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PAPER

(USE OF MATRICES IN

CRYPTOGRAPHY)

REGISTRATION NO.----11006522

AID----6383

GROUP----G7001

ROLL NO----A12

DATE OF SUBMISSION----17TH NOV 2010

NAME OF FACULTY-----VANDANA JAIN

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

VANDANA JAIN UNDER WHOSE KIND CO-OPERATION I WAS ABLE TO COMPLETE

THIS PROJECT.

SECONDLY I WOULD ALSO LIKE TO THANK SOME BOOKS AND SOME WEBSITES

WHO HELPED ME MAKE THE PROJECT.

SEMISTER OF FIRST YEAR OF 1201D BATCH 2010.

! THANK YOU !

BY — ARINJOY DATTA

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

HISTORY

BIBLOGRAPHY

USE OF MATRICES IN CRYPTOGRAPHY

INTRODUCTION----

the protection of sensitive communications has been the emphasis of cryptography

throughout much of its history. Encryption is the transformation of data into some

unreadable form. Its purpose is to ensure privacy by keeping the information hidden from anyone

for whom it is not intended, even those who can see the encrypted data. Decryption is the reverse

of encryption; it is the transformation of encrypted data back into some intelligible form.

Cryptography is the stuff of spy novels and action comics. Kids once saved up Ovaltine labels

and sent away for Captain Midnight’s Secret Decoder Ring. Almost everyone has seen a

television show or movie involving a nondescript suit-clad gentleman with a briefcase

handcuffed to his wrist. The term “espionage” conjures images of James Bond, car chases, and

flying bullets. And here you are, sitting in your office, faced with the rather mundane task of

sending a sales report to a coworker in such a way that no one else can read it. You just want to

be sure that your colleague is the actual and only recipient of the email and you want him or her

to know you were unmistakably the sender. It’s not national security at stake, but if your

company’s competitor got hold of it, it could cost you. How can you accomplish this? You can

use cryptography. You may find it lacks some of the drama of code phrases whispered in dark

alleys, but the result is the same: information revealed only to those for whom it was intended.

HISTORY OF CRYPTOGRAPHY

Cryptology is the study of hidden writing. It comes from the Greek words Kryptos, meaning

hidden, and Graphen, meaning to write. Cryptology is actually the study of codes and ciphers.

Concealment messages aren't actually encoded or enciphered, they are just hidden. Invisible ink

is a good example of a concealment message.

A code is a prearranged word, sentence, or paragraph replacement system. Foreign languages are

just like secret code, where the English word "hi" is represented as the word "Hola" in Spanish,

or some other word in another language. Most codes have a code book for encoding and

decoding.

The name cipher originates from the Hebrew word "Saphar," meaning "to number." Most ciphers

are systematic in nature, often making use of mathematical numbering techniques. One example

of a cipher is the Spartan stick method.

The Spartans enciphered and concealed a message by using a scytale, a special stick and belt.

The encipherer would wrap the belt around the stick and write a message on it. The belt was then

unwound from the stick and sent to another person. Using a stick of similar size, the decipherer

would wrap the belt around the stick to watch the secret message appear. If a stick of the wrong

size appeared the message would be scrambled. Try this with 2 or 3 pencils bound together to

make a stick, a long strip of paper, and another pencil for writing.

Julius Caesar used a simple alphabet (letter) substitution, offset by 3 letters. Taking the word

"help" you would move ahead in the alphabet 3 letters to get "jgnr." This worked for a while,

until more people learned to read and studied his secret cipher.

Gabriel de Lavinde made cryptology a more formally understood science when he published his

first manual on cryptology in 1379. A variety of codes and mechanical devices were developed

over the next few centuries to encode, decode, encipher, and decipher messages.

In the 1600's Cardinal Richelieu invented the grille. He created a card with holes in it and used it

to write a secret message. When he was done he removed the card and wrote a letter to fill in the

blanks and make the message look like a normal letter. The grille proved to be difficult to solve

unless the decoder had the card which created the encrypted message.

In 1776 Arthur Lee, an American, developed a code book. It wasn't long before the US army

adopted a code book of their own for use in the military.

The Rosetta Stone (black basalt), found in Egypt in 1799, had a message encrypted on its surface

in three different languages! Greek, Egyptian, and Hieroglyphics messages all said the same

thing. Once the Greek and Egyptian languages were found to have the same message the

Hieroglyphics language was deciphered by referencing each letter to a symbol!

