh Hkkjrh; ou uhfr] jk"Vªh; ou uhfr 1988] tu vkos"Vu] la;qDr ou izcU/k] efgykvksa dk
lkekftd@'kgjh okfudh& mn~ns';] dk;Z] {ks= rFkk vko';drk( tu lgHkkfxrkA
vkos"Vu] Hkwfe mi;ksx ls lEcfU/kr ou uhfr;ka rFkk eqn~ns( fVEcj rFkk xSj&fVEcj mRikn( lrr ou
ts-,Q-,e& ¼la;qDr okfudh izcU/k½ fl)kUr] mn~ns';] iz.kkyh foKku] dk;Z{ks=] ykHk rFkk ,u th vks ¼xSj izcU/k( vkS|ksfxdhdj.k uhfr;ka( laLFkkxr rFkk lajpukRed ifjorZu] fodsUnzdj.k rFkk okfudh yksd
ljdkjh laLFkk½ dh HkwfedkA iz'kklu@ oufu;e] vko';drk( lkekU; fl)kUr] Hkkjrh; ou vf/kfu;e] &1927 ou laj{k.k vf/kfu;e
Vªkbcksykt s h&Hkkjr eas tu tkrh; voLFkk( tu tkfr;k]a it z kfr;kas dh vo/kkj.kk] lkekftd legwu ds fl)kUr] 1980( oU;tho laj{k.k vf/kfu;e 1972] vkSj muesa la'kks/ku] Hkkjrh; vkpkj lafgrk dk okfudh esa
tu tkrh; vFkZ O;oLFkk] f'k{kk] lkLadf`rd ijEijk] :f<]+ id z f`r rFkk okfudh dk;Ø Z ekas eas lgHkkfxrkA vuqiz;ksx] ouksa dh lwph dk iz;kstu vkSj mn~ns';A
2- ou e`nk] e`nk laj{k.k rFkk ty&foHkktd izcU/k% ouksa dh e`nk] oxhZdj.k] e`nk fojpu dks izHkkfor djus
okys dkjd] HkkSfrd] jlk;fud rFkk tSfod xq.k/keZA Hkw&foKku
e`nk laj{k.k% ifjHkk"kk] vijnu ds dkj.k( izdkj&ok;q rFkk ty vijnu] vijfnr e`nk@{ks= dk laj{k.k iz'u i=&1
rFkk izcU/k] okrjks/k] j{kd es[kyk] ckyw fVCck] yo.k vkSj {kkjh; e`nkvksa dk m)kj] ty Iykou rFkk vU;
[k.M&d
O;FkZ Hkwfe] e`nk laj{k.k esa ouksa dh Hkwfedk] e`nk dkcZfud nzO;ksa dk j[kj[kko vkSj fuekZ.k] gjs iRrksa dh [kkn
Mkyus ds fy, drju dh O;oLFkk( ou i.kZdjdV rFkk daiksfLVax] e`nk dks lq/kkjus esa lw{e ?kVdksa dh ¼i½ lkekU; Hkw&foKku% lkSje.My ¼ifjokj½] mYdkfi.M] i`Foh dh mRifÙk ,oa vkUrfjd lajpuk]
Hkwfedk( ,u ¼ukbVªkstu½ vkSj lh ¼dkcZu½ pØ] ch , ,eA jsfM;ks,DVhfoVh ,oa i`Foh dh vk;q] Tokykeq[kh&dkj.k ,oa mRikn] Tokykeq[kh es[kyk] HkwdEi&dkj.k]
izHkko] HkwdEi&es[kyk;sa] Hkkjr dh HkwdEiuh;rk] rhozrk] ifj.kke] HkwdEiys[khA }hipkiksa] xgu lkxj
ty foHkktu izcU/k% ty foHkktuksa dh vo/kkj.kk,a lexz lalk/ku izcU/ku O;oLFkk esa y?kq ouksa rFkk ou
[kkb;ka ,oa e/; lkxjh; dVd] egk}hih; foLFkkiu&lk{; ,oa fØ;kfof/k] leqnz ry foLrkj.k] IysV
o`{kksa dh Hkwfedk] ou tu foKku] izokg fu;a=.k ds lEcU/k esa ty foHkktdksa dk fodkl] unh tyekxZ
foorZfud] lefLFkfrdh] ioZru] i'ptkr ioZru jpuk] egk}hi vkSj egklkxjA
fLFkjhdj.k] fgeL[kyu rFkk Hkw&L[kyu fu;a=.k] fud`"V {ks= dk iquokZl] mifxfj rFkk ioZrh; {ks=( ouksa
dk ty foHkktd izcU/ku rFkk i;kZoj.k lEcU/kh izdk;Z] ty “kL; rFkk laj{k.k( Hkwfe ty iquHkZj.k rFkk ¼ii½ Hkwvkd`fr foKku ,oa lqnwj laosnu% Hkwvkd`fr foKku dh ewyHkwr vo/kkj.kk;sa vi{k; ,oa c`gr {kfr]
ty foHkktd izcU/k] lefUor ou o`+{kksa dh Hkwfedk] ckxokuh Qlysa] [ksr dh Qlysa] ?kkl rFkk pkjkA Hkwvkd`fr;ka] izo.krk Hkwvkd`fr ,oa viokg] Hkwvkd`frd pØ ,oa mudh O;k[;k] vkd`fr foKku vkSj budh
lajpuk ,oa v'e foKku esa lEcU/k] [kfut iwosZ{k.k] flfoy bathfu;jh] ty foKku ,oa i;kZoj.k v/;;u
3- i;kZoj.kh; laj{k.k rFkk tSo fofo/krk% i;kZoj.k% la?kVd rFkk egRo] laj{k.k ds fl)kUr] fuoZuhdj.k]
esa Hkwvkd`fr foKku dk vuqiz;ksx] Hkkjr miegk}hi dh Hkw vkd`frA
nkokfXu rFkk vU; fofHkUu ekuod`r xfrfof/k;ka tSls [kuu] fuekZ.k rFkk fodkl ifj;kstuk,a] tula[;k
o`f) dk i;kZoj.k ij izHkkoA ok;o QksVksxzkQ ,oa mudh O;k[;k&xq.k ,oa lhek,a] fo|qr pqEcdh; LiSDVªe] d{kh; mixzg ,oa laosnd
ra=] Hkkjrh; lqnwj laosnu mixzg] mixzg vk¡dM+k mRikn] Hkw foKku esa lqnwj laosnu dk vuqiz;ksx]
iznw"k.k% izdkj] fo'oO;kih rkiu] xzhugkml izHkko] vkstksu ys;j fjDrhdj.k] vEyh; o"kkZ] izHkko rFkk
HkkSxksfyd lwpuk i)fr ¼GIS½ vkSj mudk vuqiz;ksx fo'oO;kih fLFkfrd ra= ¼GPS½A
fu;a=.k ds mik;] i;kZoj.kh; vuqJe.k] lrr fodkl dh vo/kkj.kk] i;kZoj.k laj{k.k esa ouksa rFkk o`{kksa dh
Hkwfedk( ok;q] ty rFkk jo iznw"k.k ij fu;a=.k rFkk jksdFkke] Hkkjr esa i;kZoj.k uhfr rFkk fo/kku% ¼iii½ lajpukRed HkwfoKku% HkwoSKkfud ekufp=.k ,oa ekufp= iBu] iz{ksi.k vkjs[k] izfrcy ,oa fod`fr
i;kZoj.kh; izHkko ewY;kadu] ty foHkktdksa dk fodkl rFkk lkFk gh ikfjfLFkfrd vkSj i;kZoj.kh laj{k.k nh?kZo`rt rFkk lq?kV~; ¼IykfLVd½ ,oa ';ku inkFkksZa dk izfrcy&fod`fr lEcU/k fo:ifr 'kSy esa fod`fr
dk vFkksZik; ewY;kaduA fpg~ud] fo:i.k voLFkk ds vUrxZr [kfut ,oa 'kSyksa dk O;ogkj] cyu ,oa Hkza'k&oxhZdj.k ,oa
fØ;kfof/k] cyu 'kkYdu] ljs[ku] laf/k ¼tksM+½ ,oa Hkza'k fo"ke foU;kl dh lajpukRed fo'ys"k.k]
o`{k lq/kkj rFkk cht izkS|ksfxdh% o`{k lq/kkj dh lkekU; vo/kkj.kk] i)fr;ka rFkk izfof/k;ka] fHkUurk,a vkSj
v/;kjksfir fo:i.k] fØLVyh; ,oa fo:i.k ds chp dky lEcU/k] 'kSy lafoU;klh dk ifjp;A
muds mi;ksx] mn~xe {ks=] cht lzksr] fons'kt( ou o`{k lq/kkj ds ifjek.kkRed igyw] cht mRiknu cht
m/kku( larfr ijh{k.k] izkd`frd ou rFkk jcM+ lq/kkj esa o`{k lq/kkj dk mi;ksx vkuqokaf'kd ijh{k.k dk;ZØe] [k.M&[k
jksxksa] dhVksa rFkk izfrdwy i;kZoj.k ds izfrjks/k gsrq oj.k rFkk iztuu] vkuqokaf'kd vk/kkj] ou vkuqokaf'kd ¼iv½ thok'e foKku% tkfr&ifjHkk"kk ,oa uke i)frA xq#thok'e vkSj lw{ethok'e] thok'e ds ifjj{k.k
lalk/ku vkSj thu laj{k.k ^Lo LFkkus* rFkk ^ckg~; LFkkus*] ykxr&ykHk vuqikr vFkksZik; ewY;kaduA dh voLFkk] fofHkUu iz d kj ds lw { e thok'e] lglEcU/k isVªksfy;e vUos"k.k] iqjktyok;oh ,oa iqjkleqnz
okfudh foKku v/;;u es a lw { ; thok'e dk vuq i z ; ks x A 'kh"kZ i kn] VªkbyksckVk] czSfd;ksiksM+k] LdkbukbfM;k ,oa
,sUFkstksvk dk vkd`frfoKku] HkwoSKkfud bfrgkl ,oa fodkloknh izo`fr] ,seksukbfM;k] VªkbyksckVk]
iz'u i=&2
xzSIVksykbfM;k dh Lrfjd mi;ksfxrk] gksehfuMh] ,fDoMh ,oa izksckslhfM;k ¼gkFkhx.k½ esa fodkloknh
[k.M&d izo`fRr] f'kokfyd izkf.ktkr] xksaMokuk ouLifrtkr vkSj mudk egRoA
1- ou izcU/k ,oa izcU/k i)fr% mn~ns'; rFkk fl)kUr] izfof/k;ka] jcM+ lajpuk ,oa xfrdh] lrr mRikn ¼v½ Lrfjdh ,oa Hkkjr dk HkwfoKku% Lrfjdh vuqØeksa dk oxhZdj.k% v'e Lrfjd] tSo Lrfjd]
lEcU/k] vkorZu] lkekU; ou] o/kZeku laxzg] mRikn ds fu;eu] ou jksi.k dk izcU/ku] okf.kfT;d ou] ou dky&Lrfjd vkSj pqEcd Lrfjd rFkk mudk vUrZlEcU/kA Hkkjr ds dSfEcz;uiwoZ 'kSyksa dk forj.k ,oa
vkPNknu vuqJo.k] vk/kkj tSls% ¼i½ LFky fo'ks"k dh ;kstuk ¼ii½ ;qfDriw.kZ ;kstuk ¼iii½ vuqeksnu] laLohd`fr oxhZdj.k] izkf.ktkr] ouLifrtkr vkSj vkfFkZd egRo ds lUnHkZ esa Hkkjr ds n`';kthoh 'kSyksa dk Lrfjd
rFkk O;; ¼iv½ vuqJo.k ¼v½ fjiksfVZax rFkk vfHk'kklu] 'kkfey mik;ksa ds fooj.k % xzkeh.k ou lfefr dk forj.k ,oa v'efoKku dk v/;;u] eq[; lhek leL;k,a&dSfEcz;u] dSfEcz;uiwoZ] ifeZ;u@Vªkb,sfld]
xBu] la;qDr ou lgHkkfxrk izcU/kA fØVs'kl] r`rh; ,oa vfruwru@vR;ar uwru] HkwoSKkfud Hkwrdky esa Hkkjrh; miegk}hi esa tyok;q n'kk]
2- ouksa dh dk;Z ;kstuk% ou ;kstuk] ewY;akdu rFkk vuqJo.k lk/ku ,oa lefUor ;kstuk ds vk/kkj] ou Cont...

