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BANGALORE 560 001.
BANGALORE 560 004.

To My Father

Published Works of Praveen Kumar

Policing for the New Age
Policing the Police
Indian Police
Inside India
Policing the Police 2 Edn
Unknown Horizons
Portraits of Passion
Love & Pride
Simply Yours
Shobha Priya
Golden Wonder
Celestial Glow
Divya Belaku
Priya Chaitra Tapasvini
Ananya Priya Lavanya
Priya Geethegalu

Crime, Politics And The Police 1
Indian Police At The Crossroads 27
Humanising The Police 53
Organisational And Administrative Challenges Before
The Police For A New Age 66
Internal Security - Challenges And Approach 82
Social Justice And Law Enforcement 99
Dowry Death Cases And Their Investigation 112
Police Dogs For A New Age In Karnataka 139
The World In The 21st Century 148



Chief Justice

October 1,1991

"Man is just a minute constituent of the monolith of police".

In a broad sense the term Police' connotes the maintenance of law

and order and protection of the rights of the citizens. Specifically, it applies
to the officers who are charged with the duty of maintaining public order
and enforcing law, including prevention and detection of crime. There can
be no civilized society without an efficient police organisation. For a
democracy to survive, the existence of a police organisation committed to
legal and social values is essential. The role to be played by the police in a
developing democratic country undergoing rapid social changes is indeed
very great. In a democratic society the police should be so organised as to
be a reliable instrument for the maintenance of order and suppression and
prevention of crime, while at the same time assuring that they exhibit
restraint and sensibility to citizens' rights.
In recent times the topic regarding politicalisation of the police
organization has become the subject matter of discussion. Though in a
democracy the police might find it difficult to completely dissociate
themselves from politics and political influence, it is very necessary for
effective discharge of their duties that they should avoid political
involvements. It is high time that the persons wielding political power
realise the great harm that would be done to the society by using the police
for political ends.
Of late, the police are required to deal with new types of crimes and
situations. The techniques to be adopted by the police are also undergoing
various changes. The priorities in the field of crime and investigation have
also changed. There is need for a study of the various changes that have
taken place in the policing field.
Mr. Praveen Kumar in this treatise has exhaustively dealt with
various aspects of policing with reference to the new challenges, new types
of offences and new techniques of investigation. His approach to the
various topics is refreshingly sound. How beautifully he has underlined the
suppression of crime, remembering he who overlooks a crime, encourages
the commission of another. He has dealt with each subject in a thorough
and thoughtful manner. I am sure this book would be helpful not only to

those in the police organisation, but also to those who wish to have an
insight about the working of the police organisation, the challenges faced
by the police and the new trends in the field of policing.
A police officer with a tough heart, to be a poet, is a matter of
approbation. As a poet he manifests humanism. That the same spirit is to
be exhibited in reforming the criminals is his theme here.
I wish Mr. Praveen Kumar all the best in his literary ventures. May he
succeed endlessly.


This is a fascicle of nine essays, written between.the years 1987 and
1991 and deal with various aspects of Policing and Police Organisation. The
essay on "Social Justice And Law Enforcement" was written in late
December 1990 for presentation at a seminar at the National Police
Academy in Hyderabad. In "Dowry Death Cases And Their Investigation"
which was written as a general guide for police officers, the three primary
aspects of investigation namely law, investigation procedure and forensic
interpretation of evidences are separately dealt with. Written in 1990, the
essay was intended as subject reading for the Corps of Detectives of
Karnataka. And "The World In The 21st Century" is actually two essays
clubbed for this publication, both written in 1990, as entries to an
international competition sponsored by Keihanna Interaction Plaza Inc.
Kyoto, Japan and supported by National Land Agency of Japan, the Kyoto,
Osaka and Nara Profectural Governments. The ambit of the essay extends
beyond policing and its organisation in an attempt to envision conditions in
the 21st century as they might logically be assumed to develop from latterday circumstance. On the other hand, "Organisational And Administrative
Challenges Before The Police For The New Age" is more specific in scope
and derives in part from my own experiences. This and "Humanising The
Police - The Role Of Its Leaders" arc of earlier vintage, having been written
in the latter half of 1987 as entries in riational-level essay competitions held
for police officers. "Humanising The Police - The Role Of Its Leaders" is
written in the context of a democratic setup such as ours, where the
inteneration of policing methods without sacrificing discipline and efficiency
is something that is of universal relevance. "Police Dogs For The New Age
in Kamataka" is an essay adapted from a study report prepared in 1989 for
expansion and modernization of the Dog Squad in the Kamataka Police
Department. The essays "Crime, Politics And The Police", "Internal Security
- Challenges And Approach" and "Indian Police At The Crossroads" were
written as recently as August 91. "Crime, Politics And The Police" is an indepth scientific analysis of the present Indian Police and its organisation in
relation to the topical subjects of criminalisation of politics and the
politicisation of the police. "Internal Security - Challenges and Approach"
identifies the maladies of internal security operations in India and
endeavours to find remedies while the essay, 'Indian Police At The
Crossroads' is an overall examination of the police subculture in India in the
post-independent era. The essay is based on empirical evidence encountered
during the last thirteen years of my service in the
police and its rational
analysis. The scope of the essays are limited to analysis of the causes of the
maladies and the suggestion of remedies to prepare "Policing For The New
Age." Awareness of the malady itself is half the remedy. Ergo, if these essays
succeed in awakening police leadership from its frosted complacence by
shocking its sensibilities with the truth, the raison d' etre of the essays will be

more than fulfilled. The esperance is that these scientific works would be
found useful and appreciated by police professionals as well as by the public.
Though each essay addresses various issues confronting the police,
the treatment of these problems can be neither said to be exhaustive nor
conclusive: they are only meant to provoke thinking. There are many other
problems with special reference to the Kamataka Police that require urgent
If policing is to be effective in the years ahead, specialization is
crucial. I suggest three distinct police services with separate recruitment and
training: a)Regulatory Police or Uniformed Police in charge of law and order
and other regulatory duties; (b) Mainstay police in charge of crime
investigation, crime prevention, security and intelligence operation; (c) Social
police in charge of prevention and investigation of all social offences and
implementation of social legislation. All three wings should have their own
individual organisations upto district level with independent Superintendents
and staff as required: functioning in tandem in much the same way as the
army, navy and airforce. At the apex could be a specially constituted body
called the State Police Authority with Police Chiefs of all three wings as
members and the Chief Secretary of the Government as its Chairman.
At present, the growth of the Police Department is not really much
more than a spasmodic reaction to various stimuli and lacks the benefit of
an integrated approach. As a result, a structural chorisis is evident which
places operational facilities, counterbalances and counterchecks in jeopardy.
The constitution of a permanent cell of organisation experts under the direct
control of the police chief to redefine Kamataka's Police Organisation is
required to make it more meaningful and need-based. This could help in
streamlining the hierarchy by identifying and eliminating redundant posts,
rationalizing workloads and preventing their duplication, redefining duties
and procedures and thus the rights and responsibilities at each level. In
consequence, police functioning would be made more cost-effective and
The annual assessment of men and officers in the police has become
atravesty of what it was originally meant to be. In no way, under the present
circumstances, does an ACR reflect an officers qualities or capabilities or
lack thereof. Any reliance on this clavis to mischief is sure to demoralise the
force. It is my strong conviction that the department would be far better off
without this pernicious evaluation process that encourages corruption and
favouritism in the force. Though, it must be said that the evils of the ACR
are not inherent in the process itself, but stem rather from the calibre of
those who write them at various levels. What characterises the rite of the
ACR today is a distinct lack of objectivity: it has become a means to
personal ends, a medium for the advancement of individual interests and
even settlement of personal scores. Servility is its inevitable consequence
and it would not be immoderate to say that, eliminating the ACR altogether
would be certainly a step towards commune bonum in the police force.

The other suggestion I have in mind to make in regard to the

Karnataka Police is that the Karnataka State Police Officers who don't opt
to join the IPS must have the opportunity for promotion provided by
reservation of a suitable percentage at the next level. New rules would of
course have to be prescribed for such promotion. Similarly, a minimum
percentage of the total number of district and other coveted posts must be
reserved for these officers. As the KSPS and IPS are two distinct services
and nowhere is it stated that the latter superates the former, equal
opportunities should be given to officers of both services. There would be
no harm in allowing KSPS officers to grow in the service of their induction
if proper avenues for advancement are vouchsafed. They would also feel
more of a sense, of belonging in their own service rather than in an alien
service, where a degree of alienation is perhaps inevitable.
It is common experience that police officers on deputation land in
jobs far lower in rank than in their home departments. The tendency to only
gradually upgrade posts to facilitate promotion further complicates matters.
Many posts generally held by Deputy Commissioners in administrative
service were held by DIGs and then by IGs in the police department, with a
consequent lowering of the prestige and dignity of the ranks. Similarly, there
are very high-ranking posts in the Kamataka Police with minor job contents,
ipso facto affecting the dignity of the ranks'. These matters require critical
review by organization experts to have a more balanced police setup in
The blame that no talent breeds and grows in the heath of the police
setup cannot be easily gainsaid. The Indian Police Service continues to be an
intellectually poor, unattractive, subsecive service in the spectrum of All
India Services with only misfits opting for the service. The constabulary
which forms the bulk of the service is largely constituted of people from the
lower strata of society who are psychologically handicapped to exercise their
police powers against the more enlightened people in society. The tendency
to foul-up superior intellect and excellence is another contributing factor for
the atrophy of the police setup. The general reluctance to adopt modern
techniques of policing and management, the dogmatic approach to man-toman and public relations and the lack of psychological insight to human
nature are other factors responsible for the unfortunate state of affairs in the
force. These problems can be overcome only by capable police leadership at
all levels. The organisation is bound to experience a glissade until the trend
of donkey-judging-and-riding-horse is put to an end in the police setup and
a semblance of objectivity, reasonableness and good judgement touch the
core of police administration. This and related issues with possible remedies
are discussed in this volume.
I remember with profound regard and love, Shobha, who provided
me strength and inspiration always. I have dedicated this work to my father,
Shri R.D. Suvarna. It is he and my mother Smt. B. Sarojini who made me
whatever I am. Without their encouragement, perhaps I would have never

ventured into literary pursuits. The ideas about the police in this volume
surfaced in the process of my exchanges with my wife, Smt. Jayashree. I am
grateful to her for this and her succinct support in spawning this work. My
deep gratitude is due to my brothers, Shri Nishith Kumar and Shri Sushir
Kumar and sisters, Smt. Asha N.R. and Smt. Pramodini Ganesh, without
whose help and encouragement, this volume would not have been a reality
at all.
I thank the Hon'ble Mr. Justice S. Mohan, Chief Justice, High Court
of Kamataka, Bangalore (currently, a judge in the Supreme Court of India)
for writing a beautiful foreword to this book. His wise and good words
brought honour to this work and blessings, strength to me.




Crime, politics and the police are the three meiths of the vicious
triangle within which the future of democratic India and its free people is
inexorably involuted. Though wealthy industrial and commercial houses
form the fourth dimension of the unfortunate predicament, their techniques
are as yet limited to manipulative strategies to gain an increscent hold over
political power by remote control in pursuit of their professional interests
and seld they jump on the indignity of involving themselves with the
vicious triangle of crime, politics and the police. It is that their wealth
flows to the spendthrift chests of the troika and operates as catalyst in
reducing the normal life of free citizens to a welter of uncertainties and
unending hardships. However, their anfractuosity in the process of atrophy
is rather distant and indirect unlike the trio of crime, politics and the police
Politicians protectcriminals from the grip of the law while criminals
reciprocate by acting as their henchmen in handling underground activities.
The police goes officiously to politicians en revanche for job protection
and strikes an understanding with criminals to ease personal financial
interests. Thus works this nexus of vile power-brokers, preying on innocent
people, bloating itself on the blood of the hapless masses.
Power and wealth
In a blinkered system like ours, where power and wealth are the
ultimate virtues, where power and wealth in themselves stimulate mutual
growth to the exclusion of all other dimensions of life, it is no wonder, the
people of this poor country succumb to the trappings of power and wealth
at the cost of all virtues, values, pride, dignity and human decency. In an
increasingly competitive and complex world where every day more mouths
are added to share limited resources, where the principle of the survival of
the fittest operates to its immane logical end and where the basic needs of
survival and decency can be assured only with power and wealth, people
naturally go all out to ramp the ladder of power and wealth by whatever
means and cost. In the process, justice and morality become casualties and
criminality raises its ugly head as an instrument to achieve otherwise
impossible objects. This is how politics and crime knit together in the
fabric of Indian public life.
Police and politics
The story of the police is somewhat different. As the catchpole of the
nation's administration, the police enjoy tremendous power over vast fields



of human activities with responsibilities to life and death of the hoi polloi
as well as dignitaries. In this sense, the police is the cutting edge of the
state power and its ultimate bearer. No power can be its own sans the
police on its side as an executioner and loyal watch-dog. This is why,
politicians felt the need for wooing police to their side in their activities.
The police of independent India have become an easy prey to the power
baits of smarter politicians by the reason of their failing strength of
character and talent. Their greed, unsound social background, lack of
commitment to good values and failure to comprehend police virtues in the
right perspective make them willing partners in whatever politicians do or
intend to do. They refuse to look beyond their political masters with their
dispensations of job favours; and so law, justice, righteousness,
professional ethics, morality, decency, human dignity, common good of
people, national interests and even conscience, otherwise common to any
human being, have become invalid nonsense to them. The police, sans
sound character and personal integrity is no more than a country dog which
is what the Indian police has become in free India. The politicians,
inebriated with new power, smartly brought these weaklings to absolute
submission and hold them on a tight leash to be their personal watch dogs
and personal gendarmes in requital for favourable job placements, undue
promotions and other largition from time to time. Nothing is valued higher
than this largess and its dispensers by the new police of India. It is how the
police was involuted in the conspiracy against decent public life in India.
Police and crime
It was a hop and skip for the police from the plangent world of
politics to the mysterious world of crime and the underworld. The police
became a weapon of politicians to bring about the subjugation of the crime
world to prise their resource for the political ends. They thus made good
use of the decreasing strength of character of the police in forging a nexus
between the police and criminals in furtherance of their own telos. With a
weak spine to hold itself and hapless in the face of odds, the police is only
too pleased to follow the footsteps of its political masters as the cardinal
principle of policing. In changed circumstances, discipline and
subordination which form the basic connecting link of the police hierarchy,
lost all their shades of meaning and are interpreted as dunny and blind
subservience to those who have power, seeking personal interests. And
politicians easily led the police to the despicable cul de sac of the nexus
with criminals, the very people whom both are supposed to control and
bring to book for antisocial acil-'ities. With politicians as the custodians of
power en wrier to the hilt to support, the police plunged lock, stock and
barrel into the lucrative crime world; the consectaneous wealth and
comforts were in no way less sweet than the hard-earned money of law



abiding society. This is how the nexus between the police and crime world
was established.
Dangerous nexus
The trio of manipulators is a dangerous force to reckon with, in the
Indian democratic situation. Cohered as a tight-knit power-block, they
have permeated into all conceivable facets of Indian public life with the
sole intention of garnering all the benefits and pilferages of the inefficient
public administration, for sharing among themselves in line with the
proverb that one who dines well in a whore's house is wise. The tragedy
here is that the vice is perpetrated by those whom the public trust as their
benefactors and protectors. The amoral side of this operation does not seem
to have affected either the police or politicians in any way and the vile
cabal against the Indian public goes on unabated. It seems that all actors in
this tragic drama think that Indian democracy is a free-for-all field to grab
to the maximum in a world where all look for themselves and only those
who grab the most survive. This approach is certain to undermine not only
the democratic setup of the nation, but also its very social fabric. The
blame for this sad end should squarely be borne by the ugly troika of
politicians, criminals and the police.
Dilemma of Indian politics
Not that politics is all bad. It is, by definition, governance of state
through popular leadership. The malaise of the present Indian politics lies
in its tilt to popularity at the elimination of 'leadership' and more
dangerously, 'popularity' being made a serious business proposition to be
attended to by spending hard cash as an investment to earn returns in
multiple proportions. How popularity can be won by investment remains a
mystery of the democracy. However, sine dubio, popularity is won on the
field pro rata to an investment in Indian situation. It is res judicata that
nothing means as much to the Indian electorate as the money and power to
prod them to cast their votes for a particular candidate. The history of
independent India makes it patent that honesty, patriotism, quality, service,
excellence and even charisma have become casualties vis a vis money and
power on the Indian election stage. In this situation, a vicious equation is
formed wherein political power is equated with electoral popularity, which
in turn is equated with money and power, which can be had only through
political patronage. The vicious circle has helped to create a block of
manipulative extortionists as divided from the passive common public.
Politics too has its honest and patriotic people who are committed to the
commune bonum. But, sadly, they are caught in the grind of a system
which does not let them surface to prominence unless they come to terms
with it and adopt the venal proposition of winning elections to make



money to win the next election. Only those who correctly grasp the inner
dynamics of this and adapt to its mechanics can hope to make a headway.
Others are bound to sink. When the system itself made the election a venal
mechanism, corrupt practices that rope in criminals and police cannot
remain far away from the scene.
Criminalisation of politics
Whom should we blame for this hapless position? Certainly not the
politicians or their auxiliaries like criminals and police who are unfortunate
by-products of the grind. They are created by the situation, arising from a
system which is misfit to the people to whom it was devised. The blame
lies either on the Indian people who are impair to the democratic system
evolved for them, because of their unenlightened and venal conscience
which is so dim-witted that virtues like honesty, service, patriotism, quality
and excellence can make no dent on it at all; or it lies with the political
system devised for them which failed to take their psychological makeup
into account and ipso facto led to the problem of maladjustment in national
life. Otherwise, how can we explain criminals and goondas winning
elections with impunity even while rioting and murders were committed at
their behest on the eve of elections itself. The fact is that the chance of
winning an election often is pro rata to the aura of a tough image built
around the candidate. It is these people who win elections and rule this
country! It is these people whom the Indian electorate prefers to invest
with powers to safeguard their interests! Obviously, the Indian electorate
lacks the foresightedness and vision to understand the consequences of its
irresponsible decision. It is yet too immature to take decisions about the
interests of the nation and see how national interests are closely linked to
its personal interests. It is yet to broaden its perspective to include the life
of the nation as an integral part of its own. Long term and rational
decisions are alien to its nature. Immediate selfish interests and a parochial
outlook continue to be the driving force of all its actions and decisions,
whether it be on the matters of national importance or personal concern. In
most parts of India, it is money, arrack, sari, threat, fear of landlords or the
blazening propaganda of a candidate that influence it to decide as to whom
to vote for. How can the avenir of this country be safe in the hands of such
an electorate and its elected leaders? How can an indifferent and
irresponsible electorate provide honest and efficient leadership to the
nation? This weakness of the electorate has ultimately left Indian politics
in the heath of violence and manipulative extortions, with the instruments
meant to protect them mowing the field. Saner elements in politics, who
found survival difficile, have left the field, giving way to the elements
which are more suited to what is required in the field.



It is how politics has become a pit of junk from a class of dedicated

and virtuous leaders. The credibility which is the pith of any political life is
the biggest casualty in Indian politics. People are more and more
disillusioned with the extant political institutions and the percentage of the
electorate that takes the trouble of going to polling booths to cast votes is
steadily decreasing from election to election. It is an open secret that an
election is an opening for a candidate to invest money to reap wealth,
comfort and power for the next five years. And how he reaps the wealth,
comfort and power again is not a mystery at all. It is corruption and misuse
of public money. If he is ambitious and intends to promote his career
interests, there is no way out in the existing system but to resort to pulling
strings and pursuing other more deadly methods, often with the active
collusion of the officious criminals and police.
Political murders
Political murders are common features these days in India. When a
political adversary grows to be an irritant, too serious for corn fort, he is
seen to be eliminated. No career politician wants to stain his name with a
murder case and get his name registered as a criminal in a police station.
He does the work through his faithful underworld henchmen whom he
keeps in good humour always for being available for such a need, by
providing them political support and protection. For this, he keeps the
police at his side. This is easily done by intervening in police postings and
helping to get early promotions for favoured ones.
Booth capturing
A candidate for an election may even resort to booth capturing through
his criminal aides to facilitate his victory. This operation requires thorough
planning and training of the men involved, apart from the willing
cooperation of the police. An attempt at booth capturing can succeed only
with the intrenchant nexus between politicians, criminals and police for
Political patronage
The unhealthy nexus often leads to and facilitates other forms of crime.
Cases of rioting, assault, kidnap, rape and blackmail, involving the
supporters or relatives of politicians, criminals and police in furtherance of
a political cabal are other usual forms of crime that result from the vicious
nexus. Often, criminals and police are employed to create disturbances or
inspire sensational crimes in furtherance of political goals. The losses of
life and property involved in the wily schemes seld touch the conscience of
either the politicians, the criminals or the police who are responsible for



these dastardly acts. The political patronage and the nexus with police
desensitize criminals to the process of law and justice; they are thus
emboldened to commit more daring and ruthless crimes that endanger the
life and property of the plebeians. The police, in its links with politicians
on one hand and with criminals on the other, is in its new avatar as the
protector of vested interests with no more commitment and passion for law
and justice. It has become a discredited force, a willing instrument of
power-brokers in a ruthless and violent cabal of power-games with no
heart for the common man and the common cause. This is the requital the
Indian electorate gets for letting its political system putrefy by its
nonchalance and irresponsibility.
Politicisation of crime
The overworld is just the tip of the real, raw world. There are more
things hidden in this world than there are seen. This is soon realised by
opportunist Indian politicians who seize the first available instance to enlist
the support of criminals and underground operators for their nefarious
designs. This in turn is a god-sent benison for criminals to restore their lost
credibility and social standing with the help of their association with the
custodians of power, apart from the security and protection from the police
that ensues from the association. They promptly grab the opportunity to
their advantage and show how useful they can be to politicians in their
career-promotion designs and wreaking of personal vendettas. The
experience and professionalism of criminals is handy to politicians to
execute their nasty operations without attracting the stigma attached to
The vast army of criminals has become a ready resource to them for use
whenever need arises. This has given a sense of confidence and security to
politicians, who are otherwise vulnerable in their highly uncertain,
challenging and competitive environment. Often politicians have so much
relied on criminals that the latter have became their most trusted
lieutenants, even getting elected to legislature houses with their help and
blessings. There have been instances in India, where prominent politicians
have refused to disown their notorious criminal friends in public even after
reaching the vertex of their political career. This shows the sway held by
criminals over politicians in the Indian situation. It is a fact that no
syndicate of organised crime in small and big cities anywhere in the world
can survive even for a day without political patronage. Ergo, all syndicates
of organized crime and their menace are the direct outcome of the
intrenchant nexus between politicians and criminals, indeed with the police
as bystanders.



Place of crime world

No criminal can take lightly the need for political patronage in running
his crime syndicate. Be they smuggling syndicates, gambling houses,
narcotics dealers or plain hoodlums, the only way to survive is to have
comfortable political protection at the right levels. The crime syndicates en
revanche, pay a good percentage of their criminal gain to the protectors.
Thus, it is an arrangement to mutual advantage. The crime world also
provides hoodlums as volunteers to perform challenging tasks during the
election campaigns of their political patrons, apart from liberally financing
these campaigns. How can a politician, after he gains power with the help
of a criminal, ever let down the criminal? This symbiosis of politicians and
criminals which has emerged from the extant Indian political system is the
root cause of all the complications discussed until now.
The very fact that politicians are prepared to risk their reputations rather
than distance themselves from the crime world, shows how highly the
world of crime is regarded by the politicians in their scheme of things.
Politics and crime have become the two faces of the same coin in the
present state of affairs and a saying goes that there cannot be politics
without crime and no crime without politics. In the present Indian
situation, it is true that the lotus of politics can blossom only in the offal of
Importance of violence
The need for organised violence is so high on the priorities of the Indian
politics that all political parties have created youth and volunteer wings to
accommodate young hoodlums as a fighting and street-smart force to
further the interests of the political party in street-fights and gang wars.
Those who stand out among the recruits to these wings for their exemplary
courage and toughness are provided with fast promotional avenues to reach
the top and the fact that a very high percentage of ministers in Indian
Governments are the fighters from this arena gives a glisk to the high
priority of violence and crime in the present Indian political setup.
Criminalisation of police
It is an irony that politicians, whose patronage criminals sought to ease
them from the straints of the police, brought the latter closer to each other,
building a bridge between them. The understanding reached between
criminals and the police goes a long way in criminalising Indian public life
and blunting the effectiveness of the policing. Though the nexus between
criminals and the police is not a new phenomenon, that what was an
exception once has become a rule now and what was a rule once has



become an exception. The criminals overawed the weak police with their
connections with powerful politicians on one hand and lured the police
with easy money and comfort on the other and thus tilted the balance to
their advantage from the mouse and cat disadvantage they once suffered
not long ago. Though criminals played their political cards with adroitness,
their real target a tout propos was easing themselves from the pressures of
the police. This, they achieved with little cost by deftly flaunting their
political connections to a weak and crumbling police. Criminals did
business with officious police for huge grist to their coffers of professional
interests without giving away anything substantial in return, save trifling
throw aways. This itself, however, was an unimaginable bonanza to the
lowly police of all ranks who had never seen life with open eyes outside
their regimens.
Crime and Indian politics
If some are born criminals, some choose the path consciously and some
others are constrained to follow the path. While faulty financial and social
policies forged by unenlightened politicians are responsible for forcing
several helpless people to the path of criminality on the one hand, their
opportunistic, politically-motivated demarche more often drives sensitive
people on the path of revolt to inclip the fold of terrorism and violence.
Naxalism, Sikh terrorism, the ULFA movement, Kashmir separatism,
Hindu and Muslim militancy and even sympathy in India for the LTIE
cause are direct outcomes of the nonchalant political handling of the
national issues.
India has seen isolated political attempts in the past. to lure people out
of the clutches of the crime world and rehabilitate them; these, however
form exceptions. The famous Chambal experiment initiated by the late Sri.
Jayaprakash Narayan had some success in spite of discordant vibes raised
by the machinations of certain politicians in the area.
Political kidnapping
Political kidnapping is an international phenomenon that comminated
the world of diplomacy in excelsis in the 1970's. The menace trickled onto
the Indian scene though slowly, decisively in the 1980's. The realisation
that political ends can be easily met by the malengine of the kidnap-drama
opened up an aboideau to the terrorists who were acharne to meet per
saltum their political telos. The increase in terrorist activities in India,
perchance, as an outcome of the suspected" balkanisation of India" policy
adopted by some foreign countries, made political kidnapping an
ubiquitous reality on the Indian political scene from the latter half of the



The terrorists of Kashmir and Punjab set the tone in India which was
picked up by the People's War Group and the ULFAs in the 1990s. The
inexperience of Indian political leaders in tackling the problem
complicated the matter. While most countries around the world explicated
a policy of stubborn refusal to yield to kidnappers' demands under straints
a tout prix the Indian leaders goofed by displaying their weaknesses whil
people close to them were abducted, in yielding to demands as a quid pro
quo in releasing a large number of dangerous terrorists who were arrested
at huge cost and loss of lives. The situation has been further complicated
by adopting a policy of double standards in sacrificing the lives of lesser
mortals in some other cases. It is obviously sending a mauvais depeche to
the would-be terrorists that the closer the proximity of the kidnapped to a
political leader, the bigger is the chance of meeting their political ends.
The reclame attached to the kidnap-drama and the arousal of the public
interest in the developments that follow is another dimension of the
political kidnapping that brings an identification and gives an image to a
terrorist outfit as nothing else can. It has become the fashion to initiate a
terrorist outfit with a kidnapping operation. This chevisance in the inchoate
drama proves the strength and resourcefulness of the new outfit and its
locus standi among such other outfits, in the way that the murders
committed by a recruit decides his place in the Mafia. The finesse
displayed in executing the operation to a successful end decides the future
of the organisation apart from the advantages of the ransom money and
release of compatriots. Interestingly, the first experiment of political
kidnapping in the Indian scene was conducted in a foreign country in the
form of the egregious abduction and killing of Mr. R.H. Mhatre, a junior
diplomat in the Birmingham consulate in the first week of February, 1984
by JKLF militants.
Political kidnapping and murder is tout court the most heinous crime
that often involves the cold-blooded murder of absolutely innocent people
for political ends. The mental agony and postliminary destruction involved
to the maledict hostages and their near and dear ones because of the
misguided entrainement of a handful of greenhorns naturally make
kidnapping an infructuous political tool at the end.
The considerable fall in the incidences of political kidnapping on the
international scene of late is an indication of the increasing realisation of
this fact. Crime scarcely survives in the situations of haute politique like
diplomacy and relations between nations. High thinking by enlightened
people functions as a catchpole to check the criminal tendencies from
being perpetuated. Political kidnapping on the Indian scene is also bound
to be a temporal phenomenon as seen other where in the world.



A disturbing trend in political kidnapping is the possibility of

professional criminals like smugglers and drug pedlars resorting to
political kidnappings at the hest of their illegal profession in the guise of
political kidnappers. The accrescent dependence of terrorists and
professional criminals on each adds to the complexity. This unhealthy
situation is already true in India as it is in many other countries, a
pernicious cohabitation that's a zotic commination to peaceful international
The kidnapping of Romanian charge d' affaires in India, Liviu Radu on
October 9, 1991 on his way to office by the Sikh militants is the first
instance of a high ranking foreign national of diplomatic corps being
kidnapped by Indian militants to meet domestic political goals. This
succeeded, a series of similar kidnappings of Indian and foreign officials
by the People's War Group, the ULFA and the Kashmir militants. The
abduction of Mr. K-Doraiswamy, an aine director of the Indian Oil
Corporation by the JKLF militants and his postliminary release in
exchange for nine arrested Kashmir militants hit headlines in Indian
newspapers by the reason of the 'Stockholm syndrome' noticed in the
hostage after his release. His empathy with his captors and their cause and
sympathetic references to Azad Kashmir, liberation struggle, misguided
boys etc. after his release rather than a degout to them were explained in
the language of the cooperative behaviour se defendendo of the
pusillanimous hostages of a bank robbery in Stockholm in 1973, and is
indited in psychology texts as "Stockholm syndrome". The tendency of a
diffident hostage to cooperate sans gene as the only dernier ressort and
even aid his captors at the damnurn of seity may well-nigh turn out to be a
malengine in the hands of resourceful criminals to force a change in
political attitude in the symbiotic world of the criminals and politicians.
The salutary references of Mr. K. Doraiswamy to his captors au serieux
also throw light on the possibility of his being conducted maestoso, non
obstante his otherwhere political affiliations, ipso facto suggesting that
political criminals more than often are gens de bien of high principles and
a selfless goal to achieve. It is why these criminals come under a distinct
class and command furibund aficionado from specific sections of the
society, it be Subha and Sivarasan of the LTTE or Sukhadev Singh (Sukha)
and Harjinder Singh Jinda of the Sikh militants.
The Operation Rhino against the ULFA activists is a direct offshoot of a
series of kidnappings of Indian and foreign nationals and killing of some of
them by the ULFA militants in Assam. The People's War Group in Andhra
Pradesh is going progressively active in kidnapping government officials
to bring the state government on its knees. The government of Andhra
Pradesh is yet to take the gauntlet by the horns. The kidnap dramas
excoriate criminals, politicians and the police to a war of nerves and those



who have steel nerves in them emerge successful in the end. The political
kidnappings are further complicating the welter created in the Indian and
international mise en scene by the rise of kidnappings for ransom sine
compe scere by misadventurous individuals or groups lucri causa. The
sema of kidnappings becoming the piece de resistance of organised crime
as a means of making a fast buck is already evident on the Indian scene as
more and more reports of businessmen, industrialists or their relatives and
children being kidnapped for ransom appear in newspapers in Bihar, Uttar
Pradesh, Assam, Punjab, Delhi, Calcutta, Bombay and even smaller places.
Ascensive anfractuosity of egregious mafia gangs in these operations is a
pollent possibility. The relevance of the police comes into the picture in
their ingine to check these pernicious developments. The
triste reality is that the Indian Police has failed to rise to the occasion till
Police as a link
It can be categorically said that the business of crime cannot survive
anywhere if politicians and the police join hands to bring the crime world
to heel as is expected of them. Alas, it is not to be in a world of opportunist
politicians and muticous, weak police, both with an eye on the spoils of the
crime world. The police, actually, is the weak link in the troika of powerbrokers. It is just a significant link between the major players of the drama,
namely politicians and criminals, and functions as an instrument of
politicians to bring criminals to their grip and to tighten the prise. The role
of the police as a law-enforcing agency and its consequential hold on
criminals makes it a handy instrument for politicians.
Politicisation of police
The police is imprimis an executioner and odd job boy of the
government. This image of police is effectively made use by politicians for
all conceivable personal and official purposes. While low-ranking police
are put to use as body guards, gunmen, messengers, watchmen and odd-job
attenders, high-ranking police are put to the travails of the same odd jobs in
higher forms. It is a triste commentary on the present police that while
low-ranking police do the job as an unavoidable duty, high-ranking
officers compete and fight among themselves to get and attend to the odd
jobs of their political masters. This they do, even while they are fully
aware of the criminal antecedents and police histories of some of their
benefactors. Where is the passion of our police for law and justice, the
fighting spirit against crime and lawlessness that should be the cardinal
professional emotions at all levels? It is just that our police has no more
commitment to justice and social cause and nothing seems worth the effort,
save career promotions and creature comforts.