Morse Code, developed by Samuel Morse in 1832, is not really a code at all. It is a way of

enciphering (cipher) letters of the alphabet into long and short sounds. The invention of the

telegraph, along with Morse code, helped people to communicate over long distances. Morse

code can be used in any language and takes only 1 to 10 hours of instruction/practice to learn!

The first Morse code sent by telegraph was "What hath God wrought?", in 1844.

During WWI Karl Lody sent the following telegram "Aunt, please send money immediately. I

am absolutely broke. Thank heaven those German swine are on the run." The clerk realized that

this message didn't make any sense and forwarded it to the proper authorities who found Karl

Lody guilty of espionage (spying). Can you see why his message must be a secret code or

cipher? Why doesn't it make any sense?

In 1917, during WWI, the US army cryptographic department broke the code of the Germans.

The code was actually stolen by Alexander Szek, a man working in a radio station in Brussels at

the time. Unknown to the Germans, Szek was an English sympathizer and was stealing a few

code words every day. When the Zimmerman telegraph was sent in 1918, asking Mexico to go to

war against the United States, the US army cryptography department broke the code and decoded

the telegraph.

The Germans learned from this experience and changed their codes. But the British were able to

obtain copies of new code books from sunken submarines, blown up airplanes, etc., to continue

breaking the new codes. By WWII navy code books were bound in lead to help the code books

sink to the bottom of the ocean in the event of an enemy takeover.

The little known native Indian language of the Navajo was used by the US in WWII as a simple

word substitution code. There were 65 letters and numbers that were used to encipher a single

word prior to the use of the Navajo language. The Navajo language was much faster and accurate

compared to earlier ciphers and was heavily used in the battle of Io-jima.

The Germans in WWII used codes but also employed other types of secret writings. One

suspected spy was found to have large numbers of keys in his motel room. After inspecting the

keys it was found that some of the keys were modified to unscrew at the top to show a plastic

nib. The keys contained special chemicals for invisible ink! However, codes and secret ink

messages were very easily captured and decoded.

The Germans, responsible for much of the cipher science today, developed complex ciphers near

the end of WWII. They enciphered messages and sent them at high rates of speed across radio

wave bands in Morse code. To the unexpecting it sounded like static in the background. One

gentleman tried to better understand the static and listened to it over and over again. The last

time he played his recording he forgot to wind his phonograph. The static played at a very slow

speed and was soon recognized as a pattern, Morse code!

The invention of computers in the 20th century revolutionized cryptology. IBM corporation

created a code, Data Encryption Standard (DES), that has not been broken to this day. Thousands

of complex codes and ciphers have been programmed into computers so that computers can

algorithmically unscramble secret messages and encrypted files.

Some of the more fun secret writings are concealment messages like invisible inks made out of

potato juice, lemon juice, and other types of juices and sugars! Deciphering and decoding

messages take a lot of time and be very frustrating. But with experience, strategies, and most of

all, luck, you'll be able to crack lots of codes and ciphers.

In the newspaper, usually on the comics’ page, there will be a puzzle that looks similar to this:

BH FH. 1

Cryptograms are very common puzzles, along with crossword puzzles. Each cipher letter

represents a plaintext letter. The above puzzle is usually fairly easy to solve because the lengths

of the words can easily be seen, along with any punctuation. But, what if the above message

were written as follows:

BRJFJ WTXBW UJAHD PJYXD BODJJ QJVZR JVGRJ TVHEJ DBXWV YSXEJ

BHFH

This would not be as easy to solve since there is no punctuation nor any indication as to how

long the words are. The example above is called a mono-alphabetic cipher message. It is so

named because there is only one alphabet used to make the cipher message. In this paper,

polyalphabetic cipher messages will be used to encrypt and decrypt a message. Polyalphabetic

means more than one alphabet will be used.

Moreover, matrices will be used to encrypt these messages.

Take a simple message, such as:

The following matrix will be used to encrypt this message:

The matrix is modulo 26, since there are 26 letters in the alphabet. So, taking each letter to

represent a number, where A is 1, B is 2, etc., the matrix and the vector made up of the _rst two

letters, T and H, will be multiplied together.