Page No. - 25
iqjkHkwxksy rFkk vkXus; fØ;kdykiksa dk v/;;u] Hkkjr dk foorZfud <kapk] fgeky; dk fodklA xf.kr
¼vi½ tyHkwfoKku ,oa bathfu;fjax HkwfoKku% ty pØ vkSj ty dk vuqokaf'kdh oxhZdj.k] v/kLry ty dh iz'u i=&2
xfr] >juk] laja/kzrk] ikjxE;rk] nzopkfyr pkydrk] ikjxE;rk ,oa lap;u xq.kkad] tyHk`r dk oxhZdj.k] [k.M&d
'kSyksa ds ty/kkjh fo'ks"krk] HkkSety jlk;u foKku] yo.kty varosZ/ku] dwiksa ds izdkj viokg nzks.kh chtxf.kr% lewg] milewg izlkekU; mi lewg] lewgksa dh lekdkfjrk] foHkkx lewg] ewy rqY;dkfjrk ds
vkdkjfer] HkkSety dk vUos"k.k] HkkSety iquHkZj.k] HkkSety dh leL;k ,oa izcU/k] o"kkZ ty mitua 'kSyksa izes;] lkbyks&lewg] Øep; lewg] dSyh&izes;] cy; ,oa xq.ktkoyh] eq[; xq.ktkoyh izkUr] vf}rh;
ds bathfu;jh xq.k/keZ] cka/k] lqjax rFkk iqyksa ds fy, HkwoSKkfud vUos"k.k] fuekZ.k inkFkZ ds :i esa 'kSy] xq.ku[k.M izkar ,oa ;wDyhfM;u izkar ¼Mksesu½A {ks= ds foLrkj ifjfer {ks=A
{kkj&iqat izfrfØ;k] Hkw&L[kyu&dkj.k] jksdFkke ,oa iquokZl] HkwdEi&jks/kh lajpuk,aA okLrfod fo'ys"k.k% okLrfod la[;k fudk;] Øfer leqPp;] ifjcU/k] Øfer {ks=] U;wure Åijh ifjcU/k
Hkw&foKku ;qDr Øfer {ks= dks ekurs gq, okLrfod la[;k fudk;] dkS'kh vuqØe] iw.kZrk ds :i esa okLrfod la[;k
iz'u i=&2 fudk;A Qyuksa dk lkarR; ,oa ,d leku lkarR;] lagr leqPp;ksa ij lkarR; Qyuksa ds xq.k /keZA jheku
[k.M&d lekdy] vuUr lekdy] okLrfod rFkk lfeJ inksa dh Jsf.k;ksa ¼ekykvksa½ dk fujis{k rFkk laizfrcU/k
¼i½ [kfut foKku% fØLVy dk lenqk; rFkk lefefr oxhd Z j.k] vUrjk"ZVhª; fØLVyhu vd a u] fØLVy lefefr vfHklj.k] Jsf.k;ksa ¼ekykvksa½ dk iwuZfoU;kl] Qyuksa dks vuqØeksa rFkk Jsf.k;ksa ds fy, ,d leku
dks fu:fir djus ds fy, i{zk.sk vkj[sk dk mi;kx s ] fØLVy nk"sk] ,Dljs fØLVy foKku ds rRoA vfHklj.k] lkarR; vodyuh;rk ,oa lekdyfu;rk] cgqpjksa okys Qyuksa dk vodyu] vkaf'kd
'kSy foKkfudh; lw{en'khZ ,oa mlds milk/ku] lkekU; 'kSydkjh [kfutksa ds izdkf'kd xq.k/keZ] [kfutksa esa vodytksa ds] Øe esa ifjorZu] vLi"V Qyu izes;] mfPp"B ,oa vfYi"B cgq lekdyA
cgqo.kZrk] foyksi dks.k] f}viorZu@viorZu] ;eyu ,oa izdh.kZuA 'kSydkjh flfydsV [kfut oxksZa ds lfEeJ fo'ys"k.k% fo'ysf"kr Qyu] dkS'kh&jheku Qyu] dkS'kh dk izes;] dkS'kh dk lekdyu lw=] ?kkr
HkkSfrd ,oa jklk;fud y{k.k] flfydsVksa dk lajpukRed oxhZdj.k] vkXus; ,oa dk;karjh 'kSyksa ds lkekU; Js.kh] Vsyj Js.kh] yksjka] Js.kh fofp=rk,a] dkS'kh vo'ks"k izes;] dUVwj lekdyu] vuqdks.k izfrfp=.k]
[kfut] dkcksZusV] QklQsV] lQykbM ,oa gsykbM oxksZa ds [kfutA f}jsf[kd :ikUrj.kA
¼ii½ vkXus; rFkk dk;karjh 'kSy foKku% eSXek dk mRiknu ,oa fØLVyu] ,SYckbV&,ukWFkkZbV] MkbvkIlkbM jSf[kd izksxzkeu% jSf[kd izksxzkeu leL;k;sa vk/kksjh gy] vk/kkjh lqlaxr gy ,oa b"Vre gy] vkys[kh fof/k
& ,ukWFkkZbV ,oa MkbvkIlkbM&oksyksLVksukbV&flfydk leqnk; dk fØLVyu] fØ;k fl)kUr@eSXeh; rFkk gy dh ,d/kk fof/k] }Srrk] ifjogu rFkk fu;ru leL;k,a Hkze.k'khy foØsrk dh leL;k,aaA
foHksnu ,oa Lokaxhdj.k] vkXus; 'kSyksa dk xBu ,oa lajpuk dh 'kSy vkuqokaf'kd egRo] xzsukbV] lkbukV] [k.M&[k
gkbvksjkbV] vYiflfyd ,oa vR;Yiflfyd] pkuksZdkbV] ,sukFkksZlkbV ,oa {kkjh; 'kSyksa dh 'kSyo.kZuk ,oa vkaf'kd vody lehdj.k% rhu foekvksa esa oØ rFkk i`"B( vkaf'kd vody lehdj.k dk la:i.k]
'kSyksZRifr] dkcksZusVkbV] nD[ku Tokykeq[kh 'kSy {ks=A dx/p=dy/q=dz/r izdkj ds lehdj.kksa dk gy( yEcdks.kh; laNsnh] QSfQ;u vody lehdj.k] izFke
dk;karj.k ds izdkj ,oa dkjd] dk;karjh dksfV ,oa e.My izkoLFkk ¼Qst½ fu;e] izknsf'kd ,oa laLi'kZ dksfV dk vkaf'kd vody lehdj.k] dkS'kh vfHky{k.k fof/k }kjk gy] gyksa dh pkfiZV fof/k] fu;r xq.kkadksa
dk;karj.k ds fy, lay{kh] ,lh,Q ,oa ,ds,Q vkjs[k] dk;karjh 'kSyksa dk xBu ¼cqukoV½ ,oa lajpuk] ls ;qDr f}rh; dksfV ds jSf[kd vkaf'kd vody lehdj.k] dafir rarq ds lehdj.k] rki lehdj.k]
ckyqdke;] xq.e; ,oa vYi flfyd 'kSyksa dk dk;karj.k [kfut leqPp;] i'pxfrd dk;karj.k] rRokarj.k ykIykl lehdj.kA
,oa xzsukbVhdj.k] feXeSVkbV] Hkkjr ds xzsuqykbV HkwHkkx ¼'kSy izns'k½A la[;kRed fo'ys"k.k ,oa dEI;wVj Øekns'ku% la[;kRed fof/k;ka% f}foHkktu }kjk ,d pj ds chtxf.krh;
¼iii½ volkn foKku% volknh 'kSy fuekZ.k dh izfØ;k] izla?kuu vkSj f'kyhHkou] volkn ¼ryNV½ ds rFkk vchth; lehdj.kksa dk gy] feF;kfLFkfr ¼jsxqyk Qkjlh½ rFkk U;wVujk¶lu fof/k;ka] xkÅlh;
xq.k/keZ] [kM+at vkSj v[kaM+t 'kSy&mudk oxhd Z j.k] 'ky
S o.kuZk ,oa fo{kis.k i;koZj.k] volknh lya {akh vkjS fujkdj.k rFkk xkÅl&tkMZu ¼izR;{k½ fof/k;ksa }kjk] xkÅl&lSMy ¼iqjkorhZ½ fof/k }kjk jSf[kd lehdj.kksa
mnx ~ e {k=
s ] volknh ljapuk vkjS mudk egRo] Hkkjh [kfut vkjS mudk egRo] Hkkjr ds volknh nkz.skh;kAa ds fudk; dk gy] U;wure dk ¼vxz rFkk i'p½ rFkk yxzkat dh vUrosZ'ku fof/k] la[;kRed lekdyu(
[k.M&[k flEilu dk frgkbZ fu;e] leyEch fu;e] xkÅlh; {ks=dyu lw=A
¼iv½ vkfFkZd HkwfoKku% v;Ld] v;Ld [kfut ,oa xSax] v;Ld dk vkSlr izfr'kr] v;Ld fu{ksi dk lk/kkj.k vodyu lehdj.kksa dk la[;kRed gy% vk;yj rFkk :uksdqV~V&fof/k;kaA
oxhZdj.k] [kfut fu{ksi ds fuekZ.k dh izfØ;k] v;Ld LFkkuhdj.k dk fu;a=.k] v;Ld dk xBu] ¼cqukoV½ dEI;wVj Øekns'ku ¼izksxzkeu½% dEI;wVjksa esa vadksa dk lap;u] fcV~l] ckbV~l rFkk cMZl] f}vk/kkjh i)fr]
,oa lajpuk] /kkrqtufud ;qx ,oa {ks=] vY;qfefu;e] Øksfe;e] rkack] lksuk] yksgk] 'kh'kk] tLrk] eSxuht] vadksa ij xf.krh; rFkk rdZ laxr lafØ;k;sa foVokj lafØ;k;saA AND, OR, XOR, NOT ,oa
fVVsfu;e] ;wjsfu;e vkSj Fkksfj;e ,oa vkS|ksfxd [kfutksa ds egRoiw.kZ Hkkjrh; fu{ksi dk HkwfoKku] Hkkjr esa foLFkkiu@?kw.kZu ladkjd] v"V vk/kkjh rFkk "kksMl vk/kkjh i)fr;ka] n'keyo i)fr ls rFkk n'keyo
dks;yk ,oa isVªksfy;e dk fu{ksi] jk"Vªh; [kfut uhfr] [kfut lalk/ku dk laj{k.k ,oa mi;ksfxrk] leqnzh i)fr esa :ikarj.kA
[kfut lalk/ku vkSj leqnzh fu;eA vfpfUgr iw.kkZadksa] fpfUgr iw.kkZadksa rFkk okLrfod] f}ifj'kq)rk okLrfod rFkk nh?kZ iw.kkZadksa dk fu:ij.kA
¼v½ [kuu HkwfoKku% iwosZ{k.k fof/k&HkwoSKkfud] HkwHkkSfrdh;] Hkwjklk;fud ,oa HkwokuLifrd] izfrp;u la[;kRed fo'ys"k.k leL;kvksa ds gy ds fy, ,YxksfjFe rFkk izokg lafp=A
rduhd] v;Ld fup; dk vkdyu] vUos"k.k rFkk [kuu dh fof/k;ka&/kkfRod v;Ld] vkS|ksfxd [kfut la[;kRed fo'ys"k.k esa yh tkus okyh leL;kvksa lEcU/kh izfof/k;ksa ds fy, csfld esa lk/kkj.k Øekns'ku
,oa leqnzh [kfut lalk/ku] [kfut lTthdj.k ,oa v;Ld izlk/kuA ¼izksxzkeu½ dk fodklA
¼vi½ Hkw&jlk;u foKku rFkk i;kZoj.kh; HkwfoKku% rRoksa dk varj{kh; ckgqY;] xzg rFkk mYdkfi.M dh ;kaf=dh ,oa rjy xfrdh% O;kihd`r funsZ'kkad] O;ojks/k] gksyksukseh; rFkk xSj gkyksukseh; i)fr;ka]
cukoV] i`Foh dh lajpuk rFkk cukoV ,oa rRoksa dk forj.k] vYi ekf=d rRo@ys'k rRo] fØLVy fMczyecVZ fl)kUr rFkk yxzkat ds lehdj.k] gsfeYVu ds lehdj.k] tM+Ro&vk?kw.kZ] nks foekvksa esa n`<+
jlk;fudh ds rRo] jklk;fud ca/kuksa ds izdkj] funsZ'kd la[;k] lekd`frdrk vkSj cgqd`frdrk] izkjfEHkd fi.Mksa dh xfrA