Not that the police force is devised to be the personal handmaid of the
politicians. It is to be the ultimate power-bearer, the moving force of power
on the field. This necessitates discretion and exemplary personal dignity to
be its primary traits. It has to be a cornucopia of strength of caractere and
probity and stand up as a model to less fortunate people of the country.
This beau ideal is also relegated to oblivion in current Indian policing
where all-out self-promotion by devious methods is the norm.
Subservience in police
The present police, particularly at higher levels, condescends to any
mean level, even at the cost of personal pride, human decency, individual
dignity, social standing and professional ethics, just to get a pat from its
political masters. There are instances wherein police officers of higher rank
exposed their careers and lives to deadly risks by pursuing deviant methods
to please politicians. The mishandling of the Bangalore bandh on
December 13,1991 wherein violence was let to spread and intensify till it
went out of control in the evening is a point in issue. These facts only make
out a point that a normal man, once he enters the police service, somehow
unconsciously assumes to role-play the canine nature and gives a go-by to
human instincts, conscience and such noble traits which are exclusive to
the human animal. The question is should the police be so? Is it imperative
to shed human qualities and assume canine instincts to join the police
service? Is it true that policing can be effective only with the canine
instinct of blind loyalty and instinctive obedience, deprived of all
individuality, conscience and rational judgement? The answer is a
categorical 'no'. On the other hand, policing can be genuine policing only
with the strength of character, tempered with rational judgement and
healthy exchange of ideas at all levels.
Voice of reason is silenced
It is not as if all people who join the police are always weaklings. Saner
elements made up of stronger fibre too once in a way enter the police.
However, numerically superior leeway swimmers with their stronger
positions, by courtesy of officious politicians, strangle the reasonable voice
of the enlightened few who enter the service. If some among such a
minority are found to be implacable and refuse to be illaqueated, they are
easily crippled by murky malengines that bring mayhem on their career
prospects. The police displays an extraordinary unity of purpose in
executing the telos of eliminating the common enemy of its personal ends,
though, otherwise, it is as polarised as any conteck-ridden organisation.
Career-long enemies become friends and most inefficient officials become
thorough professionals in fulfilling this task. Most of the righteous few
yield to the straint and fall in line with the majority pursuits. This success



has made the police think that its weapon is inviolable, though foul and
dangerously wrongful. However, sadly, it has forgotten that all are not the
same and that there are exceptions for everything. It is quite possible that
none of such unethical methods affect the few exceptionally strong-willed,
noble individuals, but obsign their resolution not to yield to the pravity and
fight out a tout prix. I know at least one bright senior officer, still in
service in the Kamataka police, who bore all such humiliations valiantly
and refused to give away even an inch from where he stands jusqu au bout
with stately grandeur even at the cost of his promotion.
Casualty of individuality
A police official who commits his time to the services of his favoured
politician is aware of his weak position that it may embarrass him when the
concerned politician loses his power. This consciousness sensitises him to
the need of garnering support from all around, including subordinates,
colleagues and seniors. Any source of plain speaking among subordinates
is taken with serious apprehension and everything possible, either legal or
illegal, is plotted to keep such a source in place. It is ruthlessly hit in its
most sensitive parts to bring it to its senses. This approach has led to a
myriad number of casualties: really bright, outstanding, conscientious and
four-square officers who inadvertently joined the police. Either they are
made to blunt their sensitivities and calibre to adapt to the ground reality or
pack-up right away. The travails of ploughing the field for a fresh approach
are not only not allowed, but even the thought of such experimentation is
roughed up. Is the police department doomed to be the cold-storage of
musty, old skeletons without room for resilience? Those who reached the
top with the support of opportunistic politicians think so.
A political instrument
In an atmosphere where placements and transfers are decided by the
needs and wishes of self-seeking politicians, no police can efficiently
function nor can it be free from the vice prise of the politicians. It is not
surprising that power-esurient politicians more and more grab powers that
are legally and traditionally invested with the police department when the
top brass lack the strength of character and conviction. This leads to a
position wherein the police department becomes a chessboard on which
politicians move their pieces to checkmate their adversaries and win the
political game in their favour. In other words, the police sans effective
leadership is becoming more a handmaid of politicians by moving away
from its sacred role as the guardian of law and justice and protector of the
society and the common man. The credit of bringing the police from its
height of power to the present level of absolute submission should go to
the superior strength of personality of wily politicians who bent the police



on their own terms with selective use of stick and carrot. This police is not
the police and what it does is not policing in the proud sense of the term.
Changed role
With the increscent involution of the p lice with glidder politicians, the
conception of the police about its own role has undergone a large-scale
change. No more does it look at crime control and maintenance of order as
its first duty. With this, the concern for crime control received a setback
and crime control and investigation have receded to the last priority except
when politicians are interested in them for a specific purpose. Only crimes
that disturb politicians foment police to galvanic and meaningful action.
Other crimes receive no priority. The very definition of the gravity of
crime is adapted to suit the new conception. Those crimes which are
tolerated by politicians are no more crimes. The self-image of the police as
'a fearless arbiter of crime' is changed to a solicitous servant in attendance
at the pleasure of a politician master. This blunting of the crime card of the
police has made it less awe-inspiring and less deserving of respect from the
criminals. The police has more and more realised that criminals,
particularly those from organised syndicates are personal friends of its
political masters and it is no match for the criminals in terms of wealth,
influence and social standing. The men of the police see those criminals on
equal footing with their political masters and learn to treat them with awe.
They find it absurd to act with authority against the immarcescible
criminals who are too high for the small stature of the police. It is
unfortunate that the police of the present day has never realised its infinite
stature as a law-enforcing agent vis a vis all others including criminals and
politicians whom it is empowered to search, arrest and take to court if they
deviate from their rightful path. Sadly, the trifling wealth and the
concomitant "big-man" image of others appears to the present police as
more appealing than its own awful police authority.
Reversal of functions
The very possibility that policemen trade off their awful authority lucri
causa is an astounding phenomenon. Undoubtedly, the poor salaries and
inadequate working conditions have brought about this sad state of affairs.
The hafthas and such periodical shares of the spoils from criminal
activities often are the mainstay of the well-being of many police families.
This triste glissade has unfortunately permeated even to the highest levels
in the police as reported in a shameful case from Karnataka sometime back
in 1990 wherein a IPS man and his wife on the day of the former's
retirement were taken to the court of law by the public on the complaint of
defrauding the public by selling tickets in the name of a spastic society
charity show and collecting money eo nomine. The event made big news



with bold headlines splashed across newspapers at the time. That apart, the
importance of various police jobs is determined in police circles on the
basis of the potential of the posts for attracting illegal money from the
crime world. And jobs with potential for such gains are most sought after
and the concours for such jobs is so high that often postings to such jobs
are bought by paying money in lakhs. Indeed, the investment is made with
the esperance of making it back several times over within a short period
thereafter in synergy with the crime world. It is the reason why law and
order posts, traffic policing, postings in the food enforcement cell and even
certain vigilance jobs outside the police as in the KEB for instance are
known as jobs to be earned by beating out cut-throat competition while
many other jobs are known to be punishment postings and are largely
detested. It goes without saying that judging jobs on the basis of the
gauntlets they provide or on the opportunity of service is now a matter of
yore. It is the crime world with the wealth it appropriates to each job that
decides the importance or otherwise of the police jobs and ipso facto
controls the type and calibre of officers in each job. In other words, it is the
criminals who invisibly control the police ab extra rather than the police
controlling the criminals. This reversal of functions has lots to do with the
low morale of the present Indian police. Its members find themselves at the
mercy of criminals whom they are supposed to trammel and bring to book.
The police is no more confident that it is mentally and organisationally
equipped to treat criminals in malam partem.
Weakened police
The increasingly powerful and modernised crime syndicates vis a vis
the age-old police force have made crime control a misnomer in the Indian
context. The decreasing percentage of the police presence due to its failure
to keep pace with the population growth in the face of the increasing crime
density, the disadvantage of the police in re the speed of communication,
transportation and weaponry before the ultra-modern machines of the
crime world, the advantage of criminals in terms of the choice of time and
place of operation and concomitant superior numerical strength and ability
to produce surprises and the highly skilled and motivated cadres of the
criminal world pressing down a demoralised and indifferent police give
criminals an edge over the police in their encounters. Consequently, police
fatalities in such encounters are increasing. This holds good for terrorist
groups, too. Ergo, the police in India is no longer keen to actively interfere
with the activities of the crime world. The understanding between the
criminals and police is that both confine themselves to their respective
fields and avoid embarrassing each other. The police is duly paid for its
silence while stray troublemakers who jump in medias res are silenced.
The Indian police is sane enough to quickly realise that its interests are safe



in silence while an uncalled-for tangling with the crime world may invite a
host of complications and comminate individual job security and lives.
Police leadership
The albatross of the atrophy of the present Indian police solely rests on
the incompetent police leadership of independent India rather than on
anything else. Unimaginative organisational planning, uninspiring
operational guidance and control and lack of leadership conviction in
modem police leaders has led to utter chaos, resulting in a random chorisis
of the organisation without any conceivable planning or application of
mind to the needs of effective supervision and control mechanisms;
dangerously ineffective recruitment, ineffective training, misuse of the
facilities of confidential assessment of subordinates and the degeneration
of control and supervision machinery are symptomatic organisational
maladies. The present Indian police force is utterly demotivated from its
professional objectives and police jobs are considered only as devices that
provide rank, power, social status, sundry comforts and a comfortable job
to fall upon when an urge to work arises. How can the people of India
depend upon a police force of this sorry state of affairs for their security,
protection and orderly living?
Organisational growth
How deeply the police is self-centred even within its own organisation
and what care and concern the police leaders show to evolve a perficient
and planned police organisation can be assessed by the trend of evolution
of the police organisation as an increscently top-heavy setup and the speed
with which promotions are affected at different levels. In states where there
were only two officers of the rank of Inspector General of Police, for say
forty thousand men and officers about thirty years back, there are now
nearly hundred officers of and above the rank of Inspector General of
Police, for say three hundred thousand men and officers: thereby the last
thirty years account for 750% expansion in the lower levels against 5000%
expansion at higher levels. What these people at the top do for policing
apart from being a drain on the state revenue and a strain to officers down
the levels with conflicting instructions of dubious merit? Almost nothing.
It is unfortunate that none in the police administration realises that it is not
the rank, but the real human stuff inside that decides the height, excellence,
merit, intelligence, honesty, integrity, responsibility, work knowledge and
human qualities of a person. Promotion to higher rank serves no purpose
unless the higher rank provides a really higher and challenging job content
and a suitable man is perforce selected to meet the increased challenges.
This is not the case in present police promotions where sinecures are
created to facilitate promotions to satisfy in-group instincts. Most of these



jobs are without any job content and responsibility and often are places to
relax from the pressures of family life. However, the same courtesy does
not extend to the more unfortunate ranks at lower levels including the
constabulary. While vacancies at the topmost level are filled up by
promotions strictly overnight, promotions at intermediary levels are
effected in weeks or fortnights or months, depending on the rank in the
police hierarchy. It is years in the case of the constabulary. There are cases
where vancancies of Head Constables and Assistant Sub-Inspectors or
Sub-Inspectors are not filled up for several years, depriving the
constabulary of their de jure promotions. There are any number of
instances of men in the constabulary, retiring without a promotion non
obstante their eligibility and seniority for the existing vacancies, which are
not filled up from many years. Policing is a job, performed mostly at lower
levels with decreasing involvement upto the level of Superintendent of
Police. Beyond that, it is tout court a supervisory task and in a police force
with no supervision to speak of, higher ranks are just de trop. Any move to
expand these ranks and any undue haste to promote to these levels cannot
be called honest decisions in the functional or public interest.
Unfortunately, the Indian police is doing just that and there is none to put it
back on the right track.
Management of human resources
The position is worse in recruitment. Selection has become a misnomer.
It is random at best and high business at its worst. This approach to
recruitment may turn out to be a highly dangerous situation for both the
governance and public life of India. Policing is a highly sensitive
profession and requires only specially equipped people to handle it. It
demands certain specific traits in its officers which cannot be learnt by any
amount of training. The police being the ultimate power-bearer on the
street, the public look to it as a model and its mien decides public trust in
the government In the circumstances, the wrong selection to the police is
bound to be fatal to the national life. India is deeply mired in such a
dangerous situation now. There is a price fixed for each rank of the police.
How can a fresh recruit who enters service by paying a bribe be expected
not to reap returns from his large investment? What can be his mental
picture of the service he enters? It is absurd to expect professional policing
from such a recruit. Those who permit such nasty doings in the police or
involve themselves to bring the organisation to its painfully slow sphacelus
are the butchers of a great tradition.
Even when there is genuine scope for proper selection in recruitment,
nothing is done to rope in the really competent. It is either because none
bother much to have a really competent person in the slot or because of the
incompetence of the persons entrusted with the job Of selection. The



common aim of the police in recruitment now is to complete the job

without inviting legal hurdles at the best.
Sometimes, even rules are overstepped to cut short procedures and do
away with cumbersome work. Even sensitive posts at the lowest level like
police drivers are filled up arbitrarily and quality suffers as a result. This is
equally so in matters of transfers as discussed in detail elsewhere.
Line of command
Everything is not right in the spine of the police organisation namely the
hierarchical order - itself. The importance of honesty, integrity, hard work
and excellence is replaced with personal loyalty and usefulness for
personal odd jobs. This is the outcome of the natural devolution of
personal loyalty to politicians at higher levels on the ladder. Those who do
not come up to the expectations of personal loyalty, fall out of favour and
are eliminated from the line of command as persona non grata. This
pravity has a more demoralising effect in a force of line of command than
meets the eye. This trait in the organisation results in the deflection of
brighter, proud and four-square officers to insignificant jobs to the
advantage of the opportunistic ones who are insecure and ergo tend to
make up their famishment with personal loyalty to those in power. It is the
main contributing factor for the slow degeneration of the present Indian
Quality is suppressed
There are some unwanted under currents in the Indian police that make
pride, efficiency, excellence, originality and such superior qualities the
objects of fear and hatred. Perhaps, these superior qualities do not go pari
passu with the line of command by the reason of the insecure feelings,
these superior qualities rouse higher in the line. The fear is not based on
reality in a disciplined force like police where the line of command
functions a tout propos without reference to personal traits. The question is
why this fear surfaces in the modem police while the pre-independent
police with all its better manpower could run without it. The possible
answer is that the line of command is a perfect mechanism in a disciplined
force when the force indulges in de jure professional duties. However, the
line of command becomes increasingly strained when it is used for
personal ends as of late. Ergo, ultimately, it is a vicious circle wherein poor
leadership leads to elimination of quality and that in turn results in poorer
leadership which slowly blights the police organisation to its triste logical



Police brotherhood
The police is a sacred confrerie of those who choose policing as
their profession. It is here, as brothers irrespective of caste, creed, social
standing, rank or personal traits, they live as one, in the interests of the
common objective of crime control and maintenance of law and order.
How can this ideal which was once a strikingly kenspeckle reality survive
in changed circumstances where there is no common cause except personal
advancement at the cost of everything? Consequently, groupism is
abounding in the police force and jealousy has become a characteristic
feature of the ranks. There is no mutual warmth among police personnel.
The police force, once a smooth silk fabric, is now in shreds with each
group pulling on opposite sides to the detriment of the unity, essential to its
survival in view of the natural job hazards. Indifference to the other's
predicament is a rule in the police these days. Often, those in the police
contribute to each other's misfortune because of accidental bad blood or
just fun. No confrerie is patent anywhere in the present Indian police.
Lack of planning
The police, by the nature of its jobs, is required to walk hand in hand
with modem advancements to keep itself fit and functionally effective. The
general reluctance of the Indian police to adapt to new ideas and the
ungainly handling of modernisation projects have resulted in its falling en
wrier in terms of modem machines and organisational techniques in
comparison to the syndicates of organised crime which keep themselves
pan passu with neoteric findings and inventions to keep themselves in
excelsis of the effectiveness. En attendant, modem communication,
information, transport, office and armament gadgets are bought for the
police on the advice of some sales agents without creating the adequate
infrastructure or trained personnel for their use and without assessing the
real need of such equipments in the existing police situation. As a result,
the gadgets so bought, fall apart with desuetude after the initial
entrainement cools down. Such a light-hearted approach to modernisation
results in the police becoming more and more an obsolete unit, apart from
putting an unproductive burden on the state exchequer.
The police is one of the most vital instruments of the public
administration and works as a link between the executive arm and
judiciary. It is the ears, eyes and limbs of the government. No government
with a failing police system can survive whatever be its other assets. It is
against this background that the glitches bedevilling the present Indian
police should be viewed. Any complacency at this stage about the existing
police system may prove too costly for the unity and well-being of the
country and the health of its governance.



Professional policing
The police of India imprimis, should be extricated from the clutches of
criminals and politicians to make it a professional policing outfit with
objectivity and commitment to its task as the cardinal gospel. Both
criminals and politicians have stakes in the style of functioning of the
police and neither of them, the criminals with their easy money and the
politicians with their easy power, let the police slip from their grip. There
is no point in beginning the cleansing operation from the sides of the
criminals or politicians. It has to begin from the side of the police by
insulating it from the vile influences of criminal wealth and political
power. If this bifarious object is fulfilled, all others fall into place by
themselves. Once the vile shadows of the criminals and politicians are
removed from the face of the police, it is certain to resile to its old
professional self - a highly committed, motivated and efficient force. But
the golden question is how to achieve this end and save the police from
these two debilitating influences.
Independent police
In a free society like India with a democratic political system in the
saddle, interaction between various strata of society is a natural
phenomenon and efforts to raise barriers between blocks is bound to be
infructuous. Yet the gauntlet of saving the police from dangerous
influences should be courageously taken up in the national interest. The
fact of the police being a disciplined force is both an advantage and
disadvantage in this stupendous challenge. It is an advantage because the
weapon of discipline, if discreetly employed, can be used to block the
police from undue interaction with unwanted elements. It is a disadvantage
because the police with its trained response may find it difficult to isolate
itself from the personal behests of its political masters. It is left to police
leaders to devise appropriate techniques to make the best use of the
existing advantages in this sacred and patriotic task. To begin with,
somebody among the police leaders should decide to bell the cat. Who can
do that while all of them are willing partners in creating the vested nexus
that helps them to ascend to their present high positions in the hierarchy?
Yet, the world is not as bad it is painted. There have to be exceptions for
everything and thus, good people among the police too, who by the quirks
of dextro tempore avoid the long arms of Satan and survive to reach the
place where they rightfully belong. These breaches in the otherwise swarth
layers of clouds throw rays of hope upon the future of Indian police.



Police authority
The first and foremost job to be done is to free the police from the
unhealthy influence of all hues of politicians by making it responsible to an
independent authority with absolute power to take decisions on matters
pertaining to policing and police organisation. The authority should be a
professional body with men of proven probity and quality as members,
who have reached a stage from where they need not sacrifice their
convictions to appease those in power. A working arrangement is to be
devised by which the authority is responsible directly to the legislature and
functions as an independent authority like the judiciary, Comptroller and
Auditor General or Election Commissioner.
Core group
The damage already done to the police by the ancien regime can be
undone by overhauling the recruitment procedure and investing utmost
care to ensure that really the best from the job seekers are let in to the
service. Any interference in matters of recruitment should be promptly and
decisively resisted. To make recruitment an efficient operation, only highly
qualified officers of proven probity should be entrusted with the task with
the absolute authority to take decisions within the framework of law. The
ugly head of bribery in recruitment should be ruthlessly crushed and the
unhealthy tendency of making recruitment a business should be curbed tout
a fait. Infusion of good blood at least at this late hour is certain to undo the
damage done till now and bring the ancien regime yet extant inside to its
senses. Indeed, the recruitment should be followed with a sound training
that sensitises the recruits to their professional ethics and motivates them to
their sacred duties and responsibilities.
Contented police personnel
Police jobs should be made attractive with good salaries and satisfactory
working conditions that give the strength to resist the bait thrown by the
criminals. It is proved by social scientists that the incidence of bribery is
inversely proportional to the financial strength of a social group. Therefore,
better salaries and eximious working conditions definitely make the police
less sensitive to these lures. This would be a major step in prising the hold
of criminals over the police. The measure must be closely followed by a
perficient and strictly professional policy of placements to ensure the right
man comes to the right job with merit and honesty being duly rewarded.
Measures to ensure an unbiased assessment of the work and character of
subordinates strengthen and place the police organisation on sound footing.
Those who are empowered to assess subordinates and their work must be
made answerable therefore and any unscrupulous and random discharge of



their duties should condemn them forever for the misuse of this sacred
responsibility to the future of the organisation.
Fair play
Creation of a high power core group of people who are adept in
assessing men and character within the aforesaid police authority may help
to create a feeling of confidence and job security and prod them into
discharging their official duties fearlessly. This group which oversees the
work of police personnel from a distance should be made ultimately
responsible for all career decisions. The responsibility of officers in
assessing the work of their subordinates which forms the major
embarrassment of the present Indian police must be limited to giving their
opinion about performance to the core group; the expert core group
processes the opinion by its own research, expertise and discretion and
takes responsible decisions on its own. The group must be made
responsible for development planning of the police, work assessment, job
analysis, recruitment and management of human resources. Institution of
such a core group to oversee the career development of police personnel
without personal bias may bring revolutionary changes by committing the
police to its work ethics and professional ends with due single-mindedness.
Mental quality
It is a tragedy in the current Indian police that there is no relation
between the efficiency and performance of an official and his standing in
the organisation. The police officials are so indifferent to the performance
of their subordinates and their work turnout that they are absolutely in the
dark about the standard of work turned out under their supervision.
Another reason for this sad affair may be that they are unqualified to
assess. This situation leads to random assessment when a senior is
statutorily bound to assess and in the process, talent withers and
opportunists overtake high-calibre workers on the hierarchical ladder. This
tragic melange can be brought to order by exposing police officers
periodically to motivation courses where they are taught about the work
they are required to perform, its importance and how to discharge their
duties. There is an innate trait in the police that makes people entering it
shut their minds and distance themselves from all hues of mental activities.
Police training must endeavour to break this trait and coax trainees to open
their minds and reflect on all matters before making decisions. Often, the
habit of reading becomes a casualty, once a person enters the police. The
police is in no way antipodean to mental and scholastic pursuits. It is a
mystery what there is in the police that binds its men to let their minds and
hearts languish by desuetude. Police researchers must look to this matter to
mould the police into an organisation which acts and thinks before



resorting to action. Before this happens, police training has a major role to
make a recruit a thinking animal with a heart to feel and an intelligent
instinct to follow.
Professional knowledge
This negative approach to reading and thinking has resulted in poor
professional knowledge in the police, particularly at the higher ranks.
Work knowledge is generally limited to what is remembered from previous
work experience and bits of what is learnt from books during police
training, decades before. Their defective conception about supervision
compounds the situation by depriving them of the benefit of learning new
things during supervision of work. The style of supervision in the police
should be seen to be believed. All orders to subordinates emanate from a
perfect void. The orders warrant subordinates to feed them what is to be
done in a given situation and the reply received is returned to the same
subordinate as an order to perform. The best style of supervision in the
police is no more than holding a meeting of subordinates wherein the latter
are allowed to arrive at a course of action to meet a given challenge, and
the decision is returned to them as an order to perform. This style of
ineffective supervision must stop if quality is required in police work. The
system of overlapping supervision because of multiple ranks, where none
really discharges his supervisory role must be scrapped to make the police
a meaningful organisation. A thorough overhauling of police training
programmes and application of modem organisation techniques to bring in
effective check and control mechanisms would go a long way in
ameliorating the ground realities in the police.
Universality of crime
On ultimate analysis, crime is a universal phenomenon. All living
beings are criminals in varying degree. Criminal thought is a part of the
natural function of a healthy mind as is the moral restraint that prevents the
criminal thought from being acted upon. External restraints brought about
by the fear of law, custom and adverse reaction reinforce the inner restraint
to prevent the committing of crime. However, as the force of external
restraints weakens for diverse reasons and the proportion of gain to be
made in committing a crime overweighs the risks involved in the balance
sheet of the operation, the lure of crime increases and the deed is done. It is
the social situation which controls the external restraints to make
committing a crime an asset or a liability and thereby decides the
proliferation or suppression of crime with human nature being what it is
always. Criminals are criminals because society gives them easy openings
to thus meet their needs. Politicians love to befriend criminals rather than
bring them to book because the society they live in makes their lives



comfortable with criminals as friends rather than as adversaries. Policemen

find the crime world sweeter because it is how things stand for them. The
remedy for the proliferation and endearment of crime lies in changing the
social dynamics to make crime a liability to criminals and criminals a
liability to politicians and the police. In the existing nexus of politics,
crime and police, crime is an asset to criminals and criminals are an asset
to politicians and police. Criminals should not be construed as a separate
block of citizenry. They are a cross-section of people from all fields of life
who have moved beyond a commonly accepted degree in their criminal
tendencies. Criminality may be prolific in certain civilised fields like
commerce and industry in the form of tax evasion, violation of foreign
exchange regulations, hoarding etc; such crimes are generally not taken
seriously in spite of the public awareness of the crimes, with the social
standing of the criminals remaining unaffected. Government servants too
come under this category of criminals because of the unconfined
corruption in public life. It is a fact that Indian public life is a vast field of
criminal activities and politicians and police, though the custodians and
protectors of the Indian public life, form part of the crime world. However,
knowledge of the involvement of politicians and police in this nasty world
stirs the public conscience, for the reason that they are supposed to be the
people on whom the public relies to save them. But, it cannot be because
they are also part of the society which makes public life a nasty affair and
nourishes it.
Crime and national economy
A word about the effect of the nasty nexus between politics, crime and
police on the national economy. Unity gives strength. It is true about the
nasty nexus also. The only telos of the nexus is gain by synergy, the
synergy which brings confidence and courage to the troika in its nefarious
activities, thereby inducing it to more daring and innovative criminal
activities. This results in proliferation of crime, apart from affecting the
quality of crime by opening up new avenues for operation. As the ultimate
end of all crime is illegal gain and the incidence of crime is directly related
to increase in black money in the national economy, the proliferation of
crime invariable results in inflation and the weakening of the national
More dangerously, it results in a polarisation of the society into criminal
rich and honest poor and destroys the country's moral fabric. The
increscent incidence of easy money, material comforts and political power
of the criminal rich ultimately leads to internal strife, emeute and popular



Social polarization
The indulgence of the rich and powerful in crime popularises criminal
activities by bringing an aura of status to them and negating all inhibitions
in the popular mind. Society easily accepts the example of the wealthy and
powerful for making an easy buck to lead comfortable lives in the world
where life is becoming increasingly difficult because of the spurt in black
money, caused by the proliferation of crime. While decent life becomes
impossible by honest methods, the need of survival forces honest citizenry
to accept crime as a way of life as the last resort. This would be where
politicians, criminals and police lead the country.
Easy money and easy wealth have a tendency to inflate. Criminals tend
to spend lavishly. This ends up in a spurt in prices of land, building and
essential commodities while honest men have to toil hard for an extra
quarter. Crime begets money and money begets more money and more
money begets power, comfort and everything. In the crush, honest man is
lost forever. The ocean of criminal wealth around him which is beyond
even his wildest dreams frustrates him and ravages his sense of morality
and righteousness. It turns him violently against all human values and
decency, leading him to a world of crime and violence. It is what we see in
Punjab, Kashmir, Assam, in far away Srilanka or even in Naxalism where
it is hidden in the guise of political ideology. It is an irony that politicians
and the police, who create the demons, eat their own pies by falling to the
bullets of the grievously hurt, self-righteous, once innocent people. It is
said that even the dacoits in Chambal are symptomatic of this social and
economic malady.
It is true that crime cannot be eliminated from any society as the
tendency to commit crime is ingenerate in human nature. However, crime
can be supressed by appropriate straints. What straints and how they are to
be applied are ironically decided by politicians and the police. If they come
out of their indulgent interests to commit themselves to their professional
objectives, they can certainly save India from the present predicament. Not
that every politician and every policeman can come out to achieve this
noble task, but there certainly are noble elements yet surviving as
exceptions among them, who should take up cudgels in favour of the
Indian polity and sacrifice their lives and careers, if necessary, to make the
renaissance of Indian police and Indian public life possible. The question
yet to be posed is whether the inveterate vested interests will let these
sacrifices bear fruit. Let us hope for the best.






Policing is a reaction of the society to its warped situations. The process
of policing is always in a state of flux to keep a la hauteur de rapidly
evolving nature of the social complexities. In this sense, the police is a
reflection of the face of the national life. Stability in the national life slows
down the process of policing; a volatile situation strings police to high
tension and energises it. Growth or retardation in social progress
accordingly reflects the style of policing. When the nation stands at the
crossroads, the police also finds itself on compita: at the intersection of a
reneging past and a converging future. This is where India and its police
stand now after four decades of becoming a republic. As with old
generations which saw life, society and politics prior to the independence
give way to new generations in national life and old passions and values
atrophy before the gust of speed, smartness and a garish way of life, the
police too finds itself in a peregrine role with no past for continuity and no
future for creativity. The police finds itself rising from a claut to pave the
new path; it must blindly choose from alternatives, it thinks available to it.
There is no past experience to fall upon, no future guidelines to pursue.
Yet, it must walk with time to fulfil its raison d'etre. The Indian police
finds itself in this blind-spot today, at the crossroads from where it should
build bridges to the future. The immanent swither of the compita is like the
new freedom of a caged animal. It must acclimatise and warm up to the
new situation, shed us mental fetters, bring strength to its legs and learn to
move au naturel. A slip at this stage would be a sempiternal tragedy; a
right move here would be a lucky rise forever. At this stage in its
evolution, the possibilities are endless. The Indian police now stands at this
momentous juncture.
Importance of police in national life
The police and policing are larger than an individual and his selfinterests. The police is an institution which is constituted of man,
machinery and ideas. Man is just a minute constituent of the monolith that,
is the police. An institution of the police organisation's dimensions
naturally has defacements at places that in no way affect the overall view
of the structure. Ergo, minor casualties are common in such a mammoth
edifice. Only when the defacements have an impact on the overall mien of
the structure and distort its face, do corrective measures become comme il
faut. The police should be continuously watched for such vital distortions,
for its health or otherwise has a serious bearing on the national life. A



minor shift in the style of policing in the country can make a life-and-death
difference to myriad people. It is in this perspective that decisions
regarding policing should be taken. The decisions become sensitive when
the police reaches crossroads and forces further decisions on the course of
its passage. A wrong turn? The police may inadvertently tear the fabric of
the national life to shreds and ruin the country. A right step? An era of
perfect security, order and peace. Only a selfless analysis of the needs of
the time and assessment of the avenir would give the insight necessary to
make the right choice about the course to be pursued. Such an analysis
must be carried out by highly competent persons at the highest level who
can see things dispassionately and take decisions. They must be people
who have an overall view of things and are capable of seeing them against
the wider background of the national interest. It is a very responsible job,
requiring thorough knowledge of the nuances of the police and policing.
The people who do it must be capable of taking hard decisions which may
often go against their own interests and may have far-reaching
consequences. This book is an obvious effort in this direction. The Indian
police must give serious thought to what it wants to be in future and take
tough decisions.
Mishandling of police in independent India
There is an impression that the Indian police is not what it was before
Independence. The previous pride, toughness and ferocious commitment to
duties are no more patent. The Indian police has become soft, humble and
easy-going in post-independence days. Humility and pressures all round
deprived it of its vitality. The police have become a widely abused
organisation by the virtue of its conticent submission to the wishes of its
masters under false notions of discipline. It is the popular scapegoat for
anything and everything that goes wrong in the public life. In the
circumstances, a sense of insecurity has developed in the police that
comminates career-life. A natural outcome of this fix is, taking things easy
with eyes and ears shut, unless career interests warrant otherwise.
Commitment to policing is sacrificed in the process. These developments
have reduced the police to a toy that moves only when the spring inside
unwinds. New entrants to the police who begin to run left and right with
nascent entrainement in the first few months, soon realise the realities on
the ground when the wounds on the body of their career dehisce, looking
fatal and ready to gorge their esperance for the avenir. This is the triste
spiel of the Indian police now.
Outside interference in policing
A serious malady affecting the tough and no-nonsensical image of the
police is the interference of people of some standing in the society with the



quotidian policing at all levels. An organisation, looking for a serious

image, cannot afford this luxury. Policing must be insulated from public
pressures except at the top, to which all policing affairs must be
responsible. People handling policing should be responsible only to law
and their heads in the police department and to none else. The regulation of
policing policies in all details must be controlled and guided by the top. On
the other hand, the line authority of the organisation must be all-powerful
to guide and regulate policing and police administration and bear the
responsibility for everything below the level. Such a setup sine dubio
presumes a pollent leadership. For an organisation with powers and
responsibilities like the police, such a strong leadership is sine qua non
otherwise as well.
A police organisation, open to public pressures can do no policing
worth the name. The very idea of being receptive to pressures and
interferences presupposes a lack of will for objectivity and justice. It is
criminal elements who cultivate sources for such straints on the police, that
have put the policing on the wrong rails. Pressure on policing often renders
the police to commit crimes under the veil of authority, either by protecting
criminals or more dangerously, by replacing them with innocent people as
criminals. The possibility of the police being open to the straints of the rich
and powerful, deprives it of its credibility. A police force that works at the
behests of the rich and powerful can guard their interests only. It would
thus be the villain to the hoi polloi. Does democratic India need such a
police force to perpetuate the tyranny of the poor and helpless by the rich
and powerful? Democratic India tolerated such a police in the last four
decades. India and its people however, must now abraid to the situation
and spawn a police that behoves to the trust laid on it.
Fall of professional standards
The aberration of professional objectivity is the kenspeckle sema of the
police in independent India. The problem was simple in British India
where ruler and ruled were distinctly bifurcated and ipso facto the loyalty
of police was perspicaciously defined unlike the Indian republic of
democratic genre where people rule themselves through elected
representatives. Here, the loyalty of police to the public and public law is
the professional ethic; misplaced loyalty to an individual, a family, a party
or an ideology at the cost of the general public is an apostasy from the
inviolable professionalism of the police. The police, in a democracy, is the
guardian of public interests and public safety unlike in the Raj where the
police protected the interests of the Raj. This distinction is forgotten in
independent India where mental fetters are yet to be broken and legacies of
the British rule continue inveterated. How can a police that stays loyal to
personal, familial or party interests ever discharge its functions objectively



to law and general public? What can its locus standi be when a different
person or party comes to power? A sequacious police is an asset to any
individual or party and no sensible individual or party distances it in name
of the professional ethics. It is the paravant duty of the police not to breach
the edifice of the police organisation and its spirit by misprising its
professional standards. This infrangible obligation is thrown to the winds
in the maelstrom of career advancements by the self-seeking gendarmerie
of the Indian republic.
A byproduct of this degenerate trend is the rise of opportunists and
sycophants to key posts and the fall of pollent caractere to insignificant and
humiliating slots. The trend creates a catena of reactions that slowly-cats
up the vitality of the police organisation and reduces it to a foul bunch of
bloodhounds of the rich and powerful few. The shoddy creatures sitting
tout court above men of probity is a dangerous situation in an organisation
like the police where a stiff hierarchical order and a command-obedience
relationship exist between ranks. This reverse order of merit is sure to
bring frustration and the collapse of the organisation someday ex
consequentl. This is because, a few selfish elements put ain interests before
the professional and national interests. And this is in a disciplined
orgapisation. This is where commitment to organisational objects is the
life-fluid of the profession.
Police culture of free India
The British were the forefathers, of the unified Indian police. They
created the reticulation of the police force for India with their own designs
and objects in sight. It was a force that met the needs of the time. In an age
of rapid changes due to the opening up of new vistas and dimensions to life
by inventions and discoveries in science and technology, nothing remain
quiescent. The scope, design and objects of the Indian police underwent a
basic metamorphosis with the transfer of government to native hands. The
process spawned a synod wherein undemanding aspects of both the worlds
survived to create a new police culture. The distinguishing traits of the
Indian police of the British vintage like objectivity, apoliticism,
commitment, discipline, quality and high standards were discarded as
percgrine and irrelevant in the changed circumstances; and traditional
Indian values like simplicity, charity, wisdom, mutual respect, encraty and
human qualities were distanced as indign to the police culture. The
convenient factors of the old and new worlds were chosen to warp a new
world of police culture while demands on policing were at the crucial stage
in the creant years of national independence. The cabal was struck by the
Indian police officers who rapidly rose in their career overnight to fill the
void, created by the resignations of their senior British officers in the
ancient regime on the eve of independence. The demand for creating a new



work-relationship with native political leaders was a historical opportunity

to carve a new police culture in free India. The incompetence of the then
police impresarios, their greed, parochial approach and self-interests
spawned the wrong type of police culture. They laid mendacious praxis to
those lower by bending laws and conscience to aggrate men in power with
the myopic object of promoting ain career and personal interests. The
police became a lithe tool in the hands of the power-brokers of free India.
How can the police be objective, honest, apolitical, committed and
disciplined in such an atrophy and how can it uphold the rule of law and
justice in line with its professional edit in such a circumstance?
Police at the cross-section
Policing, being a specialised job wherein few people venture to have a
keek owing to its fearful image, still remains an enigma to outsiders
including administrators and the general public. Its locus standi somewhere
in between the armed forces and civil administration renders its structure,
scope and style of functioning undefined in the monolith of governance.
This, compounded with the prolate powers of the police to cover all
aspects of living, has made the police an awful company to live with. This
is a situation of one-way traffic wherein the police have a say on every
aspect of the life of the people while the general public is dumb and
blindfold to everything about the police. The situation has placed the police
at the unusual advantage of dictating what should be what, where and how
in policing and police organisation. Sine dubio, it is a godsent benison for
the police while right man sits at the sconce. To the worst mauvais moment
of the police, sycophants ramp the ladder and reach the top t hold reins and
guide the destiny of the police in independent India and consequently the
Indian police has got what it deserved, namely a spiritless culture,
composed of the weak and bad precedences of its incompetent leaders.
It has been a long time since independence. What peopie and those in
the police accepted as standards in the inchoate entrainement of the dawn
of independence, no more stir them. The atrophy of more than two
generations of independent India opened their eyes to what was happening
around, in the name of the supercherie of the self-rule. Enough is enough.
Though late, they realised for certain that self-rule does not mean fraud and
tyranny by their own people, that self-interests know no nationality, that
the cabals of compatriots are no less pernicious than that of the aliens.
Forty-five years is a long enough period to realise the need for breaking
away from the corrupt innards of the state-crafts of independent India.
India and the Indian police stand at this
crossroads at this hour.