The T and the H in the plaintext is encrypted to be D and Z in the cipher text (since Z, the 26th

letter, is congruent to 0 modulo 26). Following in similar fashion, the entire message would be

encrypted to read:

Notice that the two times the plaintext \THE" appears, it's a different cipher: DZO the first time

and VFL the second time. If this were put in groups of five, it would be even harder to discern:

In order to decrypt this message, the corresponding inverse matrix would need to be used:

Multiplying this matrix by the vector based on the first two letters of the cipher text will give

back the original letters:

The question is: Will there always be an inverse to any matrix that is chosen modulo 26? The

answer is no. There are 14 numbers that do not have inverses modulo 26. Any number that is not

relatively prime, that is its greatest common divisor is greater than 1, does not have an inverse

modulo 26. The same goes for matrices. In the above example, 18 was in the inverse of the

original matrix (gcd(18,26)=2), but that matrix still has an inverse. It needs to be shown that the

matrices that are being dealt with have inverses. Consider this linear transformation Ta:

where f is any positive integer, and xi; yi; aij ; ai are matrices in <n within modulo 26. The

rectangular array of f x (f + 1) matrices,

will be called the schedule of Ta and will be designated as Pa = [(aij); ai]: The square array of f2

matrices Ma = (aij) will be called the basis of Ta. J will be denoted as the set of all

transformations which can be obtained in this way, for a _xed integer f, from the range <n within

modulo 26. Now, let Ta with the schedule Pa = [(aij); ai] be a transformation belonging to the

set J. Concentrating on the basis Ma = [aij ] of Ta, the parentheses are removed from all the f2

matrices in the square array [aij ].

The result is a square matrix Ga in modulo 26 of the order g = fn. The matrix Ga will be called

the frame matrix of Ta. It is evident that Ga belongs to the range <g in modulo 26.

Lemma. Let Ta; Tb; Tc be transformations in J, and let their frame matrices be Ga;Gb;Gc

respectively.

Then Gc = GaGb if Tc = TaTb. In other words, the frame matrix of a product of transformations

is the corresponding product of the frame matrices of the transformations.

Consider the set H of all transformations in the set J which have regular frame matrices. H is

then the set of regular transformation in J. H contains the identical transformation, de_ned by

the schedule Q = [(aij); ai] in which aij = 1n(i = j); aij = 0n(i 6= j); ai = 0n (8 index i). Using

this fact, the following theorem can be proved:

Theorem. If Ta is any transformation in H, 9! Transformation Tb 3 the schedule of the product

TaTb = Q, and Q = TaTb.

This theorem asserts that (1) any regular transformation T in J has a unique inverse T-1, and (2)

T-1 is regular and has T for its inverse.

Proof : Suppose, first, that Ta is any homogeneous transformation in H. The frame matrix, Ga of

Ta is regular, and has a unique reciprocal G-1 a in the range Rg, i.e,

where Gij is the cofactor of gij in the determinant of G, and _ is the determinant of G modulo 26.

Hence, the homogeneous transformation Tb of J which has the frame matrix G-1

a is regular and lies in H. By the lemma stated above, Tb is manifestly a unique inverse to Ta in

the set H.

Now, let Ta be any transformation in H. Let yi = zi + ai(i = 1; 2; _ _ _ ; f); these sum the range

<n of matrices. Substituting in the equations of Ta, the equations of a transformation Tc in H are

obtained - a transformation converting the sequence x1; x2; _ _ _ ; xn into the sequence z1; z2; _

_ _ ; zn. Since Tc is also homogeneous, it has a unique inverse Tc-1. Replacing zi in the equations

of Tc-1 by yi - ai, and simplifying (by operations in the range Rn) the equations of a transformation

Ta-1 are determined, which is the unique inverse of Ta in H.

Now, consider this cipher message:

WXAFR KORNK OOUHM SHINY KJUDO UNNKX RYUAM AWHLP WVRZK

GRGYA QGRGA KKDSW FALXH WBTIW

XAKCQ VSGON GGSIJ QOEHU QQMIV OHHKY DIMSW BEEBE V

How would one go about decrypting this message, without any prior knowledge of what kind of

method being used? Some tools will be needed in order to solve this cipher message. It is known

that the 26 letters of the alphabet do not occur with equal frequency. Thus, the probabilities pA;

pB; _ _ _ ; pZ are not equal. All have positive values between 0 and 1, and their sum is 1:

26 , is pA – 1/26 . This is similar for each letter.

The sum of these deviations cannot be used to determine the measure of roughness of the cipher

message because the sum is 0, as shown below:

The way to get around this is to square the measure of roughness, or M.R. for short.

However, the above equation is only good when the original message is known. There needs to

be a way to approximate PZ A p2i. Using the probability that two letters chosen at random will

be the same, a good approximation can be found. What needs to be done is to count the pairs of

identical letters there are in the cipher message, and then divide by the total number of possible

pairs.