m"exfrdh] izkd`frd ladV&ck<+] HkwL[kyu] rVh; vijnu] HkwdEi ,oa Tokykeq[kh; fØ;kdyki rFkk lkarRo lehdj.k] v';ku izokg ds fy, vkW;yj dk xfr lehdj.k] izokg js[kk;sa] d.k dk iFk] foHko
U;wuhdj.k 'kgjhdj.k dk i;kZoj.kh; izHkko] foo`r [kuu] vkS|ksfxd rFkk fo?kVukfed vif'k"V fuiVku] izokg] f}foeh; rFkk v{kr% lefer xfr] mn~xe rFkk vfHkxe] Hkzfey xfr] csyu vkSj xksyd ds ikj
mojZd dk iz;ksx] [kfut vif'k"V dk <sj vkSj ¶ykb ,s'k] HkkSe rFkk Hkwi`"B ty iznw"k.k] leqnzh iznw"k.k] izokg] izfrfcEcksa dh fof/k] ';ke rjg ds fy, usfc;j LVkWd lehdj.kA
i;kZoj.k lqj{kk Hkkjr esa fo/kk;h mik;A
;kaf=d bathfu;fjax
xf.kr
iz'u i=&1
iz'u i=&1
1- e'khuksa ds fl)kUr% leryh; ;kaf=dy dk 'kq)&xfrdh vkSj xfrdh fo'ys"k.k] dSe] fx;j rFkk fx;j
[k.M&d ekyk,a] xfrikyd pØe] vf/kfu;a=d ¼xouZlZ½ n`<+ ?kw.kZdksa dk lUrqyu] ,dy rFkk cgqflfyaMj batuksa
jSf[kd chtxf.kr% lfn'k lef"V] jSf[kd vkfJrrk ,oa Lora=rk] milfe"V] vk/kkj] foek] ifjferfoeh; dk lUrqyu] ;kaf=d ra=ksa dk js[kh; dEiu fo'ys"k.k ¼,dy rFkk f} Lokra= dksfV½] 'kS¶Vksa dh Økafrd
lfn'k lef"V] vkO;wg] ¼eSfVªlsl½] dsys&gSflYVu izes;] vfHky{kf.kd eku ,oa vfHky{kf.kd lfn'k] jSf[kd xfr vkSj Økafrd ?kq.khZ xfr] Lor% fu;a=.k] iV~Vk pkyu rFkk J`a[kyk pkyu] nzoxfrdh; cs;fjaxA
:ikUrj.k dk vkO;wg iaDrh; ,oa LrEHkh; y?kqdj.k lksikud :i] rqY;rk] le'ks"krk ,oa le:irk] fofgr 2- Bksl ;kaf=dh% nks foekvksa esa izfrcy vkSj fod`fr] eq[; izfrcy vkSj fod`fr] eksgj fuekZ.k] js[kh;
:i dk y?kqdj.k] dksfV] yEcdksih;@ ykfEcd] lefer] fo"ke lefer] ,sfdd] gfeZVh;] fo"ke gfeZVh; izR;kLFk inkFkZ] lenSf'kdrk vkSj fo"kenSf'kdrk ¼Anisotropy½ izfrcy& fod`fr lEcU/k] ,d v{kh;
:i muds vfHky{kf.kd eku] f}?kkrh ,oa gfeZVh; le?kkrksa ds yEcdks.kh;@ykfEcd ,oa ,sfdd y?kqdj.k] ¼Uniaxial½ Hkkj.k] rkih; izfrcy] ?kju] cadu vk?kw.kZ vkSj vi:i.k cy vkjs[k] cadu izfrcy vkSj ?kjuksa
/kukRed fuf'pr f}?kkrh le?kkrA dk fo{ksi vi:i.k izfrcy forj.k] 'kS¶Vksa dh ,saBu] dq.Mfyuh fLizax] la;qDr izfrcy forj.k] eksVh vkSj
dyu% okLrfod la[;k,a] lhekar] lkarR;] vodyuh;rk] lHkh ek/;eku izes;] 'ks"kQyksa ds lkFk Vsyj dk iryh nhokjksa okys nkc ik=+] laihMkax vkSj LraHk] fod`fr ÅtkZ ladYiuk vkSj foQyrk fl)kUrA ?kw.khZ
izes;] vfu/kkZfjr :i] mfPp"B ,oa vfYi"B( vuUrLi'khZ] cgqpjksa ds Qyu% lkalL;] vodyuh;rk] vkaf'kd pfØdk] ladqpu vUok;satuA
vodyu] mfPp"B ,oa vfYi"B] yaxzkt dh xq.kd fof/k] tSdksfc;u] fuf'pr lekdyuksa dh jheku ifjHkk"kk] 3- bathfu;fjax inkFkZ% Bksl inkFkksZa dh lajpuk dh ewy ladYiuk,a] fØLVyh; inkFkZ] fØLVyh; inkFkksZa esa
vfuf'pr lekdy] vuUr ¼bufQfuV ,oa be~izkij½ lekdy chVk rFkk xkek Qyu] f}/kk rFkk fiz/kk nks"k] feJ/kkrq vkSj f}vadh dyk vkjs[k] lkekU; bathfu;fjax inkFkksZa dh lajpuk vkSj xq.k/keZ] bLikr dk
lekdy ¼dsoy ewY;kadu izfof/k;ka½] {ks=] i`"B ,oa vk;ru] xq#Ro&dsUnzA Å"ek mipkj] IykfLVd] e`fRrdk vkSj la;ksftr inkFkZ] fofHkUu inkFkksZa ds lkekU; vuqiz;ksxA
fo'ysf"kd T;kfefr% nks rFkk rhu foekvksa esa dkrhZ; rFkk /kzqoh; funsZ'kkad] nks rFkk rhu foekvksa esa f}rh; 4- fuekZ.k foKku% eps±V dk cy fo'ys"k.k] Vsyj dh vkStkj&vk;q lehdj.k] e'khuu lqdjrk vkSj e'khuu
dksfV lehdj.k] fofgr :iksa dk y?kqdj.k] ljy js[kk,a] nks fo"keryh; js[kkvksa ds chp dk y?kqre nwjh] dk vkfFkZd foospu] n`<+] y?kq vkSj yphyk Lopkyu] ,u-lh-] lh-,u-lh- vk/kqfud e'khuu
lery] xksyd] 'kadq] csyu] ijoy;t] nh?kZo`Rrt] ,d rFkk nks i`"Bh vfrijoy;t ,oa muds xq.k/keZA i)fr;ka&bZMh,u] bZ-lh-,e- vkSj ijkJO;dh] ystj vkSj IysTek dk vuqiz;ksx] iz:i.k] izØeksa dk
[k.M&[k fo'ys"k.k] mPp ÅtkZ nj izd:i.k] ftx] vUok;qfDr;ka] vkStkj vkSj xst] yEckbZ] fLFkfr] izksQkyu rFkk
lk/kkj.k vodyu lehdj.k% vody lehdj.kksa dk la:i.k] dksfV ,oa ?kkr] izFke dksfV rFkk izFke ?kkr i`"B ifj"d`fr dk fujh{k.kA
dk lehdj.k] lekdyu xq.kd] izFke dksfV ds fdUrq izFke ?kkr ds ugha] lehdj.k] Dysjks dk lehdj.k] 5- fuekZ.k izcU/k% mRiknu] vk;kstu rFkk fu;a=.k] iwokZuqekuu&xfreku ek/;] pj?kkrkadh el`.khdj.k]
fofp= gy] fu;e ¼vpj½ xq.kkad okys mPprj dksfV ds jSf[kd lehdj.k] iwjd Qyu ,oa fo'ks"k lekdy] lafØ;k vuqlwpu] leU;k;kstu js[kk larqyul] mRikn fodkl] lUrqyu&Lrj fo'ys"k.k] /kkfjrk
O;kid gy vkWyj&dkS'kh lehdj.k] pj xq.kkad okys f}rh; dksfV ds jSf[kd lehdj.k] iw.kZ gy dk vk;kstu] iVZ vkSj lh-ih-,e- fu;a=.k lafØ;k % eky lwph fu;a=.k&,-ch-lh- fo'ys"k.k] bZ-vks-D;w-] fun'kZ]
fu/kkZj.k tc ,d gy Kkr gks] izkpyksa ds fopj.k dh fof/kA inkFkZ vko';drk ;kstuk] d`R;d vfHkdYiuk] d`R;d ekud] dk;Z ekiu] xq.koRrk izcU/k& xq.koRrk
xfrdh] LFkSfrdh] nzo LFkSfrdh% Lora=rk dh dksfV ,oa O;ojks/k] vtjs[kh; xfr] ljy vkorZxfr] lery esa fo'ys"k.k vkSj fu;a=.k] lkaf[;dh; xq.koRrk fu;a=.k] lafØ;k vuqlka/ku% js[kh; izksxzkeu&xzkQh; vkSj
xfr iz{ksI;] O;ojks/k xfr] dk;Z ,oa ÅtkZ] ÅtkZ dk laj{k.k] vkosxh cy ds vUrxZr xfr] dsIyj ds fu;e] flEiysDl] fof/k;ka] ifjogu vkSj lekuqns'ku fun'kZ] ,dy ifjos"kd iafDr fun'kZ] ewY;
dsUnzh; cy ds vUrxZr d{kk,a] ifjorhZ nzO;eku dh xfr] izfrjks/k ds vUrxZr xfr] x.k&fudk; dk bathfu;fjax%ykxr@ewY; fo'ys"k.k] iw.kZ xq.koRrk izcU/k rFkk iwokZuqeku rduhdsa] ifj;kstuk izcU/kA
lUrqyu] dk;Z ,oa fLFkfrt ÅtkZ] ?k"kZ.k] lk/kkj.k dSVujh] dfYir dk;Z ds fl)kUr] lkE;koLFkk@lUrqyu 6- vfHkdyu ds ?kVd% vfHkdfyr ¼dEI;wVj½ laxBu] izokg lafp=.k] lkekU; dEI;wVj Hkk"kkvksa&QksVªkWu]
dk LFkkf;Ro] rhu foekvksa esa cy lkE;koLFkk@lUrqyuA Mh&csl&III] yksVl 1&2&3 lh&ds vfHky{k.k vkSj izkjfEHkd Øekns'ku ¼izksxzkeu½A
Hkkjh rjy dk nkc] fn, x, cy fudk; ds vUrxZr rjy dh lkE;koLFkk@lUrqyu] cjukSyh dk lehdj.k] ;kaf=d bathfu;fjax
nkc dsUnz] oØ i`"B dk iz.kksn] rSjrs gq, fi.Mksa dh lkE;koLFkk@lUrqyu lkE;koLFkk@lUrqyu dk iz'u i=&2
LFkkf;Ro] vkIyoA dsUnz] xSlksa dk nckoA
1- Å"ekxfrdh% ewy ladYiuk,a@foo`r ,oa lao`r ra=] Å"ekxfrdh fu;eksa ds vuqiz;ksx] xSl lehdj.k]
lfn'k fo'ys"k.k% vfn'k ,oa lfn'k {ks=] f=d xq.kuQy] vfn'k pj ds lfn'k Qyu dk vodyu] dkrhZ; Dysfijku lehdj.k] miyC/krk] vuqRØe.kh;rk rFkk Vh-Mh-,l- lEcU/kA
esa izo.krk] vilj.k ,oa dyZ] csyukdkj vkSj xksyh; funsZ'kkad rFkk mudh HkkSfrd O;k[;k] mPprj dksfV
2- vkbZ-lh- batu] bZa/ku rFkk ngu% LQqfyax izTtoyu rFkk laihMu izTtoyu batu] prqjLVªksd batu
vodyt] lfn'k rRled ,oa lfn'k lehdj.kA
rFkk f}LVªksd batu] ;kaf=d] Å"eh; rFkk vk;krfud n{krk] Å"ek larqyu] ,u-vkbZ- rFkk lh-vkbZ- batuksa
T;kfefr dk vuqiz;ksx% vkdk'k esa oØ] oØrk ,oa ,saBu] lsjsV&ÝsusV ds lw=] xkÅl ,oa LVksd ds izes;] esa ngu izdeu] ,l-vkbZ- batu esa iwoZToyu vf/kLQksVu] lh-vkbZ- batu esa Mhty viLQksVu] batu ds
xzhu ds rRledA bZa/ku dk pquko] vkDVsu rFkk lhVsu fu/kkZj.k] oSfdYid bZa/ku] dkcqZjs'ku rFkk bZa/ku vUr% {ksi.k] batu
Cont...