Police as social doctors

Policemen are social doctors and policing is a surgical operation of the
society to systematically remove cancerous growths from its body. What if
the band of doctors itself is infested with serious cancerous growths? This
is the position of the present-day Indian police. The police, as the enforcers
of law and protectors of the public interests, wield tremendous powers for
the public good. Such powers to interfere with the life of the citizens must
be invested only in people of high probity and conscience. Otherwise, the
powers by themselves ruin the social fabric of the country and bring
anarchy. Powers to search, seize, remove, detain, direct, arrest, hit and
even kill may prove pernicious in the wrong hands. Powers to decide who
has done wrong and how to prosecute them, when invested in dishonest
hands, certainly ruin society and the country. How these powers are
exercised depends imprimis on the work ethic of the organisation. Though
it is the people of an organisation au fond who build the job-culture of the
organisation, it is this job-culture of the organisation that creates a person
in the organisation at a given point of time. Even a degenerate caractere
turns honest and efficient in an honest and efficient environment. The
work-culture builds and moulds vitality to meet the general atmosphere
around. Similarly, an honest and efficient person in a degenerate culture is
bound to atrophy sooner or later, unless his individual strength superates
the vitiating work-culture of the organisation. Ergo, building up a proper
job-culture is the bedrock of a perficient police organisation.
Unequal treatment
The problem of the Indian police lies in a lack of proper
understanding of the scope and ground rules of the work. This results in the
absence of a proper set of standards to approach the call of duty.
Consequently, each call of duty is approached subjectively, depending
upon the mood and understanding of the police in charge of the situation.
The subjective policing on the Indian scene is unfortunately accepted by all
strata of people sans prole. The Indian police never recognises the equality
of ail and the need for equal coverage of policing facilities to all citizens of
India. Whether it is in matters of protection, maintenance of order, crime
control or investigation of crimes committed, the standards of policing
available are kenspeckle in their disparity for a nameless poor farmer in a
remote village and an ex-Prime Minister, both of whom have equal rights
before the law and the Indian constitution to have crimes against them
investigated. The coverage is nonpareil for a landlord and an agricultural
labourer. The point is not that the principle of equality should balk the
ground realities, but that the policing must have a reasonable set of
standards, within which more important and less important aspects of the
policing must operate. It will not be so in the Indian police until people



who place their personal interests beyond everything including law, justice,
fairness, objectivity, righteousness, career pride, professional interests of
policing and the nation hold the reins at the highest levels of the police,
courtesy of those whom they serve better than the hoi polloi.
Policing approach
There are two types of approach to policing as distinguishable on the
Indian scene, namely,
a) The playful approach, where the police as players in a football game,
play the game within the scope of the ground rules to have the ball inside
the goal without committing a foul. Tout au contraire to the real football
game, here the game is played dispassionately and leisurely and played
because they are paid to play the game; and,
b) The passionate approach, wherein the police break all rules and laws
that come in the way with the sole approach of making their task a success.
They may even commit dangerous crimes in pursuance of their
goals. The Indian police oscillate between these two disparate approaches,
depending upon, for whose advantage they work and what would be their
personal grist ultimately. Only a few high-flying people with money and
power en arrier to back policing of the passionate genre deserve the
'Passionate Approach'. Others must remain contented with the 'Playful
Approach'. Both approaches are indign to a dignified police organisation.
The former, namely the 'Playful Approach' is against the tenets of
professionalism and a professional commitment to work. The latter,
namely the Passionate Approach in spite of its commitment to its goals, is
devoid of its professionalism by lack of professional commitment to the
objects of objectivity, fairness and justice. Policing by criminal methods
cannot be called professional policing. The right approach to professional
policing is a syndesis of both the approaches in which the commitment to
achieve goals follow the professionalism of rightful means in respecting
rules and laws of which the police as professionals are guardians.
Professional commitment implies achieving goals within the parameters of
the permitted methods. The professional end of the police is upholding the
interests of law and justice. Policing is not an end by itself. It is a tool to
serve law and justice. Policing by committing crimes against law and
justice is committing crimes against policing. The Indian police is yet to
show its maturity of professional commitment in policing, which as a
standard policing approach would be equally available to all the needy,
irrespective of their status, wealth and position in the society.



Criminal tendencies in police

A serious subculture of the Indian police in Indian hands is
committing crimes to prevent and detect crimes and breaking laws to catch
law-breakers: indeed in the name of showing results. The misplaced stress
on results sans a concern for organisational and national objects of law and
justice in committing grave malfeasances only reflects a shallow
intellectual commitment to policing by Indian police leaders and a
bankruptcy of ingine to delve to the roots of policing problems. Thirddegree methods in crime detection is the point. Even senior officers tacitly
supporting inhuman crimes of the third-degree methods on suspects, who
may turn out to be innocent at the end, is not uncommon. Crimes are
crimes whether they are committed by the police or by the public. What
right has the police to inflict sufferings on others albeit on suspicion? After
all, it is not the agency to pass judgement on crimes. None placed the
police ayont the scope of the Indian Penal Code. What justification can the
police have to commit crimes to collect evidences of other crimes? The
Indian Penal Code never conceived two sets of laws for the crimes
committed by the police and others. Crimes committed by the police in the
name of detecting other crimes are not less harmful to the well-being of
society. The sadism and criminal tendencies of the police are not more
justifiable than those of the general public. On the other hand, society has
to be avizefull and deracinate criminal tendencies from the police, for,
criminals from the police with the state plenipotence and laws behind it can
be a real death-knell to the society. The difference between crimes for
official and crimes for personal ends is wafer thin. Those who have tasted
the blood of crime, takes to that more easily than others, because of their
special accesses to the field and special privileges. A good police force
requires an inveterate cause against crime and criminality. In absence of
such a cause, the police may metamorphose into a demonic organisation
that throws the country into a mux of atrophy.
In an atmosphere of the maintenance of law and order in the hands of
unprincipled police, queer things may take place. Long ago, a dacoity was
reported in the house of a person of doubtful character at Betgeri in
Dharwar district. People who had knowledge of the coup defond opined
that the act was committed by his illegitimate son, after a serious quarrel,
the preceding night. He had bad relations with and court cases pending
against the illegitimate son. The investigation of the case by the local
police also obsigned the matter. The person who had cultivated some
standing in Betgeri thought it imperative after he settled his feuds with the
illegitimate son, to have the case of dacoity substantiated as a professional
offence to save his family name. Soon, he patched up relations with the
young man, settled his court cases with him and arranged for the case to be
chargesheeted, with an ex-convict of Stuartpuram being picked up and



shown as accused. A mangalasutra recast from the gold recovered in some

other case was shown as property seized from the criminal out of the
property worth of about 300 gms of gold being reportedly snatched away.
Arrest, recovery, detection and chargesheet followed after a decade of the
reported commission of the dacoity. Such developments make criminal
administration a mockery. What a serious breach of the public trust and
what a serious crime is it by the police officials in consciously involving a
person, albeit an ex-convict, in a crime in which they knew, he did not
commit and fabricating evidence to a crime which never took place to help
to settle the family affairs of a bad character? Such paradigms reflect to
what levels of criminality the Indian police has sunk to. Percase, the
weather is stormiest before the return to stillness. The boundless pravity of
the police, perchance, is the sema of the advent of a new age of honest and
committed policing in India.
In another instance that dates back to 1981, a police official holding the
charge of Koppal police subdivision in Karnataka picked up a poor
goldsmith from a small town of a neighbouring district for interrogation
about receiving stolen properties. He subjected him to inhuman torture in a
tourist bungalow of the same town for two nights to make the innocent
goldsmith confess to an act which he did not do. The wife and children of
the goldsmith, who spotted him in the tourist bungalow after endless
running from pillar to post, were mercilessly scared away from the place
even while they could hear his agonized shrieks. The goldsmith succumbed
and died on the second night of torture. The Koppal official who had
worked as Circle Police Inspector in the town until a few months before,
carried out this illicit, nefarious activity without the knowledge of the
senior police officers of the town. The news of the lockup death, as such
deaths are popularly known, broke out in local and other newspapers. The
wife of the goldsmith filed a private complaint before the local court about
the killing of her husband. The district Superintendent o Police and the
Range Deputy Inspector General of Police, in whose good books the
Koppal official was as the Circle Inspector of the small town, due to his
liberal give-and-take approach, rose to the occasion to save their protege
from any harm. They visited the town and entrusted the investigation of the
case to a complaisant Deputy Superintendent of Police of a neighbouring
subdivision with perspicuous oral directions to finalise the case as not
proved, before the magistrate who received the wife's private complaint
took cognisance of the plaint. The officious Deputy Superintendent of
Police duly complied with the directions and sent his investigation report
to the court for action u/s 2l0 of the Cr.P.C. Thus ended the case of coldblooded torture and culpable homicide of an innocent goldsmith. The
person who committed the crime stealthily in a place outside his
jurisdiction now lives a retired life, unaffected by the crime in anyway and
the two officers who saved him from the wheel of justice are continuing in



service at higher ranks. It is such success stories of cruelty and criminality

that make the police appear like a criminal demon. What right has the
police to investigate and prosecute criminals while it protects killer
criminals from its ain field to the disservice of law and justice?
In another incident, a police official who got posted as police chief of a
state of India in 1986 on the support of his community, wanted to favour a
fingerprint Sub-Inspector, who had been under suspension for a long time
after being arrested in a criminal case involving community interests, en
revanche to the support of his community for his elevation as police chief,
by releasing the latter from suspension even while the criminal case was at
the trial stage in court. He summoned the Superintendent of Police in
charge of the Sub-Inspector and examined the file about the suspension
after assuming the charge as police chief. The Superintendent of Police,
who was a greenhorn in such matters, failed to understand that the action
was an indication that he was to release the Sub-Inspector from the
suspension coute que coute. Even if he understood the tacit meaning of the
act, he could not act selon les regles for two reasons; a) that the SubInspector was suspended by an officer of the rank of Deputy Inspector
General of Police and ipso facto no officer below that rank was empowered
to release the official from the suspension as per civil service rules, and b)
that as the official was under suspension for being arrested in a criminal
case and the case was then pending trial in court of law, release from
suspension was not en regle. After a fortnight, the police chief secured the
fingerprint Sub-Inspector's release from suspension. However, he
nourished esoteric spite for the young Superintendent of Police for not
understanding what he wanted him to do; he manipulated the records and
ensured that the latter lost his selection for the Indian Police Service during
the selection committee meeting, held after three years. The career of the
bright officer is in shambles now. Such cases of avenging the
noncooperation in criminal activities of those at higher ranks are common
in the Indian police these days. This egregious trend adversely affects the
policing outfit by weakening its cause for fairness, law and justice.
How subordinates are brought to requisite shapes is a different story tout
ensemble. A young subdivisional police officer in a small town that was
known for speculative business activities, conducted a raid on a library, run
by a powerful local community as a common gambling house where
prominent people of the town were patrons. He apprehended more than
fifty prominent people including the richest business men, senior
government officials and local politicians with huge stake monies. Though
the library had been a blue-chip gambling den for many years, none dared
to raid it in spite of repeated public petitions. As law requires that the place
must first be proved as a common gambling house, the subdivisional police
officer entered the names of all those who were gambling at the place on



the Station House Diary of the town police station and let them out with
written warning that cases would be booked if they continued to gamble
there. The officer learnt too late that the gambling den was patronised by
the Superintendent of Police of the district and the Deputy Inspector
General of the range and the men whose names were brought on the police
Station records were their friends. He was transferred out to a sinecure post
tout de suite of the incident, with his annual confidential report stating that
the public might revolt against the officer if he had continued in the police
department. The library continues to be a gambling den even now.
The Deputy Inspector General of Police at the place of the new posting
of the officer wanted the maledict young Deputy Superintendent of Police
to marry a girl from his circle. The parents of the young officer fearing
chantage got their son married in hurry to a girl of their choice. This
antagonised the Deputy Inspector General. His next annual confidential
report showed the junior as a liability to the police department. He also
prevailed year after year upon other officers who wrote confidential reports
of the officer to incorpse adverse remarks. Most of them obliged and this
bright junior officer ended up with a series of unsubstantiated adverse
remarks in his annual confidential reports. All his appeals were never
allowed to reach the government. It is to his credit that he is yet unbroken
and continues in police service while his far less competent colleagues
have superated him on the career ladder and he is successively denied
important postings though there is not a single thing in his career to justify
such a treatment. Undeterred by the man-made dies mali heaped on him by
the departmental heads by refusing him selection to the all India service in
preference to his less qualified and less competent juniors, he later
addressed the chief secretary of the government not to consider him any
more for the service. He took this unprecedented autophagous demarche in
utter contemn to the corrupt departmental heads who sit above him to
decide his career avenir.
These garish paradigms are just a croquis of the coup defend of the
criminal clinamen of the people in today's Indian police. In no way are
they more committed to law and justice than the criminal elements of the
society. Does not the police need people in its fold with deeper passion for
law and justice? Is it by design or accident that independent India raised a
criminal outfit to catch criminals? It is in the interest of the Indian police to
accept the reality in its naked form so as to inspire remedial measures.
Policing by false publicity
Sadly, the police of independent India learnt to rely on poor public
memory to obliterate its poor performance. Incompetent and directionless
reporting by the Indian media helps them in this image-salvaging task. It is



a fashion in police circles to issue press notes about detection of major

dacoity cases after small-time thieves are apprehended. Only if somebody
from the press or public pursues the information of the press-notes, will
they come to know that no dacoity case has been really detected and that
the loud claims of successful policing are only meant to hoodwink the
public, press and political masters. It is interesting to note that most claims
of detection of dacoity cases coincide with legislative assembly sessions.
This is true at least in Bangalore City where during 1989-91, such press
notes abundantly appeared in newspapers during legislative assembly
sessions. Of late, the public has leamt to take such claims cum grain sails
and consequently the credibility of the police is waning in its eyes. The
tough no-nonsense image of the Indian police of the British vintage has
given way to a nonsensical, comical image in free India. What better thing
can come from hoc genus omne hype?
Unitary police administration
In the current system of policing in India, police stations and district
police units form basic units of the administration. Some of the functions
discharged at these levels have concurrent jurisdiction with some special
units at state and national levels. Crime investigation in special
circumstances can be taken over from the district police administration by
the state CID or the CBI at the national level. So, it is with the intelligence
collection, security operations, the raising of armed police forces,
maintenance of crime records etc. The police in the states is devised as an
independent unit. In a vast country like India, policing being shared
between scores of independent units with no perspicaciously defined
mechanism of cooperation, the problem occurs of coordination and unity
of purpose in tackling challenges that cover more then one of these units.
There are too many challenges such as these in the increasingly complex
society of India. Except for the sense of national unity, there is nothing
common among these units to approach the gauntlets with a common
cause. Even the common Indian Police Service is unable to bring about a
unity of purpose to policing throughout India. This gives an impression of
fragmentation in the Indian police. A fragmented police cannot turn out
work in full stream, owing to the waste by leakage in the process of coordination between the fragmented pans. India must consider devising a
pollent unitary police administration at the centre with full control over
subordinate state and union territory police setups. This would avoid
coordination problems and help policing to be more purposeful in tackling
challenges from the national perspective. It also makes available larger
resources from the national level for policing apart from strengthening the
sense of belonging to one police. This is necessary in the interests of the
country and its policing in the future.



Study and research in policing

Policing is a field of specialised study. There is the need of in-depth
study of policing as a discipline, apart from research to improve policing
functions. Police administration is a distinct field with sui generis
characteristics. The police organisation with its hierarchical order, stiff
discipline, nonesuch policing characteristics, unique operational difficulties
and functional modalities poses its own challenges. These challenges must
be met and superated more suo. This requires the development of the
subjects of police and policing as a distinct field of intense study and
research. Whatever was done in this field till now has not sufficed and has
contributed nothing to policing methods arid style. A myriad problems in
the field of practical policing stare planners in the face, be these problems
of operational strategies, timing of the operations, procedural hurdles,
organisational planning, control techniques, information and feedback
systems, communication networks, effective supervision, leadership
qualities, work distribution, work measurement, job analysis or human
relationships. Useful study on and research into these subjects would make
a momentous impact on the style and effectiveness of policing in India.
Such studies and research impart respectability to police and policing by
creating an intellectual dimension. The academic interests work as stepping
stones in remodelling the police organisation and redefining policing
functions to create an effective police force.
Measurement of policing
A major handicap in police administration is the difficulty posed in
measurement of policing. No tangible tool to measure police performance
has as yet been devised. The problem is peculiar to the fields of crime
control and security operations. The object of the organisation is
preventing crimes fro being committed and success of the policing can be
measured only in relation to the extent of the efforts being made to commit
crimes, which are prevented. As the factors of such an effort being
unknown after the crimes are prevented, effectiveness of the policing can
never be measured. The results that meet the eye, namely the successful
protection of a sensitive target or the complete crime prevention during a
particular period can be the outcome for two different reasons: either that
none have attempted such malicho, in which case even the least effective
police could also have produced the same results or that an all-out major
attempt to commit crime has been prevented, which could not have been
achieved by anything less than the first-rate policing. Here, the same
results meet the eye for two different dimensions of the policing, ipso facto
rendering outcome a factor not related to the quality of the policing.
Measurement of the quality of crime investigation and maintenance of
order are also equally complex for different reasons. Policing in these





fields largely depends upon intangible factors like luck, surroundings and
the willing cooperation of the public. To superate these problems of
measurement of policing qualities, a police organisation depends upon
comparing developments in the same periods in preceding years. This is an
unscientific method and gives unsatisfactory results for various reasons.
The crime rate or other policing challenges do not remain static over time.
These depend upon population, complexity of the society, economic
conditions, moral values, quality of leadership, political conditions, prices,
climate etc, none of which develop from any predictable formula. The
police perforce needs a tool to measure policing quality as a control device.
Until such a device is invented, police administrators have to rely upon
their subjective fancies to measure and control policing and assess the
work of their subordinates. Until a scientific device is formulated, the
heartburns and frustrations caused by erratic measurement of work and
policing qualities, wherein a few mealy-mouthed smarties always comer
accolades at the cost of efficient silent workers, will continue to
precipitate. A sufficiently efficient tool to measure policing qualities is the
first priority in the task of creating a new shape for the Indian police. The
success achieved in this field will decide the degree to which the Indian
police can shed its old shoddy image.
Management in policing
For police administrators, knowledge of modern management principles
makes policing and police operations cheaper, effective and less
demanding in terms of time, place, manpower, equipments and other
resources. A clinamen to study and plan operations in terms of layout
charts, time flow, span of control, methods of programming of operations,
motivational aspects, human relationships, information flow, control
methods, work analysis and contingencies for emergencies must be
ingenerate in policing whether it pertain to raids, maintenance of order,
crime control, crime investigation, intelligence collection, security
exercises or even quotidian police administration. Only the pernickety
exercise of management techniques will make police administration
meaningful, purposeful and useful in giving policing a direction and
content. The police cannot afford to sit back while tout le monde reaps the
behoofs of the latest tidings in the field of management techniques.
Housing and other facilities
Policing is a risky profession that draws antagonism and hatred by its
very nature. It involves round-the-clock duUes, often at odd hours, at odd
places in odd circumstances. Retaliation by criminals is a constant risk
under which policemen live. Their work constantly expose them to danger.
The very nature of their duties necessitates their being treated on a



different footing to others in the government. The security of housing and

other facilities being generously available to them is de rigueur. Indeed the
spirit of the ancien regime remains undisturbed in matters of housing
facilities for the police. However, a much more liberal attitude in providing
housing and other facilities to the police is necessary to strengthen the
Indian police and make policing more effective.
Reorganisation of police
The last three decades saw a tremendous expansion in the Indian police.
For lack of an organisational plan and the foresight to assess the future
demands of policing, an erratic growth has resulted. Organisational
sensibilities like work-load, unity of control, accountability, functional
conveniences, span of control, and information flow are never given the
attention they need in building an organisation. As a result, while a few
posts in the police organisation are overburdened with work, there are
many which are sinecures without work or accountability. The lopsided
growth of the organisation generated acute likes and dislikes for various
police jobs. This made postings in the police department, a matter of haute
politique and high business. Naturally, probity and objectivity are
sacrificed to give precedence to survival and protection of career interests.
Corruption flourished. This may not be the sole reason for the glissade of
the standards of policing. Yet, it is a major cause. Rationalisation of the
police structure to bring a balance among various posts at the same rank
would certainly help to ameliorate the situation considerably. It would also
help to eliminate the wastage of government funds on unnecessary posts.
The justification for the creation of such de trop posts, that they fill slots to
post unwanted elements, does not hold ground in a no-nonsense and
serious department like the police. A systematic growth plan for balanced
expansion is sine qua non if the police department is to be of any relevance
to the difficile tasks ahead.
Professional knowledge
Policing is a field where professional knowledge is perforce in use.
What is at issue is not only the knowledge of law and procedures but a
deeper insight into their applications, necessary in diverse circumstances.
A mind, alert to its surroundings with an inexhaustible curiosity to know
what is afoot and what is the coup de fond of each development and its
likely impacts on policing in general and the work at hand in particular, is
sine qua non for perficient policing. This need entails special efforts to
update professional and general knowledge at all levels. Though there are
training programmes, including in-service training, in the Indian police,
these are lacking in substance and quality. They fail to impart the right
knowledge to trainees and induce attitudinal changes in them. The poor



mental makeup is a common failing at all police ranks in India. A lack of

commitment to work, either in actual performance or in supervision is the
primary cause of this failing. A healthy police setup must possess sound
professional and general knowledge at all levels, from the constabulary to
the ranks of the Director General: this is the number one priority.
Training in martial art
The Indian police is not paying sufficient attention to the need for
physical prowess, sturdiness and skill in martial art. The need for attention
to these factors during recruitment, basic training and in-service challenges
is tout a fait ignored. A healthy and sturdy police requires healthy and
sturdy men and officers, capable of taking up gauntlets and defending
themselves when exposed to comminations. The need can be sidelined
only at the risk of weakening the organisation. The police is often required
to defend itself in circumstances when unarmed and undefended. Policing
involves performance of tough and physically trying jobs that can only be
performed when policemen and police officers are physically and mentally
fit. The police, aspiring to a bright future, must attend to this need for its
own good health with genuine seriousness.
Policing through people
The performance of the Indian police in utilising the services of the
public is far from desirable. Most parts of the country are yet to avail of the
services o the people as special police officers, as is provided by police
regulations to assist in policing. Wherever the services are availed, the
potential is not made use of to the full. The system of village police
officers also is yet to fledge to take off. The use of people as traffic
wardens to assist traffic police is limited to major cities of India. No police
can be tout a fait self-contained. Involving the public and obtaining its
cooperation in policing is a necessary art which needs to be carefully
cultivated for making policing a success story in India. There is no
shortage of people among me public who would volunteer their services.
Only, the police must open its doors to such services and organise a system
to make such services really effective and useful.
Lack of planning in modernisation
It is indubitable that neoteric communication, transport, weaponry,
office and other scientific systems arc musts for a feracious turnout of
work in the police. Only modernisation can equip the police for perficient
action. The fact is well realised in police circles sans an insight as to the
what, wheres, hows and whys. The passion for modernisation is not met
with intellectual analysis of the needs for modernisation. The result is a



spasmodic modernisation without the logical support to sustain

modernisation systems. This has resulted in enormous, wasteful
expenditures on mal a propos gadgetry. India is yet to develop to
machinery to assess the needs of modernisation in the police and to devise
techniques to speed up the process. India is yet to make full use of
advanced computer facilities for the policing work; computerisation of
fingerprints is yet to reach a satisfactory phase. Use of helicopters for
policing is as yet a distant dream in India. Distant hearing and night
watching devices are similarly unknown.
Response time
The response time of Indian police to a crisis call is unduly long when
compared to international standards. Efforts to shorten it in Delhi and a
few other places where terrorist strikes made shocking impacts, brought
some improvements. These are only exceptions. Otherwise, no serious
thought is given to the need for quick response time. The modernisation
programmes which should pave the path for improving the response time,
seldom attend to this salient need. The Bangalore city police spent liberally
in 1991 on modem communication gadgets; but it did not better its
response time even by the fraction of a second. Instances of such wasteful
expenditure on modernization are available in other parts of the country
Need of sound human relationship
The current state of human relationships in Indian police does not bring
credit to the organisation. Relationships are brittle and mechanical without
the edge of human feelings. The relationship between different ranks turns
out to be soft or hard depending upon the contractual relationship
established for mutual advantage from time to time: it is rather a donor and
recipient relationship while soft and master and servant relationship while
hard. There is no genuine human concern and no sense of recognition of
the other man as another human being with more suo approach. The other's
human qualities, sui generis attributes and rare gifts are balked as
inconsequential trash. Rank differences superate other factors in moulding
the brittle pattern of these relationships. This is equally true among officers
of the same rank. The model of bad human relationship within the police
bred an atmosphere of mutual suspicion in spite of an outward show of
belonging to the single family that the police is. Indian police leaders must
think hard to decide whether the current model of human relationship in
the police is conducive to healthy policing or not. A sound police
organisation sprouts only on the terra firma of sound human relationships
between and within ranks, founded on genuine concern, mutual respect,
recognition, sympathy and understanding. Such relationship does not



perforce go against the police discipline and official command-obedience

functions. A sense of belonging and unity of purpose are spawned in the
mind not in a stiff hierarchical order. The hierarchical order only defines
the relationship which is created in the minds of the people. Good
relationship strengthens the hierarchical order by making the order
willingly acceptable to all and thus lubricating its working. A subtle mental
bond that links all men in an organisation is its greatest asset. A sense of
recognition from others and the pride of belonging create a happy
atmosphere in the organisation and improve efficiency and output by
bringing-in the elements of co-operation and unity of purpose. Sadly, this
is just the reverse in the maledict Indian police. Here, human relationships
are vitiated. Mutual suspicion and antagonism are the rule. Men at higher
ranks revel in hurling the pride of subordinates while subordinates in turn
wait for the right time to wreak of their revenge. In this atmosphere of
antagonism and undercuttings, the organisation and its objects suffer, all its
people suffer and the country suffers. This is where India stands at present.
Warming-up of police recruits
The period of initiation is the most important and impressionable
period in the career-life of fresh recruits to the police department. The
process of warming-up is based on the psychological needs of human
nature. New entrants must be handled with utmost care to give them
confidence and a feeling of belonging at the incipient stage itself. A sense
of confidence and belonging to the organisation and an ingenerate love and
respect for the higher-ups are the substruction on which discipline grows.
Efforts to inculcate discipline in a void is like waiting for rain from the
autumn sky. Indian police impresarios failed to understand such finer
nuances of administration when they copied the system of the British
Indian police. And so we now have a police system where discipline is
insisted on subordinates sans the conditions requisite for the discipline.
The recruits who enter the fold with open sensibilities and high
expectations, anon wither after braving for a while the brusque and
insensitive conduct of their higher ranks. These recruits continue thereafter
to be constant enemies of the higher ranks and the department for which
they must continue to work for the next three to four decades. A police
department constituted of such members, thanks to the shabby approach of
the insensitive higher ranks in this most impressionable period of the
former's career-life, cannot turn out eximious work. It is a tragedy that
India neither spawned a police force of its ain superior values nor copied
the police force of the British vintage in its entirety with its finer points,
but cultivated instead a burlesque of the rough and mediocre aspects of



Recognition as a motivating tool

The success of a police organisation depends upon to what extent it
creates a sense of pride and dignity in its members including the
constabulary, so that they realise and recognise themselves as useful and
responsible members of the police outfit and endeavour to live up to the
image. The goal can be achieved by proper modulation of perks, rewardand-punishment policy and rank-to-rank relationship. The approach must
create an impression that whatever a police official gets as perks, rewards,
praise, good treatment, respect, censure or punishment, has been earned by
his swink and potential. This makes the proceedings a part of his service
and seity and thus helps him to identify with his work and conduct and
ultimately with the organisation. This brings him a sort of recognition and
makes him more responsible to his work and organisation. This is a far cry
from the simulacrum of what is actually happening in Indian police.
Recognition of good work as a rule is shied away from. Every behoof is
bestowed as a personal favour. Even a reward en regle in recognition of
eximious work is made to look like a favour. Meritorious and distinguished
medals too are divested of their distinction by being linked to seniority and
not actual merit. This is the reason why these medals carry no meaning
within the police organisation.
Remodelling the use of welfare funds
Police forces administer welfare funds for the benefit of their members.
The current approach of disbursing money from these funds to needy
applicants needs to be revised in line with the need to arouse a sense of
pride and dignity even in receiving help from the establishment. Much
thought has to go into this aspect to make the welfare funds useful to them
without giving the impression of charity. If the funds go to them as their
rightful share, they would be put to better use than as a charitable
contribution. A newly structured police for the new age certainly requires a
fresh approach to the utilisation of police welfare funds.
Needs for right people at the top
A job culture involutes basic beliefs and objects of the organisation,
professional ethics and degree of commitment to the aspirations of the
organisation, as laid down by precedence and practice. To what results
precedence and practice mould the job culture decide the success or
otherwise of the organisation. The decisions and conduct of those at the
helm as the point d'appui of police circles substruct the life lines of the
organisation. It is important that only right people reach the top. A headless
organisation is better than one headed by a degenerate weakling. This is
why the policy of selection and promotion at high levels plays a vital role



in the growth of the organisation. In a democratic age of self-seeking,

short-term political leadership, where sycophancy is the sole criterion for
ascending the career ladder, the policy of selection and promotion is
misdight at best and motivatedly in the reverse gear at worst, to the
detriment of the growth and functioning of the organisation. All those
committed to the cause of police and effective policing must break the
trend and endeavour to provide a fresh lease of life for effective policing.
Bad models at high levels
There are myriad instances of unhealthy practices at the highest levels
on the current Indian police scene. A recent instance is a notorious police
chief of one of the states of India with his polio-struck wife, being taken to
court on the eve of his retirement from service by a prominent social
worker for allegedly defrauding the public and a spastic society by
defalcation of huge amounts of money, collected by sale of charity
entertainment tickets in the name of the spastic society. It is a different
story that the alleged escroc succeeded in silencing the social worker
through police pressure and ensured that the case fell through for lack of
evidence. The point is to what sad levels men reaching high ranks in
maledict independent India can stoop to make a few dirty bucks.
Fortunately, the nithing, malgre lui dance afore men who count in politics,
could not get an extension of service ayont his superannuation in 1990.
Such instances of mauvaise sujet at high ranks abound in Indian police
Discipline is a potential syndetic force of the police organisation. It
defines all parameters of the force and makes its hierarchical order
meaningful and purposeful, the command-obedience relationship sharpedged and functional conduct pernickety. This pollent instrument devised
as an esemplastic factor for the police force during the British era has now
become a demonic evil in the Indian situation and gorges its vitality. It is
used as a cover by the people in higher ranks to indulge in wrongdoing and
to silence the conscientious few in the lower ranks from protesting. It is
also a gleg cover to promote the interests of juniors who support their evil
deeds by sycophancy and personal loyalty; and to suppress those juniors of
inner strength, individual pride, independent mind and argute conscience.
A subtle hatred for superior qualities of the subordinates is patent in the
Indian police force of the post-independent vintage. The juniors who are
perspicaciously inferior in intellectual qualities and other superior
attributes are valued and helped to superate others on the career ladder.
Perchance, an innate inferiority complex in police leadership and a
consectaneous fear of weaknesses being excoriated before those lower in
their ranks bother them au fond. Another farce carried out behind the
facade of discipline is that of an officer forcing a subordinate to meet



personal ends ranging from getting a regular supply of vegetables to even

forcing to marry his daughter or wife's sister. Here, police ranks display
exceptional unity of purpose in helping a colleague to corner the
subordinate who shows the hardihood to go against his senior's desire. In
the process, four-square youngsters in the organisation drop out or are
cornered and those impair to higher tasks scale the ladder of the
organisation, thus weakening the organisation ab intra. There are myraid
paradigms of such fearless officers who acted upon their consciences and
lost their seniority through catenated false annual reports.
A Commissioner of Police of the capital of a certain state in India who
came back to police work after languishing in a sinecure on deputation for
nearly a decade is an interesting instance of self-promotion by false
methods. In spite of his poor record, he succeeded by pulling political
strings to get posted as Police Commissioner of the state capital. Despite
his utter incompetence, lack of administrative acumen and an enfested
relationship with all of his Deputy Commissioners, he succeeded in
continuing in the job for more than two years and even manipulated undue
promotions for himself without disturbing his plump posting. He is known
to bend backward at the cost of all values, pride and police interests to
aggrace men in power and to brazenly gasconade, tha none can superate
him in the game. He did ascend the ladder of career ayont his scope
otherwise and bragged about the possibility of becoming the state polic
chief in the early part of 1990 itself. He will certainly supercede man
competent heads to head the state police force someday if not in 1990 in
the existing triste police culture. Such a trend frustrates competent and
principled officers and makes way for a gradual glissade of the value
system in the setup. If police officers at the helm do not vindicate their
organisation from the unscrupled onslaughts of such selfish interests ab
intra, none would come forward to do the job for them and the police
would die a slow death.
Public image of police
What the Indian police inspires in the public is fear and hatred, not trust,
respect and love. This is the greatest single failing of the Indian police. A
police force thus feared and hated is irrelevant in a democracy. The
argument that fear is a necessary constituent in policing is not based on the
right understanding of human psychology and the basic tenets of policing
work. The police does stand on a different footing from the general public
while exercising policing powers. The different footing, perforce is based
on trust, respect, love and consectaneous healthy awe, not on fear and
hatred. The image incorpsed with healthy awe is more lasting and pollent
than that based on hateful fear. While the former inspires genuine
cooperation and willing subjection to police authority, the latter only forces



such subjection till the fear lasts. An argument advanced in favour of fear
in policing is that the strains of fear are deep in the very nature of policing.
This again is based on a mendacious notion, about policing and belike on
the preposterous practices of the present police'outfit. The police is not
synonymous with fear. A smiling and- helpful police is the model of
democratic policing. The police is not the enemy of the people, especially
in a democracy. Policing involves enforcement of order for the good of
many which may sometimes involve inconvenience to a perverted few.
The job if performed rightly must win trust, love and respect of the hoi
polloi for the police. Only the misuse of power and a supercilious approach
to the exercise of the powers would antagonise the plebeian and earn his
implacable haired. The exercise of police powers with absolute humility is
quite possible. An approach of service to the general public renders the
exercise of police powers, a sensible and circumspect task and avoids
harshness. The performance inspires trust, love and respect and not fear
and hatred. Only if people learn that police really care for their well-being,
percase, no other government agency would be as loved and respected as
the police. Only the police should show its good intentions and convince
the public about its trustworthiness. Nothing the Indian police does now
helps to create this image. It is high time that serious efforts are made in
this direction.
What is basically required for the Indian police is a tough, mature and
no-nonsense image in place of the present fear. The police organisation
must create an impression of strength of character and infrangible probity.
Only from this height, can the police discharge its sacred duties of
protecting and maintaining order in national life. This is now a far cry from
the invious misdight of the Indian police. The leap from the current glidder
field to what should be is not an impossible feat. Each step ahead must be
carefully laid to make steady, albeit slow progress towards the difficile
goal. It is an attempt worth making. It is an opuscule worth doing.
Need of sound mind at higher levels
A factor that seriously affects the morale of a disciplined force like the
police is that of men affected by psychological disorders of inferiority
complex, holding posts from where they can affect the career of the
subordinates. This is a very serious situation where distorted minds hold
reigns of the career of thousands of subordinates with many at very senior
levels. The mental disorder brings a psychological imbalance by which the
people in high ranks learn to interpret subordinates' normal conduct
perversely as surquedry; normal reporting or explanation appears like an
intrigue and lough posture appears like insubordination. The extra modum
fear of insecurity, inspired by the feeling of inferiority is so pollent that it
does not permit cunctation in striking back at the source of the



comminalion with all strength at disposal. This makes retaliation an ever

pensile threat to the career of the subordinates. And the threat, sine prole,
is true in the police. This makes people of sound mind, a must in
responsible positions. For an organisation like the police, the need of a
sound mind is more basic than any other faculty.
The inferiority complex seriously manifests when the pusillanimous
person troubled with the disorder is newly posted to a responsible position
after marcescere in a sinecure post for a long time. The metabasis from the
void to the strains and straints of responsibilities breaches his inner
confidence and the disorder of neltlcsome suspicion on everything around
raises its ugly head. There are any number of such examples in the Indian
The police Commissioner referred to somewhere in this article is a
kenspeckle paradigm for the havoc created by such a disorder. Police
administrators at the sconce must keep constant pernoctation on such
disorders in the interests of the police administration.
Salvaging operation
The situation can be salvaged by clearing the cobwebs from the
entrails of the Indian police. There is a catena of self-motivated officers in
key positions in the police who unknowingly brought about the
degringolade of the Indian police in the post-democratic era. They
corrupted the police atmosphere, set wrong precedences, encouraged selfindulgence, pulled down its no-nonsense tough image and reduced it to its
present cadaverous existence. These elements should be sidelined to absorb
men of probity to refurbish and rebuild the police setup. Only really
capable impresarios can pull the Indian police out from its present fix.
The future of India as a country depends upon the strengths and
weaknesses of its police. Defence forces are relevant to the existence of
India insomuch as defending its borders and protecting Us system of
government. But the relevance of the police is more meaningful, for, here,
the very existence of India as a nation is an issue. The significance of the
police in the survival of the nation is often forgotten somewhere between
the width of the civil administration and the depth of the defence forces. A
highly competent and disciplined police force, percase, is the greatest asset
of any country. Every patriotic Indian must aspire to that. The police must
be powerful. En attendant, it must be a disciplined and committed force, a
no-nonsense, tough outfit. It saves the country from all disasters; it
supports the administration in civil rule and works as its watch dog. It
works as a subsidiary force in support of the military during war. If need
be, it can run the administration when civil rule breaks down and function



as an armed force when the military fails the country. The importance of
this great tool of governance is yet to be duly recognised. It is high time
that it is done now and. the Indian police is exemed from its nauseating
subculture and gets a fresh life of vitality and strength. It is really
heartrending to see the swinging police in its present mauvais ton,
especially for an insider who is a part of this great institution, entrusted
with the high objects of protecting public life. Yes, something should be
done to save the police. The question is who should begin the process, and
where, when and how? Who will bell the demonic cat to bring it to its