Suppose there are x letters in the set. The number of pairs is determined as follows: for the first

choice, the selection can be made from x letters. After which, x-1 letters remain. This makes a

total of x(x-1) possibilities. However, counting this way, each pair has been counted twice, since

each pair can be received two different ways. Thus, the number of pairs of letters that can be

chosen from a given set of x is 12x(x-1):

If the observed frequency of A in the cipher message is fA, then the number of pairs of A's that

can be formed from these fA letters is 12 fA(fA-1 ). It is the same for B, and so on. Thus, the total

number of pairs, regardless of the identity of the letter, is the sum

If the total number of letters is N, then the total possible number of pairs of letters is 1

2N(N-1 ). This leads to the following equation, called the index of coincidence,or I.C. for short. It

is defined as follows:

Using the I.C., we can determine the number of alphabets, m, used in a cipher message:

Taking the I.C. on the above cipher message, it's equal to a value of .040, which puts it at around

10 alphabets used for the cipher message. It's possible that this number is not accurate, since the

message is not very long. It is fairly obvious that the message is polyalphabetic.

The next step is to list the repetitions found within the cipher message and their locations. This

will give a better indication as to how many alphabets there could be.

The only common factor between the two repetitions is 3, so there's a good chance that there's

three alphabets being used, most likely in a matrix form, since the I.C. was so low.

The focus will now be to try to discover the matrix that was used to encipher this message. The

ciphertext WXA is a very interesting one because it occurs at the very beginning of the message.

The most frequent digraph in the English language is TH, and the next most popular is HE.7 So,

it is a possibility that WXA might be THE. If so, all that would need to be done is to solve the

following system of equations:

Or, in matrix form:

WXAFR KORNK OOUHM SHINY KJUDO UNNKX RYUAM AWHLP WVRZK GRGYA QGRGA

thei v o p jx ix w lo qi c fq fw

KKDSW FALXH WBTIW XAKCQ VSGON GGSIJ QOEHU QQMIV OHHKY DIMSW BEEBE V

t s c e t hee w j i p h u t a l c l c

This text looks a lot more promising. There are still q's and x's in the message, but there are less

of them, and they're more evenly spaced. Let's see what can be done about the second row (a21,

a22 and a23). By examining the text, a \u" must follow the q, and also looking at the “ther",

maybe an “e" would follow that. Thus, we get the following system of equations:

Solving this system gives the values a21 = 19, a22 = 11 and a23 = 9. Putting these values into

the message, we can find the second letters out of each group of three:

WXAFR KORNK OOUHM SHINY KJUDO UNNKX RYUAM AWHLP WVRZK GRGYA QGRGA

thequ ck r o nf xj mp do e r he az do wi h a ey nd ho

nd h

KKDSW FALXH WBTIW XAKCQ VSGON GGSIJ QOEHU QQMIV OHHKY DIMSW BEEBE V

e no ny ow sa t here sn th ng o r th tc nb sa d b rm sh

ve

The message is really starting to take form. By inspection, it looks like the text `n th ng' could be

the word “nothing". Also “quick" could be “quack" or ”quick", and “wi h" could be “with" or

“wish". So, there are a few different sets of equations that could be solved:

It turns out that systems (2) and (3) have the same solutions: a31 = 4, a32 = 6 and a33 = 3. This

gives us the complete decoded message:

THE QUICK BROWN FOX JUMPED OVER THE LAZY DOG, WITH A HEY AND A HO,

AND A HEY NONNY NO. WE SAY THERE IS NOTHING MORE THAT CAN BE SAID.

BURMA SHAVE.

The message is not particularly deep. However, by using the inverse matrix that was found:

The original matrix that was used to encrypt the message can be found:

This is one way that matrices can be used for encrypting messages. The encryption can be made

more secure by not using a direct substitution for the alphabet (i.e. A=1, B=2, etc.). Also, the size

of the matrix can be increased to make decoding more di_cult. The other problem is that when

choosing matrices modulo 26, one has to be careful about which matrix to choose, since all of

the matrices do not have inverses modulo 26. It might be better to choose a di_erent basis, such

as modulo 29, which has no divisors except 1 and 29. That way, the 26 letters can be used with

some punctuation characters. All in all, matrices are very useful for encoding messages.

BIBLOGRAPHY

1) Sinkov, Abraham. Elementary Cryptanalysis - A Mathematical Approach New York:

Random House, 1968.

American Mathematical Monthly Volume 38, Issue 3 (Mar., 1931): 135-154.

3)http://aix1.uottawa.ca/~jkhoury/cryptography.htm

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