Page No. - 26
ok;q xq.kd ¶yw xSl fo'ys"k.k] mPprj rFkk U;wure dSyksjh eku rFkk mudk ekiukA 2- DokUVe ;kaf=dh&(ii) ,oa ijek.kq HkkSfrdh% ¼d½ DokUVe ;kaf=dh&(ii) % f=foeh; ckDl esa d.k]
3- Å"ek&vUrj.k] iz'khru rFkk okrkuqdwyu% ,d rFkk f}foeh Å"ek pkyu] foLrkfjr i`"Bksa esa Å"ek voLFkkvksa dk ?kuRo] /kkrqvksa dk eqDr bysDVªku fl)kUr] dks.kh; laosx leL;k] gkbMªkstu ijek.kq] v)Z
vUrj.k] iz.kksfnr rFkk eqDr laogu }kjk Å"e vUrj.k] Å"ek&fofuef;=] folfjr rFkk laogu nzO;eku pØ.k leL;k ,oa ikmyh pØ.k vkO;wg ds xq.k/keZA
vUrj.k ds ewy fl)kUr] fofdj.k fu;e( ';ke vkSj xSj ';ke i`"Bksa ds e/; Å"ek fofue;] usVodZ ¼[k½ ijek.kq HkkSfrdh% LVuZ&xysZd iz;ksx] bysDVªku pØ.k] gkbMªkstu ijek.kq dh lw{e lajpuk] ,y&,l
fo'ys"k.k] miek iEi] iz'khru pØ rFkk ra=] la?kfu=] okf"i= rFkk izlkj ;qfDr;ka rFkk fu;a=.k] iz'khrd ¼,y-,l-½ ;qXeu] ts&ts ¼ts-&ts-½ ;qXeu] ijek.kq voLFkk dk LisDVªeh ladsru] tseku izHkkoa
nzO;ksa ds xq.k /keZ rFkk mudk p;u] iz'khru ra= rFkk muds vo;o] vknZrkfefr] lq[knrk lwpdkad] 'khru Ýkad&dkWUMu fl)kUr ,oa vuqiz;ksxA
Hkkj ifjdyu vkSj iz'khruA 3- vkf.kod HkkSfrdh% f}ijek.kq v.kq ds /kw.kZuh] dkEifud ,oa bysDVªkfud LisDVªe dk izkFkfed fl)kUr]
4- VcksZ ;a= rFkk fo|qr la;U=% vfofPNUurk] laosx rFkk ÅtkZ lehdj.k] :nzks"e; ;Fkk lenSf'kd izokg] jeu izHkko ,oa vkf.kod lajpuk] ystj jeu LisDVªe foKku] [kxksy&foKku ,oa mnklhu gkbMªkstu
QSuksa js[kk,a] jSys js[kk,a] v{kh; izokg Vjckbu vkSj laihMd ds fl)kUr rFkk vfHkdYiuk] VcksZ e'khu CySM ijek.kq] vkf.od gkbMªkstu ,oa vkf.od gkbMªkstu vk;u dk egRo] izfrnhfIr ,oa LQqjnhfIr] ,u-,e-
esa ls izokg] lksikuh vidsUnzh laihMd] foeh; fo'ys"k.k rFkk fun'kZu] Hkki] ty ukfHkdh; rFkk vkj- ¼,u,evkj½ dk izkFkfed fl)kUr ,oa vuqiz;ksx] ySEc l`fr dh izkFkfed O;k[;k ,oa budk egRoA
vkikrks;ksxh fo|qr] 'kfDr la;U=ksa ds fy, LFky dk pquko] vk/kkj rFkk pje Hkkj fo|qr] 'kfDr la;a=ksa dk [k.M&[k
pquko vk/kqfud mPp nkc] xq#dk;Z ckW;yj] izokr rFkk /kqfy gVkus ds miLdj] bZa/ku rFkk ty 'khru ra=] 4- ukfHkdh; HkkSfrdh% ewyHkwr ukfHkdh; xq.k/keZ vkdkj] cU/ku ÅtkZ] dks.kh; laosx] lerk] pqEcdh;
Å"ek larqyu] LVs'ku rFkk la;U=] Å"ek njsa] fofHkUu fo|qr 'kDr la;U=ksa dk izpkyu ,oa vuqj{k.k] vk?kw.kZ] lkfe&vkuqHkkfod lagfr lw= ,oa vuqiz;ksx] nzO;eku ijoy;] M;wVjku dh ewy voLFkk] pqEcdh;
fujks/kd vuqj{k.k] fo|qr mRiknu dk vkfFkZd foospuA vk?kw.kZ ,oa vdsUnzh; cy] ukfHkdh; cy dk eslku fl)kUr] ukfHkdh; cy dh izeq[k fo'ks"krk,a] ukfHkd
dk dks'k ekWMy&lQyrk ,oa lhek,a] chVk gzkl esa lerk dk mYya?ku] xkek gzkl ,oa vkarfjd
HkkSfrdh :ikUrj.k] eklckSj LiSDVªe foKku ds ckjs esa izkFkfed /kkj.kk] ukfHkdh; vfHkfØ;k dk ¼D;w½&eku]
iz'u i=&1 ukfHkdh; fo[k.Mu ,oa lap;u] rkjkvksa esa ÅtkZ mRiknu] ukfHkdh; fj,sDVjA
[k.M&d 5- d.k HkkSfrdh ,oa Bksl voLFkk HkkSfrdh% ¼d½ d.k HkkSfrdh% ewy d.kksa dk oxhZdj.k ,oa mudh
1- Dykfldh ;kaf=dh% ¼d½ d.k xfrdh% nzO;eku dsUnz rFkk iz;ksx'kkyk funsZ'kkad] js[kh; rFkk dks.kh; vU;ksU;fØ;k] laj{k.k fu;e] gkbMªkstu dh DokdZ lajpuk] {kh.k oS|qr ,oa izcy vU;ksU; fØ;k dk {ks=
vk?kw.kksZa dk laj{k.k] jkdsV lehdj.k] jnjQksMZ izdh.kZu] xSyhfy;u :ikUrj.k tM+Roh; rFkk vtM+Roh; Dok.Vk] cyksa ds ,dhdj.k dh izkFkfed O;k[;k] U;wfVªuksa dh HkkSfrdhA
Ýse] ?kw.khZ Ýse vidsUnzh rFkk dksfj;kfyl cy] Qwdks yksydA ¼[k½ Bksl voLFkk HkkSfrdh% ?kuh; fØLVy lajpuk] Bkslksa dk iV~V fl)kUr&pkyd] fo|qrjks/kh ,oa
¼[k½ d.k fudk;% O;ojks/k] LorU=rk dh dksfV] lkekU;hd`r funsZ'kkad rFkk vk?kw.khZ yxzkat dk lehdj.k v)Zpkyd] vfrpkydrk ds vo;o] ekbLuj izHkko tkstsQlu laf/k ,oa vuqiz;ksx] mPp rkiØe
rFkk js[kh; lukanh nksfy= esa mlds vuqiz;ksx] ljy yksyd rFkk dsUnzh; cy leL;k,a] pØh; funsZ'kkad] vfrpkydrk dh izkFkfed O;k[;kA
gsfeYVksfu;u] gsfeYVu ds fl)kUr ls yxzkat lehdj.kA 6- bysDVªkWfudh% ust ,oa ckg~; v)zZpkyd& p-n-p ¼ih&,u&ih½ ,oa n-p-n ¼,u&ih&,u½ VªkaftLVj]
¼x½ n`<+ fi.M xfrdh% vk;yjh dks.k] tM+Ro rkfudk] tM+Ro ds eq[; vk?kw.khZ n`<+ fi.M dh xfr dk izo/kZd ,oa nksfy=] lafØ;kRed izc/kZd FET ¼,QbZVh½] JFET ¼ts-,Q-bZ-Vh-½ ,oa MOSFET
vk;yj dk lehdj.k] n`<+ fi.M dh cy eqDr xfr] ?k.kkZ{kLFkk;h ¼tkbjks Ldksi½A ¼,evks,l,QbZVh½A vadh; bysDVªkfudh&cwyh; rRled] Mh ekxZu fu;e] rdZnkj ,oa lR;eku lkj.kh
2- fof'k"V vkisf{kdh] rjax rFkk T;kferh; izdkf'kdh% ljy rdZ ifjiFk] Å"e izfrjks/kh ¼FkfeZLVj½] lkSj] lSy ekbØksizkslslj ,oa vadh; lax.kdA
¼d½ fof'k"V vkisf{kdh% ekbDylu&eksysZ iz;ksx vkSj mlds vuq"kafxd] ykjsat :ikUrj.k nS/;Z ladksp] dky lkaf[;dh
o`f)] osx ifjo)Zu] foiFku rFkk MkIyj izHkko] nzO;eku ÅtkZ lEcU/k] {k; izfØ;k ds ljy vuqiz;ksx] iz'u i=&1
feadksOLdh fp=] prq"k vk;keh vk?kw.kksZa lfn'k HkkSfrdh lehdj.kksa ds lg izlkj.kA izkf;drk% izfrn'kZ lef"V ,oa ?kVuk,a&izkf;drk es; vkSj izkf;drk lef"V] es; Qyu ds :i ls
¼[k½ rjaxsa% ljy vkorZ xfr] voeafnr nksyu] iz.kksfnr nksyu rFkk vuqukn] foLian] rUrq esa fLFkj rjaxs] ;kn`fPNd pj] ;kn`fPNd pj dk caVu Qyu] vlarr rFkk larr izdkj ds ;kn`fPNd pj] izkf;drk
LiUnu rFkk rjax lapkf;dk] izkoLFkk rFkk lewg osx] gkbZtu ds fl)kUr ls ijkorZu rFkk viorZuA nzO;eku Qyu] izkf;drk ?kuRo Qyu] lfn'k&eku ;kn`fPNd pj] mikUr vkSj lizfrcU/k caVu] ?kVukvksa
¼x½ T;kferh; izdk'k foKku% QjesV ds fl)kUr ls ijkorZu rFkk vioZru ds fu;e] mik{kh; izdk'k vkSj ;kn`fPNd pjksa dh izlaHkkO; Lora=rk] ;kn`fPNd pj dh izR;k'kk rFkk vk?kw.kZ] lizfrcU/k izR;k'k]
foKku esa vkO;wg ¼eSfVªDl½ i)fr] irys ysal ds lw=] fuLiUn ry] nks irys ySalksa dh iz.kkyh] o.kZ rFkk ;kn`fPNd pjksa dh J`a[kyk dk caVu esa izkf;drk esa] iz;] ek/;e esa] rFkk yxHkx loZ= fLFkfr esa vfHklj.k
xksyh; foiFkuA mudk ekun.M rFkk ikjLifjd lEcU/k% eksjsy&dsVsyh izesf;dk] psch'ksc rFkk f[kafpu ds c`gr la[;kvksa
3- HkkSfrdh izdk'k foKku% ¼d½ O;frdj.k% izdk'k dk O;frdj.k&;ax dk iz;ksx] U;wVu oy;] ruq fQYeksa ds nqcZy fu;e] c`gr la[;kvksa ds lcy fu;e rFkk dksYeksxksjksc ds izes;] XyhcSUdh&dSVSyh izes;]
}kjk O;frdj.k] ekbdYlu O;frdj.k ekih] fofo/k fdj.kiqat O;frdj.k rFkk Qsczh&isjV O;frdj.k ekih] izkFkfedrk tud Qyu] vfHkyk{kf.kd Qyu] izfrykseu izes;] ykIysl dk :ikUrj.k lEcfU/kr
gksyksxzkQh rFkk mlds ljy vuqiz;ksxA vf}rh;r] vlkarr; dh fofHkUu izes;] caVu dk mlds v?kw.kZ }kjk fu/kkZj.k] fyaMucxZ rFkk ych ds
dsUnzh; lhek izes;] ekud larr o vlarr izkf;drrk caVu] mudk ikjLifjd lEcU/k rFkk lhekUr
¼[k½ foorZu% ÝkugksQj foorZu&,dy js[kk fNnz ¼fLyV½] f}js[kk fNnz] foorZu xzsfVax foHksnu
caVu] ifjfer ekdksZo J`a[kyk ds lkekU; xq.k/keZA
{kerk&izstusy foorZu& v)Z vkorZu tksu rFkk tksu IysV] Ýstuy lekdy] dksuZw dslfiZy ¼fLijy½ dk
,d lh/ks dksj ij foorZu rFkk yEch ladh.kZ js[kk fNnz ds fo'ys"k.k esa vuqiz;ksx&o`Rrh; }kjd }kjk foorZu lkaf[;dh; vuqfefr% laxfr] vfufHkurrk] n{krk] i;kZIrrk] U;wure i;kZIrrk] iw.kZrk lgk;d izfrn'kZu]
rFkk ok;oh; iSVuZA xq.ku [k.Mu izes;] cUVu dk pj?kkrkadh lewg o blds xq.k/keZ] Lo:i U;wure izlj.k vufHkur ¼;w-,e-