I have made a ceaseless effort
Not to ridicule, not to bewail,
Not to scorn human actions,
But to understand them.
These words of Spinoza give expression to the subjacent current of
human responses that constitute humanism, that as the common
denominator of all natural human activities, breeds an environment of
facile fusion of hearts and minds wherein sprout further causes for human
evolution as manifested in diverse fields of human activities including
Humanism involves a sense of belonging to mankind with all its
qualities and limitations, that breeds an intense urge to respond to the joys
and sufferings of other beings. The chief attributes of humanism are a sixth
sense that accommodates and cooperates in the common interests of
mankind and an uncanny power to perceive the self as an indivisible part
of the larger scheme of the universe in the pattern of Atma imbibed in
Paramatma. It is a concept that instills kindness and tenderness in an
individual, elegance and classicism in a culture, softness and civility in a
civilisation and concern and participation in a society. It is a transpicious
crucible wherein the negative discharges of evolution murl to be
transformed into efficient propellants of natural evolution.
Humanism is an eerie solvent which causes depravity and selfishness to
effloresce as the beatitude of kindness and tenderness. It ennobles a
caractere with a sense of levity and concinnity, substructed in its
environment and leaves an organisation in excelsis of its potentials.
Humanism renders the organisation germane to human activities either as a
service-oriented unit or as an establishment of human interplay by
rendering it sensitive to the joys and sufferings of human beings and
thereby making it responsive to their needs and efforts. The salubrious,
mellowing effects of humanism are beautifully brought out by William
Wordsworth in "Lines Composed A Few Miles Above Titem Abbey".
The still, sad music of humanity,
Nor harsh nor grating, though of ample power
To chasten and subdue. And I have felt
A presence that disturbs me, with the joy



Of elevated thoughts; a sense sublime

Of something far more deeply interfused,
Whose dwelling is the light of setting suns.
Though policing is a human service au fond, its methods are
strikingly inhuman in India due to poor leadership and a failure of our
planners to tread paripassu with the amble in the clime of man
management and policing techniques. The tragedy of the Indian police is
that its means and ends do not amate. The querimony that the feral
methods of the Indian police are more contemptible and anti-social than
the criminal acts they are supposed to control cannot be dismissed glibly as
inaccurate in prevailing circumstances. Our police system has grown of
late to be a monster deprived of all strains of humanism by its perennial
exposure to the inhuman methods of both the criminals and policing. It is
true that association moulds character. The tenor of immane policing
methods inextricably obfuscates and dislimns the strains of humanism in
rerum natura. The issue can be dealt on two fronts; adopting the latest
developments in police techniques to make it a more civilized operation
and shaping the police environment to make it less sensitised to inhuman
exposures. As the police leaders themselves are victims of this infaust
mould of mind, tremendous organisational efforts may be necessary to
refract the fallouts and reinstate humanism in the police. Should the police
conform to standards of humane comportment and methods a la hauteur de
its desinent goals, policing would become a meaningful and relevant
service to society.
The test of the Police as a humanised organisation is its acceptance by
the society as couthie associate, so that no child is scared of hearing the
name of a policeman and no agrestic folks, take to their heels at the mere
sight of one. It is a wonder how people manage to accept the police whom they perceive as an embodiment of bestiality, incivility and inanity as guardians of their life, honour and property. The Indian police has
cohabited long enough with its disrepute. A decision anon t furbish its
image as a humanised setup though late, will not be intempestive as
policing is as yet far from having its relevance to society luxated though its
inhuman methods are fast eating up its credibility. Its leaders cannot afford
any more the exuberance of complacency if the police must stand up to its
expectations as the peace-keeper of society and assert to resile to its deeper
human strains. The process of showing the police its roots which are
obfuscated by the lounderings of time and its own working methods must
begin anon. The wherewithal of affecting the transformation is varied and
covers such disparate avenues as recruitment, training, environment,
exposures, man management, policing methods, uniforms, organisation,
criminal laws, living and working conditions, work pressure, image, public



relation techniques etc. A police leader should effectively cover all these
aspects in his plan should he wish to see his police humanised.
Police recruitment
The human aspect is the fulcrum of policing. Policing is primarily latitant
human interaction in the perennial luctation to safeguard the security and
rights of the common man and the human quality in the force determines
effectiveness and vitality of the performance. Human resources policy as a
device of selecting human stuffs needs careful handling at the highest level
to attract right people to the fold.
The present Indian environment of ruthless concours, impeached with a
degringolade of values has made human resources management a farce.
The wherewithal of human resources management like recruitment,
promotions, transfers, rewards, punishments, etc. are no more employed
for maximum benefit of the organisation. Self-interests have undermined
quality and character and organisational interests are subordinated to
personal behoofs. Though this proclivity is prevalent in all fields in India,
its adverse effects are kenspeckle in the police organisation as the linesystem of the organisation makes the ingenuity of the human resources
management a factor having direct and immediate bearing on the efforts of
humanising the police.
An earnest effort from the highest level to infuse the creme de la creme,
characterised by genuine human stuff, probity and commitment may be the
foremost need of the police. The prevalence of police administration over
general administration in the survival of a nation as a democratic and
orderly country may necessitate changes in recruitment policy. This is to
ensure that only those with a deep natural humane disposition step in to the
police so that the arrogance and savagery, bred by its environment can do
little harm and the tenue of humanism will continue alongside policing
Proper training
The chief cause of the police seldom being humane in India is its
ineffective training facilities. In spite of adequate infrastructures available
for police training in India, these centres largely fail to offer quality to the
training to humanise a recruit adequately to stand up to the challenges of
the temulence of the arrogant and feral environment that policing breeds.
An overhaul of the extant training facilities in terms of quality, content and
character in favour of humanised policing practices is inevitable to keep
the police excubant against the depravity of the modem society. The
psychology faculty of the centre should endeavour to build character and



strengthen human fibres. The training centres should lay emphasis on an

attitudinal change in the recruits and develop the skills of humanised
policing. The training centres should give the impression of being temples,
dedicated to humanising the police apart from actually being so.
Exposure to artistic activities
C. Kluckhohm and H. A. Murray said, "Personality is the totality of a
man's knowledge, motives, values, beliefs, goal-seeking patterns and
psychological makeup of an individual and include environmental and
hereditary factors". The substratum of individuality is moulded of complex
building blocks derived ab extra and ab intra to the persona. The same
view is supported by Argyris when he says, "Behaviour occurs as an
interaction between organism and environment" in the simulacrum of
Prakrithi devolving on Purusha to create the Universe. The environmental
aspect as a wherewithal, open to police leaders, calls for designs that can
humanise the police. The environment, gravid with human comportances
like tenderness, elegance, civility and concern, impinges upon its subjects
to make them conform to its influences. A police leader can humanise his
force by exposing it to those influences.
The strenuous nature of policing hardens the police in spirit and mind. A
measure of creative activities like literary interactions, exposure to poetry
and fine arts, musical performances etc besprent in the precious spare-time
between policing hours intenerates the man behind the police facade and
resiles him to his natural human tendencies. Artistic activities counterpose
the damage done to the man by the role-play of policing and open him up
to the halcyon clime of an ideal and imaginary world, far removed from the
hard and brusque realities of police life and makes his life tanto uberior.
Exposure to social service activities
The exposure of the police to social service activities is the celestial
surgeon who enraces human mellowness and dignity to the police.
Interaction with people from the plane of oblation sinks the policeman
from his inflated self to the roots of his genuine feelings and concerns and
conditions him to respond to the vicissitudes of the environment. It opens
up a new vista of feelings and experiences that make life richer and
meaningful au reste sensitisation of the self.
The social service activities, as a form of servitude to mankind and a
voluntary involvement with the people, absterge the temulence of power
and abraid latitant human tendencies in the policeman to bring to the
surface his pristine self. It is left to the police leaders to include opulent



social service schemes in their human resources development programmes

if their force is to be genuinely humanised.
Better treatment of subordinates
Rogers in "On Becoming A Person" says, "The more fully the individual
is understood and accepted, the more he tends to drop the false fronts with
which he has been meeting life, and the more he tends to move in a
direction which is forward". The conviction of fair treatment and concern
for human dignity in the policeman devolves the comports beneath. An
atmosphere of respect, dignity and fairness resiles his self to its pristine
charm of innocence and couthie disposition. Au contraire, the strains of
humiliation, contempt and scorn drive him to catharize his frustrations and
indignities on both those lower in the hierarchy and the members of the
public who come to his doors au desespoir for redressal at the cutting-edge
level of the policing. The spite and the feral indignities he inflicts on those
at his mercy would be pro rata to those he is subjected to by his leaders.
A policeman shabbily instated in his organisation develops a poor selfimage. Solley and Murphy analyse this when they say "He perceives,
responds, acts and communicates in terms of his complex self-image by
trying to be consistent with it; too negative a self-image leads to
adjustment mechanisms". A policeman, proud of his self and work is
created by respect to his individual dignity that develops a confidence
about humane strains subjacent in his person and dares him to betray the
human responses that are so natural to his entrails and make the Police
environment in the country besprent with the milk of human attributes like
kindness, tenderness, elegance and civility.
Exemplary punishments for inhuman acts
Motivation and deterrence are opposite facets of the same coin that pays
for attitudinal change. Deterrence, although an extra force to the system, is
an effective wherewithal in materialising mobility in an intended direction
as an addendum to disparate motivation factors. Efforts to humanise the
police call for the apposite employment of deterrence to inhumane acts by
way of exemplary punishments.
The prevalence of means over the ends should be made the cardinal
principle of policing. The ends, however eximious they be, should not find
recognition b the police if the means adopted are mean and deplorable. All
inhuman acts by the police should be met with heavy punishments and an
atmosphere of social ostracisation of such elements should be created in
the force. The realisation tha the police are ordinary people and no criminal
act committed in discharge of official duties would extricate them from the



ensuing liability should be made crystal clear. An ingenerate sense of

regard for people, oblivious to their locus standi in the soc il ladder, can be
generated in the police by installing a mortal fear of inhuman acts through
exemplary punishments.
Elimination of violent methods from policing
The fact that policing is a human service au fond does not justify
adoption of feral methods in policing. Adoption of violence and savagery
by the police gives legitimacy to such methods in the public eye and thus
weakens the orderly fabric of society. Violent methods like employment of
third degree in interrogation to obtain quick results, in preference to the
tedium of swink't investigation, weaken the image of the police, already
weighed under by pressures of work.
Adoption of scientific methods in policing helps in humanising the
police. It saves the police from the antilogy of committing criminal acts to
meet the ends of justice. Al efforts at humanising the police prove
infructuous until the police continues to be at th mercy of violent methods
for results.
A genuine effort at humanising the police should begin with the
adoption of modem policing techniques and scientific methods to instil
sophistication and accuracy in policing. Old habits die hard. Vigorous
efforts to mundify old nasty habits should find priority as a substruction on
which the edifice of efforts of humanising the police should be built.
Elimination of constabulary
The constabulary which forms the backbone and cutting-edge of the
Indian policing and which wields a real authority over the populace is a
lowly paid, modestly educated and non-elite mass of uniformed workers.
The authority they wield makes them fearsome while their low status in
society prevents them from commanding empathy, respect and legitimacy.
Authority sans empathy, respect and legitimacy decidedly proves to be a
deadly substructure that breaks the conduit between the organisation and
the public and renders the organisation dyspathetic to the aspirations of the
humanity at large. The constabulary with its intramural enlightenment and
responsibility finds the intricacies of civil and comme il faut comportance
rather peregrine to its gout.
In the circumstances, the rank of sub-inspector with its present level of
minimum education and status in society should form the cutting-edge
level with no policing powers and responsibilities devolved beneath that
level. The comport of the cutting-edg level of the police decides its image



because of its perennial interaction with the general public. Sub-inspectors

as the cutting-edge level functionaries must perform the bulk of police
tasks like beat patrolling, station house duties, preliminary interrogations
and other investigation assistance that brings the police to actual contact
with the public. The officials with their education and social status can be
more civil and courteous to the general public.
Change of uniform to white
A change in the existing police uniform is an issue worth assessing as a
device to humanise the police force. The present khaki uniform inspires a
mood of arrogance and savagery by its psychological association with
power and repression. A change to white may prove to be for the better in
intenerating the psyche of the police. The strategy in selecting a new
uniform is to imbibe a sense of cleanliness, levity, balance and probity and
to inspire a couthie disposition in the force.
Change in criminal laws
A few glaring anomalies and erroneous provisions of the extant criminal
laws in India contributed to the easy reclame of criminals from the clutches
of the law in many cases and the harassment of innocent persons by the
police in some other cases. The loopholes in the criminal laws have to be
plugged if crime administration is to be humanised and command a
semblance of public respect and confidence. Intelligent adaptations in the
extant criminal laws to interdict inhuman policing methods and provide
wherewithals for facile crime administration are the needs of the hour.
The policeman or the judicial officer under whose custody a person is
kept under detention must be made responsible by name for the timely
release of the detenue with the provision that if detention exceeds the
period provided by law, the concerned officer is liable for proceedings for
the unlawful detention sans the privilege of exemptions for acts performed
in official colour. Also, all cases of violence and physical outrage
committed in police custody should be made punishable with exemplary
penalties by special legislations. Such outre measures may bring an end to
shocking inhumane acts committed in the similitude of policing in some
quarters and save the Indian police from acute public resentment.
The current bail provisions of Indian criminal law are a source of acute
embarrassment to police officers with criminals arrested by them after
weeks or months of stupendous efforts being let off by the judiciary on bail
only to facilitate them to jump the bail. All discretions with police and
judiciary regarding bail should be taken away with only a select few
offences of enormous gravity mad nonbailable. This will restrict both the



police and the judiciary from showing favours to some criminals en

revanche to favours and bring mechanical accuracy to bail provisions. This
measure may be found a path-breaker in preventing the misuse of criminal
laws and the inhuman play of favours and disfavours to criminals.
Civil liberty cells
External controls must walk pan passu with ingenerate eneraty in the
act of self-disciplining in view of the human propensity to unwittingly
stray from the chosen path. Institution of civil liberty cells in each district
and metropolitan city as advisory conseil to the police chief of the region
with local civil liberty champions as its members to draw attention to
specific instances of inhuman conduct by subordinate officers would meet
the need of control ab extra to keep the police on pemoctation against
inhuman comportment. The civil liberty cell should be a dynamic part of
the police administration in the region and its observations should set in
motion a process of verification and peremptory action. Though subjecting
police to the scrutiny of an outside setup may appear a retrograde measure,
it helps the assuefaction of the policing methods to human comports in
rerum natura.
Better service conditions
People can afford the luxury of humaneness when they are insulated
from the quotidian diversions of their occupational hazards. A delectable
service atmosphere mellows their responses to those around them. They
begin to see the world in a better light, in conformity with the atmosphere
around them and try to share these pleasant feelings with those they come
in contact with. The levity of the environment land the absence of strains
from the service-front facilitate their opening-up to give vent to their
latitant human contents.
An effort to humanise the police cannot ignore the need to improve
service conditions to make the police proud to be enraced in the vocation.
The sense of contentment generated by the service atmosphere devolves to
the public that interacts with the police. In addition, the public leams to
hold the police in esteem in conformity with its improved service
conditions and sophistication. This interaction between the police and the
public can be a sound substruction for humane policing.
Better living conditions
A reasonably good standard of living helps the police to rise above
the physical and security need-levels to social and higher need-levels in the



need-hierarchy outlined by McGregor and have the mental space for wider
interests like human concerns of kindness, tenderness, elegance and
civility. A low living standard retards the police image and esteem in
It is necessary to make the police financially bein by adequately
compensating for the risks and hazard factors of their jobs to attract the
best men to its fold apart from securing them against financial distractions.
A feeling of condign compensation and contentment is certain to raise the
police above physical and security need-levels to give free expression to
natural human tendencies.
Lighter work
All creations in their fraicheur and nature's bounty are kind and tender
and elegant. The strains of the environment cause inquietude in nature's
balance and leads to the obfuscation of a few precious sheens from its
innards. It manifests in loss of human factors in man and his mental space
turns intenible of human qualities by environmental strains such as workpressures.
The Indian police is weighed down with an impossible quantum of
responsibilities and tasks. This work-pressure adversely affects the mental
balance apart from depriving those tasks from the attention due. It is
impossible to expect a man bogged down with lourd responsibilities and
tasks to spare his time for the niceties of human qualities.
An important measure in humanising the police is to scale down the
work-pressure on it to a bearable level. An element of levity in work makes
the work environment dulcet and provides an adequate mental space to
devolve on the exuberances of human comportations.
Exclusion of social legislations
The propensity of weighing the police with the enforcement of all
types of legislations has become a major hazard to effective policing. It is
emphatically so with social legislations which pass out of our legislative
house sans cohibition. These progressive measures are inherently
controversial in nature and their enforcement by the police weakens its
credibility as an agency of serious business and peremptory order. It is
plauditory to conceive of the police as a vehicle of progressive measures.
In the process, however, the police is certain to put both its credibility and
professionalism in jeopardy as these social legislations lack the depth and
gravity required to enforce them. Assiduous enforcement may be perceived
as inhuman acts of high-handedness and harassment of certain sections of



the society. It is not in the interest of the process of humanising the police
to expose it to civil contecks that are gravid with the malengine of
expropriating from all those concerned from human concerns. The
exclusion of social legislations from the ambit-of normal police work will
save the police organisation from the embarrassment of handling issues for
which it is not equipped either mentally or professionally or
organisationally. This measure will exeme the police organisation from
unwarranted pressures that add to the dehumanisation process and also
enhances its legitimacy as the guardian of order and security of human
Exposures to public relations techniques
Though efforts have been en train to ameliorate the image of the Indian
police for a long time, nothing substantial could be achieved due to
amateurish handling. The present Indian police managers have their image
development wherewithal limited to issuing occasional press statements
while image development has become a highly advanced field of
specialisation with perennial scope for further advancements. In view of
the considerable significance of the image for successful police operations,
the wherewithal of image building in the police is required to be updated
with the latest techniques, applied by professionals in the field.
It does not suffice if the police is humanised; the police also should
appear humanised. While public relations professionals can handle the job
from the organisational level, an insight to the police about the rudiments
of public relations is sine qua non if it is to appear humanised to the public
eye. This necessitates, the exposure of the police to the latest public
relations techniques at regular intervals to imbibe the skill of civility in
interacting with the public.
In-service image
The proclivity for role-play is a major driving force in the process of
motivation. People who enter a new setup, look to their new environment
for the role they should assume? and the setup renders them homo colons
in conformity to its own image. People joining a humanised organisation
play the role of humaneness to fulfill their esurient urge to identify with the
setup. The in-service image of an organisation is a powerful springboard
that sets it to actuate that image.
An in-service image as a humane setup is de rigueur if humanising the
police is to grow as a tradition. The very reputation of the police as a
humane setup limits the options of the insiders to act antilogous to its



reputation and thus exert an invisd pressure to rise to the expectations of

the organisation that owns them. The process of building a humanised
image ab infra requires the assistance of skeely image-building technicians
and adroit operations by police leaders. This forms the drsinent and vital
stage in humanising the police.
McGregor identifies man as "rational-emotive.. inextricably interwoven"
and defines motivation as "an emotional force". According to Irving
Sarnoff "motivation is an internally operative tension-producing stimulus
that provokes the individual to act in such a way as to reduce the tension".
Plato traces the origin of man's behaviour to knowledge from the head as
he identified prominently in politicians, emotion from the blood as
identified prominently in soldiers and desire from the stomach as identified
prominently in businessmen. MoDougall in "Instinct Theory of Hormic
Psychology" speaks about sensory, motivational and emotional aspects of
behaviour. He says that environmental situations provide the stimuli
necessary to arouse a particular behaviour in a cognitive (sensory) aspect;
goal-directed behaviour is caused by the conative (motivational) aspect
while an affective (emotional) aspect arouses its own behaviour. Man
should be approached from two levels inter alia for an attitudinal change
from conviction which according to Woolbert, "is an appeal to reason" and
persuasion which "is an appeal to emotions". The role of police leaders in
humanising the police lies in emotionally integrating it with humanistic
causes by esoteric organisational moves to supervene a rational appeal to
conviction by training and creation of environments in policing where a
man is treated as a man imprimis in spite of all his foibles or strengths.
Humanistic propensions in a hierarchical setup like the police should
permeate from above should the organisation be humanised and its lower
strata identify it with their organisational self. The police leaders should set
standards of'human comportment for others in the organisation to make it
the substruction of organisational behaviour.
Policing is an exercise revolving around the fulcrum of humanism while
humanism is the foundation on which the edifice of policing should stand.
Policing is a crime sans human concerns to support it. The infaust
polarisation of dulcet human propensities from nefandous policing
activities in the present police setup is a serious organisational malady that
renders the very policing system of India counter-productive and as a
perpetuator of licensed crimes. Policing powers are a trust invested in the
police for exercise in the general interests of the people. The police loses
all its claims to power, the moment it sinks its concerns for people and its
policing activities become depravity in purls naturalibus. Humanism is the
ineluctable other side of the policing. Rather, policing is the negative
discharges de rigueur to the upward thrust of human interests. The Indian



policing with its obfuscating backfire sans the upward thrusts of human
concerns may sink in the Bay of Bengal some day unless its leaders shed
their indolence to vitalise the police with genuine human qualities.





It is India's good fortune that its fabric of law and order withstood the
onslaught of growing complexity of the Indian society lest fragile is its
system of policing. The fact that the police systems in a few neighbouring
countries of Asia and Africa are worse cannot be a solace as the political,
social and economical structures forming the cornerstones of those
countries have tout a fait different backgrounds and value systems from
ours. India is a crucible wherein the dynamics and relevance of democracy
in the third world are experimented with. The Indian police system must
necessarily meet the latitant aspirations of the democracy in fulfilling its
desinent objective of maintaining internal order arid security. This
dimension added to the problems of policing in India. The Indian polity
confronts its police with ever greater challenges while affording it an
increasingly limited wherewithal to do so. The Indian police system
dodders while taken on ride by the shocks of the growing complexity of
the Indian society and its relevance to society is luxated in the seemingly
unending luctation for relevance. The tenor of the setback lies in the failure
to foresee and continuously keep the system one step ahead.
The hazard of the Indian-police lies in this immobility of its
organizational structure. The existing police system is utterly devoid of any
adjustment mechanism that keeps it relevant to the zeitgeist. A time-totime review Ad concomitant updating of the police organisation become
sine qua non the cfactimstances, particularly while me nascent democracy
lounder the policing system of India remis velisque, quite oblivious of the
futuristic kiaugh. A systematic study of the policing in India with an
adequate pemoctation to screen the latest researches and findings in
relevant fields of social and political systems, science and technology in
reorienting the police organisation and administration is an essential
parameter in the vital exercise.
A police setup worth its salt should meet the specific needs of the
policing. The police setup must necessarily be raucle in its frame to be
capable of absorbing the shocks to which it would often be exposed.
Secondly, motive factors should be substructed in the body of the
organisation as sound motivation alone can make policing a purposeful



activity. This should be reinforced with external motive factors that can be
infused to the organisation e re nata. Thirdly, the system should be
organised so as to generate optimism and confidence expropriis to excudit
the magical entrainement. Another important aspect that should weigh
lourd in evolving an effective police organisation is evolving a mechanism
whereby every police officer or unit is put in charge of a specific job
matching his or its competence and aptitude. An element of levity should
be brought to policing so that the work in hand can be attended to with
genuine involvement by each police officer. Another strategic principle of
a healthy police organisation is having absolute faith and giving full
responsibilities to subordinates with a concomitant reward and punishment
system that follow at the heels. Any attempt to disturb the balance of faith,
full responsibility and reward and punishment system is certain to fell the
organisation into desuetude. The extant conception of collective
responsibility through a chain of command has gone passe by its
propensity to demotivate the real workers due to the corrupt ambitions of
those at higher levels in the chain of command. Policing has grown of late
to be such an independent field of specialisation that it is tout de force
impossible for a mortal being to be proficient in even a single aspect of
policing. It is rather a folly to ween a police officer as being able to handle
all aspects of policing though at different times. Hence, the need of
specialisation-oriented policing. The present managerial world is
increasingly realising the importance of human resources as organisational
inputs. Unless all-out efforts are made to inhaust to police the creme de la
creme of the country with exceptional attributes of probity, intelligence
and commitment and impart eximious and purposeful training to bring out
the best of each, no efforts at updating the organisation can bring about a
sempiternal transformation in the setup. The fact that policing can be
successful only with popular cooperation, focuses the attention of the
police organisation on the needs of building up its image. Although efforts
are already afoot towards building up the image of the police, the depths of
the possibilities are yet to be fully explored and exploited. A scientific
approach in this score will make policing tanto uberior. Also, the scope for
scholarly and intellectual activities in policing will make policing multidimensional and add t its effectiveness. The fremit reception given to
intellectual activities in some quarters of policing may not go down too
well with the future police planners. The future police organisation and
administration should cater to the need of intellectual activities.
The present police organisation and administrative system have to be
overhauled in the near future as the ineffectiveness of the extant system
becomes increasingly obvious with the flaws in the edifice starting to gape
wider. The areas wherein restructuring may be desirable and the thrusts
sine qua non to stuff the hiatus valde deflendus to have a featous police



setup, quite capable of facing the challenges of the future are discussed
tout court below.
Exclusion of social legislations
The proclivity of weighing the police with reinforcement of all types of
legislations has become a major hazard to effective policing. While the
proliferation of legislations in independent India made it impossible even
to keep track of their numbers, it is senseless to ween the police as being
able to enforce them all. The stupendous task of enforcing these
legislations adversely affects the effectiveness of the police and corrodes
its credibility. This is emphatically so with social legislations which pass
out of our legislative houses sans cohibition. These progressive measures
are inherently controversial in nature and their enforcement by the police
weakens its credibility as an agency of serious business and peremptory
order. It is plauditory to conceive of the police as a vehicle of progressive
measures, but in the process, is certain to put both its credibility and
professionalism into jeopardy as the social legislations lack depth and
gravity to enforce them and assiduous enforcement may ricochet as an
outcry of harassment and high-handedness. It is not in the interest of the
country to expose its police to such civil contecks and suffer it thereby.
India can have an independent social policing system under the social
welfare ministry to which police officers with a flair for progressive
measures may be deputed. The social policing system as a professional
enforcement agency of the social welfare ministry can do an effective job
in enforcing progressive social legislations with all their nuances, by fully
devolving on it while saving the police organisation from the
embarrassment of handling issues to which it is not equipped either
mentally, professionally or organisationally. This measure will exeme the
police organisation from unwarranted pressures and enhance its legitimacy
in handling serious security and law and order issues.
Specialisations in policing
The growth of police functions as adnated to present life-style of
increasing complexity is enormous of late with policing slinking to the
vitals of all streaks of social and nonsocial living. Policing has become a
high-tech affair these days with scopes for further advancements. Each
major activity of policing like maintenance of order, investigation of
crimes, collection of intelligence and security-operations have assumed
such an independent status of nonesuch expertise and professionalism that
these fields being inhered is neither desirable nor feasible. Nor in the
circumstances, does shifting a functionary from one field of expertise to



the other help his overall performance. Anfractuosity in any one of these
fields of specialisation for life is becoming a requisite as time goes by.
The futuristic policing of India must have its subordinate police as
professionals in a given field of specialisation, say maintenance of order,
crime investigation, intelligence collection or security operation with
synergy manifesting only at higher levels. So, India may have independent
law and order police, detective police, special police and security police,
each separately recruited and trained for professionalism and expertise in
their respective fields. Officers from all these specialised fields should be
eligible to rise t general policing at higher levels on the basis of a pro rata
quota system for promotions.
Parallel crime administration
"The increased preoccupation of the police with law and order and
security issues in view of the growing cataclysmic activities in the country
has adversely affected effective, crime administration of late. Police
stations have become registering stations as far as crime administration is
concerned. The time of the local police is fordone with immediate issues of
law and order and V.I.P. security, and in the process, crime investigation
has become a casualty. The process may further deteriorate as security and
law and order problems increase in coming years. Neither the crime staff at
subordinate levels nor the supervisory staff at district and higher levels, in
the melee, have the will or the resources to divert to crime investigation
while the crime rate in the country is assuming dangerous proportions.
Crime investigations should not be allowed to suffer because of disorder
and insecurity in the country, as otherwise, a vicious circle may develop
wherein disorder and insecurity lead to fall in investigation and flabby
investigation in turn, to patulous disorder and insecurity. This triste
development may be effectively dealt-with by an independent crime setup,
parallel to the law and order outfit.
The crime outfit should be responsible for the investigation of criminal
cases and function under an Inspector General of Police who is responsible
to the police chief; with a crime Deputy Inspector General of Police in
each range. Each district may have a crime Superintendent of Police with
the necessary number of detective Deputy Superintendents of Police,
detective Inspectors, Sub-Inspectors and constabulary to assist while only
Sub-Inspectors and above are empowered t investigate cases. The SubInspectors will be attached to various police stations with powers to
register criminal cases and investigate only petty cases. The crime
Superintendent of Police refers criminal cases of his district for
investigation to Police Inspectors or Deputy Superintendents of Police,



woridng under him, on the basis of the gravity of the cases and take up
exceptionally grave cases for personal investigation. The crime Deputy
Inspectors General of Police may take up exceptionally sensational cases in
his range for personal investigation. The crime outfit in a district must run
parallel to the law and order outfit of the district.
An independent crime outfit in district and state may exquisitely behove
to a futuristic police setup by giving crime investigation a boost and
insuring it against the peracute pangs of organisational maladies of the
Control room-centered policing
The compulsions of urban policing are strikingly different from those of
rural policing. Response time is the hallmark of urban policing where a
delay of a few minutes can make a difference between death and life as
criminals and terrorists with the most sophisticated communication,
weapon system and hair-raising organisational accuracy overawe the
police, pitted against them in the course of their criminal operations. The
present police station oriented policing is incompetent to meet the
challenges of the urban criminals either in resources or in organisational
ingine. Further, complacency in re own procinct may stifle the very
policing system of India.
Unity, resoursefulness and speed form the spine of urban policing. The
control room-centered policing in urban centres where men and
transportation and latest communication facilities that work round the
clock in shifts enables galvanic operations to tackle law and order
problems. All town and cities require control rooms of appropriate sizes
with a control room chief of a befitting rank. A control room of a
metropolitan city having a population of more than fifty lakhs may be
entrusted to a control room chief of the rank of Deputy Inspector General
of police; a city having a population exceeding ten lakhs requires a chief of
the rank of Superintendent of police to its control room; a city of a
population exceeding a lakh may have a control room in charge of a
Deputy Superintendent of Police; a town having a population of more than
20,000 may require an Inspector to head its control room; and a town with
a population of less than twenty thousand may need a control room under a
Sub-Inspector. Each control room may have four shift-officers of the rank
immediately lower in rank; all subordinate staff of the town or city are kept
under the control room's disposal on round the clock shifts. The control
room should be well connected with several channels of telephones,
wireless sets, mobile telephones and other state-of-the-art communication
equipments to strategic points, mobile vans, task forces, hospitals, fire
force units, civil defence units, neighbouring police units and residences of



senior police officers and civil authorities. The control rooms should be
equipped with the latest gadgets and sufficient transportation facilities for
the maintenance of law and order. The law and order unit of the urban area
may be headed by an officer of the rank above the rank of the chief of the
control room.
This outfit with unlimited resource at its disposal for launching any type
of operation within a few minutes of communication may suffice to meet
the challenges of maintaining law and order in urban areas in the new age.
Reorganisation of intelligence units

The place of collection and analysis of intelligence and special

operations in policing including security operations, maintenance of law
and order and crime investigation is sui generis as intelligence forms the
building blocks of all nuances of the police operations. The police,
operating to collect intelligence, forms the substructure of the edifice of
policing of the country. Indian intelligence system is yet to stand up to the
enormous challenges thrown to it and it can nowhere be compared with its
counterparts in developed and even a few developing countries. Various
intelligence outfits of India are often found functioning at cross purposes.
India should reorganise and strengthen its intelligence outfit if it is to
survive the challenges of the coming age.
The Indian intelligence system should develop unity of purpose and
operation by working under the umbrella of an unified intelligence
authority headed by the union cabinet Secretary with intelligence chiefs of
the police and military as members. The authority should affect a synergy
of intelligence operations through its various wings of internal intelligence,
foreign intelligence, counter-intelligence, military intelligence and security
intelligence. Sufficient attention should be given to infuse entrain in the
intelligence system of India and modernise its methods to raise it to a few
degrees closer to the international standards. The interferences of
officialdom should be eradicated from intelligence operations and a sense
of commitment and dedication should be infused by making intelligence
operations a lifelong career.
The state intelligence wing should be headed by an Inspector General of
police, directly responsible to the state police chief. The intelligence wing
should be overall in charge of intelligence operations, pertaining to
security, law and order and crime in the state.