ih-;w-½ vkadyu] jko&CySdcSy vkSj ysgeSu&'ksQs izes;] caVu ds ,dy o cgq&izkpy lewgksa ds fy,
¼x½ /kqzohdj.k rFkk vk/kqfud izdk'k foKku% js[kh;] o`Rrh; rFkk nh?kZo`Rrh; /kzqfor izdk'k dk mRiknu rFkk
Økej&jkc vlfedk U;wure izlj.k] ifjc)] vkdyu rFkk mlds xq.k /keZ] Økej&jko vlfedk ds
vfHkKku f}viorZu] prqFkkZa'k rjax IysV] /kzqo.k ?kw.kZdrk&js'kk izdkf'kdh ds fl)kUr {kh.ku] LVsi&baMsDl
vkifjorZu o foLrkj] pSoeSu jkSfcUl vlfedk] HkV~Vkpk;Z ds ifjc)] vk?kw.kZ fof/k }kjk vkdyu]
rFkk ijcyf;d baMsDl rUrqvksa esa LiUn ifj{ksi.k] inkFkZ ifj{ksi.k] ,dy :i js'kk ¼Qkbcj½] yslj&vkbu
vf/kdre laHkkfork] U;wurea oxZ] U;wure dkbZ&oxZ rFkk vifjofrZr U;wure dkbZ&oxZ] vf/kdre
LVkbu d vkSj [k xq.kkad] :ch rFkk ghfy;e&fu;ku yslj] yslj izdk'k dh fo'ks"krk,a] LFkkfud rFkk
laHkkfork o vU; vkdydksa ds xq.k/keZ] mixkeh n{krk dh /kkj.kk] iwoZ rFkk i'p caVuksa dh /kkj.kk] cst
dkfyd lEc)rk] yslj fdj.kiqat dks Qksdl djuk] yslj fØ;k ds fy, rhu Lrjh; ;kstukA
vkdydA
[k.M&[k
v;kn`fPNd`r o ;kn`fPNd`r ijh{k.k] Økafld Qyu ,e-ih- ijh{k.k] useu fi;lZu izesf;dk] ;w-,e-ih-
4- fo|qr ,oa pqEcdRo% ¼d½ fLFkj oS|qr ,oa fLFkj pqEcdh;% fLFkj oS|qr esa ykIysl ,oa Ioklksa lehdj.k ,oa ijh{k.k] ,dfn"V laHkkfork vuqikr] lkekU;hd`r useu fi;lZu izesf;dk] le:i o vufHkur ijh{k.k]
mudk vuqiz;ksx] vkos'k fudk; dh ÅtkZ] vkfn'k foHko dk cgq/kzqo izlkj] izfrfcEc fof/k ,oa mudk ,dy o cgq&izkpy caVu lewgksa ds ;w-,e-ih-;w-] ijh{k.k] laHkkfork vuqikr ijh{k.k vkSj blds o`g~r
vuqiz;ksx] f)/kzqo ds dkj.k foHko ,oa {ks=] ckg~; {ks= esa f}/kzqo ij cy ,oa cyvk?kw.kZ] ijkoS|qr] /kzqo.k] izfrn'kZ xq.k/keZ] dkbZ&oxZ leatu&lq"Bqrk ijh{k.k o blds mixkeh caVuA
ifjlhek&eku leL;k dk gy&,d leku oS|qr {ks= esa pkyd rFkk ijkoS|qr xksyd] pqEcdh; dks'k] ,d
fo'okL;rk ifjc) rFkk ijh{k.kksa ds lkFk blds lEcU/k] ,dleku ;FkkFkZre ¼;w-,e-,-½ o ;w-,e-,-
leku pqEcfdr xksyd] ykSg pqEcdh; inkFkZ] 'kSfFky;] ÅtkZ gzklA
vufHkur fo'oL;rk ifjc)A
¼[k½ /kkjk fo|qr% fdjpkSQ fu;e ,oa mudk vuqiz;ksx] ck;ks&lokVZ fu;e] ,sfE¶;j dk fu;e] QSjkMs dk
leatu lq"Bqrk ds fy, dksYeksxksjkso dk ijh{k.k vkSj bldh laxfr] fpUg ijh{k.k dk bldk b"VreRo]
fu;e] ysUt dk fu;e] Lo&,oa vU;ksu izsjdRo] izR;korhZ /kkjk ¼iz-/kk-½ ifjiFk esa ek/; ,oa oxZ ek/; ewy
fcydksDlu fpfg~ur&dksfV ijh{k.k vkSj bldh laxfr] dksYeksxksjksc&fLejukso dk nks&izfrn'kZ ijh{k.k]
¼vkj-,e-,l-½ eku] ,yvkj] lhvkj] ,oa ,ylhvkj ifjiFk&Js.khc) ,oa lekUrj vuqukn] xq.krk dkjd]
ijEijk ijh{k.k foydksDlu&eSu fOgVuh ijh{k.k o ekf/;dk ijh{k.k] mudh laxfr o mixkeh
ifj.kkfe= ¼VªkUlQkWeZj½ ds fl)kUrA
izlkekU;rkA
5- fo|qr pqEcdh; fl)kUr ,oa d`f".kdk fofdj.k% ¼d½ fo|qr pqEcdh; fl)kUr% foLFkkiuk /kkjk ,oa
okYM dk ,l-ih-vkj-Vh o blds xq.k/keZ] vks-lh- o ,-,l-,u- Qyu] ckYM dh ewy loZlfedk] vuqØfed
esDlosy dk lehdj.k] fuokZr esa rjax lehdj.k] IokbfUVax izes;] lfn'k ,oa vfn'k foHko] izekih
vkdyuA
fu'pjrk] yksjsUV~l ,oa dwykWe izekih] fo|qr pqEcdh; {ks= izfn'k] eSDlosy lehdj.k dk lgizlj.k]
lenSf'kd ijkoS|qr esa rjax lehdj.k] nks ijkoS|qRkksa ds ifjlhek ij ijkorZu rFkk viorZu] Ýsuy lEcU/k] jSf[kd vuqefr vkSj cgqpj fo'ys"k.k% jSf[kd lkaf[;dh; fun'kZ] U;wure oxksZa dk fl)kUr vkSj izlj.k
izlkekU; ,oa vlaxr o.kZ fo{ksi.k] jSys izdh.kZuA fo'ys"k.k] xkl&ekdksZd fl)kUr] lkekU; lehdj.k] U;wure oxZ vkdyu o budh ifj'kq)rk] ,d/kk]
f}/kk o f=/kk oxhZd`r vkdyuksa esa U;wure oxZ fl)kUr ij vk/kkfjr lkFkZdrk ijh{k.k ,oa vUrjky
¼[k½ d`f".kdk fofdj.k% d`f".kdk fofdj.k ,oa Iykad fofdj.k fu;e&LVsQkWu&oksYteku fu;e] ohu
vkdyu] lekJ;.k fo'ys"k.k] jSf[kd lekJ;.k] oØjs[kh lekJ;.k o yEc dks.kh; cgqin] cgqinh;
foLFkkiu fu;e rFkk jSys&thUl fu;e] Iykad nzO;eku] Iykad yEckbZ] Iykad le;] Iykad rkieku ,oa
lekJ;.k] cgq o vkaf'kd lglEcU/k] lekJ;.k uSnkfud o laosfnrk fo'ys"k.k] va'k'kks/ku leL;k,a]
Iykad ÅtkZA
izlj.k o lgizlj.k ?kVdksa dks vkdyu] MINQUE fl)kUr] cgqpjizlkekU; caVu] egkyksukfcCo dk
6- rkih; ,oa lkaf[;dh; HkkSfrdh% ¼d½ Å"ekxfrdh% Å"ekxfrdh dk fu;e] mRØE; rFkk vizfrØE; 2 2
D o gksVsfyax dk T izfrn'kZt o muds vuqiz;ksx o xq.k/keZ] fcfcDlj] fo'ys"k.k] fofgr lglEcU/k]
izØe] ,UVªkWih] lerkih] #)ks"e] lenkc] levk;ru izØe rFkk ,sUVªkWih ifjorZu] vkWVks ,oa Mhty ,d/kk] MANOVA eq[; ?kVd fo'ys"k.k] miknku fo'ys"k.k ds vo;;A
batu] fxOl izkoLFkk fu;e ,oa jklk;fud foHko] okLrfod xSl dh voLFkk ds fy, osUMjoky
izfrp;u fl)kUr rFkk iz;ksxksa dh vfHkdYiuk% fuf'pr lef"V o egk&lef"V mixeu dh :ijs[kk]
lehdj.k] Økfrd fLFkjkad vkf.od osx ds fy, eSDlosy oksYteku forj.k] ifjogu ifj?kVuk]
ifjfer lef"V izfrp;u ds lqLi"V y{k.k] izkf;drk izfrp;u vfHkdYiuk] ljy ;kn`fPNd izfrp;u&
lefoHkktu] ohfj;y izes;] Bksl dh fof'k"V Å"ek dk M~;wyka&isrh] vkbaLVkbu] Msckb fl)kUr]
izfrLFkkiu ds lkFk vkSj fcuk izfrLFkkiu ds] Lrjhd`r ;kn`fPNd izfrp;u vkSj lajfpr lef"V ds fy,
esDlosy lEcU/k ,oa vuqiz;ksx] DysfijkWu Dykflvl lehdj.k] :)ks"e fopqEcdu] twy&dsfYou
mldh izHkkfork] xqPN izfrp;u] f}pj.k rFkk cgqpj.k izfrp;u] ,d vFkok vf/kd lgk;d pjksa ds fy,
izHkko ,oa xSlksa dk nzo.kA
vuqikr o lekJ;.k i)fr;ka] f}pj.k izfrp;u] izfrLFkkiu ds lkFk o mlds fcuk] izkf;drk vuqikfrd
¼[k½ lkaf[;dh; HkkSfrdh% lkgk vk;uu lw=] cksl&vkbaLVkbu nzo.k@la?kuu] vkn'kZ QehZ xSl dk vkeki] izfrp;u] gSUlu&gjfcV~t vkSj gjfcV~t FkkWEilu ds vkdyu gjfoV~t FkkWEilu vkdyu ds
Å"ekxfrd O;ogkjA pUnz'ks[kj lhek] U;wVªku rkjk ,oa iWYlkj ds fo"k; esa izkjfEHkd /kkj.kk] ;kn`fPNd lUnHkZ esa _.kksRrj izlj.k vkdyu] vizfrp;u =qfV;ka] laosnu'khy vfHky{k.kksa ds fy, okuZj dh
?kze.k ds :i esa czkmuh xfr] folj.k izØe] ukdkjkRed rki dh vo/kkj.kkA ;kn`fPNd mRrj rduhdA
HkkSfrdh fu;e izHkko fun'kZ ¼f}/kk oxhZdj.k½] ;kn`fPNd ,oa fefJr izHkko fun'kZ ¼le la[;k izfr dksf"Bdk izs{k.kksa
iz'u i=&2 ds lkFk f)/kk oxhZdj.k½ lh-vkj-Mh-] vkj-ch-Mh-] ,y-,l-Mh- o muds fo'ys"k.k] viw.kZ [k.M vfHkdYiuk]
[k.M&d yEcdks.kh;rk o lUrqyu dh ladYiuk ch-vkbZ-ch-Mh- vizkIr {ks=d izfrf/k] Øexqf.kr vfHkdYiuk% 21] 32
1- DokUVe ;kaf=dh&(i) % d.k rjax }Srrk] JksfMaxj lehdj.k ,oa izR;k'kk eku] vfuf'prrk fl)kUr] ,d ,oa 33 Øexqf.kr iz;ksxksa esa ladj.k] foHkDr&{ks= vkSj ljy tkyd vfHkdYiuk,aA
foeh; JksfMaxj lehdj.k dk gy&eqDr d.k ¼xkmlh; rjax&osLVu ¼iSdsV½½ ckDl esa d.k] ifjfer dwi esa lkaf[;dh
d.k] jSf[kd vkorhZ yksyd] foHko LVsi ,oa vk;krkdkj jksf/kdk }kjk ijkorZu ,oa lapj.k] vYQkgzkl iz'u i=&2
leL;k esa thou vof/k ifjdyu gsrq MCY;w ds ch lw= dk mi;ksxA q a
I- vkS|ksfxd lkaf[;dh% izfØ;k ,oa mRikn fu;a=.k% fu;a=.k lfp=ksa ds lkekU; fl)kUrksa % pjksa ,oa x.kks
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Page No. - 27
ds fy, fofHkUu izdkj dh fu;a=.k lafp=% X, R, S, Pnp ,oa C lafp= ;ksx lafp=% V-ekLd % xq.kksa ds I- ifjfLFkfrdh;% ¼d½ thoeaMy] tSoHkwjlk;u pØ] xzhu gkml izHkko] vkStksu ijr rFkk bldk izHkko(
fy, ,dy] f}] cgq ,oa vuqØfed izfrp;u ;kstuk,a % vks-lh-] ,-,l-,u-] ,-vks-D;w- ,oa ,-Vh-vkbZ- oØ] ikfjfLFkfrd vuqØe] thokse rFkk bZdksVksu
mRikndksa ,oa miHkksDrkvksa ds tksf[keksa dh vo/kkj.kk,a] ,-D;w-,y-] ,y-Vh-ih-Mh- ,oa ,-vks-D;w-,y-% pjksa ds ¼[k½ lef"V] fo'ks"krk,a lef"V xfrdh] lfef"V fLFkjhdj.k
fy, izfrp;u ;kstuk] MkWt&jksfex ,oa lSfud ekud lkjf.k;ksa dk mi;ksxA ¼x½ izkd`frd lalk/kuksa dk laj{k.k&[kfut [kuu] eRL;&m|ksx tyd`f"k] okfudh( ?kkl LFky% oU;
fo'oluh;rk dh ladYiuk% vuqj{k.kh;rk ,oa miyC/krk% J`a[kyk ,oa lekUrj i)fr dh fo'oluh;rk thou ¼ck?k½ ifj;kstuk] d`f"k esa cuk, j[kk tkus okyk mRiknu ,dhd`r uk'khtho izca/ku
vkSj vU; ljy foU;kl iqu% LFkkiuk ?kuRo ,oa iqu% LFkkiuk Qyu] vfrthfork fun'kZ ¼pj?kkrkadh] cscqy] ¼?k½ i;kZoj.kh; tSo fuEuhdj.k] iznw"k.k rFkk thoeaMy ij blds izHkko ,oa mldh jksdFkke
y?kqxw.kd] jSys vkSj ckFk&Vc½ vfrfjDrrk ds fofHkUu izdkj vkSj fo'oluh; lq/kkj esa vfrfjDrrk dk II- O;ogkfjdh% ¼d½ O;ogkj% laosnh fuLianu] izfrlansfnrk] fpUg mn~nhiu] lh[kuk] d`fr vH;kl]
mi;ksx( vk;q ijh{k.k esa leL;k,a( pj?kkrkadh izfr:iksa ds fy, fNUu vkSj [k.M oftZr iz;ksxA izkuqdwyu] v/;kadu
II- b"Vrehdj.k izfof/k;ka% lafØ;k foKku esa fofHkUu izdkj ds fun'kZ] mudh lajpuk vkSj gy djus dh ¼[k½ pkyu eas gkjekuskas dh Hkfwedk] lp a rsu il z kj eas Qhjkeskuskas dh Hkfwedk( xkisdrk] iji{kh igpku] iji{kh
lkekU; fof/k;ka% vuqdj.k vkSj ekaVsdkyks fof/k] jsf[kr izksxkeu ¼,y-ih-½ leL;k dh lajpuk vkSj lw=.k] rkjS&rjhd]s dhVkas rFkk ibzeVsks eas lkekftd O;ogkj] i.zk;&¼Mkªl s kfsQyk] f=dVad] fLVdycd s rFkk i{kh½
ljy jSf[kd izksxzkeu iz:i vkSj mldk vkys[kh gy] ,d/kk izfØ;k] f}pj.k fof/k vkSj d`f=e pjksa lfgr ¼x½ vfHkfoU;kl] lp a yku vfHkxg` tfSod y;% tfSod fu;rdkfydrk] Okjh;] _riqjd rFkk fnolizk; y;
,e-&rduhd( jSf[kd izksxzkeu dk }S/k fl)kUr vkSj mldk vkfFkZd fuoZpu( lqxzkfgrk fo'ys"k.k] ifjogu ¼?k½ izk.kh&O;ogkj ds v/;;u dh fof/k;ka
,oa fu;ru leL;k( vk;krhr [ksy( f}O;Drhd 'kwU;&;ksx [ksy( gy djus dh fof/k;ka ¼vkys[kh ,oa
III- vkfFkZd izkf.k foKku% ¼d½ e/kqeD[kh ikyu] js'kedhV ikyu] yk[k dhV ikyu 'kQjh lao/kZ] lhi
chtxf.krh;½A
ikyu] >haxk ikyu
foQy ,oa xq.kkg`flr enksa dk izfrLFkkiu( lewg vkSj O;f"V izfrLFkkiu uhfr;ka( oSKkfud rkfydk izcU/ku
¼[k½ izeq[k laØked ,oa lapj.kh; jksx ¼pspd] Iysx] eysfj;k] {k; jksx] gStk rFkk ,M~l½] muds okgd
dh ladYiuk rFkk rkfydk leL;kvksa dh fo'ysf"kd lajpuk( vxzrk dky ds lkFk rFkk mlds fcuk
jksxk.kq rFkk jksdFkke
fu/kkZj.kkRed ,oa izlaHkkO; ekax ds ljy fun'kZ] MSe izdkj ds fo'ks"k lUnHkZ lfgr lap;u fun'kZA
¼x½ i'kv q kas rFkk eofs'k;kas ds jkx
s ] muds jkxs k.kq ¼gys feUFkl½ rFkk okgd ¼fpp a Mh+] dVqdh] ccsusl] LVkeskfsDll½
lek?kkr fofcDr&dky ekdksZo J`a[kyk,a] laØe.k izkf;drk vkO;wg] fLFkfr;ksa dk oxhZdj.k rFkk
vH;frizk; ds izes;] le?kkr lrr~&dky ekdksZo J`a[kyk,a] Ioklks izfØ;k] iafDr fl)kUr ds vo;o] ¼?k½ xUus dk uk'khtho ¼ikbfjyk ijifqlyk½] frygu dk ¼,fsd;k tukVk½ rFkk pkoy dk ¼flVkfsQyl vkfsjt½s
,e@,e@1] ,e@,e@ds] th@,e@1 ,oa ,e@th@1A iafDr;kaA izpfyr lkW¶Vos;j iSdst] tSls IV- tSo lkaf[;dh% iz;ksxksa dh vfHkdYiuk( fujkdj.kh; ifjdYiuk( lg&laca/k] ijkorZu] dsUnzh; izo`fRr
,l-ih-,l-,l-] ds mi;ksx ls lkaf[;dh; leL;kvksa dk dEI;wVj gyA ds ifjek.k vkSj forj.k] dkbZ&Ldos;j] fo|kFkhZ Vh&VsLV] ,Q&VsLV ¼,d ekxhZ rFkk f}ekxhZ ,Q&VsLV½
III- ek=kRed vFkZ'kkL= o jktdh; lkaf[;dh% izo`fRr fu/kkZj.k% ekSleh o pØh; ?kVd% ckWDl&tSufdUl V- midj.kh; i)fr% ¼d½ LisDVªeh izdk'kekiu] Tokyk izdk'kfefr] xkbxj eqyj xf.k=] izLQqj.k x.kuk
fof/k % J`a[kyk dh fLFkjrk ds fy, ijh{k.k] ,-vkj-vkbZ-,e-,- ¼vfjek½ fun'kZ rFkk LolekJ;.k o xfreku ¼[k½ bysDVªkWu lw{en'khZ ¼VhbZ,e] ,lbZ,e½
ek/; vo;;ksa dk Øe fu/kkZj.k] iwokZuqekuA izk.kh foKku
lk/kkj.kr;k iz;qDr lwpdkad&ySlfi;j o ik'ks ,oa fQ'kj dk vkn'kZ lwpdkad% J`a[kyk&vk/kkfjr iz'u i=&2
lwpdkad] lwpdkad ds iz;ksx o lhek,a] Fkksd ewyksa dk lwpdkad] miHkksDrk] ewy dk lwpdkad] d`f"k o Hkkx&d
vkS|ksfxd mRiknu dk lwpdkad] lwpdkad ds ijh{k.k tSls vkuqikfrdrk ijh{k.k] dky&fo"k;Zt] minku I- dksf'kdk tho&foKku% ¼d½ dksf'kdk rFkk blds dksf'kdkaxksa ¼dsUnzd] IykTek f>Yyh] ekbVksdkWfUMª;k]
mRØe ijh{k.k] J`a[kfyd ijh{k.k o foeh; fu'pjrk ijh{k.k] O;kid jSf[kd fun'kZ] vkdyu dh lk/kkj.k xkYthdk;] varnzZO;h tfydk] jkbckslke rFkk ykblkslksEl½ dh lajpuk ,oa dk;Z] dksf'kdk&foHkktu
U;wure oxZ o O;kidhd`r U;wure oxZ fof/k;ka] cgqljs[krk dh leL;k] cgqljs[krk ds ifj.kke o lek/kku] ¼lelw=h vkSj v/kZlw=h½ lelw=h ra=] xq.klw= xfr
Lorgy lEcU/k o blds ifj.kke] fo{kksHk dh fo"ke fopkfyrk o bldk ijh{k.k] fo{kksHk dh Lor=ark gsrq
¼[k½ Mh,u, dk okVl ~ u ,oa Øhd ekM W y] Mh,u, dh ifzrdf`r] ikzVshu l'ay"sk.k] vuy q [sku rFkk vuy
q [sku dkjd
ijh{k.k] tSyuj dk izrh;eku] vlEc)] lekJ;.k lehdj.k fun'kZ o bldk vkdyu] lajpuk dh
ladYiuk vkSj ;qxor~ lehdj.k gsrq fun'kZ vfHkfu/kkZj.k dh leL;k vfHkfu/kkZj.k ds gsrq dksfV ,oa Øe II- vuqokaf'kdh% ¼d½ thou lajpuk rFkk dk;Z] vuqokaf'kdh dwV
izfrcU/k] vkdyu dh f}Lrjh; U;wure oxZ fof/kA ¼[k½ MªkslksfQyk] useSVksMksa rFkk ekuo esa fyax xq.klw= rFkk fyax fu/kkZj.k
Hkkjr esa tula[;k] df`"k] vk| S kfsxd mRiknu] O;kikj vkjS eYw; dh oreZku 'kkldh; lkfa[;dh; i.zkkyh( ¼x½ oa'kkxfr esa esaMyh; fu;e] iqu;ksZtu] lgyXurk] lgyXurk fp=] cgq&;qXe fodYih] fLVªkWu
'kkldh; vkd a Mk+as ds lx
a gz djus dh fof/k;ka mudh fo'oluh;rk ,oa lhek vkjS i/zkku id z k'k] tks ,ls s vkda Mk+as dks vo/kkj.kk] jDr lewgksa dh vuqokaf'kdh
vUrfo"ZV djrs gk]as vkd a Mk+as ds lxa gz ds fy, mRrjnk;h fofHkUu 'kkldh; ,tfslU;ka vkjS muds e[q; dk;AZ ¼?k½ mRifjorZu rFkk mRifjorZtuu% fcfdj.kh rFkk jklk;fud
IV- tulkaf[;dh vkSj euksfefr% tux.kuk ls izkIr tulkaf[;dh vkadM+s iathdj.k] jk"Vªh; izfrn'kZ ¼M-½ Dyksfuax rduhd] okgdksa ds :i esa Iykst~feM~l rFkk dkWlfeM~l] VªkalikslksUl] Mh,u, Øe Dyksfuax
losZ{k.k rFkk vU; losZ{k.k] mudh lhek vkSj mi;ksx] ifjHkk"kk] thou&ej.k nj vkSj vuqikr dh jpuk rFkk iw.kZ izk.kh Dyksfuax ¼fLk)kar rFkk fØ;k i)fr½
vkSj mi;ksx] moZjrk dh eki] tUe nj] vLoLFkrk nj] ekudhd`r e`R;qnj] iw.kZ vkSj laf{kIr o; lkjf.k;ka] ¼p½ izks&rFkk ;w&dSfj;ksV~l esa fu;eu rFkk thu vfHkO;fDr
tUe&ej.k vkadM+ksa vkSj tux.kuk foojf.k;ksa ds vk/kkj ij o; lkj.kh dk fuekZ.k] o; lkfj.k;ksa dk ¼N½ ladsr ikjØe.k] oa'kkoyh&fo'ys"k.k] ekuo ds tUetkr jksx
mi;ksx] o`f)?kkr vkSj vU; tuof`) oØ of`)ikr oØ lt a u] tul[a;k i{zkis( LFkkbZ tul[a;k fl)kUr]
¼t½ ekuor thukse fp=kadu] Mh,u, fQaxjfizafVax
tulkfa[;dh; ikzpykas ds vkdyu eas LFkkbZ vkjS dYi&LFkkbZ tul[a;k ifzof/k;kas ds mi;kx s ] vLoLFkrk vkjS
mldh eki] eR`;q ds dkj.k }kjk ekud oxhjZd.k] LokLF; lo{Zsk.kkas vkjS vLirky ds vkd a Mk+as dk mi;kx s A III- fodkl%
ekiØeksa vkSj ijh{k.kksa dh ekudhdj.k i)fr;ka Z-lead] ekud lead] T-lead] 'kr~red lead] ckSf)d ¼d½ thou dk mn~Hkou
Lrj vkSj mldh eki rFkk mi;ksx] ijh{k.k lead dh ekU;rk vkSj mldk fu/kkZj.k euksfer ds miknku] ¼[k½ izkd`frd oj.k] fodkl esa mRifjorZu dh Hkwfedk] vuqgj.k] fofHkUurk] i`FkDdj.k tkfr mn~Hkou
fo'ys"k.k vkSj iFk&fo'ys"k.k dk mi;ksxA ¼x½ thok'e rFkk thok'ehdj.k( ?kksM+s] gkFkh rFkk ekuo dk fodkl