Specially trained security Operators

The ultimate purpose of all police functions is public security. Either it
is intelligence collection or crime investigation or maintenance of law and
order - all roads lead to this single aspiration. Therefore, the security
operations forms the crown of policing activities without which all other
police operations prove futile exercises.
The India of the new age will need specially trained battalions of
security operators in every state to take charge of the security of vital
installations and VIPs. Each will work under the supervision of an
Inspector General of police, responsible to the state police chief. Also, each
state police unit will have a small commando force under the Inspector
General of police to meet threats during emergencies like hijacking, VVIP
security under difficult circumstances, complicated operations against
terrorists etc. This special group will be brought into operation only under
exceptionally difficult circumstances on the direct orders from the state
police chief. Otherwise, it will be involved in continuous commando
training of the highest order. The commandos will be well-equipped with
the wherewithal of commando operations of the latest order. Only select
officers will be recruited to the group with extra emoluments to make the
job really elite. The commando units of the central government will train
the state commando forces.
The need of commando groups in the state police will be increasingly
felt in future as the menace of terrorism and sabotage grows uninhibited
with the future possibility of peracute methods being accepted as legitimate
ways of expressing political dissent.
Improved management of human resources
The human aspect is the fulcrum of policing. Human comportment
teethed with authority to compesce the human mass forms the essence of
police activities. Policing essentially is human interaction, latitant in
unending luctation to smite criminal and anti-social elements. It is the
human quality in the force that determines its effectiveness and vitality.
Therefore, human resource policy in a police organisation needs careful
and gritty handling at the highest possible level.
The present Indian environment of ruthless competitions impleached
with a degringolade of values made human resources management a farce
in India. The wherewithal of human resources management like
recruitment, promotions, transfers, rewards, punishments etc, is no more
employed for the maximum benefit of the organisation. Self-interests have



undermined quality and character and organisational interests are

subordinated to personal behoofs. Though this proclivity is prevalent in all
fields in India, of late, its adverse effects are kenspeckle in police
organisation as the line-system of the organisation makes the ingenuity of
human resources management, a factor having direct bearing on the quality
of the policing. While policing is becoming a dynamic part of the
governance in urban areas, with the rise of urban pockets, the damage done
by egregious management of human resources in the police cannot be
exaggerated. The declension may go patulous with the passage of time if
frack measures to arrest the depravation in human resources management
are ignored.
Diligent efforts at the highest level in the organisation to create a force
characterised by integrity, commitment and intelligence may be the
foremost need of a police organisation of the coming age. The prevalency
of police administration over the general administration in the survival of a
nation as a democratic and orderly country may necessitate future changes
in recruitment and service condition rules to attract the very best talents of
the country to the police organisation with extraordinary care to ensure that
anything less than the best with clean antecedents does not step into the
Once the ingine is inveigled into the fold of the organisation, the
ingenerate need of retaining it in the organisation sans delusions and
disappointments and improving upon its attributes gains added momentum.
In the extant system, only those less than the best join the police
organisation; less than satisfactory training is imparted to them that fails to
infuse even elementary professionalism; and the practical experience in the
field emaciates their noble ettles, if any are left alive, as an improvident
fool's paradise and causes them to fall in line with the mediocre. Futuristic
India may not have an alternative to breaking this vicious circle for its
survival and better managing its human resources by designing a training
programme that makes a budding officer a thorough professional in
policing, reinforces his noble ettles and changes the environment of the
police organisation to inspire a subjacent faith in the right value system.
Time-bound promotions
The system of assessment of a subordinate's work for promotion has
fallen into utter desuetude and dangerous misuse by the prevalent corrupt
atmosphere. India, in the interest of its future policing may do well to
extricate the prospects of career developments like promotions from
subjective assessments of corrupt influences by ensuring two periodical
promotions in a time scale of twenty-five years. So, every Police Constable
retires minimum as an Assistant Sub-Inspector of Police, a Sub-Inspector



as a Deputy Superintendent of Police and an Indian Police Service Officer

as an Inspector General of Police. The present incidence of most of the
Police Constables retiring as Police Constables may not go well with the
concept of ex aequo society of futuristic India and pose a threat to the
health of the police organisation in the environment of increased
awakening of the 21st century. The officers of the Indian Police Service
may be posted on first appointment as Superintendents of Police to make
the service more attractive, though not to districts directly and the dual
recruitments at the rank as in vogue now require to be stopped to make
police recruitment meaningful.
Officers in exceptional cases may have avenues for special promotions
in addition to the two, provided in a time scale of twenty-five years, on the
basis of written examination and on an overall assessment of their career
of twenty-five years by high-powered committees formed for the purpose.
The promotion of constabulary in exceptional cases to the ranks of PSIs
and above should be screened by the Police Board of the State; the
promotion of PSIs as Superintendents of Police and above should be
screened by the All India Police Authority and the promotion of IPS
Officers as Director General of Police and above by a Central Cabinet
Committee headed by the Prime Minister. This arrangement will ensure
fearless and professional policing sans complaissance to corrupt elements,
particularly when the prospects of corrupt practices of repriming
professionals of probity and hoisting flaccid complaisants to prominence
are certain to be in excelsis in the new age.
Removal of constabulary
The constabulary which forms the backbone and the cutting-edge of
Indian policing and wields real authority over the populace, is a lowlypaid, modestly educated, non-elite mass of uniformed workers. The
authority they wield makes them fearsome while their low status in society
sperres them from commanding empathy, respect and legitimacy. The
fearsome authority sans empathy, respect and legitimacy decidedly proves
a deadly substructure for an organisation and people certainly resent an
organisation with this unhealthy attribute. Nor the truculent authority,
invested in officials of an intra-mural enlightenment and responsibility can
ensure its comme il faut exercise. This foible in the extant setup manifests
as increased hazards to glib policing as the complexity of its challenges
thickens in coming years, if no remedial measures are undertaken belive.
The Indian police of the 21st century will require Sub-Inspectors with
their present scale of education and status in society as the primary unit of
policing at the cutting-edge level with no policing powers and
responsibilities devolved beneath this level. The constabulary upto the



level of the Assistant Sub-Inspectors of Police should be limited to the

duties of menial assistants without police powers and responsibilities. This
will require a huge army of Sub-Inspectors in the Indian police while the
constabulary stands to be severely spruced in strength.
With the removal of the constabulary from the police hierarchy, the
Sub-Inspectors will besort to the lowest rank in the police setup. Each
police station works under a Police Inspector assisted by a host of SubInspectors, performing all subordinate functions of the policing including
beat patrolling and investigation of minor cases under this dispensation.
Professional training facilities
The chief cause of policing never being a profession in India is the
ineffectiveness of its training facilities. In spite of adequate infrastructures
available for training police officials of various ranks, these centres largely
fail to meet the quality required to make a recruit a thorough professional.
An overhaul of the extant training facilities in terms of its quality, content
and character is inevitable to keep the Indian police excubant to future
challenges. The training facilities should be made centres of scholarship
and research on police subjects with professionals of national reputation in
each subject handling their respective subjects. The psychology faculty of
the centre should endeavour to build character and infuse right orientation
among the recruits. The faculty members of the training centres should be
exceptionally well paid so as to inveigle the best in the field to join. Army
officers must handle outdoor classes. This model helps in instilling the
highest standards and expectations in trainees till they become full-fledged
officers and orient them to become professional police officers, apart from
distancing them from the moderate influences which are herded to handle
police training centres in the present setup. The trainees must be exposed
to police officers as guest speakers, by inviting very senior police officers
of the highest integrity and job standards to deliver talks on specific topics.
Separate professional training courses should be available in the training
centres for law and order police, crime police, intelligence police and
security police with scope for advanced learning with an eye to the latest
developments in each respective field. Latest training methods should be
adopted with management, computers and advanced psychology inter alia
as the common subjects of study for all the courses. The training centres
should give the impression of being temples of advanced studies apart
from being so.
Professionalism in policing
Policing requires commitment and dedication on the part of its
operators. The principles of faith and responsibility must run invisus



through the vitals of the policing, should it be purposeful and successful.

The extant bureaucratic malady that infested the Indian police setup
cohibits healthy policing practices. The police organisation should be
reoriented to develop a professional approach to its operations with full
faith and responsibility as the hallmark of the delegation of power. The
present emphasis on procedures should be shifted to commitment and
result-orientation within the ambit of the rules.
An analytical study of policing, its trends and modem techniques helps
to bring professionalism in policing. Due encouragement for the study of
theoretical aspects of policing and its application in the field through inservice training 'will be a welcome step in this direction. If police
managers succeed in inspiring in police officers an interest in theoretical
aspects of the policing and its latest techniques, it would be a kenspeckle
leap in abraiding Indian police to the challenges in the future.
Gentlemanly image
Though efforts have been en train to ameliorate the image of the Indian
police for a long time, nothing substantial could be achieved for amateurish
handling of the affair. The present Indian police managers have their image
development tools limited to issuing occasional press statements when
image development has become a highly advanced field of specialisation
with unending scope for further advancements. In view of the considerable
significance of the image for successful police operations, the wherewithal
of image-building in police organisation is required to be updated with
latest techniques with the help of professionals in the field.
Change of uniform
A change in the existing police uniform is an issue to be deeply probed
into to improve the police image. The present khaki uniform of police
inspires resentment as it is psychologically associated with repression and
violence. A change of police uniform to full white or pleasant colours may
prove to be a measure for the better in removing the negative image of the
police. The overall strategy in selecting a new police uniform should be to
infuse a sense of oneness and quality among the ranks of police and
inspiring a psychological disposition of friendliness, confidence, respect
and healthy fear in the public with a compulsion to see the police as their
own people, but invested with the responsibility of a noble task.



Good living standards

The police organisation functions effectively only when a reasonably
good living standard is made affordable to all ranks of officers, so that they
can deal with antisocial elements from a level of strength and confidence
sans the lure of easy booty, thrown en revanche to a let-off. A low living
standard retards the police image and esteem in society that are the
essentials of successful policing. It is more so in future while more and
more of the so-called elite jump into the fray of criminal activities in an
increasingly complicated society.
It may be necessary to make police officers financially bien in
comparison to their counterparts in other services with 30% of their pay
paid as risk allowance and 20% as hazard allowance to compensate job
factors. This helps to attract the best to the fold of the police organisation,
apart from protecting them from financial distractions. A feeling of
condign compensation is certain to boost the commitment and efficiency of
the police.
Modern facilities and management tools
The police organisation has seen mushroom growth sans application of
requisite management principles. The major lapse lies in failure to define
organizational objectives and formulate specific set of actions thereon. For
example, extraneous objectives like creating employment opportunities
often inspire creation of additional posts irrespective of the organisational
needs, which results in corrosion of job contents and thereby morale of the
force. Work often is not allocated on the basis of scientific assessment of
the character and aptitude. The latest equipments purchased a grands frais
under modernisation schemes without creating the infrastructure for its
operation or analysing its relative merits to the organisation, resulted in its
being dumped a few days of its operation while even basic necessities of
policing are yet to be met in a fsw other quarters. These anomalies prove
criant luxuries to a police organisation, sure to be faced with enormous
challenges in the third millennium.
The police organisation of India do well to be featous, well-organised
and formulate actions and operations in line with latest management
principles and practices. K may either constitute an efficient cell of
management experts to advice or hire a management consultation firm for
guidance. At any rate, the police organisation of the third millennium
should be a far smaller unit than now, manned by highly committed and
capable officers who are paid and looked after well by the government.



The present policing system in India has too much of paper work with
hundreds of registers maintained in each station or office with tens of
forms filled up in each stage of policing. A detailed analytical study of
paper works in policing may help to considerably reduce paper works and
thereby save precious official man-hours for use in actual police
operations. Computerisation of an paper works is also a possibility not far
The modernisation of the police force with the latest communication,
transport, weaponry and office equipment system and me simultaneous
creation of the necessary infrastructure for their operation in advance alone
besort the police force to the challenges of elite criminals, armed with
latest equipments. India of the third millennium will require its police force
to be equipped with helicopters as an aide in policing in emergencies. A
genuine and effective effort to achieve modernization ends would be sine
qua non for the future policing. A face-lift to police stations and offices
with the latest office equipment and general facilities will go a long way in
creating a psychological atmosphere for effective policing.
Creation of criminal law board
India requires the constitution of a statutory Criminal Law Board as
an advisory body to liaise between the police setup and the union law
ministry regarding criminal laws to facilitate glib policing. The board, as a
permanent body, may have seniormost officers of the central government
from home and law ministries, police and prosecution departments,
distinguished humanists and senior advocates of the Superme Court as
members with the union home minister as its chairman. It must undertake
the study of the need of changes in criminal laws from rime to rime. The
board may meet every quarter and discuss extant criminal laws and their
shortcomings in the light of representations received from officers in the
field from the police and prosecution departments and make proposals for
requisite changes in criminal laws e re nata.
Widened responsibilities in crime administration
A few glaring anomalies and some erroneous provisions in the extant
criminal laws of India contributed to the easy escapade of criminals from
the clutches of law in many cases and harassment of innocent persons by
the police in some other cases. The loopholes in the criminal laws have to
be plugged imprimis if crime administration has to be effective in India and
command a semblance of respect and confidence of the public.
The police or judicial officer under whose custody a person is kept
under detention should be made responsible by name for the latter's timely



release with a provision that if detention exceeds the period provided by

law, it will make the concerned officer liable for proceedings for unlawful
detention without the privilege of exemptions for actions performed in
official colour, available under extant laws. Also, all cases of violence and
physical outrages committed in police custody should be made punishable
with exemplary penalties by special legislations. Such outre measures may
bring an end to shocking criminal acts committed eo nomine policing in
some quarters and save the Indian police from the embarrassment of severe
public resentment.
Current bail provisions of the Indian criminal law constitute a source of
acute embarrassment to police officers with criminals, arrested after weeks
or months of stupendous efforts, let off by the judiciary on bail. only to
facilitate jumping the bail. All discretions about bail with police and
judiciary should be taken away with only a select few offences of
enormous gravity being made nonbailable wherein neither police nor
judiciary can release criminals on bail. This eliminates the possibility of
favours to some criminals and bring mechanical accuracy and objectivity
to bail provisions. This measure may prove to be a trailblazer in
ensconcing criminal laws from misuse during the difficult period ahead.
Police commissioners in cities
Every city in India with a population of more than a lakh must have an
independent policing unit under a Police Commissioner of a rank befitting
the population of the city; a city with a population upto ten lakhs may have
one of the rank of Superintendent of police; a city with a population upto
50 lakhs may have a Deputy Inspector General of Police as the chief and a
city with a population of 50 lakhs or more may have an Inspector General
of Police as its Police Commissioner. The setup of Police Commissionerate
gives a sense of unity and purposefulness to the task of policing, apart from
being most suitable form of setup for urban policing with magisterial
powers being invested with the police to enable prompt action. This setup
with empight responsibilities instils commitment and dedication in
Creation of all India police authority
All maladies of the present policing emanate from the politicians who
are only concerned with winning the next election. Until the police
organisation is extricated from the vile prise of the mediocre politicians, it
cannot hope to rise above the mediocre level of its el patron either in
proficiency or in character, as such mediocrity is wont to permeate
downwards in a democratic setup. In the circumstances, the police



organisation with its sensitive responsibilities towards the maintenance of

order and security of the country, cannot afford to submit to political
Though a proposal to extricate a precious machinery like the police from
the clutches of the politicians is likely to be met with enormous resistance,
it is an important measure to be undertaken at all costs in the overall
interests of the country. The task may be achieved by creation of an All
India Police Authority, responsible only to the President of India at the
national level with regional Police Boards in states as independent bodies,
managing police organisations at the centre and states. The All India Police
Authority must be headed by a Supreme Court Judge with union home
secretary and central cabinet secretary as members and the senior most
police officer of the country as the member-secretary. The regional Police
Bodrd must have a High Court Judge at the helm with home secretary and
state chief secretary as members and the state police chief as its membersecretary. The arrangement is likely to bring an end to undue interference
in police affairs, thus enabling the police to function in an independent
atmosphere. The Indian police may hope to turn out eximious work in the
new age if these measures are implemented.
Policing as a phenomenon of maintaining order and security in society
cannot afford to be oblivious of the flux in the modem lifestyles. As an
integral part of civil living, policing must prepare itself to amate the
increasing complexities of modem life by modifying its organisational and
administrative setups to the demands, these vicissitudes create. The
changes warranted in policing may either be deciduous or peremptory
depending on the nature of the transition in society. It is left to police
planners to analyse the nature of the flux in the society and locate the areas
where decession from the past practices has become sine qua non for
policing. This should be an ongoing process if policing is to retain its
relevance as the guardian of social discipline. The futuristic challenges of
policing would be pro rata to the twists of the future living. The prospects
of Indian population reaching the mark of a billion and the concomitant
luctation of two billion needy hands to grab a share in the country's limited
resources of food, shelter, water, clothing, electricity, schooling,
employment etc. naturally make life a cut-throat concours and a ruthless
adventure devoid of scruple, human values and a concern for fellow men.
It would be a fight for survival with less competent and skeigh gentlemen
going belive hors de combat. The kenspeckle pejoration had already set in
from the early sixties. Though the Indian policing system managed
somehow to deal with the vicissitudes (ill now, the geometric acceleration
of the flux of the coming years may prove to be too much to the extant
police setup. Therefore, it is high time now that we prepare our police
organisation and administration for the future challenges.





In an age of sabotage and terrorism, no man, no place and no structure is
really safe; no time of the day or night can be construed as safe. With the
increasing complexity of human society, with increasing claims on limited
resources of the world, the kettle of human life is spilling over with
organized hatred and violence. Terrorism has become an international
phenomenon. Accrescent unemployment makes terrorism popular by
giving unemployed youths a raison d'etre for life and an ideology to
pursue. The lopsided material growth of the 20th century life at the cost of
contentment and inner peace, endeared to man the thrills and adventures of
the life that fill up his inner void. New scientific inventions give man such
sophisticated mechanisms and machinery that he can do anything he wants
without being personally.present at a place. Each man has potentially
become a power centre and he can build or destroy the world he lives in.
Each man has become a force to reckon with in the survival of this Earth.
The rise in hatred and violence in the present world, compounded with the
man's dangerous power to wreak vengeance avec acharnement made
internal security an unsure field. It replaced the avital police function of
crime control and maintenance of law and order to become the primary
gauntlet of the police.
Police on an unequal job
The threat to internal security is posed by highly trained, highly
motivated volunteers belonging to highly organised and highly resourceful
terrorist outfits. The unenviable task of providing protection to men, places
and structures from these committed zealots on the antipode with the
precious choice of time, place and target in their favour and any number of
sophisticated methods and techniques of strike to choose from, continually
sap the manpower, machinery and other resources of the police. The
police, with its forfaim organisation and approach to challenge, is found to
be too nonpareil to the dimensions of the problem even in advanced
countries. The pressure sine dubio helped the police to walk a la hauteur
de its adversaries with regard to plans of modernisation, though far en
arrier. What should have been is the other way round, that is, the police
keeping me lead in modernisation techniques and the antipode marching to
keep pace with the police. Unfortunately, it is not to be in the Indian



Lack of ground work

In absence of strength, resources, plans and the confidence to meet the
gauntlets of terrorism, the reaction of the police to terrorist threats is
desperate mobbing and covering the target at best and diffident
immobilisation at the worst. The inability of the police to penetrate highly
raisonne terrorist organisations and get an insight into their goal, plan and
method of work put it at a costly disadvantage. The failure of the police to
draw up detailed long-term plans to meet terrorist challenges handicaps it
in its operations. It is just non pnssumus to guarantee internal security sans
a sound knowledge of the terrorists and their proclivities and a systematic
ruse de guerre to checkmate them in carefully drawn-out phases. Terrorists
are not the stuffs and internal security is not the telos to be dealt with in
bits and farthings as and when challenges arc posed.
Spasmodic approach to security challenges
An internal security machinery working in a void often gives rise to
ludicrous security reactions. Anonymous calls or letters in most unlikely
situations arc attended to with a desperate mobilisation of men and
machinery a grands frais to the stale exchequer sans any research into the
call or the letter and everything ends up as a hoax. Any number of such
instances are available in recent Indian police history. An anonymous
Kannada letter claimed to have been wrilicn by LTTE cadres was received
in Mysore with a threat of blowing up the KRS dam on the intervening
night of 14 and 15 of August, 1991 and was later followed with similar
threats of blowing up Vidhana Soudha on me same night. The
comminations were followed with exoteric security paraffle at all those
places to the fun of the plebeian. A right kenner to the LTTE objectives,
expertise and method of operation would have brevi manu dismissed the
calls and the letters as a non-event. The Karnataka police had to prepare
itself en plein jour for an emergency because it was not prepared and
equipped to handle internal security problems with courage and
confidence. It is not wrong to gear up the police machinery to the level of
procinct to meet challenges even in cases of suspected threats. But, such
security could have been given more subtly without fanfare, flare of
reclame and undue show of strength, to save the police from being a
laughing stock. The desperate police reaction in such patently unlikely
situations may prompt mischievous elements to shoot similar missives
almost daily. Can the police react to all those letters similarly? The
desperate reaction of the police only betrayed a lack of courage and
confidence in meeting the needs of internal security. No show of strength
can ever provide real security. It is subtle planning and conticent operation
that make security possible. All security arrangements must be preceded by



thorough research and detailed operational plans. This is completely

forgotten in the Indian situation.
Need of silent and planned approach
In an expertly drawn-up operational plan of sabotage, minimum
possible number of people are involved, usually one or two apart from the
logistic support. It is quality that counts and not quantity in sabotage and
security operations. The minimum number of people who really execute
the sabotage arc highly motivated and highly trained, competent
individuals, capable of keel operation. No sabotage operation depends
upon the strength of manpower nor can it hope to succeed by the number
of people, involuted. Rather, the larger the number, the smaller the chances
of success because of human nature, coordination problems and higher
chances of leakage of subtle operational details. It also involves the
problem of providing security and escape routes for more men in the postoperational period. Ergo, it is futile to depend on the strength of manpower
and machinery at the cost of quality in security plans. No numbers can stop
a highly motivated and trained man from sneaking upto his target and
blowing it up with modern gadgetry which are next to impossible to detect.
What is required is not companies of policemen, but a handful of highly
qualified and motivated men of experience with an intelligent, thoroughly
drawn-up security plan, based on competent intelligence inputs about the
objects and operational plans of the adversary. Everything except these
salient features of an internal security plan is present in the responses of
the Indian police to security challenges.
Overhauling of police system
The police force in India was raised imprimis to tackle crime and lawand-order problems. Its recruitment, training and on-the-field experience
programmes stress upon the elements required to tackle those problems.
The Indian police organisation, in its stiff hierarchical order and discipline,
is geared to meet these challenges. There is little scope in the present
police for the growth of an aptitude other than for these deja vu functions.
No effort was made to overhaul the police even after security challenges
have superated in their primacy in police functions. It should be borne in
mind that the demands on the police to meet security challenges are tout a
fait distinct from the demands to which the Indian police has long been
accustomed. The aptitude required to protect targets from determined
esoteric strikes by terrorists is antipodeal with the aptitude required for the
show of strength, necessary to suppress a loosely knit mob of wankle lawbreakers. In spite of these ascensive strains on the Indian police, its
organisation and resources, due to the dangerous spurt in security threats, it
unfortunately has failed to abraid and overhaul its system to amate the new



challenges; the consectaneous fatalities of men and other targets are steeply
rising every year with a free hand to terrorist reticulation to strike at will.
The glitches of the Indian police in re internal security are obvious by the
fact that Indian soil has become a fertile ground to breed and feed terrorist
organisations. Every corner of India, has its own terrorist outfit and each of
these outfits has proved itself a pernicious challenge to the Indian police.
Never, even by chance, has the Indian police shown that it can control a
terrorist outfit. The fact is that even all armies of the world together cannot
bring a terrorist outfit to heel, unless the soft belly of the terrorist outfit is
subtly hit embusque by intelligent operations. Sadly, the Indian police is
yet to realise this fact.
Sabotage, terrorism and security risks are not phenomena pro tempore.
They are here to stay and the police must know to meet the situations they
engender. And threats to internal security, by all means, will assume
demonic proportions as time advances. The survival of the police in
coming years depends upon its ability lo meet the needs of internal
security. It has no alternative but to overhaul its passe system,
organisation, operational methods, approach to work, training and
manpower resources to be able to do so. The faster it is done, the better.
For, the inability of the police in successfully handling security challenges
is resulting in fatalities almost every day.
Selection of right people
The first parameter for preparing the police for the future
challenges of the internal security is selecting right people with right
aptitude, right abilities and right background. This requires thorough job
analysis in re the requirements to handle the pertinent responsibilities.
Choosing the right man from the motley to inclip him to the ergon forms
the foremost need of preparing the police for the impending challenges. It
should be realised that the need of such people to the police overweighs the
need of the police for these extraordinary species. As internal security is a
condition of national survival, no law, no fundamental right, no directive
principle nor any social welfare ideologies should interfere with the
recruitment of the right people. Internal security being a highly sensitive
and secretive job, each less than right man inside is a positive risk to
security operations. Further, such people are a drain on the efficiency and
effectiveness of the organisation. Ergo, avoiding people less than right for
the job is as important in recruitment as selecting the right person.
Selection on special footing
The people who fit-in to internal security responsibilities must have an
innate trait to give themselves to the job that they take up. They must be



sensitive people with a high commitment to their responsibilities with the

mental and physical agility to fulfil the task ex mero motu. Men of high
intelligence quotient, patience, aplomb and perseverance have to be
immanent in their nature. A profound sense of patriotism is an added
qualification. However, not many people having these rare qualities are
readily available. It must be a sacred duty of the security operators to
ingest such rara avis to the organisation wherever they are found and with
whatever sacrifice. It is possible only if recruitment to these places are
made a postern affair at the highest level without throwing recruitment
open to competitions where all types of people sneak in in malam partem
for various reasons. Internal security, more often than not, is an invious
profession wherein life is committed to its objectives.
In the circumstances, the indraught to the fold must be agraste with
respect and behoofs in form of liberal purses and perks apart from more
than generous promotional and death-cum-retirements benefits that behove
to the compulsive commitment sine qua non for the job. This helps to
widen the latitude of choice by promising a belle vue which is pareil to its
demands to the aspirants to this difficile career.
Having suitable manpower is one thing. Preparing them for the future
challenges is quite another. It is here that training comes into picture.
Training high-calibre, sensitive people is a much more responsible and
arduous job. If the training is to prepare them for a sensitive job like
internal security, the gravity of the task gets -further compounded by the
addition of another dimension to the responsibility. The emphasis here is to
raise the innate traits of the trainees to desired levels. They should be
moulded to be highly motivated, knowledgeable, bright professionals with
a flair for results. They must be taught to operate without plangent
attention and get maximum mileage from minimum basic action. Such a
training needs a carefully drawn-up training programme with creative
inputs. In sensitive jobs like internal security, grooming manpower
including recruitment and training is more vital than the job itself.
Security operations
All internal security operations must be part of a raisonne security plan
that is drawn out in advance after thorough research and study of the best
available intelligence on internal and external affairs, the geographical
position of the country, the internal and external economic situation, likely
shifts in foreign relations, objects and intentions of neighbouring countries,
the dynamics of ethnic, communal and linguistic interaction within the
country and scientific advances in weaponry and other gadgetry, having a



bearing on the security mailers. The security plan must foresee likely
sources of trouble inside and outside the country and cultivate
undercover'operatois at sensitive spots either by its own resources or
through agents, often years or decades in advance to keep an eye on
developments, feed intelligence and control situations by infiltration to
strategic positions. Without this groundwork, no security operation can
make much headway. Such a long-drawn security plan that foresees events
decades ahead in the semiptemal interests of the state security presumes
foresightedness and a thorough study and research of facts by its author to
back up the plan. There is no sema of any such a plan obvious for Indian
internal security and what is happening around gives the triste impression
that the gauntlets of internal security are met day to day in line with
meeting daily law-and-order problems. The best India can gasconade now
arc the internal security schemes in police offices with names of sensitive
targets and general instructions about where and how they must be
protected in emergencies and normal days. These schemes are tout a fait
wasted exercises in these days of highly sophisticated terrorist strikes by
organised terrorist outfits. More important, the passe instructions in these
supposedly secret official documents are no more secret. Though some
attempts are made to update these instructions when a security lapse leads
to a public outcry, none of such general instructions can assure even a
semblance of security in this age of sophistication. A resourceful terrorist
gladiator who is committed to execute his strike a tout prix can hit his
target at will malgre tout security precautions undertaken I compliance to
updated security instructions in Indian internal security schemes. It is
obvious that the security lapses during Shri Rajiv Gandhi's Sriperumbudu
election campaign made the job of the LITE squad easy. At the same time,
it should be borne in mind that no measures by security outfits of India in
its present infaust state of affair would have prevented the committed and
avizefull cadres of the LTTE from accomplishing their devilish task. The
killing would have been merely a matter of time. There are infinite number
of courses available to a resourceful and inventive mind. It is in these
circumstances that India should invenit its new security outfit.
Knowledge of the security risks
Any security buildup must stand on two basic requirements; firstly, upto-date knowledge of the security risks and their strategies and secondly, a
security machinery devised to meet specific demands of the specific
circumstances. A thorough knowledge of the adversaries includes an indepth knowledge of their long and short term objectives, their time-to-time
aberrations, strategies, expertise, modes of operation, friends, enemies,
sources of support, likely change of strategies and their analyses to assess
the possibility of security threats and likely targets. Yes, it is a stupendous
task involving huge manpower and other resources a grands frais. Yet, it is



worth the cost and trouble in the interests of the national security and a far
more intelligent and meaningful use of human and material resources than
spending them to indagate criminals after they accomplish their pernicious
job. Investigation of terrorism-oriented crimes serves practically no
purpose and makes no impact on the plan and strategies of a well-planned
terrorist outfit.
Specific security plans
A security build-up is infrangible only if it is specific fur each
circumstance, depending upon the needs as assessed by security experts
from time to time. Security must essentially be an esoteric operation with
open eyes and ears and closed mouth; with open mind and closed heart. It
must be a shadowy operation rather than a gust of light blinding people
around. Intelligent terrorist operators prefer to strike in this gust of light
which is what security tends to be. A good and pollent security plan should
not have an open set-plan which by all likelihood would be used by
intelligent terrorists to their advantage. The pollicitation of a good security
plan depends upon its secretiveness, perspicacity and ability to take even a
well-prepared and resourceful terrorist operator by surprise.
Ring round duty
Indian security plans lay stress on covering targets with armed men and
preventing people from approaching the threatened target. In absence of
adequate penetration to the source of threat, none of these pernoctation can
have any impact on the capabilities of a terrorist to strike his target. A
human wall around the target is an infructuous show of strength in an age
where there are powerful weapons and' ammunitions that can penetrate
several such layers in a single stroke. Even the best of the snipers
protecting a target would be at a disadvantage in felling a terrorist-to-strike
who has all the advantages of time, place, surprise and the mental and
physical reflexes to superate both his target and armed protectors. A wellplanned terrorist attack fully prepares for all these odd contretemps. Those
around the target, posted to spot suspicious movements among people are
also at the same disadvantage. It is the skeely terrorist who is keenly
watching his target and men around versus the spotters staring blankly at
inconnu for suspicious movements. An intelligently chosen and thoroughly
trained terrorist operator can easily overcome this problem.
Screening of people
Another important strategy of the Indian security machinery is
screening people before permitting proximity to the threatened target. A
resourceful terrorist plan can facilely circumvent this with money,



connections and influence. There are infinite ingenious ways available to a

resourceful and imaginative man, determined to reach his target. In
circumstances where a police force remiss and ineffectual at best and
corrupt at the worst is in charge of screening as spotters, his job is facile
and custom-made for his aptitude.
Quiet security
Indian security plans ignore the cardinal principle of a good security
reticulation namely, providing security without coming in the way of the
normal process of life of the target except where unavoidable. The
minimum show of force must form an inviolable part of the scheme. The
leitmotif of an effective security buildup is providing perfect security with
minimum inconvenience to the concerned. But, Indian security sleuths
believe otherwise. They believe in taking over the target a toute force to
their control, modifying the normal course and process of the target to their
convenience with the least regard to whether the target is a place, an
installation, or a dignitary, as if they try to provide security in exchange for
the freedom of movement and action. And all this for obviously ineffective
security! This is ludicrous. Indian security reached this facetious ebb
because it is diffident of even thinking of providing security to targets an
naturel. The fact is that it cannot provide true security in its present
mauvais ton in spite of dictating terms to the target. En principe, security is
a birthright and it should be available in that form with no constraints
attached on free movement. It is not to be so in the existing circumstances
of Indian security buildup and even national leaders in India accepted the
fact by trading their image and popularity for this supposed safety.
Relevance of present security arrangements
It is argued that the extant Indian security system is effective in
discouraging less resourceful terrorist outfits from attempting strikes and
preventing half-hearted attacks. The argument is not convincing for the
reason that there can be no lesser terrorist strikes in the present world. All
terrorist outfits worth the name in the present international situation are
extremely resourceful with serious objectives, plans and strategies and a
complete commitment to carry out their operational plans. Budding
terrorist groups do not come into picture and plans to provide security from
them cannot be called security schemes. With India's present security
capabilities, no target is really out of reach from the commination of a
determined terrorist outfit. If a target of a terrorist outfit's hit- list is not
struck for a long time, the reasons for the same can be only three,
that the terrorist organisation has not really intended to strike the



that the outfit is yet to grow resourceful enough, or
that security sleuths could gear up their machinery, taking this
specific case as an exception to foil the plans of the outfit concerned. India
should reach a stage where the third reason which is an exception becomes
a rule in providing foolproof security to all targets, all the time, sans
throwing the normal course of life of the threatened target to the winds.
Needs of a perficient security buildup
The Indian police system lays emphasis on dashing qualities rather than
on mental qualities and planning that form the elan vital of security
policing. The age-old police traits like a criant show of force and a strict
adherence to hierarchical order have a mesalliance with the needs of
security operations where patience, perseverance, calculating mind, an
ingine to foresee developments, speedy physical and mental reflexes,
unbreachable sangfroid in adverse situations, high commitment to the work
in hand, initiative and above all, courage to take responsibility for action
decide the success or otherwise of the security buildup. Indeed, these
human qualities have to be reinforced with neoteric security equipment
including latest communication, transport, information, weaponry and
other security-oriented systems. The organisation must have three fullfledged wings in charge of a) collection of intelligence, b) process and
assessment of security risks and c) field operation.