izkf.k foKku ¼?k½ gkMhZ&chucxZ fu;e] thu vko`fRr esa ifjorZu ds fof/k dkj.k
iz'ui=&1 ¼M-½ egkf}ih; foLFkkiu rFkk izkf.k;ksa dk forj.k
Hkkx&d IV- oxhZdj.k%
vjTtq dh vkSj jTtqdh% ¼d½ fofHkUu Qkbyeksa dk mioxksZa rd oxhZdj.k ,oa lEcU/k( ,lhyksesVk vkSj ¼d½ izkf.koSKkfud ukekoyh] varjkZ"Vªh; fu;e] DySfMfLVDl
lhyksesVk( izksVksLVkse vkSj M~;wVsjksLVkse] ckbysVjsfM;k vkSj jsfM,Vk( izksfVLVk] iSjktksvk] vksfudksQksjk rFkk
gsfedkWjMkVk dk LFkku( lfefrA Hkkx&[k
¼[k½ izksVkstksvk% xeu] iks"k.k rFkk tuu] fyax dk fodkl( iSjkehf'k;e] ekWuksflfLVe IykTeksfM;e rFkk
I- tSo jlk;u
yh'kesfu;k ds lkekU; y{k.k ,oa thouo`RrA
¼d½ dkcksZgkbMªsVksa] olkvksa] fyfiMksa] izksVhuksa] vehuks vEYkksa] U;wfDyd vEyksa dh lajpuk ,oa Hkwfedk] lar`Ir
¼x½ iksfjQsjk% dadky] uky ra= rFkk tuuA
rFkk vlar`Ir olk] vEy] dksysLVªksy
¼?k½ lhysaVsjsVk% cgq:irk( j{kk lajpuk,a rFkk mudh fØ;kfof/k( izoky fHkfRr;ka vkSj mudk fuek.kZ]
¼[k½ XykbZdksykbfll rFkk ØsCl pØ] vkDlhdj.k rFkk vip;u] vkDlhdj.k QkLQksjhys'ku( ÅtkZ
esVktsusfll( vkschfy;k vkSj vkSjhfy;k ds lkekU; y{k.k ,oa thou&o`RrA
laj{k.k rFkk foekspy ,-Vh-ih( pØh; ,,eih&bldh lajpuk rFkk Hkwfedk
¼M-½ IySfVgsfYeaFkhl% ijthoh vuqdwyu( Qsflvksyk rFkk Vhfu;k ds lkekU; y{k.k ,oa thouo`Rr rFkk
ekuo ds lkFk mudk lEcU/kA ¼x½ gkeksZu oxhZdj.k ¼LVsjkbM rFkk isIVkbM gkeksZu½] tSo& la'ys"k.k rFkk dk;Z
¼p½ usesV~gsfYeaFkhl% ,sldsfjl ds lkekU; y{k.k] thouo`Rr rFkk ijthoh vuqdwyu( usesV~gsfYeaFksa dk ¼?k½ bUtkbe% fØ;k ds izdkj rFkk fØ;kfof/k;ka] bE;wuksXykscqfyu rFkk jks/kd{kerk] foVkfeu rFkk
ekuo ls lEcU/kA dks&,Utkbe
¼N½ ,susfyMk% lhykse vkSj f[k.Mrk% ikyhdhVksa esa thoufof/k;ka usjhl ¼uh,saFkhl½] dsapqvk ¼QsfjfVek½ rFkk ¼—½ thoksftZdh%
tksad ¼fg:fMusfj;k½ ds lkekU; y{k.k rFkk thouo`RrA II- dkf;Zdh ¼Lru/kkfj;ksa ds fo'ks"k lanHkZ esa½%
¼t½ vkFkksZiksMk% ØLVsf'k;k esa fMEc izdkj vkSj ijthfork] vkFksZiksMks ¼>haxk] frypV~Vk rFkk fcPNw½ esa n`f"V ¼d½ jDr dh la?kVuk rFkk jpd( ekuo esa jDr lewg rFkk ^vkj,p* dkjd] Ldanu fØ;k] Ldanu ds dkjd
vkSj 'olu( dhVksa ¼frypV~Vk] ePNj] eD[kh] e/kqeD[kh rFkk frryh½ esa eq[kkaxksa dk :ikUrj.k( dhVksa esa rFkk fØ;k&fof/k( vEy {kkjd lkE;] rki&fu;eu
dk;karj.k rFkk bldk gkeksZuh fu;eu( dhVksa ¼nhedksa rFkk e/kq&eqfD[k;ksa½ esa lkekftd laxBuA ¼[k½ vkDlhtu rFkk dkcuZ Mkbv Z kDlkbM vfHkxu] ghekXsykfscu( blds jpd rFkk fu;eu eas bldh Hkfwedk
¼>½ eksyLdk% v'ku] 'olu] xeu] dop fofo/krk( ySesfyMsUl ikbyk rFkk lhfi;k ds lkekU; y{k.k ,oa ¼x½ ik"skf.kd vko';drk,%a ikpu eas ykj xfazFk;k]as ftxj] vXuk'k; rFkk vk= a xfazFk;kas dh Hkfwedk rFkk vo'kk"sk.k
thou& o`Rr( xSLVªksiksMksa esa ,saBu rFkk vO;korZuA ¼?k½ mRlthZ mRikn] usÝksu rFkk ew= fojpu dk fu;eu( ijklj.k fu;eu
¼´½ bdkbuksMesZVk% v'ku] 'olu] xeu] fMEc izdkj] ,sLVhfjvl ds lkekU; y{k.k rFkk thou&o`Rr ¼—½ isf'k;ksa ds izdkj] dadky isf'k;ksa dh ladqpu dh fØ;kfof/k
¼V½ izksVksdkWMsZVk% jTtqfd;ksa dk mn~Hko] czSafd;ksLVksek rFkk gbZekfu;k ds lkekU; y{k.k rFkk thouo`Ùk ¼p½ U;wjkWu] raf=dk vkosx&mldk ikyu rFkk varxzZFkuh lapj.k% U;wjksVªkalehVj
¼B½ ikblht% 'kYd] 'olu] xeu] izoklu ¼N½ ekuo esa n`f"V] Jo.k rFkk /kzk.kcks/k
¼M½ ,sfEQfc;k% prq"iknksa dk mn~Hko] tudh; ns[kHkky] 'kkodkarj.k ¼t½ gkeksZu fØ;k dh fØ;k&fof/k
¼<½ jsIVhfy;k oxZ% ljhl`iksa dh mRifr% djksfV ds izdkj LQsuksMkWu rFkk exjePNksa dk LFkku ¼>½ tuu dh dkf;dh] gkeksZuksa rFkk Qsjksekuksa dh Hkwfedk
¼.k½ ,oht% if{k;ksa dk mn~Hko% mM~M;u vuqdwyu rFkk izoklu
III- ifjo/kZu thou foKku%
¼r½ eSesfy;k% Lru/kkfj;ksa dk mn~Hko( nar foU;kl] vaM nsus okys Lru/kkfj;ksa dks"B/kkjh Lru/kfj;ksa tyh;
¼d½ ;Xqed ls U;: w yk voLFkk rd dk foHknshdj.k] fufoHZknsu] eVskIyfsl;k( foijsz.k] ljapuk fodkl rFkk
LRu/kkfj;ksa rFkk izkbesVksa ds lkekU; y{k.k( var%lzzkoh xzafFk;k rFkk vU; gkeksZu mRiUu djus okyh lajpuk
ekjQkt s us] e<sd rFkk ptw as eas dUMdq kas ds fu;fr fp= vk[¡k rFkk gn`; dk vkxa tuu Lru/kkfj;kas eas vijkU;k,
¼ih;w"k xzafFk voVq xzafFk] ijkcVq xzafFk vf/ko`Dd xzafFk vXuk'k;] tuu xzafFk½ rFkk muesa var%laEcU/k
¼[k½ ifjo/kZu esa dksf'kdk&nzO; dh Hkwfedk rFkk ifjo/kZu dk vkuqoaf'kd fu;a=.k dksf'kdk oa'kijEijk]
¼Fk½ d'ks:dh izkf.k;ksa ds fofHkUu ra=ksa dk rqyukRed dk;kZRed 'kjhj v/;koj.k rFkk blds O;qRikn] var%
esa<d rFkk dhVksa esa dk;karj.k dk mn~Hkkou] 'kkodhtuu rFkk fojHkzw.krk] o`f)] foo`f) rFkk dksf'kdk e`R;q]
dadky] pyu&vax] ikpu&ra= 'oklu ra=] g`n; rFkk egk/keuh&pkiksa lfgr ifjlapkjh ra=] ew=&tuu
tj.k] CykLVkstsusfll] iqutZuu] fo:ituu( vkcqZnrk
ra= efLr"d rFkk KkusfUnz;ka ¼vka[k rFkk dku½
Hkkx&[k ¼x½ vijk dh vkØedrk( ik=s fu"kspu] Hkzw.k LFkkukarj.k] Dyksfuax
¼?k½ os;j dk fu;e( ,oks&Msoks vo/kkj.kk Cont...

Page No. - 28
[k.M&c
i'kqikyu ,oa i'kq fpfdRlk foKku eq[; Qyksa dh [ksrh gsrq lexz d`f"k fØ;k;sa & vke] dsyk] uhcw iztkfr] vaxwj] ve:n] yhph]
izFke iz'u i= iihrk ,oa ekbuj Qy& vuUukl] vukj] csy] vk¡oyk] djkSank] Qkylk vkSj dVgy rFkk jksi.k] Qlysa&
lsD'ku & v dkWQh] pk; ,oa ukfj;yA Qy laj{k.k ds fl)kUrA tSe] tsyh ,oa ekeZysM ds cukus dh fof/k;k¡A
i'kq/ku O;olk;& blds volj ,oa lEHkkouk;saA taxyh tkuojksa ds lUnHkZ esa ekuo tula[;kA taxyh m|ku foKku & ^^lfCt;k¡ rFkk vyad`r Qlysa**
tkuojksa dk egRoA iz'ui=&f}rh;
vuqokaf'kdh ,oa i'kq iztuu& [k.M & v
i'kq vuqokaf'kdh& lfCt;k¡ rFkk vyad`r Qlyksa dk egRo ,oa dk;Z{ks=A lCth okfVdkA lfCt;ksa dk
es.Msfy;u oa'kkxfr] thu vfHkO;fDr] lgyXurk ,oa fofu;e izHkkfor ,oa fyax lesf;r y{k.k oxhZdj.k] {ks=] mRiknu ,oa lexz d`f"k fØ;k;sa& VekVj] cSxu] fepZ] fHkUMh] rjcwt] [kjcwtk]
ykSdh] djSyk] ikrxksHkh] QwyxksHkh] I;kt] yglqu] jktek] eVj] vkyw] lwju] xktj] ewyh] pkSykbZ
xq.klw= foiaFku
,oa ikydA lCth mRiknu esa o`f) fu;kedksa dk iz;ksxA lfCt;ksa dh tSfod [ksrhA lfCt;ksa dh
thu lajpuk lajf{kr [ksrhA csekSle lCth mRiknuA QVhZxslu] lCth laj{k.k ds fl)kUr] lfCt;ksa dks lq[kkuk]
Mh0,u0,0 ,oa vuqokaf'kd nzO; futZyhdj.k vkSj fMCckcUnhA
iqu% la;ksftr Mh0,u0,0 rduhdh [k.M&c
mRifjorZu vyad`r ckxokuh ,oa iq"iksRiknu dk egRoA vyad`r ckxokuh ds rjhds ,oa HkkxA 'kksHkkdkjh
ek=kRed izfr cuke xq.kkRed y{k.k m|ku esa o`{kksa] >kfM+;ksa] yrkvksa] ike] ljl ,oa ekSleh iq"iksa dk iz;ksxA xqykc] pesyh] dkjuslu] xsUnk]
thu vko`fÙk dks ifjofrZr djus okys dkjd jtuhxU/kk vkSj XysfM;ksyl ds mRiknu esa lexz d`f"k fØ;k;saA vyad`r ikS/kksa esa o`f) fu;kedksa dk
iz;ksxA ywt] dV ,oa 'kq"d iq"i ¼MªkbZ iq"i½A vkS"k/kh;] lqxaf/kr vkSj elkys okys ikS/ksA
i'kq iztuu
iztuu i)fr & var% iztuu] ckg~; iztuu] ØeksUufr] izladj.k ladj.k rFkk fHkUu ladj.k] p;u ,oa i;kZoj.k foKku
mlls lEcfU/kr ykHk] fofHkUu izdkj ds i'kqvksa dk vuqokaf'kd lq/kkj& xks/ku] HkSal] HksM+] cdjh] lwdj] ?kksM+s] izFke iz'u&i=
eqxhZ ,oa taxyh tkuojA [k.M&v
i;kZo.khZ; vuqdwyu & i;kZoj.k foKku dk ewy] ifjHkk"kk] vFkZ] lEHkkfor dk;Z{ks=] i;kZoj.k foKku ds v/;;u dk egRoA