Collection of Intelligence

Collection of vital intelligence forms the pith of perficient security

operation. An effective security buildup perforce stands on the foundation
of strategic intelligence. The feracity of security basically depends on the
quality of intelligence as an input. A security organisation of neoteric age
cannot survive without an effective intelligence wing as a backup unit. And
key intelligence does not come freely. It has to be extracted at great risks
from closely guarded sources by resourceful intelligence operators. Often,
such an operation may require years of patient preparation by an
undercover to cultivate dependable insiders to the cause. These operations
are potential comminations to the mutual relation and ergo intelligence
operators are left to their own fate by employers when the operators are
caught. Intelligence is a venal commodity and its price can be fixed in
monetary terms. Collection of intelligence involves huge expenditure to
maintain organisation and communication reticulation, support the logistics
of the operations and at times to affect outright purchases as well. It
requires a huge army of highly-paid and expensive operators and agents to
cover places and groups that arc potentially security risks. The success of
security back home lout a fait depends upon the quality of the intelligence
sent back. In an age of bitter concours to win over or withhold a piece of



intelligence, double crosses or even triple crosses are au naturel. The

situation necessitates keeping an eye on these operators from a distance. In
other words, the intelligence collection setup is a very complicated
machinery which always must be maintained in top condition a grands
frais as an important factor in an internal security buildup.
b) Process and Assessment of Security Risks
The raw inputs from intelligence sources have to be winnowed,
classified and processed if found to have security relevance. Intelligence
collection sans processing is as good as, if not worse than, not collecting
them at all. Raw intelligence throws the national security to the winds by
raising a maelstrom wherein facts and fancies are complected beyond
recognition. It blunts the sensitivities of the sleuths and excoriates targets
to real danger. The possibility can be avoided by creating a nerve-centre, a
command post in the security organisation to process and assess
intelligence inputs anent ground realities, past history and known facts.
This organisation must be manned by people au fai and capable of reading
between lines to arrive at right conclusions as well as invenit strategies in
the interests of the internal security. This body must have flair for research
and analysis and knowledge of the internal situation of th country,
dynamics of various factors that have bearing on the internal security and
possess an insight into minor developments that may blow up into serious
security risks at some future date. It must be constituted of carefully chose
professionals with proven records of eximious work and a deep sense of
patriotism and commitment to their work and should be directly
responsible to the chief of the organisation and work as a high-power
advisory body in all matters pertaining to the security. The unit must
function as a command-post where intelligence inputs are instreamed and
wherefrorn field operations emanate.
c) Field Operation
Field operation is the cutting-edge of the security buildup. Other
activities in the organisation are just postern backups to the field operation
that forms the mainstay of the security organisation and inclips a vast
portion of the organisation's manpower, equipments, machinery, money,
time and other resources. If intelligence operators must have alert eyes and
cars, security analysts must have smart mental faculties and field-operators
must have smart reflexes inter alia. Only people with exceptional courage
and perseverance and daredevilry can behove to this job. Resourceful
people with a plurisie of energy and willingness to work hard in
tramontane circumstances, rare single-mindedness of purpose and devotion
can alone be successful in the dangerous world of field operations. They
have to be pollent-willed people with the procinct to risk their lives for the



sake of achieving goals. Screening people for these traits is not a facile job.
This arduous job has to be performed with great care and caution, for, the
quality of internal security of the land depends upon the work turned out
by them. The people who are chosen for the job must be able to provide
security to men, places and structures, known to be sensitive and
comminated by enemies, while themselves remain in shades. Speed and
surprise are their chief attributes. Resourcefulness to do jobs which appear
impossible is their mainstay. Indeed, the demands arc too high and this
necessitates careful selection and recruitment, efficient training, high
motivation and liberal compensations in the form of generous pay, perks
and expenditure accounts. The people who play with their lives to meet the
objectives of the internal security have to be treated well for the risks to
which they willingly submit themselves in the interests of the country and
its internal security.
Glitches of Indian security setup
A coup d'oel over the security surroundings of India gives an
insipid taste be it about security intelligence, security planning or security
operation. The bungling of the Indian police at Konanakunte recently
where they failed to capture Sivarasan and Subha of the Rajiv Gandhi
assassination case is a recent paradigm. The chance intelligence as early as
on 18-8-91 that both the extremists were holed up with others in a
ramshackle house at Konanakunte could not help Indian security forces to
catch them alive with all time, resources and the element of surprise at
their disposal while the handful of desperados inside the walled structure
had no knowledge of what was happening around them. This primarily
reflects grim glitches in the field of security planning in India. A little use
of the faculty of thinking and planning and ingine to retain an even keel
under pressure would not have made capturing the extremists alive a
difficile goal to achieve. Instead of showing conticent patience to invenit
an undercover strategy that allowed the unsuspecting extremists to come
on the street on their own and thus enter the waiting dragnet of security
sleuths or entering their den as friends with the help of undercover agents,
our cops used the first available opportunity to spoil the advantage of
surprise that fell into their hands by openly surrounding the building and
thought of storming it while even the average newspaper reader knew a
coup sur that the first reaction of the extremists when they were cornered
would be the felo de se. What transpired ultimately there by the acte
gratuit was not only the suicide by the extremists, it was the fetish suicide
of the operation to catch the extremists alive. India and the Rajiv Gandhi
assassination investigation gained nothing by the the extremists' death.
They would have been more useful to India and the investigation had they
remained alive in India or anywhere in the world. All hopes were doused
per saltum by the senseless seizure of the hideout, ironically, using a vital



piece of intelligence that would have made the Rajiv Gandhi assassination
investigation a true success story of the 20th century. The glitch itself is a
Micro-and macro-security planning
The primary reason for such bungling is that Indian sleuths have not yet
realised the intricacies of security operation. Their perception of security
operation does not go much beyond multiple crack-forces, created one
after the other like the Black Cats, National Security Guards, Special
Protection Group etc. Perhaps some more are to follow at the cost of the
state exchequer. Indeed, these crack forces are important. They are the
ammunitions of the security weaponry. However effective the
ammunitions be, they are worthless without a working gun to fire them. It
is the situation of the present Indian security atmosphere. India is yet to
develop an effective infrastructure to plan security strategies at micro and
macro levels. In the absence of such a machinery, the Indian security
system is bound to react with struts and frets; mere random reactions
depending on the fancies of the person in charge of the situation. Never
should the internal security of a country be left in the hands of a few
individuals; the vital interests of the country cannot be based on casual
decisions of a few security sleuths. An exhaustive internal security plan on
which all security strategies and operations are based must be the gospel of
the internal security religion. Sadly, India is yet to have such a macro-plan
to guide its security sleuths; it is yet to realise the inevitability of the
macro-plan in reacting to security threats.
Model internal security schemes
The present perception of internal security in India revolves round a few
catchwords like prohibited areas, protected areas, official secrets, sensitive
installations, static guards, armed pickets, mobile patrols, striking forces,
perimeter protection, infiltration, mechanical breakdown, external and
internal attacks, verification, unobtrusive watch, internal watch,
intelligence collection, top-secret papers, security information, leakage of
information etc. Model internal security schemes, containing jugglery of
these words are available in all district and police offices. The plans in the
security schemes are intended as guidelines for police officers during
security emergencies which is rarely the case for various reasons. The first
and foremost reason is that the model schemes are anything but model,
being too simplistic for this complex modem age. The plans in the schemes
do not touch even the fringes of the present security needs. Secondly, the
model schemes are based on outdated facts and statistics which became
irrelevant in postliminary periods. Though these model schemes are
expected to be updated from time to time, seldom are they touched. This



renders them irrelevant to a given phase of time. Thirdly, the security

guidelines in the model schemes can in no way make a claim to expertise.
They are simple suggestions based on common sense. Any police official
with a sound field knowledge can improve on them according to specific
instances by relying on his own savvy. For all practical purposes, these
model internal security schemes have become passe and impair. They have
only historical interests in the neoteric scheme of things.
Contents of model security schemes
The model security schemes enumerate in terrorem the likely sources of
threats to the country's internal security such as aggression by an alien
power, sabotage and subversive activities, communal riots, student unrest,
extremist activities, violent labour problems, natural calamities etc. The
scheme distinguish between peacetime threats and wartime threats and deal
with each period with various stages of approach like precautionary stage,
preventive measures and protective measures. What are striking in these
schemes arc the details of work to be attended to, like evacuation of
lunatics, police-public relations, peace committees, mobilisation of NCC
and volunteer organisations etc. But, unfortunately, there is nothing really
instructive in these schemes for a security officer of good field experience
and sound common sense. The only advantage the schemes provide is that
all obvious measures are listed in a raisonne nutshell for easy reference.
But, as said before, albeit the measures listed out are exhaustive as routine
jobs to be performed in such disturbances, they in no way help in tackling
complex internal security challenges of the present day. The reason for this
is that the format of the schemes was conceived decades back when
challenges of internal security were simpler and on expected lines. No
serious thought was given to overhauling the format of the schemes since
then. The position though is similar in respect of the blue book which deals
with aspects of security for dignitaries, political compulsions helped to
update them as more and more dignitaries fell to the bullets of extremists.
The updating of the blue book is one of the plus points of the subservience
of the police to political masters. Yet, the blue book too needs a complete
overhauling on the basis of the new realities of security challenges and new
perceptions and conceptions about meeting such challenges.
Parameters of new security schemes
What the new blue book and new model internal security schemes need
are guidelines on how to approach a security challenge and not what
peripheral matters should be attended to. Each security challenge of the
present day is sui generis and needs a specific approach depending upon
the time, the place and other circumstances of the challenge. It is too
simplistic to imagine that a common formula, however exhaustive it be,



can tackle all internal security challenges of the present day. The blue book
and model internal security schemes must lay down broad guidelines and
the spirit with which security challenges must be approached, the nature
and classes of such challenges, available methods of approach for each
class of challenge, salient features of the risks involved and precautions to
be attended to, alternative courses of action and assessment of the chances
of success for each course under different circumstances etc. The security
guidelines must name the nature of security threats under various situations
and list out likely targets of sabotage under all imaginable circumstances.
They must be able to forewarn about potential sources of threats and
suggest ways and means of overcoming them and invenit short and longrange plans to meet likely serious challenges. Such an approach to security
relieves pressure on prototypal security and shifts stress to creative security
and saves manpower and other resources from being wasted on
unproductive quotidian mobilisation. This worlds as a panpharmacon to
the under-utilisation of precious security tools by unintelligent routine
Problems of security operation
The problems of security are manifold. In the stage of intelligence
collection, the plurisie of intelligence itself poses the problem of blunting
the edge of really vital intelligence. Often, true and false information are
insomuch entwined that winnowing the one from the other becomes
impossible; even if such a piece of information is identified as possibly
true, it gets emaciated by the loss of credibility because of its locus standi
in the midst of the heaps of intelligence that are sometimes true and many
more times mendacious. Even if a piece of intelligence is winnowed out as
true for further action, more often, than not, the intelligence is an isolated
piece of information and ipso facto removed from the adversary's total
action plan. Such a piece of intelligence, many a time, leads to wrong
conclusions and dangerous situations. Continued research per
procurationem the piece of intelligence is a must to make it complete and
fit for action. The research of available intelligence requires motivated
intelligence operation which is not possible without an elaborate and
anfractuous infrastructure. If the particular piece of intelligence does not
fall into place by such research, it may end up as an indign piece of
information. The useful intelligence that falls in place by research requires
to be subjected to analysis and study to test and substruct the situation and
circumstances of both the challenge and the means to amate the challenge.
This again depends upon the skill and experience of the individual or group
of individuals who handle the job. Often, both the research and analysis are
carried out under the constraints of time because of the proximity of the
threat Even while security operation is based on the research and analysis
of intelligence, the basic intelligence and its sources are required to be kept



as a closely guarded secret. Any leakage about an impending plan may

prompt an adversary to modify his strategy to superatethe security
operation. This necessitates every security operation to be esoteric in its
substance and scope and carried out with perfect elements of surprise. This
creates problems of mobilisation and deployment without rousing
suspicion. The men to handle the security operation should be handpicked
for competence and probity. Their antecedents and recent activities must
be closely examined before they are cleared. It is the failure of security
agencies to effectively carry out such preparations that cost India Smt.
Indira Gandhi. The briefing of security operators about their job itself
poses its own problem. The time of briefing must be carefully chosen so
that while the gap between the impending operation and the briefing gives
sufficient time to the operators for preparation, it must not be so long as to
give them louche ideas or to allow any inadvertent actions to leak the plan.
The timing of briefing and development must be decided at high levels to
ensure perfect secrecy. Another crucial problem of security, operation
pertains to the quantum of briefing: how much must be briefed? Security
operation basically involves the creative initiative of the operator. His
success depends upon his ability to assess the situation and pursue better
course of action sans loss of time. Too much briefing trammels the mind
and results in loss of creative initiative. Too little may fail to provide the
insight into salient features of the operation and leave the operator in a culde-sac. The success of a security operation depends also on deciding how
much briefing must be made to each of the operators at disparate ranks and
levels and how much information and background knowledge can be fed to
them. Here again, liberal outlets for vital information create security risks.
The primary requirement of any security operation is a thorough study and
analysis of intelligence and other inputs, a detailed conception of the plan
of operation with adaptability for contingencies and painstaking in
execution with a resourceful mind and quick reflexes to meet such
contingencies, if any.
Timing of operation
Timing is an essential ingredient of the security planning. Perchance,
this is the most significant single ingredient that decides the success or
failure of an operation. Apart from infusing the element of surprise, the
time-factor provides for making the strike while the adversary is mentally
and physically least prepared for it. Often, the right time helps the
operation to succeed with right contents which may not be possible
otherwise because of the alertness of an equally skeely and prepared
adversary. The failure of Indian security forces to capture Sivarasan and
Subha can be attributed to the swither and inexplicable cunctation of nearly
1 1/2 days for action after it was inadvertently made known to the terrorists
that they were cornered with no recourse for survival. Unfortunately, the



police force discounted the time-factor and the bevue ended up in tragic
perdition to the investigation which would have otherwise turned out to be
a world event, a plangent success story of the century.
Relevance of traditional approach
Not that everything of traditional approach to security is irrelevant
today. Certain aspects therein are indeed sempiternal tools in a security
buildup. The strategy of quadruple deployment namely static guards,
armed pickets, mobile patrols and striking forces yet constitute the skeleton
of any security buildup for a static target. The strategy takes the form of
standing guards, personal security officer, inner cordon, outer cordon and
striking force in respect of a human target. Its derivative for a mobile target
is a security officer, escort, piloting and striking force. The in-built
deployment though it in no way pre-empts a raisonne strike by a perficient
outfit, perforce provides a semblance of resistance to random strikes and
gives a psychological advantage to security in the form of a show of
strength. However, it should be borne in mind that this strategy in no way
replaces specific security strategies; it only complementsthem.
Security, its challenges and the strategies to counter it are ever-growing
phenomena. Security and its challenges change their colours like
chameleons and force strategies that counter them to keep pace pari passu.
An effective strategy must foresee future challenges and arm itself in
advance for them. Otherwise, the security is bound to be indign of its
raison d' etre. It must be said that Indian security agencies do not meet this
cardinal need. Not that India has no concern for its internal security. It is
surrounded by bloodcurdling terrorist outfits from all sides. The Kashmir
separatist movement in the North, the Akali separatist movement in the
west, the ULFA in the East, the LTTEs in the South and the Naxalites in
the Centre comminate a corps perdu, India's internal security and very
survival. The number of new security outfits coming up is an indication of
India's concern for its security. The triste part of the spiel is that India yet
does not know how to face these gauntlets to its very existence and the
misplaced emphasis on quantity in the form of a new security outfit every
time a serious security breach shakes the country, rather than building
quality, complicated the matter. Indian security standards have not made
kenspeckle headway pro rata to the rise in expenditure incurred thereon in
recent years because India is yet to gain an insight into the salient features
of security in the modem complex political world that learnt to achieve its
goals by comminations and bullets. Until India learns the basic lessons of
modern security, tragic deaths and destruction are bound to continue. Ergo,
India must act pronto.






Professor B. Kuppuswamy in his book "Social Change in India"
apropos of Paradox of the Indian Situation Today' writes, "On the one hand
there is a conscious, deliberate effort to change the social structure as a
result of the assimilation of new social values. Because of the struggle for
political freedom and the desire for economic reconstruction, new social
values have been incorporated in society, based on the ideals of social
justice and equality of opportunity. On the other hand, there is the fear that
the old social values are being repudiated and destroyed by the values of
social justice and equality, which pose a challenge to the past privileges
based on caste, aristocracy, age, sex etc. The farm labourer, the factory
worker, the student, and women are repudiating the authority which denied
them social justice and equity". This perennial conflict between privileged
and non-privileged, of reactionaries and revolutionaries is the sema of
zoetic society. The clash of interests and values steeped in an instinct for
survival is the hallmark of social change. It is here the state comes into the
picture as the arbiter elegantiarum, as a beacon to guide both the pace and
path of social change through public education and legislation. The social
awakening which is possible through public education is a sine qua non for
social change which can only be formalised through legislation as a
statutorily accepted social value to make its violation a criminal act. A
good piece of legislation backed by effective enforcement works as a
catalytic agent in the process of social change.
Social conflicts
Peter Worsley in 'The Third World' writes, "In those countries
which fail to achieve the take-off and relapse into the hungry frustrations
of stagnation or regression, all kinds of conflict from anarchic protest to
regional schism or even communist revolution could flourish. A
revolutionary leadership could easily replace those nationalist parties
which have lost their social-reforming zeal." The state can be impervious
to the ascensive zeal for social reform only at its own peril. Social
inequality and social injustice as starting points of a vicious circle wherein
they are perpetuated cannot be the situation a welfare state seeks to protect
from the dynamics of positive change which as a natural force of unending
frustration expresses by peaceful means in principo and emeute as a la
dernier ressort if the state errs by protecting the vested interests of
inequality and injustice and fails to discharge its responsloilities towards
positive social change.



Social awakening in India

The veteran journalist Shri D.R. Mankekar in his book titled " A
Revolution of Rising Frustrations" beautifully analyses the situation of
ascensive social awakening in India. "The fact is that the worm is at last
turning, falsifying the prophets who have averred that the Indian masses
are too underfed, too lethargic, and too fatalistic to rebel against their fate
and violently wrest from the rulers their elementary human right - the right
not only to survive but to improve their lot." The new awakening roused
the esurient expectations of the long-repressed and infested segments of the
gens de peu and fomented their neoteric hopes of being extricated from
age-old repression. The government of democratic India responded
favourably to the aspirations of the infaust segments of its populace, non
obstante the not-so-inopinatc resistance from the privileged lobbies, by
enacting legislations with the potential for far-reaching changes towards
establishing social isonomy and justice. However, the zest in enacting the
legislations is not amated by the political will to enforce them, though
some isolated attempts arc made here and there. Experience in the field
dictates that some thought should go to the modalities of the social
legislation and their enforcement to make the whole process genuinely
effective as a vehicle for faster growth towards social equality and social
Challenges of social equality
As French thinker Auguste Compte noted, a nouveau regime can
emerge only if man assumes responsibility for his actions and makes his
ain society. The changes in social institutions do not occur by themselves,
but by a positive moral desire and commitment in that direction. This
active aspect of social change manifests in intellectual assertions for
deliberate social legislations and their effective enforcement. The theory of
"Challenge and response" as expounded by the great British historian
Arnold Toynbee, points out that a society can grow if it can constructively
respond to challenges. The challenges are often social and internal and
every civilisation as a facet of the society can learn from the failings of its
quondam civilisations. Active responses to the extant gauntlets of social
equality and social justice against a background of ci-devant nonfeasance
should be the foundation on which social legislation and its enforcement
mechanism should be broadly based.
Social justice vs legal justice
Social justice is imprimis an informal social process rather than a
formal legal procedure. It is the moral standard of a society to which its
laws and actions conform. The injustices and legal disabilities against



certain sections of the socfety enshrined in many rules of Indian society in

bygone days are now a matter of the past. It is only now that the need of
liberty, equality, security, freedom from want, fear and frustration as
parameters of social justice are realised. Social justice ex consequenti
demands preferential treatment for the socially backward and repressed
classes who are at a disadvantage in respect to others.
Social law as 'cleansing forces'
Johan Galtung defines "Structural violence" as "The dominance of
one group over the other with subsequent exploitative practices" in "Peace
Thinking". The pirlicue of this statement implies that preferential treatment
by the state to certain segments of the society to separate its dominance by
the others becomes at the outset an act of injustice and structural violence
by the state. However, as Jerome Skolnick preconised, violence is a louche
mulicous term whose meaning is established through political process, ipso
facto acts of institutional violence are comme ilfaut if perpetrated by the
state in the larger interests of the society as they fall beyond the ambit of
the concept of violence. Frantz Fanon, an African psychologist in "The
Wretched of the Earth" calls violence intended to restore self-esteem and
do away tyranny as Cleansing Force'. Jean-Paul Sartre confirms the idea
when in 'Preface to Fanon', he says, "Violence, like Achilles' lance, can
heal the wounds that it has inflicted" indeed while it is institutional
violence in society's interests.
Social justice in Indian Constitution
The Indian Constitution in its Preamble preconises social justice
and equality of status and opportunity to all and in article 14 constales
fundamental rights while it declares that the state shall not deny to any
person equality before law, or equal protection of the law. The Article 15
interdicts any kind of discrimination on grounds of caste, creed, sex, birth
etc. However, the Constitution recognised the inadequacy of legal equality
in meeting the exigencies of social justice when it recognised the necessity
of special measures to uplift socially deprived segments and constates in
sub-section (4) of Article 15 that the constitutional provisions do not
prevent the states from making any special provision for the advancement
of any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or the
scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. This exception in the constitution to
legal isonomy is the cornucopia of most social legislations intended to
mispraise the crude ancien regime and usher in a dream world of social
equality and social justice.



Social laws
Law is an instrument of both the continuity of social behaviour and
of social change. Manu had said, ' Immemorial custom is transcendent
law'. Social consuetudes metamorphose into social laws in rerum natura
and perpetuate social customs. Professor B. Kuppuswamy in his book
"Social Change in India" writes about two functions of the law. He writes,
"According to one view, the essential function of law is to reinforce the
existing modes and to provide a uniform procedure for the evaluation and
punishment of deviance from the existing rules. In other words, me
function of law according to this view is social control and the major
problem of law is to design the legal sanctions to minimise deviances and
to maintain social stability. According to the other view, law could be more
dynamic. It has not only the function of social control but it has also to
bring about social change by influencing behaviour, beliefs and values".
The social laws of India are devised to bear the kiaugh of the dynamic
function of bringing about social change by influencing behaviour, beliefs
and values in addition to social control. In Indian society where social
inequalities more suo, form the bedrock of living for historical reasons and
embedded in the Indian psyche as consuetudes and basic social rules more
majorum, the awakening and metabasis to new values of social equality
and social justice from the deep slumber of a millennium are not easy to
come by. Though isolated calls for certain changes are heard mostly from
the self-made spokesmen of the oppressed classes because of the
influences of liberal western thoughts, the albatross of orchestrating these
thoughts to the mosaic of the laws of the land falls on the government.
Social laws function as catalysts of social change in the Indian situation.
Social changes through laws in India
Most of the important social laws were enacted in India in the face
of plangent opposition from reactionaries inveterated in the terra firma of
the past practices. The queasy practice of polygamy was made hors la loi
and divorce was legalised by the Hindu Marriage Act of 1955. The
barbarous praxis of untouchability was made punishable by enactment of
the Untouchability (Offences) Act in the same year in conformity with
Article 17 of the Indian Constitution. The Hindu Succession Act of 1956 is
a meith in bringing daughters on pareil with sons in respect of property
inheritance. The Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act of 1956
strengthened the position of women in regard to the right to adopt. The
Dowry Prohibition Act of 1961 tried to deliver nubile colleens from the
menace of dowry. The Factory Act of 1948 raised the minimum age of
workers to 14 years and provided for annual medical examination of minor
workers. The Employment Exchange Act of 1959 provided for state help to
unemployed citizens to get jobs. The Children Act of 1960 provided for



special care of children. All these incipient legislations of independent

India on social matters were enacted as vindicated by the directive
principles of state policy in line with the fundamental rights enunciated in
the Indian Constitution. Article 24 of the Constitution sui juris interdicted
employment of children below 14 years of age in factories.
British India too saw much of momentous legislations conducive to
change and social justice. The Sati Prohibition Act of 1829, the Hindu
Widow Remarriage Act of 1856, the Female Infanticide Prevention Act of
1870, the Special Marriage Act of 1872 providing for civil marriages and
intercaste marriages as amended in 1923, the Child Marriage Restraint Act
of 1929, the Payment of Wages Act of 1936 providing for regular payment
of wages, the Industrial Dispute Act of 1929 providing for settlement of
disputes, the Trade Union Act of 1926 which legalised trade unions, the
Workmen's Compensation Act of 1923 providing for compensation to
workers for accidents, disablements and death on duty, the Act of 1922
defining a child and preventing a child below 12 years for employment, the
Act of 1931 and its 1946 amendment reducing hours to work a week are
major keeks to social change via social laws.
The trend to usher social change through new legislations or
amendments to old ones is en train even in this neoteric age. The Debt
Relief Act of 1976, the Bonded Labour Abolition Act, the Protection of
Civil Right Enforcement Act of 1976 and amendments thereon, the 1983
amendments to the Dowry Prohibition Act are important instances of such
a nisus.
Social norms and social laws
Whenever the enactment of law is consectaneous to a change in
social norms, the law as a device of legal sanction against deviations there
from social norms, succeeds in legalising these neonate social norms.
However, the law proves ill-equipped and falls into desuetude while it
seeks to introduce intempestive social norms as a means of social justice
for 'forced compliance' as Festinger called it in 'An Analysis of Compliant
Behaviour'. The paradigm is the law regarding dowry and child marriage
being not as effective as that pertaining to monogamy for lack of social
force behind it.
Public education
Social laws can be social laws only if they are of the society, from
the society and for the society. They have relevance in a society only if
they areunrevocably concinnous with its everyday lives of its members - in
terms of their ken of the laws and its general acceptance. Social laws that



are abstruse and unacceptable to the plebeian are destined to atrophy

because they lack en arriere the inherent mechanism of compelling society
to comply with their writ. It is this sense, that social laws which are lex non
scripta are indited with the stamp of approbation of the state by popular
demand, though the process from the antipode can be inchoated if their
assimilation by the society is assured through active propagation. The
effectiveness of social laws depends entirely on their assimilation by
society and the strength of propagation and publicity that follows the
enactment of the laws. This need of the social laws being balked is the
quiddity of the serious setbacks faced in making certain social laws like the
Dowry Prohibition Act or the Child Marriage Act effective. The enactment
of social laws that are intended to accord primacy to social norms must be
preceded by intensive fieldwork to introduce the newell and make them
acceptable to the society and enactment should be resorted to only when
the idea becomes ripe enough to be assimilated by the society because the
symbiosis of social norms and social laws is inseparable. Haste brings
definite waste in respect of the enactment of social laws.
Clarity of concepts
A kenspeckle feature noted in most social laws is the lack of
perspicacity in definition of the concepts involved. It is an understandable
glitch when commonsense concepts like dowry, labour, discrimination,
practice of untouchability, compensation or even marriage makes the
quandary of the commission or noncommission of an offence wafer-thin
and often a matter of opinion based on interpretation of the concepts
involved. Though postliminary amendments to the law based on field
experience and interpretations of the concepts by courts attempt to impale
the concepts to a prim form, the inchoate ambiguity continues to confound
the issues in the popular mind, weakening the credibility of the law itself.
The louche spectrum of the impair interpretations of a concept can turn an
offence to innocence and more penniciously, an innocent person into a
criminal according to the predilection of the investigating officer. The
subjectivity involved in understanding the law by individual investigating
officers makes the law a feared and abhorred tool of harassment that is
distanced by both the aggressor and the victim, and by complainants and
witnesses. This subjacent weakness in laws renders getting justice
impossible, ergo defeating the very lelos of the laws. Social laws deprived
of social credibility cannot survive for long. Postliminary efforts to infuse
credibility by redefining the concepts to implete the loopholes cannot
repair the credibility loss experienced in society. It is for this reason,
concepts in social laws must be formulated with utmost caution.



Reaching the deep malady

Another major hurdle in calling social change through law is the
failure by the authors of the laws to clearly comprehend and indite in them
the causes and mechanisms of the immanc social evils they intended to
contain through the laws themselves. The abhorred social practices that
manifest as social evils are only the external symptoms of a serious malady
inveterate in the psyche of the society. Attempts to strike at these skin-deep
symptoms prove infructuous in reaching the malady embedded in the vitals
of the system. Often, the persons comminated by the shallow social laws
are simple innocent plebeians who are caught unawares by the laws while
they tread the path laid by their ancestors by wont or perform acts they
consider essential in the existing social circumstances. The external
symptoms, sine dubio, should be fittingly treated if the malady is to be
deracinated with all traces of its existence. However, such approaches are
secondary to the concerted attack on the ingrained malady which forms the
cornucopia of those symptoms. This exigency is generally balked in most
social laws. Only a springe mind with full grasp of the social problems in
the circumstances of the existing situation can indagate and handle levers
sine prole to set in motion the laws that can strike at the core of the social
malady. This requires advanced study of these immane practices and their
social backgrounds involving psychological and anthropological analysis
apart from adequate public discussion within the society. Unfortunately, no
enactments of social laws are preceded by such vigorous exercises and the
impotency of the laws to excoriate the social evils are inevitably
consectaneous. The laws should provide the pollicitation of punishing the
prime perpetrators of the social injustices rather than catching secondary or
tertiary commis to the commission of the offences.
Social situation and social laws
The glisk of undesirable social practices leading to painful hurtling
of laws often are the consequences of the existing social situations. A poor
father of four girls and a boy in the circumstances of prevalent
admissibility of dowry in the social psyche, nonobstante the criminality of
the act, cannot but accept dowry for his son to assure a reasonably
contented married life for his daughters even at the risk of being
immanacled as his conscience is clean about accepting the dowry. A
person living in a closed society in a village has no alternative but to
practice untouchability against his conscience to save himself from
ostracism unless he is a zealous social reformer prepared to sacrifices his
own interests for the cause. In a competitive business world involving child
labour or meager wages, an attempt by an individual to stand out in
compliance to laws against child labour and nether wages is a sure way to
close down his enterprise. The state, in such circumstances, should tackle



an fond the social situations that breed such immane symptoms and the law
to be kind and understanding in saving of innocent people caught in the
social clamency. The scope for corrective and remedial action and
rehabilitation must form an integral part of social laws to avoid the
impression about the social laws as indulging in supererogations to catch
trivial slips of everyday life and ergo popularly abhorred. Effectively
orchestrated public education and concomitant vigorous social service
programmes aimed at changing specific social situations that boost socially
unjust practices must form an integral part of every social law.
Special accoutrements of social laws
All social laws must have some postern features incorpsed to make
them effective as vehicles of positive social change in view of the delicate
ground the laws cover in their operation wherein people in their
interpersonal relationships are often involved in the hide and seek game of
everyday life. The social offences are both trivial and serious-trivial in the
nature of the acts and serious in the nature of its consequences. It is almost
impossible to demarcate when an act in a given social situation is trivial
and when it attains serious proportions. Also, differences in norms and
values and varying sensitivity and moods further complicate the issue. It is
not possible to arrive at a uniform definition of concepts like harassment,
practice of untouchability or compensation as acceptable to all situations.
The laws warrant special accoutrements to counter the nonesuch quailings
e re nata as discussed in the ensuing paragraphs.
Presumptions of law
Social injustices are perforce committed by the pollent on weak and
hapless people. In the present argument-oriented judicial system where
mother justice takes sides on the basis of the kind of the lawyer being
engaged on the strengths of money and power, no social law can do justice
to the weak and feckless gens de peu who are misdight and nonpareil to
their adversaries for the juste rencontre except in rare obvious cases non
obstante the state sponsored legal-aid programmes. The cabal of the
versute gens de condition resorting to social evils necessitates some sui
generis safeguards to be inherent in social laws to make up for the nether
social position of the wronged person and checkmate the malengine and
pravity of the powerful. Appropriate amendments to the Indian Evidence
Act to incorpse provisions of sweeping presumptions in social laws against
the accused persons on whom a prima-facie case is made out, with
provisions to prove innocence lying with them, is likely to lessen the
ineluctable disabilities of the oppressed people coram lex. Though such
presumptions are extant to varying degrees now in some social laws, the
presumptions must be made a toute force in all social laws. Such



presumptions save the wronged persons.from proving the wrong usually

done at the convenience and terms of the powerful guilty person sans
evidences in the social situation under his ain prise.
Vicarious liability
The special laws must provide for vicarious liability that suspends
over the head of the social group concerned even though there is no
evidence to incatenate him with the offence. Such criminal liability on the
el patron while it checks him from encouraging or indirectly fomenting
commission or such offences through his acolytes in the social group, also
drives him to prevent those injustices in his group.
Minimum punishments prescribed
There should be mandatory minimum punishments prescribed in all
social laws so that the laws become inherently mordant, independent of the
malicho of the pollent guilty persons. The social laws should abnegate the
behoofs of the anticipatory bail unless the person against whom a prima
facie case is made out satisfies the court about his innocence. The present
queasy trend of prompt anticipatory bails to fugacious social offenders can
be brought under control by this measure.
Each social law must provide ample opportunity for compromise
on mutuus consensus with an in-built raisonne mechanism prescribed to
ensure corrective and remedial measures in fit cases not involving serious
guilt where such a compromise is certain to ameliorate the position of the
wronged persons. The penal sections of the social laws inter alia must
provide for huge fines and compensations with provisions to streamline the
fines and compensations for rehabilitation of the victims or their
Protection of witnesses
The social nature of the offences in social laws makes witnesses to
the offences who are insiders of the society in most cases, reluctant
witnesses for the fear of reprisals from the society though injustice done to
one of them sui juris turns their clinamen against the guilty. A provision
and concomitant device in social laws to protect the interests of the
witnesses en revanche to their ready cooperation helps investigation of the
social offences.



Time limits for investigation and trial

It is rightly said that justice delayed is justice denied. It is strikingly
so in social situations where the exigencies of survival and coexistence and
future interests forces the parties generally inter-related to apostatise and
bury the past cicatrix, leading to the weak and oppressed again submitting
to the tyranny of the powerful for the sake of survival, had the law glitched
to take its course tout de suite to prove to the world the futility of the social
law. In the circumstances, each social law should prescribe time limits for
the continuation of the investigation and trial. The possibility of summary
trials for social offences also should be probed into and employed as
extensively as possible to ensure the galvanic trial of social offences.
Social justice authority
The reason d'etre of social laws is the extirpation of social
inequalities and the establishment of a just society. The telos can be better
achieved if the laws are structured to effect compromises to rehabilitate a
bon droit the wronged persons, preceding the invoking of penal sections in
lost cases. The social laws true to their intentions must seek a device by
which every case of social wrong draws the attention of the authority for
frack intervention and on-the-spot solution which is statutorily binding on
both the parties to avoid the crush of the penal sections.
The device can be made a reality by the constitution of Social
Justice Authorities at taluq levels under a judicial magistrate with a police
officer, an officer of the social welfare department, a prominent lawyer, a
representative of local women's organisations and a representative of the
legal aid board as members. The Authority must work as a team in the
taluq to hear cases of socially unjust practices on the spot and adjudicate
them then and there without resorting to judicial technicalities and
adjournments. The Authority must have an office with a multi-channel
telephone working round the clock with a widely publicised number by
dialling which anybody without giving identification can report socially
unjust practices so that the Authority as a team reaches the destination
within twenty-four hours a tout propos and passes infrangible orders pleno
jure on-the-spot per saltum on hearing the concerned parties. The
Authority must exercise de regle pernoctation over the process of the
compliances to the orders and pass sentences in cases of default. In such a
system, the address and telephone number of the Authority being known in
every village in the taluq is the clavis of perficient chevisance because then
anybody wronged can readily lodge querimonies for redressal. The
approach of the Authority in adjudication must be that of an adviser or
well-wisher rather than that of a government organisation steeped in
technicalities. The Authority should be able to reach every village in the



taluq at least once a month. The leiimoli behind the set-up is to affect
compromises and rehabilitate victims by levying fines and compensations
if necessary.
Social police
The administration of social laws is a specialised task requiring
specialized skills in the Police force handling the job. The force has to be
understanding and circumspect in its approach though tenacious when
circumstances warrant. It should have the right ken of the social
circumstances and their problems with a deep sense of commitment to
social justice. These operators should be kind and devoid of the
malfeasance of harsh police methods and should never forget that they are
dealing with distinct problems which are the outcome of historical reasons
and special social situations, that they are dealing with a wider social
malady through the individual symptoms in their hands for solution and
ergo there are no villains in real sense of the term, that they are social
doctors interested only in exercising cancerous growths from society. This
special decession from problems in policing necessitates special care in
recruitments to the job to draw people of appropriate mental makeup and
impart specialized training to reinforce those special attributes. The police
also requires periodical programmes of sensitisation for the cause of social
justice with exhaustive theoretical inputs. These officers should be aufait
in social legislations which are proliferating in geometrical proportion.
This exigency necessitates the constitution of a special Police force to
handle social laws which may be called 'Social Police' distinct from the
normal police in charge of regulatory and other police duties. The social
police should have its parallel organisations at all levels as per specific
needs with distinct recruitment, training and sensitization facilities. An
extra-ordinary commitment to the social cause and out-of-the-normal
alacrity in tackling social problems should be the hallmarks of the social
Social courts
Delayed trials of social offences are more a reality than an
exception while promptitude is a virtue de rigueur for tackling social
offences. The inquietude of delays are often caused by lack of commitment
to social causes. The same can be said about easy anticipatory bails and
easy release of persons arrested for social offences and light sentences to
convicted persons or failure to appreciate available evidences which leads
to frequent acquittals. Such a predicament for social offences when they
are treated on par with conventional cases in courts is au naturel because
of the popular perception of the social offences as trivial social problems.
A judiciary sensitized is de rigueur if the cause of social justice is to be



served in the trial stage. The establishment of social courts to try

exclusively social offences of all hues is en regle in the circumstances and
should prove efficacious. As distinct from conventional courts, a
committed judiciary should be the bedrock of these courts where handpicked magistrates or judges committed a fond to social justice and
specially sensitized to the social causes preside. The courts, owing to their
specialisation in trying social offences would be in a better position to
appreciate the special circumstances of the offences and therefore
appreciate evidences in the right perspective and with sympathetic
understanding. This specialisation also facilitates fast disposals while the
sensitization helps to see through the gravity of the offences so that unduly
light sentences are not pronounced and persons arrested for social offences
are not wantonly released on bail.
Social prosecutors
Similarly, specially handpicked lawyers should be posted as
prosecutors to the social courts. These prosecutors should be selected on
the basis of their commitment to social justice and undergo a course in
sensitization to social causes prior to their posting to handle social
offences. A case of social offence would be feracious in the hands of a
prosecutor who is committed to social justice and specially sensitized for
social causes.
Social justice and changing social norms
Social justice is a glidder concept that changes its hues with time
depending on prevailing social norms and social values. No age including
ours has a right to call its own norms and values as absolute and
peremptory though we might believe it to be so. In this sense, social laws
are peregrine and passe beyond their immediate time frame. This
deciduous nature of social laws necessitates a circumspect approach in
enforcing them as the elements of mens rea in the sense it is used in
conventional offences is absent in these cases. Thus, as the face of social
justice changes its countenance from time to time, the emergence of new
social laws is au nature!. The enforcement machinery should keep pace
pari passu with these developments and be semper paratus to differentiate
justice and injustice in terms of the extant laws which are spawned by the
fugacious social needs and values of the time. The effective enforcement of
social laws reinforces reigning social norms and values by giving them
teeth and ipso facto helps hail the social justice in terms of the norms and
values of the period.






Nature created women different from men with a definite purpose.
Balance is stillness and stagnation; imbalance is motion and progress.
Nature designed life and action by means of the imbalance brought about
in the traits of men and women. In the process, women find themselves at
the receiving end. They ended up as the weaker half of society by their
very nature and are naturally handicapped in a world of men, by men, for
men. In a world where strength commands charity and weakness receives
cruelty, a woman is at a great disadvantage. She has suffered all types of
cruelty and humiliation all along centuries with patience and in silence.
This part of woman is symbolised, in tradition by calling her as the Mother
Earth who bears all sufferings. The cardinal principle of the survival of the
fittest applies to the weak, natural attributes of woman which renders her
less fit for survival than man. She must live at his mercy and on his charity,
silently bearing all his atrocities unless and until society in an enlightened
mood comes to her rescue.
Legislations against atrocities against women
The immane approach of the stronger world to its weaker
counterparts has to be countered with strong arm methods of the state
power. In an enlightened age such as this, people in public life are
sufficiently sensitized to this issue and more and more legislations come up
to stop stronger people from riding over the weak and meek. India too has
several legislations that have become acts to protect its women folk.
Atrocities against women in India are mainly rape and unnatural
offences, dowry deaths, abduction and kidnapping for various purposes
and outraging their modesty apart from minor acts like various marriage
offences, dowry and other harassments, insulting the modesty, causing
miscarriage without consent and prostitution. Most of these offences are
punishable under the Indian Penal Code: in sections from 375 to 377, for
rape and unnatural offences, abduction and kidnapping girls for various
purposes being punishable in sections from 364 to 369, offences related to
marriage being subjected to penal provisions in sections from 493 to 498,
outraging the modesty of a woman in section 354 and insulting the
modesty in section 509 being offences. Section 314 makes causing
miscarriage without woman's consent, a punishable act. The Criminal Law
(Amendment) Act, 1983 (No. 43/83) provided for in camera trial of rape
cases and also enlarged the scope of rape cases by placing the burden of



proving innocence on the accused person apart from making penal sections
more mordant, particularly in cases of custodial rapes by public servants.
The Suppression of Immoral Traffic in Women and Girls Act, 1956 with
the Suppression of Immoral Traffic in Women and Girls (Amendment)
Act, 1986 and rules framed by states u/s.23 of the Act deal with offences
relating to immoral traffic in women and girls.
Distribution of rape cases in Karnataka
More than a quarter of about 160 to 170 rape cases reported every
year in Karnataka are from the region of Bangalore District including
Bangalore City with a break-up of 19% to the discredit of Bangalore City
and 7.7% to Bangalore district, excluding Bangalore City. Chitradurga is
the other district in Karnataka with a high figure of 8% to its discredit and
it with Bangalore City and Bangalore District, share the first three places
among those having the highest number of rape cases in Karnataka. The
tiny districts of Uttara Kannada with 1.3% and Bidar with 1.4% account
for the least number of rape cases in Karnataka every year. (The figures
provided here are based on official statistics of the Corps of Detectives,
Dowry deaths
The Karnataka police took the first major step in tackling the
menace of increasing dowry death cases in 1980 by issuing orders vide its
law circular No.4787 dated 16-9-80 that all cases where a woman dies
within five years of her marriage have to be investigated by an officer of or
above the rank of Deputy or Assistant Superintendent of Police with the
post-mortem to The held by a team of two doctors. The circular also made
it mandatory that the body of the deceased is to be disposed off only after
blood relatives of the deceased see the dead body. Law circular No. 4846
dated 4-12-82 increased the operational time limit from marriage to death
from five to ten years. It is the Criminal Law (2nd amendment) Act-1983
that made an inquest by an executive magistrate mandatory in the case of
unnatural death of a woman within seven years of her marriage. The
subsequent definition of 'dowry death' upheld seven years as the time limit
between marriage and death to draw the charge of dowry death. The
Karnataka police in its law circular No. 4897 dated 23-4-87 made it
mandatory that all cases of unnatural death of a woman within ten years of
marriage should be investigated as a case of murder until otherwise proved.
Distribution of dowry death cases in Karnataka
Bangalore city has the dubious distinction of accounting for mor"
than 26.3% of 190 to 200 dowry death cases reported every year in



Kamataka while Gulbarga district with about 9.3% and Bangalore district
excluding Bangalore City with about 7.8% to their discredit stand at
second and third places. Even tiny Bidar district outweighs other districts
by accounting for nearly 5% of dowry death cases reported in Karnataka
every year. The credit of minimum dowry death cases in Karnataka goes to
Kodagu district with just 0.5% of the state figure. The coastal districts of
Dakshina Kannada and Uttara Kannada, each accounts for just 1% of the
state average. The districts of Bellary and KGF each accounts for about 1
% of the dowry death cases in Kamataka. More than 1/3 of the dowry
death cases of Karnataka are reported from Bangalore district, inclusive of
Bangalore City. (The figures provided here are based on official statistics
of the Corps of Detectives, Bangalore.) In Kamataka, drowning, burning,
poisoning and hanging are the usual means of committing suicide in dowry
death cases. Of these, drowning accounts for the highest number of dowry
death cases, followed by burning and poisoning in that order.
Investigation of dowry death cases
Dowry death cases have become sensational topical issues these
days with the public being highl sensitised to the menace of the offences
with the unfortunate swelchie of cruel practices and circumstances deliver
an innocent girl at death's door. All institutions of society including the
government, press, women's organisations, judiciary and police handle
dowry death cases on a special footing. Each such case outrages the
patience of thinking people and rouses passion and outcry against the
perpetrators of the offence. The police too give special importance to the
investigation of these cases and closely supervises the investigation
process. In the circumstances, an insight into the investigation of dowry
death cases and proper understanding of the spectrum of challenges posed
and how they are met is in the interests of both the public and investigating
officers. It must be borne in mind that no investigation can succeed without
public cooperation. And the public, particularly people aggrieved by such
unfortunate incidents, can contribute to the progress of investigation if they
have knowledge of its due process. With this in view, salient features and
parameters of dowry death investigation are outlined in this work.
Medical evidence
Investigation of dowry death cases has special links with the
science of forensic medicine because of the special nature of the
investigation. Dowry deaths are figuratively called bedroom deaths. In
most cases no outsider including the investigating officer can have any
knowledge about the circumstances and events that led to the death.
Secondly, the offenders being the custodians of the dead body and the
scene for many hours after the death till they volunteer to make its



occurrence known, have all the time in the world to eliminate or tamper
with any clues. In the circumstances, the investigating officer is completely
at the mercy of medical experts to interpret the cause of death.
Often, the mode of death noticed, be it asphyxia, drowning or
burning, may prove to be post-mortal; ipso facto suggesting homicide in
place of suicide. Only forensic medicine can provide decisive proof to the
investigating officer.
The success of the investigating officer in investigating dowry
death cases largely depends upon forensic medicine experts. Sans proper
briefing from the latter, the investigating officer may not realise the
importance of noting the profusion of bleeding or marks of inflammation
in deciding whether wound is antemortal or not. Again, in a poisoning
case, the investigating officer may overlook the importance of recording
the time when the deceased ate last, how many hours thereafter the first
symptoms of poisoning were noticed, what were those symptoms and how
many hours thereafter death occurred. Thus, the interaction between the
investigating officer and forensic medicine experts is crucial to give
the investigation a direction.
Collection of evidence
Dowry death investigation has to address certain problems in the
field in collecting evidence and examining witnesses.
These offences take place within the family circle. Sometimes,
though blood relatives of the deceased volunteer evidence in the heat of
trauma, a gradual reconciliation would be the normal tendency. Therefore,
sound evidence is rarely forthcoming and difficult to sustain. Dowry death
being an offshoot of the relationship of wife and husband and veiled in a
shroud of secrecy, even the parents of the deceased may be unaware of the
hardships the deceased underwent at the hands of her husband and his
relatives in the process of the dowry death.
If the investigating officer is lucky, he may succeed in collecting
some evidence of cruelty. The next stage at which he would find himself
would be the girl's death. There would be an absolute void in between with
no clues or evidence of what happened or no eyewitnesses to vouch for
that. Clues on the dead body and surroundings are likely to be tampered
with by the offenders.
Investigations are witness-oriented. A dowry death case being
primarily a family affair, independent witnesses refuse to involve
themselves. And partisan witnesses are too polarised to be credible.



It is in these circumstances that investigating officers have to trace

witnesses, conduct purposive examinations and undertake directional
recording of statements after proper analysis of the offence and likely
Dowry death legislations
The dowry death cases are offences primarily under central acts
namely the Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961 with its amendments of 1984 and
1986 and certain sections of the Criminal Procedure Code, 1973 as
amended by Criminal Law (2nd Amendment) Act, 1983. In spite of
attempts during amendments to avoid ambiguities in some sections of the
earlier acts, it is patent that there are still several louche terms that need
interpretation by the court. The term 'in connection with the marriage'
while defining dowry in section 2 of the Dowry Prohibition Act is
unspecific about the flexibility of the word 'connection' and gives way for
its subjective interpretations as well as that of the term 'dowry'. The same
word 'connection' brings in a similar impression while defining 'dowry
death' in Section 304B of the Indian Penal Code and section 113B of the
Indian Evidence Act while declaring in connection with demand of dowry',
ipso facto rendering the incatenation between the offence of dowry death
and dowry demand uncertain and open for discussion. In the same sections,
the phrase 'soon before her death' raises the question, how soon before?
Similarly, the words 'relative of her husband' that figure in Section 498A of
the Criminal Procedure Code, section 304B of the Indian Penal Code and
section 113A of the Indian Evidence Act in no way provide exactly what is
intended to be defined; the scope of the words there is too vast and
includes even the blood relatives of the deceased as they are also relatives
of the husband after the marriage. Another important term that defies full
comprehension is 'likely to drive' in Section 498A of the Indian Penal
Code, where the word 'likely' by its very meaning is indefinitive and open
for subjective interpretation. The scope for divergent interpretations of
these terms in the comparatively new acts do create problems during
investigation of the cases until convention assigns them definite meanings.
Difficulties in investigation of dowry death cases
The difficulties faced during dowry death investigations can be
classified thus:
I. Those encountered in collection of evidence.
1. The victim does not give information about her harassment while alive
because of Indian cultural values, the need to continue to live with in-laws,



feelings of alienation in the in-laws' house and parental pressure to

conform and adjust.
2. There are no independent witnesses to the commission of the offence as
it is committed within the four walls of the in-laws' house.
3. The evidence can be easily tampered with because the scene of the
offence is at the disposal of the in-laws until they volunteer to make the
offence public.
4. Dying declaration is either not taken or is taken at the in-laws'
convenience as the -victim continues to be in their charge; further, the
relatives of the deceased often reach the scene very late.
5. The victim's parents are often at a disadvantage to fight for justice since
they are in an area where the in-law could wield considerable influence, at
the scene of the offence.
6. Both relatives and neighbours are reluctant witnesses in an infamilyoffence.
7. The victim's relatives, also being relatives to the accused, resort to compromise for mutual benefit with the passage of time and thus useful
witnesses are lost.
II. Those encountered in interpretation of certain terms of law.
Following phrases in dowry death laws are unspecific and pose problems
of comprehension.
1. Sec. 2 of D.P. Act (Defintion of Dowry); "in connection with the
2. Sec. 304B IPC & 113B of the Indian Evidence Act;
"Soon before her death"
"in connection with demand for dowry".
3. 498A, 304B IPC & 113A Indian Evidence Act;
"Relative of her husband"
4. 498A IPC.
"likely to drive".



Ill. Those encountered with outside agencies.

1. The Executive Magistrates who are to conduct inquests depute
subordinates who are not duly empowered to conduct inquest. Also the
delay in conducting the inquest and inefficient and nonprofessional
handling results in substantial loss of evidence.
2. Prosecutors being not adequately sensitized to handle such sensitive
3. The court of law failing to treat the cases with the special treatment
warranted by the nature of the cases and insisting on eyewitnesses and
independent witnesses who are usually unavailable in dowry death cases.
Also the considerable delay in disposal of these cases, as they are treated as
unimportant family offences, with hearings at long intervals. This problem
in Bangalore is overcome by the institution of special courts.
Presumptions of law
Law by sections 113(A) and 113(B) of the Indian Evidence Act
relieves the investigation of cases of death of girls within seven years of
their marriage from the special nature of difficulties by the reason of the
crime being committed in the intimate circle of the offenders. The law
provides that the court trying the case may presume that the accused
persons committed the offence if it is proved that the
victim was subjected to cruelty by the accused persons inter alia. The
presumptions made easy the investigation of these otherwise impossible
While the presumptions under section 113(B) of the Indian
Evidence Act is applicable to prove dowry death cases u/s.304(B) IPC,
section 113(A) is applicable to prove abetment to commit suicide u/s.306
IPC within seven years of the marriage.
The latter presumption benefits investigation of cases while a girl
commits suicide under harassment for reasons other than dowry also by her
husband or in-laws within seven years of the marriage. The lapse of the
law lies in not providing the coverage of the presumption when the death
was caused by homicide for reasons other than dowry by her husband or
in-laws within seven years of the marriage while the benefit is available for
cases of suicide under the same circumstances and homicide for dowry
reasons under the same circumstances. This renders investigation of cases
of homicide of girls by husband and in-laws within seven years of marriage
which poses the same difficulties as suicide cases under the same
circumstances an impossible task and there are any number of such



homicide cases that were acquitted which would have been convicted by
the benefit of the presumptions u/s.ll3(A) of the Indian Evidence Act if
they were suicide cases. Amendment of concerned laws may be necessary
to avoid this loophole in law.
Investigation of dowry death cases
What is dowry?
1. Anything transacted or agreed to be transacted between the parties of the
marriage is dowry.
2. Any transaction or demands for such a transaction which was not agreed
upon by concerned parties in connection with marriage falls beyond the
scope of dowry.
What constitutes offence in dowry death cases?
1. Offences under the Dowry Prohibition Act:
a) Giving and taking dowry after 2-10-1985 is an offence except customary
presents, given to bride or bridegroom in keeping with the donor's financial
status without any demand. The offence is punishable u/s: 3 of the Act.
b) Demanding dowry from the spouse's relatives or guardians is an offence
from 2-10-1985. The offence is punishable u/s: 4 of the Act.
c) A person failing to give to the bride dowry received by him as
customary presents; or to her children or to parents in that order if she dies
because of unnatural cause within seven years of her marriage. The offence
is punishable u/s: 6 of the Act.
1. Offences under the Indian Penal Code:
a) Husband or his relatives subjecting a woman to harassment to coerce her
or her relatives to meet dowry demands or because of their failure to meet
the demands and the woman soon afterwards dies of bodily injuries under
unnatural circumstances within seven years of her marriage. The husband
or his relatives who subjected her to harassment are punishable for
committing the offence of dowry death u/s: 304(B) IPC r/w 113(B) of the
Indian Evidence Act.
b) Husband or his relatives subjecting a woman to harassment to coerce her
or her relatives to meet any unlawful demands or because of their failure to
meet the demands and the woman commits suicide within seven years of



her marriage. The husband or his relatives who subjected her to harassment
are punishable for the offence of abetment to commit suicide u/s: 306 IPC
r/w 113(A) of the Indian Evidence Act.
c) Husband or his relatives for reason of dowry demand intentionally
subjecting a woman to any conduct that is possible to drive her to commit
suicide or grave self-injuries and the woman soon afterwards dies of bodily
injuries under unnatural circumstanccs within seven years of her marriage.
The husband or his relatives who subjected herto the conduct are
punishable for dowry death u/s: 304(B) IPC r/w 113(B) of the Indian
Evidence Act.
d) Husband or his relatives intentionally subjecting a woman to any
conduct that is possible to drive her to commit suicide or grave self-injuries
and the woman commits suicide within seven years of her marriage. The
husband or his relatives who subjected her to the conduct are punishable
for the offence of abetment to commit suicide u/s: 306 IPC r/w 113(A) of
the Indian Evidence Act.
Ill. NOTE:
1. Woman dying within seven years of her marriage under unnatural
circumstances is the first and foremost essential ingredient of all dowry
death cases.
2. The charge of murder takes precedence over charges under dowry death.
In all cases where murder is proved u/s: 302 IPC, the case should be
chargesheeted for murder u/s: 302 IPC.
3. In cases where murder u/s: 302 IPC could not be proved for lack of
evidence regarding circumstances and events that lead to the death, the
case may be considered to be tried for dowry deaths u/s: 304(B) IPC if
other essential ingredients are fulfilled.
4. In suicide cases where dowry death u/s 304(B) IPC could not be proved
for lack of evidence regarding dowry demand and also cruelty or
harassment of the woman for the purpose soon before the death, the case
may be considered to be tried for abetment to commit suicide u/s: 306 IPC
if other essential ingredients are fulfilled.
5. A case is liable to be tried under section: 304(B) IPC or 306 IPC
depending upon the ingredients of the case if the following two facts are



a) that the woman died within seven years of her marriage under unnatural
b) that she was subjected to cruelty by her husband or his relatives.
6. The dowry death cases may also include charges of criminal
intimidation, wrongful confinement, common intention, abetment, criminal
conspiracy etc, depending upon the evidence available in the case.
7. The presumptions in the Indian Evidence Act u/s: 113(A) in case of
abetment to commit suicide u/s 306 IPC and u/s 113(B) in case of dowry
death u/s 304(B) IPC relieve the investigating officer from the burden of
proving that the accused persons abetted the suicide to prove offence u/s
306 IPC and caused the dowry death to prove offence u/s 304(B) IPC.
8. What is cruelty by husband or his relatives?
a) Harassment of a woman by her husband or his relatives to coerce her or
her relatives to meet unlawful demands or because of their failure to meet
the demands constitute cruelty to the woman by her husband or his
b) Intentional conduct by a husband or his relatives that is possible to drive
a woman to commit suicide or grave self-injuries constitute cruelty to the
woman by the concerned husband or his relatives.
9. Inquest over the dead body.
Inquest over the dead body of a woman by an Executive Magistrate
is a must if she dies within seven years of her marriage under one of the
following circumstances.
a) She committed suicide.
b) There is reasonable suspicion about her death.
The inquest may be held by a police officer if above conditions are
not fulfilled, but a relative of the deceased makes a request for inquest.
IV. Field investigation of dowry death cases:
1. Investigation of dowry death cases poses some special difficulties
because of the special nature of the dowry death offences. The increasing
awareness of unjust treatment to women and the incremental appreciation
of the need for an attitudinal change in society's approach to women by



educational and penal methods require the investigating officer to ensure

that those responsible for dowry death are suitably convicted. This
necessitates all-out efforts to investigate dowry death cases in spite of the
inherent difficulties. Most of the measures discussed here are in the form
of guidelines for effective investigation rather than legal obligations.
2. The information of the death is usually received in the Police Station
either from the head of the hospital to which the victim was admitted or
from the deceased's husband and his relatives who are likely culprits. In
either case, the information is bound to be the bare facts devoid of any
3. Report of Unnatural death of a woman within seven years of marriage:
In all cases of unnatural death of a woman within seven years of her
marriage under suspicious circumstances reported to a Police Station, the
following measures are to be undertaken forthwith.
a) The case should be registered as a UDR case u/s: 174 Cr. P.C. r/w 176
b) The Sub-divisional Magistrate of the area with information to District
Magistrate should be immediately addressed about the death with a
specific request for an immediate inquest over the dead body by the Subdivisional Magistrate personally.
4. An officer not below the rank of PSI from the Police Station should
reach the scene without loss of time and personally examine the scene,
dead body and witnesses in preparation for the inquest. He should prepare
a rough sketch of the scene with all details and measurements. He should
isolate the scene for future examination, colour photographs of the dead
body, showing injuries and the surroundings should be taken in various
5. Dying Declaration:
In case of report of a medico-legal case with death concerning a
woman within seven years of her marriage, an officer not below the rank of
CPI should reach the scene of offence without loss of time and personally
examine the body of the victim with due regard to decency and law with
the assistance of women at the scene and arrange to record the dying
declaration from the victim. He should duly brief the medical officer
recording the declaration about points on which information should be
elicited in reference to the circumstances of the incident as he had noted
from his personal observations. He should ensure that the likely accused



persons stay away from the victim as far as possible till the declaration is
6. Information of dowry death:
In the first available instance, as many blood relatives of the
deceased or victim should be examined, specifically regarding cruelty to
the deceased or victim by her husband and his relatives and circumstances
of the incident. In a prima facie case of cruelty is made out, a formal
detailed report covering marriage of the deceased and its date, details of
dowry demands and dowry received and by whom with names of witnesses
to all these transactions, specific instances of cruelty and harassment of the
deceased for dowry and illegal demands by her husband and his relatives
with names of witnesses, circumstances of the death as they know and
conduct of the alleged accused persons along with details of documentary
evidences and names of witnesses should be obtained from the blood
relatives of the deceased and a case should be forthwith registered u/s:
304<B) IPC or 306 IPC and other relevant sections under IPC and D.P Act.
7. Deputy Superintendent of Police investigates the case:
An officer of the rank of Deputy Superintendent of Police takes up
the investigation of the case within 24 hours of the registration of the case
and personally visits the scene and examines the dead body and the
surroundings. He discusses the case in detail with the PSI or CPI who
conducted preliminary investigations of the case earlier.
8. Inquest:
The investigating officer takes active interest in the inquest of the
case conducted by the Sub-divisional Magistrate. He briefs the SDM about
the salient features of the case as per the investigation done till then and
help him in examining appropriate witnesses and recording evidences
appropriate to the case from both the scene, surroundings and the dead
9. Examination of witnesses:
The offenders and their relatives are avoided as far as possible from
being examined during the inquest. The blood relatives of the deceased and
independent witnesses from the neighbourhood who intimately know the
deceased are given preference. The 10 should assist the SDM in securing
appropriate witnesses in the interest of the investigation.



10. Examination of the scene:

The dead body, scene and surroundings are thoroughly searched,
and measured for every possible clue and evidence regarding the crime
irrespective of whether they look relevant to the case at that point of time.
Nothing should be left for chance. Even minute particles and insignificant
things may prove to be of immense evidentiary value as the investigation
Persons having close links with the offenders must be avoided from
becoming panchas during inquest or seizure process.
12. Post-Mortem:
The 10 prepares a detailed list of clarifications to be sought from
the forensic medicine experts including nature and cause of various
external appearances and wounds on the dead body and their
interpretations in reference to the clues and evidences at the surroundings;
opinion about the alleged instrument of death having any bearing in the
case etc.
13. Discussion with forensic medicine experts:
The 10 makes it a point to sit with the expert who conducted the
postmortem examination of the dead body and discuss the case threadbare
on forensic medicine bearings of the case. Viscera, blood, urine and other
relevant fluids and pieces of organs from the dead body are sent to FSL for
analysis and opinion.
14. Forensic Science Laboratory:
The 10 sends articles seized from the scene to FSL or other experts
for opinion.
15. The 10 holds periodical discussion with the expert who conducted postmortem, at least once a week regarding forensic medicine aspects of the
case till he is satisfied.
16. Blood relatives of the deceased see the dead body:
After the postmortem the dead body is handed over to right persons
and the 10 ensures that the dead body is not disposed of until the blood
relatives of the deceased see it.



17. Arrests:
All the accused persons against whom a prima facie case is made
out are arrested without giving them opportunity to move the court for
anticipatory bail. All applications for hail should be fought tooth and nail.
The culprits who succeed in obtaining anticipatory bail are subjected to
arrest and released as per bail conditions. The Government should be
moved for suspension of the accused person from service if he is a public
18. Interrogation of arrested persons:
The accused persons should be thoroughly examined and
interrogated about the crime until they give out clues and evidences about
the crime.
19. Recoveries u/s: 27 of the Indian Evidence Act is effected from the
accused persons wherever possible.
20. Possibilities of confession u/s: 164 Cr.PC. by offenders is probed.
21. The chance of involuting approvers u/s: 306 Cr. P.C. in appropriate
cases is surveyed.
22. Examination of blood relatives and recording their statements.
The blood relatives of the deceased are thoroughly examined on all
aspects of the case and their statements are recorded. The examination
forms the bedrock of further investigation of the case. The examination
covers all incriminating incidents involving the deceased and her relatives
and the accused persons, the details of cruelty and harassment to which the
deceased was subjected and the details of the circumstances of the death
and the conduct of the accused persons. The 10 ensures that as many
specific instances of cruelty with details come on record and as many
witnesses and documents regarding various facts of the case like date of
marriage, dowry demand, dowry acceptance, cruelty, harassment for dowry
or illegal demands and circumstances of the death as possible figure in
those statements.
23. Documents and records as evidences:
All documents and records that figure in the statements of the blood
relatives of the deceased and throw light on various facets of the case like
date of marriage, dowry demand, dowry acceptances, cruelty, harassment
for dowry and other illegal demands and the circumstances of death are



seized as evidences in the case. The documents and records include

marriage certificate, marriage invitation card, marriage photographs, dowry
contracts; letters, bills, receipts and bank instruments concerning payments
of dowry, letters or diaries of the deceased or accused persons touching
upon dowry, dowry demand, cruelty and harassment, documents in Police
Station, family courts, women's organisations or hospitals regarding
complaints of cruelty or treatment taken for injuries caused by cruelty,
attendance of accused persons at relevant places, marriage registration
documents etc.
24. Proving the authorship of handwriting:
The handwritings in letters and diaries seized during the
investigation are proved for their authorship by obtaining specimen
writings from the concerned under attestation of witnesses. An attestation
is obtained preferably from independent witnesses who have reasons to be
acquainted with the handwriting.
25. Tracing of witnesses:
All witnesses figuring in the statements of the blood relatives of the
decedent and in various documents and records seized are traced and
examined on relevant matters.
26. The natural witnesses from the neighbourhood of the scene of crime
and disinterested witnesses who have knowledge about matters touching
the crime are traced and their statements on relevant matters are recorded.
27. Examination of witnesses and recording their statements:
Recording statements of persons who do not throw any light on the
case isavoided as far as possible.
28. The examination of witnesses should be purposive with reference to the
ingredients of the charges in issue and the line of investigation. The
recording of the statement should be directional in keeping with the
interests of the prosecution. Recording of unnecessary and irrelevant
matters are avoided in the statement to bring clarity and brevity to the main
29. Investigation into the circumstances of death:
Thorough enquiry regarding the persons present at the scene during
the incident that caused the death of the deceased is conducted and all



those persons are interrogated about the events and circumstances of the
30. The whereabouts of all the accused persons at the time of the incident
causing the death are ascertained with the help of proper oral and
documentary evidences.
31. Proper investigation is conducted regarding the persons who noticed
the death first, time and circumstances. The persons should be thoroughly
examined regarding the circumstances that led them to the scene and what
they saw there.
32. Appropriate witnesses are examined regarding the conduct of the
accused persons preceding and succeeding the incident that led to the
33. Eye witnesses to the death:
The possibility of having eyewitnesses to the incident, particularly
from the neighbourhood should be thoroughly probed. Even evidences of
what they saw or heard from a distance may prove useful in the
investigation. Their statements are recorded u/s: 164 Cr. P.C. if found
34. Who can be useful witnesses:
The persons who saw the deceased for the last time and also who
talked to her last should be traced and intelligently examined for possible
clues about the crime.
35. The women from the neighbourhood of the scene and old ladies prove
useful witnesses as the deceased is likely to have talked about her problems
with them from time to time.
36. Every attempt should be made to trace and record statements of the
friends of the deceased to whom she would have confided her difficulties
either orally or by letters.
37. Immediate provocation:
The death cannot occur without an immediate provocation or a
criminal conspiracy behind it. The 10 should detect it with adequate



38. Respectable men of the area like village headman, community chief or
a partriarch are examined for useful information about the offence.
39. Burning of the dead body without inquest and post-mortem:
In cases where the dead body is burnt against local custom without
inquest and post-mortem and a case of dowry death is registered only at a
later stage, the circumstances themselves suggest attempts to eliminate
evidences of a crime. In the circumstances, independent witnesses from the
area, preferably including the head of the village and community, are
examined and their statements are recorded to establish the local custom
which is violated by the offenders.
40. In cases where the dead body is burnt without inquest or post-mortem,
people who saw the dead body are examined in detail regarding unnatural
appearances on the dead body and in the immediate surroundings. The
forensic expert's opinion is sought about the case on the basis of this
information, and a detailed history of the case as made out from the
investigation done till then.
41. Examination of stove in a burning case:
In a burning case, the stove at the scene is seized and examined by
an expert to refute the possible defence claim of an accidental explosion as
the cause of burning.
42. Wounds on the dead body:
All wounds on the dead body are examined for inflammations and
extravasations which prove ante-mortem injuries and suggest violence and
cruelty before death ipso facto facilitating charge u/s: 304(B) IPC by
providing evidence of cruelty soon before the death.
43. What acts constitute cruelty:
Any willful act on the part of the husband or his relatives which is
likely to drive a woman to commit suicide constitutes cruelty. Respectable
women from the locality are examined and their statements are recorded as
opinions to prove whether specific deliberate acts under issue are likely to
drive in normal circumstances a woman to commit suicide and thus meets
the definition of cruelty.



44. Finalisation of the case:

Where the deceased is proved to have been subjected to cruelty in
connection with a dowry demand soon before her death, the case can be
charged u/s: 304 (B) IPC. Otherwise, the case can be charge-sheeted
u/s:306 IPC if it is proved to be a suicide case.
45. Time limit to finalise the case:
Investigations of dowry death cases preferably be completed within
a month and not later than three months under any circumstance. Extension
beyond this period would be self-defeating as the witnesses are likely to
turn hostile as the heat of the pain of death subsides and the parties could
compromise as they are relatives.
46. Section 6 of Dowry Prohibition Act:
In cases where the dowry received is not given to the deceased's
child or returned to her parents when there is no child. Section 6 of the D.
P. Act can be invoked and the concerned persons are charged.
47. Special instructions to officers of the Corps of Detectives:
An officer of the COD to whom a case of dowry death is entrusted
for investigation takes up the case within 24 hours of the order being
issued excluding the time taken for his journey and exclusive of any other
responsibility at his hand unless special written permission is obtained
from the supervising officer for delaying the job for further 24 hours in
exceptional cases. He takes up the investigation de integro.
48. The IO should personally visit and examine the scene of offence,
examine afresh and record statements of the decedent's blood relatives and
important witnesses, discuss the case, with local police officers and
previous IOs of the case, study the case file in detail and hold an
exhaustive meeting wit the medical expert who conducted post-mortem
examination. He should continue to hold periodical meetings with him
during the course of the investigation.
49. He should discuss all facets of the case with his supervising officer
immediately after taking charge of the case and obtain instructions
regarding the further course of the investigation.
50. A new 10 should re-examine all witnesses, previously examined by his
predecessor in COD to acquaint himself with various nuances of the case.



However, it is only in instances where the re-examination throws further

light on the case that additional materials should be recorded as statements.
V. Forensic medicine in investigation of dowry death Cases.
As circumstances and events that lead to dowry death are more
often than not buried in the shroud of familial secrecy, the investigating
officer finds himself stranded in the barren ground of silence and darkness
during the process of his investigation. There would be no witnesses to
speak about what conspiracy or provocation led to what catena of events
that ended with the death. This grey area about the vital stage of the
offence is peculiar to the investigation of dowry death cases. The
investigating officer can superate the gauntlet by more and more drawing
from the cornucopia of knowledge of forensic medicine and science.
Unless the investigating officer fully avails himself of the benefits of the
latest developments in these disciplines, hecannot do full justice to his
1. Forensic knowledge can be employed to establish following facts about
a dowry death case:
a. The cause of death.
b. Whether the death is accidental, suicidal or homicidal and whether
bodily attacks are ante-mortem or post-mortem.
b. The events that led to the death.
c. The circumstances and surroundings in which the death took place.
2. Forensic knowledge can be applied during prosecution for the following
a. As evidences to decide issues towards proving an offence.
b. As evidences to repudiate claims made by the defence.
3. The prerequisite of employing forensic knowledge in investigation of an
offence is threefold:
a. Detailed observation of the scene and surroundings of the offence and
purposive collection of clues, depending upon the nature of the case.
b. Detailed observation of the body of the victim and purposive collection
of clues depending upon the nature of the case.



c. Careful and purposeful autopsy of the dead body and collection of clues
depending upon the case.
4. Though the Executive Magistrate during the inquest and the forensic
medicine expert during the autopsy arrive at a fairly definite idea about the
case through the collection of clues from the dead body and surroundings,
the investigating officer cannot afford to leave that part of the investigation
entirely at their hands as ultimately he is responsible for the entire
investigation of the case. He has to discharge his responsibilities in two
a. Assisting and guiding the officers in their work with reference to future
needs of the investigation and circumstances of the case.
b. Making his own notes about his personal observations about the clues of
the case.
5. The dead body, the scene and surroundings should be studied in minute
details with a questioning mind. This should be done in four ways:
a. Noting down in detail every interesting and common feature noticed
with sketches and measurements.
b. Taking colour photographs from different angles and varying distances
of all interesting and common features noticed. Video recording is
c. Careful lifting of interesting and common clues and evidences in the
presence of reliable panchas with detailed information and measurements
about their location and other relevant facts for future analysis.
d. Specific instructions to experts regarding what to look for during the
6. It is prudent to collect all available clues and evidences as none at that
early stage of an investigation can predict what clues and evidences prove
to be vital for the case in future, what shape the investigation may take in
coming days and how the case may end up. Special attention should be
paid to following particulars.
a. The marks of struggle on the dead body.
b.The location of the dead body at the scene and its postures.
c. Wounds, colourations and all types of marks on the body with exact



locations, measurements and specifications.

d. The apparel and other articles on the body and their condition.
e. Blood and other bodily fluids found on the body and apparel.
f. The articles noticed on or at close proximity of the dead body and their
location and distance from each other.
g. Empty containers noticed at the scene, their nature and exact location
anent to the dead body.
h. Signs of struggle and other unusual occurences at the scene.
i. Any strange odour on or near the dead body and at the scene and its
j. The position of doors, windows and electric fittings at the scene and
their condition.
k. Marks of blood and other fluids at the scene and surroundings.
l.All important and unimportant articles noticed at the scene.
7. Burning case: Burning is a common mode of death in dowry death cases
in India. A case of death by burning suggests either accident or suicide or
homicide or post-mortem burning to obliterate the corpus delecti. The
possibility of post-mortem burning to obliterate evidences require the
investigating officer to keep his eyes, nose and ears open for all types of
clues and evidences on the dead body and the scene so that he is prepared
for an unexpected turn of events as the investigation progresses. He cannot
be selective in collection of clues and evidences as it may turn out to be a
case of either poisoning, throttling or assault with the post-mortem burning
to conceal evidences. In the circumstances, the investigating officer should
look for the following clues on the dead body and at the scene.
a. The regions on the body where bums are extensive must be ascertained.
This should be shown with a sketch of the body. It helps to ascertain
whether the burn is accidental, suicidal, homicidal or postmortem. Uniform
burning of several parts suggests the possibility of murder.
b.The smell of kerosene or other fuels on the body, apparel and y the



c. The position and location of any containers of fuel at the scene and their
distance from (he body.
d. The location and condition of matchsticks, stoves and electrical
installations at the scene and their distance from the dead body.
e.The condition of electrical wiring at the scene.
f. Marks of burning at various places and walls on the scene.
g. Marks of stove burst at the scene. The stove should be seized and sent
for expert opinion on its condition..
h. Noticeable wounds or marks of assault on the body.
i. Viscera and blood should be preserved for analysis to detect carbon
j. The expert conducting the postmortem should be sought opinion
regarding soot particles in the lungs and windpipe as marks of inhalation
during the ante-mortem burning..
k. Opinion should be sought regarding vesicles, signs of congestion and
inflammation in living tissues to ascertain whether the bum is antemoritem or not.
l. The expert should be instructed to look for signs of death by methods
other than burning and postliminary postmortem burning.
8. Poisoning case: Death by poisoning is a common feature in dowry
deaths. Such a death indicates either suicide or homicide and even accident
in rare cases. Postmortem administration of poisoning, though possible, is
a rare occurrence. The investigating officer should look for the following
clues on the dead body and at the scene.
a. The container from which poison was used should be seized before
panchas and sent for analysis to FSL along with the viscera from the dead
b.Traces of vomit from the scene should be sent to FSL for analysis.
c. The viscera, blood, urine and fluid from mouth and nose of the dead
body should be sent to FSL for analysis.



d. The nails, lips and body of the deceased should be examined to ascertain
whether they have turned blue.
e. The time when the deceased last took her food, the time "of the first
symptoms of poisoning and death should be ascertained.
f.The symptoms of poisoning noticed in the deceased should be
g. The amount of poison likely to have entered the system of the decedent
should be ascertained from witnesses and forensic experts.
h. The nature of food materials present in the stomach and its time of
consumption must be ascertained.
i. Opinion of FSL experts should be sought on absorption of the poison by
the stomach to decide whether the poisoning was ante-mortem or not.
j. Opinion of experts should be sought on the antidotes or other
medications administered to the victim and the possible time of the
administration in reference to the time'of poisoning as noticed in the
k. A report on the medical history of the -deceased should be obtained
wherever possible.
1. Opinion regarding redness, ulceration, softening and perforation of the
stomach and intestines and their spread and diffusion that suggest
poisoning should be sought from experts.
9. Drowning Case: Drowning can be either accidental, suicidal, homicidal
or postmortem in nature. The investigating officer should look for the
following additional clues on the dead body and at the scene.
a. The position and location of the dead body in water in reference to the
likely place of drowning.
b.Objects tied to the dead body.
c. White foam in the mouth, nose and lungs of the deceased indicates antemortem drowning. The foam must be sent for analysis to FSL.
d. The expert conducting the postmortem should be asked for information
about aquatic organisms and debris in the air passages and stomach and
presence of water in lungs and stomach of the dead body which also



suggest ante-mortem drowning. The debris should be tested for the

presence of its like in water at the place of death.
e. Mud in finger and toe nails suggests struggle during drowning; the mud
from the nails and the floor of water may be sent to FSL for comparison to
decide isogeny.
f. Aquatic or other materials grasped by the deceased suggest a struggle
while drowning. The nature of aquatic creatures in the water must be
ascertained to decide about the possibility of the creatures having caused
postmortem cuts on the body of the decedent.
The details of abrasions and cuts on the body and an expert opinion
as to whether they are post-mortem are crucial during the process of the
The dead body, should be carefully examined for both external and
internal marks of violence before or during the drowning. The blood
samples from the left and right side of the heart of the dead body along
with a sample of the water in which drowning took place should be sent to
FSL for haemolysis analysis which suggests whether the death was caused
by drowning or not.
Experts should be advised to conduct diatom tests. The presence of
diatoms in brain, bone marrow or liver suggests ante-mortem drowning.
Death by hanging: Hanging can be either suicidal or postmortem. In rare
cases, it can be homicidal also. Often, hanging would have been enacted
after the victim was killed by throttling or strangulation. The investigation
officer should look for the following clues on the dead body and at the
scene. The material used for hanging should be seized and sent for
examination to ascertain whether the ligature marks on the dead body
match with the material. The scene should be keenly observed for furniture
and other bodies near the place of hanging to ascertain the process of
The details of ligature marks on the body of the decedent, covering
exact location and spread, shape, colour, depth and nature should be
carefully examined and noted. The dead body should be examined
carefully for other marks of violence and force and all injuries on the dead
body should be carefully made note of. The fingernails of the dead body
should be examined for blueness. The expert conducting the post-mortem
examination should be asked for information about bruising of the soft
tissues beneath the ligature mark that suggests ante-mortem hanging or
strangulation. The possibility of intense venous congestion of the lungs



suggests strangulation. The dead body must be examined to detect the

A ligature mark about the thyroid cartilage suggests hanging while
any mark below the thyroid cartilage suggests strangulation, fracture of
thyroid bone and thyroid cartilage suggests strangulation or
throttling; thyroid bone fracture is common in hanging.
j. The presence of saliva, oozing out of mouth shows ante-mortem hanging.
k. Effusion of blood along the ligature mark suggests ante-mortem
l. If common external and internal features of asphyxia are absent, then the
hanging is definitely postmortem which suggests homicide.
11. It is often possible that the mode of death noticed is postmortem and
intended to conceal a criminal act. Burning or hanging and sometimes even
drowning are the modes employed to conceal a criminal act committed by
other methods mostly by assault or poisoning. In the circumstances, the
investigating officer should take care to collect clues from the dead body
and the scene to cover all eventualities regarding the true cause of death as
revealed in later stages of the investigation.
12. The forensic analysis of clues should be oriented to decide whether the
alleged mode of death is ante-mortem or not. If the alleged mode of death
is found to be postmortem, it suggests two possibilities.
a. That a different mode was employed to cause the death which should be
established by the clues collected from the dead body and the scene, and
b. The case is likely to be a case of homicide and attempts have been made
to conceal the evidences and the cause of the death.
If the investigating officer adequately employs his common sense
and intelligence during the preliminary stage of the investigation while
examining the dead body and the scene and collects all incriminating clues
and evidences without restricting himself to the apparent cause of the
death, no criminal can fool him and deflect him from the right line of
Marriage is often called the second birth in a girl's life; it brings an
entire metamorphosis in the form and contents of her life and in the
process exposes her to inopinate adaptation problems. It is an irony of
nature and social customs that it is the girl who is delicate in nature rather



than the man who is selected for this difficile gauntlet of transformation in
the process of familial socialising. Per case, the gentle and amenable
caractere of the female breed expose hers to the natural selection tor the
purpose. In the process, death of the most unfortunate of them by felo de se
or homicide because of the grind of the circumstances has become an
unfortunate phenomenon. Dowry is only one though primus interpares
among various immane manifestations of adjustment problems to which
the tender psyche of a young girl is exposed after her marriage. An
integrated approach to all these symptoms of adjustment problems to
which a girl is suddenly exposed while her persona is yet unprepared to
meet the gauntlets alone can bring deliverance to the fairer sex of the
human genre. The entire process of social legislations and their
enforcement is only a distant link in the whole catena of luctation
warranted to achieve this end.