tkuojksa esa rkih; larqyu & i;kZoj.kh; [k.M% HkweaMy] LFkyeaMy] tyeaMy] ok;qeaMy ,oa thoeaMy] muds foLrkj] la;kstu
tkuojksa ij ekSle dk izR;{k vkSj ijks{k izHkko rFkk muds chp ikjLifjd lEcU/kA
'kjhj ls ikuh dk gzkl & i;kZoj.kh; ,oa ifjfLFkfrdh; fl)kUr] ifjfLFkfrdh; 'kCndks"k rFkk ifjHkk"kk;sa laxBu dk Lrj]
o`f)nj] 'kjhj Hkkj vkokl ,oa fup] O;fDrxr] iztkfr] vkcknh] leqnk;] thokse rFkk ifjfLFkfrdh; ra= dk laxBuA
izdk'k laosnh O;frØe & ifjfLFkfrdh; vuØ q e] tyh; rFkk e#LFkyh; vuØ q e] ijkdk"Bh; o vuØ q fed lenqk;kas dh vo/kkj.kkA
& bdksra= dh vo/kkj.kk] tSfod ,oa vtSfod ?kVd] bdksra= ds lajpukRed ,oa dkfeZd xq.k]
lsD'ku & c
mRikndrk ÅtkZ izokg] [kk| J`a[kyk] [kk| tky rFkk ifjfLFkfrdh; ¼fijkfeM~l½ lwph LrEHk]
i'kq jksx & LFkyh; o tyh; bdksrU=A
izfrj{kk ,oa Vhdkdj.k & fof'k"V jksxksa ds izfr i'kqvksa ds izfrj{k.k gsrq fl)kUr ,oa fof/k;ka] >q.M izfrj{kk] & dkcZu] ukbVªkstu ,oa QkLQksjl ds HkwtSfod & jlk;fud pØ ,oa tyh; pØA
jksx jfgr {ks=] 'kwU; jksx ifjdYiukA [k.M&c
xk;] HkSal] HksM+] cdjh ,oa taxyh tkuojksa ds jksx & fuEu jksxksa ds dkj.k] y{k.k] igpku] funku] jksdFkke & izkd`frd lalk/ku & ty] blds lzksr] lrgh ,oa Hkwty] ty dk oSf'od forj.k ,oa mi;ksx] ty
rFkk fpfdRlk% tgjh cq[kkj] xyk ?kksaVw] yxfM+;k] FkuSyk] risfnd] tksUl fcekjh] [kqjidk ,oa eqgidk] =klnh ,oa laj{k.k j.kuhfrA
iksduh] jscht] ljkZ] nqX/k Toj ,oa vQjk uotkr cNM+ksa dh chekjhA & Hkkjr dh e`nk ,oa Hkwlalk/ku o muds mi;ksx] laj{k.k j.kuhfr] lefxzr Hkwfe mi;ksx dh ;kstukA
dqDdqV jksx& jkuh [ksr] dqDdqV 'khryk jksx] if{k;ksa dk 'osrjDrk.kq tfVyrk jksx] eSjDl jksx ,oa & [kfut ,oa inkFkZ & muds mi;ksx ,oa [kuu ifjpkyuA
xecksjksa jksx dk dkj.k] y{k.k] funku] jksdFkke rFkk fpfdRlkA & Hkkjr ds ou lalk/ku] ou iz{ks=] lkewfgd ,oa lkekftd okfudh] ouhdj.k dk;ZØe] ou laj{k.k ,DV
lwdj jksx& lwdj Toj rFkk lwdj dkyjkA ,oa jk"Vªh; laj{k.k j.kuhfrA
'oku jksx& 'oku fMLVsEij] ikohZjksx] jscht] rFkk ekuo LokLF; ls lEcU/kA & tSo fofo/krk vkSj bldk egRo] dhLVksu iztkfr vkSj gkV LikV] tSo fofo/krk dk ekiu] tSo fofo/krk
i'kq yksd LokLFk& tquhfll ,oa tquhfVd jksx gzkl ds dkjd] tSofofo/krk dk laj{k.k&Lox`gh ,oa cfgx`gh laj{k.k] tSfod fofo/krk ,DVA
& Hkkjr ds oU; tho vHk;kj.k o jk"Vhª; m|ku] oU; tho lja{k.k vf/kfu;e] ljaf{kr thokfsLQ;j dh vo/kkj.kk
i'kq fpfdRlk /keZ'kkL=& i'kq jksx ds jksdFkke rFkk i'kq ds xq.kksa dks lq/kkjus ds fy, fu;e ,oa vf/kfu;eA
& iquuZohfur ¼fjU;woscqy½ o viquuZohfur ¼uku fjU;woscqy½ mtkZ lzksr o mudk b"Vrehdj.kA
i'kq fpfdRlk & fof/kd ijh{k.k gsrq uewuk ysus ds fy, lkexzh rFkk fof/k;k¡A
i;kZoj.k foKku
izlkj& izlkj ds fl)kUr f}rh; iz'u&i=
xzkeh.k fdlkuksa dks f'kf{kr djus dh fofHkUu fof/k;kaA [k.M&v
rduhd dk fuekZ.k& mldk LFkkukUrj.k ,oa iuq% eYw;kd a u] u;h rduhd ds LFkkukUrj.k ea s leL;k;a s ,oa ck/kk;Aas & i;kZoj.kh; fo?kVu] e`nk vijnu] ouksUewyu] lw[kk] ck<+ vkSj e#LFkyhdj.k& izfØ;k;sa] dkjd o
i'kqikyu ,oa i'kq fpfdRlk foKku muds iz'keu ds mik;A
f}rh; iz'u i= & i;kZoj.k iznw"k.k& ok;q iznw"k.k&Jksr] ikS/kksa] tkuojksa] euq";ksa o Lekjdksa ij muds izHkko vkSj muds
lsD'ku & v fu;a=.k ds rjhds] ok;q xq.koÙkk ekud
& ty iznw"k.k ds izdkj o eq[; Jksr] tyh; rU= ds HkkSfrd] jlk;fud o tSfod xq.k/keZ ij ty
i'kq iks"k.k&
iznw"kdksa ds izHkko] ;wVªksQhds'ku dh izfØ;k o fu;a=.k] ty ds iznw"kdksa ls iSnk gksus okyh chekfj;k¡A
lkekU; iks"k.k fopkj/kkjk & e`nk iznw"kdksa ds izdkj o eq[; Jksr] e`nk iznw"kdksa ds e`nk dh moZjrk o tSfod xq.kksa ij izHkkoA
mtkZ ,oa izksVhu iks"k.k & /ofu iznw"k.k ds izeq[k Jksr] /ofu izznw"k.k dk ekuo LokLF; ij izHkkoA
[kfut ,oa foVkfeu iks"k.k & ekuo tfur o vU; tSfod lfØ;rk;sa& pjkbZ] tyu] [kuu bR;kfn rFkk mudk d`f"k ,oa i;kZoj.k
gkjeksUl ,oa [kk| ;ksfxdh ij izHkko] vkS|ksfxdhdj.k dk i;kZoj.kh; izHkkoA
[kk| inkFkksZa dk ewY;kadu & oSf'od i;kZoj.kh; leL;kvksa dk ifjp; tSls vEy o"kkZ] vkstksu ijr {kj.k] gfjr x`g xSlsl rFkk
tqxkyh ,oa tqxkyh u djus okys i'kqvksa dk iks"k.k] fofHkUu izdkj ds tkuojksa ds iks"kd rRoksa dh oSf'od rkiu vkSj tyok;q ifjorZuA
vko';drkvksa dh iwfrZ] fofHkUu izdkj ds i'kqvksa esa iks"kd rRoksa dk ikpu] mikip;u ,oa vo'kks"k.k] pjkbZ & Bksl vif'k"B fuLrkj.k o bldk i;kZoj.k ij izHkko o izcU/ku] ?kjsyw vkS|ksfxd rFkk 'kgjh iz{ks= esa
dh vknrsa ,oa [kk| vUr% xzg.kA Bksl vif'k"B izcU/ku] vif'k"B ls mtkZ mRiknuA
i'kq 'kjhj fØ;k foKku& i'kq 'kjhj fØ;k fof/k ,oa i'kq/ku mRiknu] o`f) nj ,oa i'kq mRiknu] ukM+h ,oa [k.M&c
gkjeksu fu;a=d fof/k] fofHkUu izdkj ds i'kqvksa ,oa taxyh tkuojksa ds ikpu ra=ksa dh 'kkjhfjd fØ;kA & i;kZoj.kh; izcU/ku dk ifjp; ,oa lEHkkfor dk;Z{ks=] i;kZoj.kh; uhfr;k¡ vkSj ikfjfLFkfrdh ds /keZA
iztuu] nqX/k lzko ,oa v.Mk nsus dh 'kkjhfjd fØ;k] oh;Z ds xq.k] laj{k.k rFkk d`f=e xHkkZ/kkuA & fVdkm fodkl dh ewy vo/kkj.kk] vkS|ksfxd ifjfLFkfrdh] iqu'pØh; m|ksxA
lsD'ku & c & i;kZoj.k ds ewy fu;e ,oa uhfr;k¡ tSls i;kZoj.k laj{k.k] ,DV] ok;q ,DV] ty ,DVA
& jk"Vªh; ,oa vUrjkZ"Vh; Lrj ij i;kZoj.k laj{k.k gsrq j.kuhfr;k¡ rFkk muds laLFkkuA
i'kq mRiknu ,oa izcU/k& fofHkUu oxksZa ds i'kq ds j[kj[kko ,oa izcU/ku& xksoa'k] HkSal] cdjh] HksM+] lwdj]
& tula[;k vkSj i;kZoj.k] okgu {kerk dh vo/kkj.kk vkSj tula[;k fu;a=.kA
dqDdqV] taxyh tkuojksa dk j[k j[kko ,oa izcU/ku] i'kq ,oa taxyh tkuojksa dk lw[ks] ck<+ ,oa izkd`frd
vkinkvksa esa f[kykbZ fiykbZ ,oa izcU/kuA i'kq /ku ,oa muls mRiUu inkFkksZa dk oxhZdj.k] Js.khdj.k ,oa & izkd`frd foink;sa] pØokr] co.Mj] HkwdEi] fgeL[kyu] HkwL[kyu o Tokykeq[kh ds dkj.k o izHkko]
foi.ku taxyh tkuojksa dks o'k esa djus ds fy;s iz'kkUrd dk iz;ksxA vkinkvksa dh psrkouh 'keuhdj.k] rS;kfj;k¡ ,oa izcU/kuA
nqX/k ,oa nqX/k inkFkZ& nqX/k& dPps nw/k dk ,d=hdj.k] ;krk;kr O;oLFkk ,oa xq.koÙkk ijh{k.k] nw/k dk & i;kZoj.kh; f'k{kk ,oa tkx`fr] iquZLFkkiu] ikfjfLFkfrdh dh vo/kkj.kk ,oa iz;ksxA
ik'pqjhdj.k] ekudhdj.k ,oa lkexzhdj.k] iqufuZfeZr ,oa iqulZa;ksftr nw/kA & Hkkjr esa i;kZoj.k izcU/ku gsrq rRdkfyd pquSfr;k¡ ,oa izkFkfedrk;saA
nqX/k izkS|ksfxdh& nqX/k mRiknd tS l s eD[ku] ?kh] [kks v k] NS u k] pht] l?kfur] 'kq " d nw / k] meefÛeJe
vkbLØhe] ;ks t gVh] ngh ,oa Jh[k.M dk mRiknu] izlaLdj.k] Hk.Mkj.k] forj.k ,oa foi.ku rFkk
mudk ijh{k.k ,oa Js.khdj.k] fofHkUu nqX/k inkFkZ dk ch0vkbZ0,l0 fof'k"Vdj.k] fof/kd ekud] xq.k
fu;a=.k ,oa iks"kf.kd x.qk&
nqX/k mitkr izkS|ksfxdh& NkN mRikn] NkN] nqX/k 'kdZjk ,oa dslhuA
m|ku foKku & ^^Qy ,oa jksi.k Qlysa**
iz'ui=&izFke
[k.M&v
m|ku foKku dh ifjHkk"kk ,oa bldh 'kk[kk;saA Hkkjr esa Qy ,oa jksi.k Qlyksa ds egRo ,oa
dk;Z{ks=A fofHkUu Qyksa dk {ks=Qy ,oa mRiknuA Qyksa dk HkkSxksfyd oxhZdj.kA iks"k.k okfVdkA ckxokuh
dh ;kstuk ,oa LFkkiukA l?ku&jksi.kA izo/kZu fof/k;k¡ vkSj ewyo`Ùk ds iz;ksxA lw{e izo/kZuA ikS/k'kkyk
izcU/kuA l/kkbZ ,oa dVkbZ fof/k;k¡A QyksRiknu esa o`f) fu;kedksa dk iz;ksxA Cont...

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