Police dogs are the invisible eyes and ears of the police in crime
detection at both prevention and investigation stages. As an aide of
detection at the prevention stage, police dogs are perficiently employed as
detectors of bombs in suspected sabotage cases and of narcotics in
suspected drug trafficking. Thus police dogs play prominent roles in
meeting the present acute gauntlets of policing, namely providing security
to men and places and curbing smuggling and trafficking in narcotics.
Police dogs are proved to be as helpful as fingerprint experts in identifying
criminals, their hideouts and stolen properties. In addition, police dogs can
be employed for law and order duties apart from guarding men, place and
Police dogs sui juris form an integral part of a well-equipped police
force anywhere in the world. The Indian police also made a beginning in re
police dogs long ago though much is yet to be done to realise their best
services. The Karnataka police too has a small unit of dog squad in its fold.
This discussion is limited to the dog squad of Karnataka with suggestions
to enable it to grow from its present small form.
The Police dog squad in Karnataka functions as a part of the armed
reserve unit of the Bangalore city police. Though there are various regional
police dog units under its supervision apart from the police dog unit of the
Bangalore city, under its direct control and supervision, the relationship
between the mother unit and various regional units remains largely
undefined and louche. Further, a state-level unit like the police dog squad
being a part of the armed police unit of Bangalore city police indicates a
messy and arbitrary growth and structuring. This needs to be rationalised.
A dog squad under the exclusive charge of an officer of the rank of Deputy
Superintendent of Police is required to be created in the Criminal
Investigation Department of the state to which the police dog squad should
belong in terms of its usual functions and usefulness. The police dog squad
primarily belongs to the Crime Branch of the State Police setup as its aide
in detection work. Usually, armed policemen and officers arc posted in
Karnataka as handlers in the ranks of PCs and HCs and supervisory
officers of the dog squad in the ranks of PSIs and Pis. These are temporary
postings and therefore fail to elicit any abiding interest in those concerned.
Further, there being no distinct identity for these officials and no additional
monetary benefits involved, the Karnataka police dog squad fails to instill
any commitment in its personnel.



The Karnataka Police must create an exclusive cadre of handlers

and dog masters with distinct seniority and promotional opportunities up to
the rank of the Chief Dog Master at the rank of Deputy Superintendent of
Police. Constables selected from the armed or civil police must be
absorbed to the dog squad as assistant handlers after six months of training
in handling dogs. An assistant handler must be eligible to be promoted as a
handler in the rank of HC and he in turn as a Dog Master in the rank of
PSI; me next promotion would be to Senior Dog Master at the rank of PI
and thereafter as Chief Dog Master at the rank of Deputy Superintendent of
Police. A system of dog allowances for each of these ranks make the cadre
financially attractive and the job financially worth seeking. The present
setup of the Karnataka police dog squad has professionalism in its ranks
only up to the rank of Head Constables. The supervisory officers from the
rank of PSI upwards are sheer amateurs, devoid of any professional
expertise in their work. Occasional training in Tekanpur or other places
cannot instill professional commitment and expertise when the officials
know that their career is outside the police dog squad and their interest in
police dogs is transitory. This non-professionalism at supervisory levels
makes supervision and control of the police dog squad in Karnalaka
absolutely meaningless. The officers for the ranks of PSIs, PIs and Deputy
Superintendents of Police in the police dog squad should be selected from
professionals either by promotion or direct recruitment from outside. This
makes these officials able to identify their career with the effectiveness of
the police dog squad.
Though the dog squad of the armed police unit of Bangalore city
police is supposed to be a training unit for police dogs and handlers from
all over the stale, no infrastructure for handling such a responsibility is
available in the unit. A senior handler often functions as a trainer for pups
when required and no programme schedules to train handlers is available,
not to speak of any refresher or special courses either to the dogs or their
handlers. A full-Hedged breeding and training centre for both the police
dogs and their handlers must be setup as the point d' appui of the dog
squad under a senior Dog Master of the rank of Police Inspector as the
trainer. Pups to be trained as police dogs and PCs to be trained as assistant
handlers should have regular courses of the duration of six months. The
centre may also conduct refresher courses of shorter duration for handlers
and their dogs and special courses for dogs and handlers, participating in
dog shows and police duty meets, apart from research on breeding,
feeding, training and performance.
The part of police dogs in Karnataka in routine security checking of
passenger luggages at airports is nil. The absence of roles in security
measures against such international threats like hijacking, bombing of
planes, trafficking in narcotics etc tells a bleak story about the use of



scientific methods in the state's policing. The function of police dogs here
is confined to checking of the airport during VVIP visits. As airport
security vigilance is an important function of policing, the Karnataka
police should consider creating a detachment of dogs, trained in detection
of explosives and narcotics for its major airports under a Dog Master with
a complement of handlers and assistant handlers. Though India is fast
growing to be a transit centre for narcotics from both the Golden Triangle
and Golden Crescent meant for Western countries and Bangalore city is
developing to be a centre of shipment to various exit points, no visible
effort to check this menace is patent in Bangalore city police force.
Training a couple of police dogs for the detection of narcotics could be a
good beginning in this direction. Though the Karnataka police had two
sniffer dogs in its squad till recently, a new beginning was made in 1989 to
train pups with the help of the Border Security Force in the detection of
explosives and narcotics. However, the efforts could not be carried
outjusqu au bout for want of imaginative policy towards transfers of higher
ranks to inspire concerted efforts in this direction.
The regional units of the dog squad of Karnataka police presently
function as part of the armed reserves of the district, where each unit is
situated, under the overall supervision of a nonprofessional in the field like
a Reserve Police Inspector. The regional units must be viable units with a
minimum of three dogs, three handlers, three assistant handlers, a vehicle,
two drivers and a sweeper-cum-cook, under the control and supervision of
a Dog Master in each district. Karnataka has a post of handler or assistant
handler for each dog. The natural inadequacy of one handler for a dog
because of the human failures like absences, sickness etc make the
allocation of handlers to dogs on permanent basis impossible, thus denying
a vital need of dog management. This failure has naturally reflected
adversely on the health, efficiency, performance and management of police
dogs in Karnataka. It is a primary need that each dog is placed under the
charge of two officials as handler and assistant handler on a permanent
basis to facilitate atleast one between them being always available to take
care of the dog and the dog is not required to be exposed to anybody other
than its appointed handlers.
The police dogs in Karnataka are fed with wheat, rice and other
cereals inter alia. This diet needs to be replaced with bread and dog
biscuits whichprovide complete and wholesome nutrition and avoid the
unhygienic and fluctuating quality standards of the amateur cook. The
rexine boards measuring 4' x 5' which are used as beds for police dogs in
Maharastra can be conveniently used as beds for police dogs in Karnataka
too because they are easy to wash and clean daily. There is no systematic
approach in Karnataka for purchase of foods for dogs. The right of sale of
the foods for a year in bulk to the dog squad must be alloted at higher



levels by tenders every year to avoid misuses and leakages. The purchase
of lifesaving medicines of dogs poses financial problems if the drug
stockist refuses to sell the medicine on credit in the present system.
Often,handlers are required to pay ror the medicine from their pockets with
the hope of recouping it later. A permanent advance of say Rs.500/- to all
regional units and Rs.lOOQ/- to the Bangalore city unit may prove to be a
panacea for this financial malady. There are no specific guidelines as
standing orders or manual provisions available in Karnataka to ensure
healthy practices in dog management that guarantee improved performance
of the dogs. This absence is the cause for each handler engaging his dog in
his own way, leading to all types of abuses and ill-treatment of dogs. It is
necessary to prepare a police dog manual containing standing orders and
specific instructions on the management of police dogs. There is no
uniform method laid down to assess the performance of handlers and their
dogs and their mutual compatibility. This has resulted in an extremely
casual and mechanical approach on part of handlers to their dogs. An
integrated approach to assess the performance of each handler and assistant
handler on continuous basis would certainly boost the level of performance
by inculcating in them an attitude of commitment. A system must be
evolved wherein a worksheet for each handler is drawn every month by the
Dog Master with marks alloted to the handler's dog for its performances in
monthly tests with specific notes on the health of the dog and its
compatibility with its handler. Finally, the Dog Master should draw his
assessment of the handler on the basis of the performances, health and
compatibility of the dog with its handler, at the end of each monthly work
sheet. Every worksheet so prepared every month for each handler must be
thoroughly scrutinised by the concerned senior Dog Master and sent to the
Chief Dog Master with his recommendations of rewards or punishments
for individual handlers.
The handlers of the Karnataka police dog squad do not maintain
any important records or registers at present. Handlers being the most
important officials in the hierarchy of a dog squad, they must be given
freedom in handling their respective dogs with concomitant
responsibilities. This naturally entails maintenance of essential registers
like daily expenditure registers, medical sheet, call register etc. by each
handler apart from a daily notebook.
The daily expenditure register bears a page for each day wherein all
types of expenditures incurred on a dog, including food, medical treatment,
medicine, kit articles etc are entered with details by the handler in his own
handwriting and the total expenditure incurred on that day summed up at
the end of the page. The call register bears a page for each case attended by
the handler and his dog, with entries by the handler in his own
handwriting. The call register contains exhaustive information about each



case including the date and time of the call, the'time of the handler's
departure to the scene; the time of his reaching, the distance of the journey
performed. Vehicle number, driver's name, nature of the call, caller's name,
crime number, name of the investigating officer, name of the police station
involved, a brief account Of the case, the specific acts done by the dog at
the scene, the outcome of the acts of the dog, the time of departure from
the scene, the time of reaching back etc.
The medical sheet for each dog is maintained by the concerned
handler wherein there are columns for entries of date, symptoms of illness,
names of medicines administered and signature of the veterinary surgeon
treating the dog. Pasting a piece of the container of the medicine in the
column for the name of the medicine as evidence for the medicine being
purchased may be made binding. For each vaccination administered, a
certificate is obtained and pasted in the concerned column. Though the
medical sheet is maintained by the handler, he should not make any entry
in the sheet. All entries therein are made by the veterinary surgeon who
treats the dog. The Dog Master must periodically examine this sheet and
enter his remarks thereon.
The notebook of the handler is scrutinised periodically by the
concerned Dog Master and Senior Dog Master who record their remarks
and instructions thereon. The system of obtaining signatures of the officials
on duty with time of reporting etc on the duty register helps to have better
control and supervision over the staff. There is no streamlined system in
the Karnataka police dog squad to obtain feedback on the performance of
dogs at the scene. The glitch can be superated by prescribing a reminder
form in duplicate which should be sent to the concerned investigating
officer at the end of the first month of a case to provide full details of the
investigation of the case as on that day including arrests, recoveries etc
with notes on the part played by the police dogs in the investigation.
Thereafter similar reminder forms are sent to the investigating officer once
in every two months until the case is disposed of. The reminder form must
have separate columns for entries about specific acts done by the police
dog at the scene and indications-given towards detection. This safeguards
the interests of the dog squad by checking the tendency of the investigating
officers to take undue credit for all detections even when detection is
actually done through police dogs. It should be made binding through
proper statutory provisions on all investigating officers to return all
reminder forms, duly filled up in time.
The Karnataka police dog squad faces the peculiar problem of
investigating officers or other sources who call the services of police dogs
as a learnt response, leaving the dog and its handler who reach the scene to
their own fate without required briefing. This renders the performance of



police dogs ineffectual. This unhealthy operational defect may be

overcome by prescribing an 'Investigating Officers and Handlers Form'
with columns for entries regarding crime number, call number, brief notes
about the case, specific performance of the dog at the scene and results and
signature of the investigating officer. The Investigating Officer should sign
the form in triplicate, after completion of the operation by the police dog,
and maintain a copy for his station reference and hand over two copies to
the handler. The handler in turn must maintain a copy for himself and send
the other copy to the crime branch through proper channel.
The maintenance of history sheets for dogs is not properly
streamlined in the Karnataka police. Often, separate registers are
maintained for the entries that must be collated in a history sheet. An
integrated history sheet in a specified form with a minimum of the
following 16 chapters must be maintained for each dog.
a) History of the dog including name of the breed, colour, sex, date of
birth, name, registration number, height, identification marks, names of the
former owners if any, a photograph of the dog etc.
b) Family history of the dog including parents' breeds and names etc.
c) History of the heat periods of the dog wherein actual dates of the
beginning and ending of each heat period is entered in serial order.
Delivery information in the case of female dogs wherein
information regarding the dale of mating, name and registration number of
the male dog mated, name of the unit or owner of the male dog, expected
delivery date, actual delivery date, numbers of pups delivered and their
sex, names of the pups and method of disposal of each pup in separate

History of the weight of the dog entered with dates every week.


Bathing history of the dog with dates entered every fortnight.

Stool examination history with separate columns for the date of
examination, nature of worms noticed in the stool if any, action taken
against the worms etc.
History of periodical vaccination administered to the dog with
columns for the nature of the vaccination, date of last vaccination and next
due date.



History of annual injections administered like distemper injection
and tetanus toxide injection with dates and a sample of the container of the
injection pasted to the sheet.

Record of monthly temperature of the dog with dates.


Particulars of fatal accidents involving the dog.

l) History of the basic training of the dog including its qualification for
police work like tracking, guarding, aquatic lifesaving, night patrolling,
crime detection, detection of explosives, detection of narcotics etc.
m) History of refresher courses attended by the dog including name of the
course, period and dates, place of training, instructor's name, name of the
training officers, name of the handler etc in separate columns.
n) History of the participation and performance in dog shows, police duty
meets and other competitions with dates and names of the places
the shows are held.
o) History of medical treatment of the dog with entries pertaining to dates
of illness, facts of medical investigation, medicines prescribed, dates of
medicines administered and remarks of the Dog Master in separate
p) There should be a separate chapter at the end of the history sheet
wherein the chief Dog Master and head of the crime branch enter their
remarks on the dog periodically.
Presently, police dogs in Karnataka are fed twice a day at 0930
hours and 1730 hours. The feeding may be increased to thrice a day at
0930 hours, 1330 hours and 1730 hours with the food for the day being
divided among these periods. The increase in the frequency of feeding
helps to improve the health, efficiency and strength of the dogs.
The dog squad of Karnataka police must at least now take the first
step towards strengthening the unit as a useful outfit to support the
increasingly difficile job of policing. The main actors in the dog squad,
namely the dogs, are far better and more non-controversial instruments in
the police machinery than two other more important factors namely
machinery which is blind, dumb and deaf and men who are too intelligent
to be always loyal and obedient. Dogs know no corruption and no
dishonesty. They bring life to policing unlike machinery. Policing is safe in



the charge of these loyal, obedient and efficient animals. It is left to police
leaders, how much they decide to take advantage of these ever obedient
animals in the difficile task of policing, who are cheaper than men and
machinery and warmer and more efficient as well. Future policing needs
call for a closer and increased synergy between policemen and these
animals in tackling the gauntlets of the increasingly complex job that
policing is growing to be.






We may be wondering what arsenals are in store for the 21st
century after the momentous and suspenseful events along the passage of
the 20th century that mangled the quiet facade of the Earth. Life as a
stream of endless processes, catenated by the cardinal rule of cause and
effect, may open up a vista for us to infer what the world will be in the 21st
Taking clues from the loose ends of the 20th century and realising
that everything moves in circle and ipso facto every practice and every idea
has its own ups and downs in circular motion along the course of time,
helps to deduce the possible structure of the 21st century on and around
certain fixed pillar posts vacated by the 20th century in its haste to give
way to the 21st century. I am certain that you will find my analyses and
inferences interesting.
As the dusk of the 20th century gives way to the dawn of the 21st
century, new alignments may emerge to replace senescent superpowers
that ruled the roost in international politics. The trend in world politics
would be the coalescence of regional powers to harness maximum
financial strength. The politics of ideological conflicts of the 20th century
may give way to the politics of pragmatic dispensation. National
affiliations may lose their fervour and each regional alliance of nations
may develop into a loose, federal government as the century draws to its
end. A more liberal and universal outlook with the progressive
intermingling of cultures would be the hallmark of the 21st century. The
world probably may awake to a world-culture with all divergent nuances of
the current world being absorbed into a mainstream culture in the new
The 21st century shall be known by future generations for the
growth and universal acceptance of an open market economy and a
combative economic spirit. The last decade of the 21st century may find
the laissez-aller in economy touching its ultima thule and concomitantly its
breaking point except for a few scattered pockets still clinging to a
controlled economy as remnants of yore, which will work as a springboard
in subsequent centuries to move the world back to a modified guided
Another significant development of the new era would be the
upsurge of economics in the new order of things to mark the century as
"The Economic Age'. The present national and ideological divide would be



replaced with a new economic divide, leading to a regrouping of regions

by economic convenience. The concept of the European Economic
Community of the 20th century will lead to similar economic groupings in
East Europe including united Germany, Central Asia, South-East Asia,
South Asia, West Asia, South America, North Africa, South and Central
Africa and finally North America to create distinct economic zones along
the passage of the 21st century with more and more power and authority
transferred to these new units to control and govern the social life of the
people. National identities would be relegated to oblivion as a thing of the
past by the end of the 21st century with the world divided into a handful of
distinct and well-defined economic units, each of which will strive towards
the telos of economic prosperity and increased self-sufficiency. However,
increased concours between the new economic units could bring tension
back to the world in the later part of the century, leading to the failure of
this new concept of living on this Earth and return to good old nationhood
in later centuries.
United Germany, as the leader of a regional power, consisting
mostly of the present Warsaw Pact countries may provide a real challenge
to the financial strength of Japan and its neighbouring allies in the first half
of the 21 st century and grow to be a financial giant of the world in the
second half of the century by pushing the latter to second place. A close
run for supremacy as a financial power of the world between regional
powers led by United Germany and Japan would be the main political
drama of the new era. Both USA and Russia would be decimated to minor
parts in the battle-royale.
The 21st century may see impressive breakthroughs in
unconventional energy sources like nuclear energy, solar energy and
oceanic energy which may cheaply meet the major share of the world's
energy needs by the end of the 21st century. This may reduce the
importance of oil-rich countries in world politics and add to the relative
peace of the coming century.
The new century may see nuclear energy becoming the staple
energy source for motor transport and aviation. There would be major
breakthroughs in harnessing and using solar energy. All anxieties about
depletion of energy sources would be laid to rest in the 21st century. The
new era may find people going for artificial nutritious foods produced from
cheap edible plastic chemicals. This would lessen the dependence on
agricultural produce and provide a permanent solution to the problem of
hunger. Major breakthroughs in recycling of waste may provide the
solution to shortages and ecological contamination. The 21st century is
unlikely to make any tangible headway in space and interplanetary
research due to the factors involving time and distance and the changing



circumstances that may localise issues to the world we live in and ipso
facto control the passion to explore outer space.
The real scientific leap of the 21st century would be the discovery
of normal temperature superconductors and their universal applications in
the fields of mobility, communication and energy that could revolutionise
life on this Earth by obliterating the notion of distance from its face. Man
may travel at speeds very close to that of light by the end of the century.
He would then be able to control things anywhere on this Earth by sitting
in his place and monitoring audio-visual feedbacks. Some advancements
by the end of the century in the ability to penetrate to the past cannot be
ruled out either.
A positive outcome of the new concept of living in regional
economic groupings would be the increased realisation of the futility of
wars and military expenditure. The new age may spawn hope for
sempiternal peace and prosperity, with the aggressive side of the human
psyche being increasingly engaged by the ceaseless demands of the free
market economy. The 21st century may witness a spurt in the general
standard of living, brought about by the deployment of resources hitherto
utilised only for military research and expenditure.
The greatest blessing of the 21st century would be the conspicuous
reduction in international strife and concomitant military expenditure while
the worst feature would be the reduction of man and his environment to an
average profile deprived of all interests and curiosities. He and his
environment may become more fragile inside and outside as unending
technological advancements increasingly take over the fields of his
exclusive skills and competence and ipso facto condemn them to wither
away by desuetude. The 21st century may be the beginning of this
withering process of human skills in a telling way. Life would be less
interesting though more convenient - in the 21st century which could
cause more and more people to turn to religion and occult practice for
solace and adventure.
Computers may become integral to all human activity thus leading
to decline in human skill and intellectual ability as the century advances.
The menaces of terrorism and drug-addiction may further grow to be the
major challenges of the 21 st century. The increasing complexity of day-today living traversed with poverty and an unabated population explosion
may encourage new, unheard-of forms of crime. New complex diseases
may surface on the Earth to attack the populace from time to time and keep
the medical research establishment continuously engaged to meet the
challenges. Life's concomitant stress may spawn agitated, nervous,
frustrated and directionless minds. Family units would be in disarray with



the institution of marriage in red and a new concept of an open society with
guaranteed institutional security coming into vogue.
The new century may witness more and more people turning to
religion for inner peace. As both Christianity and Islam fail to meet the
growing spiritual needs of the plebeians of the 21st century, the world may
look for solace to Buddhism with its spiritual interpretation of life. A new
school of Buddhism called 'Scientific Buddhism' may sweep the Earth of
the 21st century to become its major religion. The new age may also find
proliferation of scientific research in parapsychology and the universal
application of its findings to control crime and improve labour relations in
industry and commercial enterprises.
The new century may see the concepts of family and marriage
losing their relevance to life. Each to his own ends would be the new
dispensation and state security to newborns, the old and infirm would
become a basic responsibility of the state machinery. With the increased
demand on limited land, due to the progressive rise in the population, the
21st century may find all lands becoming government property, leased out
to private parties on contract for a definite period for use: though
laissezfaire with private ownerships in other enterprises would be the
tendency in the 21st century economy. Public undertakings may become a
rarity in the new age. Even selected jobs in the governance of the country
would be permitted to be managed by private firms on contract. Such
sensitive areas as development activities, recruitment, crime investigation,
collection of taxes etc. would be hand-led by specialised private firms on a
time-bound contract as the century draws to an end. The turn of the 21st
century may see only the legislature and judiciary remaining the
government's direct responsibility with executive jobs being handled on its
behalf by private agencies.
The new century may witness an upsurge of romanticism in
literature and life fuelled by a new ferocity that spurns any constraint on
natural conduct; free sex may well become the rule. This new popular
movement would spread across the world in the new century, adding spice
to growingly insipid lifestyles. New philosophies and religions may spring
out of it to alter intellectual and spiritual perceptions.
While the new world will have advanced amenities at its beck and
call, simple natural needs like adequate space, clean water and fresh air
will become rarities. Piped water supply would be a matter of the past and
clean water would be sold in bottles in markets. The new age may also see
special fresh-air sessions everyday for half-an-hour: a luxury of breathing
fresh air, produced by special treatments in a costly process affordable only
to the rich. The selling of small fresh-air packets for use in private may



become a lucrative business throughout the world and multi-national

corporations may make huge investments in both fresh-air packet and clean
water bottle industries.
Life would be a more complex and costly affair in the 21st century
inspite of man's increasing success in bringing the world to his heels
through inventions and discoveries. Birth-control on demand would be a
normal practice. Speed and detached impatience would become the spirit
and trend of the age, with passions, emotions, moods, tastes, arts and
pleasures becoming rare luxuries, known to a few isolated deviates. Living
would be reduced to a cutthroat competition with the conflict between man
and his poisoned environment compounded with that between him and his
fellow-men turning extra modum in his fight and flight for survival. The
simple innocent side of his nature would become a further casualty in the
process with increased manifestations of criminal tendency at all levels in
all fields. Life would thus become less secure and more risky in the new
The world would be less worth for living in the 21st century in
spite of its technical and material advancements. Though the threat of war
would recede in the new age, life's acceleration to the highly competitive
tempo, necessary to ensure survival, may render living a sick and uneasy
affair. As man bends nature to his convenience, nature's failures to meet
his basic needs may balloon up to gigantic proportions by the increased tax
on her fragile attributions. Yet, it should be remembered that the 21st
century is just a minute phase in the huge evolution process which takes
the world to higher levels of existence through restless and difficile
We should know that this world is a great self-sustaining system,
built to survive all ecological, nuclear or population disasters. The life
system of this Earth is a wonderful self-regulating work-house with a skill
for survival. We must rest assured that the Earth will certainly survive all
contingencies of the 21st century by its wonderful self-regulating and selfsustaining mechanism that was at work in the 20th century coram nobis.



Abduction 9, 10, 112
Abetment 118, 120, 121
Academic 39
Acclimatise 27
Accountability 42
Administration 1, 3, 16, 19, 29, 31,
35, 38, 39, 41, 45, 50, 55, 59, 60, 66,
67, 69, 73, 78, 80, 109, 133, 134
African 101
Akali 97
America 149
Anarchy 32
Andhra 10
Anthropological 105
Anti-social 54, 72
Antipode 82, 104
Antipodeal 84
Antipodean 22
Antisocial 2, 77
Apolitical 31
Apoliticism 30
Apostasy 29
Apostatise 108
Aptitude 67, 77, 84, 85, 89
Aquatic 134, 135, 145
Aristocracy 99
Arrogance 55, 59
Assam 10, 11, 25
Assassination 92, 93
Atma 53
Atmosphere 13, 32, 34, 44, 45, 50, 57,
60, 73, 78, 80, 93
Attitude 10, 42, 142
Attitudinal 42, 56, 57, 63, 121
Audio-visual 150
Autophagous 37
Avatar 6

Balkanisation 8
Bangalore 12, 38, 44, 113, 114, 118,
139, 140, 141, 142
Bankruptcy 34
Battle-royale 149
Bengal 64
Betgeri 34
Bidar 113, 114
Bihar 11
Birmingham 9
Bombay 11
Bribery 21
Bridegroom 119
British 29, 30, 38, 45, 47, 100, 103
Brotherhood 19
Buddhism 151
Bureaucratic 76
Business 3, 8, 11, 17, 21, 36, 42, 61,
68, 105, 152
Businessmen 11, 63

Cabal 3, 5, 6, 30, 106
Cabals 31
Cabinet 71, 74, 80
Calibre 13, 15
Cancerous 32, 109
Carbon 133
Career-life 28, 45
Career-promotion 6
Caste 19, 99, 101
Casualties 1, 3, 13, 27
Cataclysmic 69
Catalytic 99
CBI 38
Celestial 56
Chambal 8, 25
Chitradurga 113
Christianity 151
Citizenry 24, 25
Citizens 1, 32, 101, 102
Civilisation 53, 100

Civilisations 100
Co-operation 45
Coexistence 108
Command-obedience 30, 45, 47
Command-post 91
Commandos 72
Communication 15, 19, 39, 43, 44,
70, 71, 78, 90, 150
Communist 99
Comptroller 21
Computer 44
Computerisation 44, 78
Concept 53, 74, 101, 104, 110, 149,
150, 151
Confidence 6, 22, 24, 45, 50, 57, 59,
67, 76, 77, 78, 83
Conformity 60, 62, 102
Conscience 2, 4, 5, 12, 24, 31, 32, 47,
Conscientious 13, 47
Constabulary 17, 43, 46, 58, 69, 74,
Constitution 32, 78, 101, 102, 103,
108, 109
Contingencies 41, 96, 152
Cooperation 5, 38, 41, 43, 48, 67, 107,
Coordination 38, 84
Corruption 5, 24, 42, 145
Counter-intelligence 71
Counter-productive 63
CPI 122, 123
Crack-forces 93
Crime 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 14, 15,
16, 19, 23, 24, 25, 32, 34, 35, 38, 39,
41, 59, 63, 69, 70, 71, 72, 75, 78, 82,
84, 118, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128,
139, 143, 144, 145, 150, 151
Crimes 5, 6, 14, 24, 29, 32, 33, 34, 39,
63, 68, 88
Criminalisation 4, 7
Criminality 1, 8, 24, 34, 35, 36, 105
Cultural 116
Culture 30, 31, 32, 46, 48, 53, 148
Custodians 2, 6, 24, 114
Cutting-edge 57, 58, 59, 74, 91

Dacoity 34, 35, 38
Dakshina 114
Daredevilry 91
Decency 1, 2, 12, 25, 122
Defence 50, 70, 128, 130
Definition 3, 14, 104, 106, 113, 128
Defintion 117
Degeneration 16, 18
Dehumanisation 62
Democracy 3, 29, 48, 49, 66
Democratic 1, 3, 4, 20, 29, 47, 49, 55,
73, 79, 100
Demotivate 67
Desensitize 6
Detection 34, 35, 38, 139, 141, 143,
Dharwar 34
Dignity 1, 2, 12, 46, 56, 57
Dimension 1, 9, 39, 66, 86
Diplomacy 8, 9
Diplomatic 10
Disciplines 130
Discrimination 101, 104
Doraiswamy 10
Drug-addiction 150
Dynamics 4, 24, 66, 86, 91, 99

Ecological 149, 152
Economic 25, 41, 86, 99, 148, 149,
Economics 148
Economy 24, 148, 150, 151
Election 3, 4, 5, 7, 21, 79, 87
Elections 3, 4
Electoral 3
Enforcement 15, 49, 61, 68, 99, 100,
103, 110, 137
Environment 6, 32, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57,
60, 61, 62, 72, 73, 74, 150, 152
Environmental 56, 61, 63
Equality 32, 99, 100, 101, 102

Ethics 2, 12, 21, 22, 30, 46

Ethnic 86
Europe 149
European 149
Evacuation 94
Evaluation 102
Ex-convict 34, 35
Expenditure 44, 90, 92, 97, 142, 150
Expenditures 44, 142
Expertise 22, 68, 69, 83, 87, 94, 140
Extortions 4

Fabric 1, 3, 19, 24, 28, 32, 58, 66
Facade 47, 56, 148
Faculties 91
Federal 148
Festinger 103
Fieldwork 104
Forensic 114, 115, 124, 128, 130, 131,
134, 136
Formula 41, 94
Foundation 63, 90, 100
Frantz 101
Fraud 31
FSL 124, 133, 134, 135
Fundamental 85, 101, 103
Futuristic 66, 69, 70, 73, 74, 80

Gadgetry 44, 84, 86
Gadgets 19, 44, 71
Galvanic 14, 70, 108
Gambling 7, 36, 37
Gandhi 92, 93, 96
Geographical 86
Geometric 80
Geometrical 109
Germany 149
Goldsmith 35
Goondas 4

Governance 3, 17, 19, 31, 51, 73, 151

Guardian 13, 29, 62, 80
Guardians 33, 54, 119
Guidelines 27, 93, 94, 95, 122, 142
Gulbarga 114

Haemolysis 135
Halcyon 56
Hallmarks 109
Harjinder 10
Hierarchical 18, 22, 30, 39, 45, 47, 63,
84, 90
Hierarchy 2, 17, 20, 57, 75, 142
High-calibre 22, 86
High-power 91
High-tech 68
Hijacking 72, 140
Hindu 8, 102, 103
Historical 31, 94, 102, 109
History 3, 83, 91, 128, 134, 144, 145
Humanise 55, 56, 57, 59, 60
Humanising 53, 55, 56, 58, 61, 62, 63

Idea 29, 101, 104, 131, 148
Ideal 12, 19, 56
Ideological 148
Ideologies 85
Ideology 25, 29, 82
Illegitimate 34
Image-building 63, 76
Immobilisation 83
Impotency 105
Impressionable 45
Independence 27, 28, 30, 31
India 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16,
17, 20, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 35,
36, 37, 38, 39, 43, 44, 45, 47, 48, 50,
54, 55, 59, 63, 66, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72,
73, 74, 75, 77, 78, 79, 80, 84, 85, 87,

89, 90, 92, 93, 96, 97, 99, 100, 102,

103, 112, 132, 141
Indian 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,
12, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 24, 25,
27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36,
37, 38, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48,
49, 50, 51, 54, 55, 58, 59, 61, 62, 63,
66, 71, 72, 74, 75, 76, 79, 80, 82, 83,
84, 85, 87, 88, 89, 90, 92, 93, 96, 97,
99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 106, 112,
116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 125,
Infrastructure 19, 77, 78, 93, 95, 140
Infrastructures 55, 75
Institution 22, 27, 51, 60, 118, 151
Institutional 101, 151
Institutions 5, 100, 114
Insubordination 49
Interplanetary 149
Investigation 14, 32, 34, 35, 38, 39,
41, 58, 59, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 75, 88,
92, 93, 97, 107, 108, 112, 114, 115,
116, 118, 119, 121, 122, 123, 124,
125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131,
132, 135, 136, 139, 143, 145, 151
IPC 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 123, 128,
IPS 14, 74
Islam 151
Japan 149
Jayaprakash 8
Jean-Paul 101
Jerome 101
Jinda 10
JKLF 9, 10
Job-culture 32
Journalist 100
Judgement 12, 34
Judicial 59, 78, 106, 108
Judiciary 19, 21, 59, 60, 79, 109, 110,
114, 151

Kannada 83, 113, 114

KGF 114
Kidnap-drama 8, 9
Kidnappings 10, 11
Kluckhohm 56
Kodagu 114
Konanakunte 92
Koppal 35

K-Doraiswamy 10
Kamataka 13, 114

Macro-plan 93
Maestoso 10

Labour 94, 103, 104, 105, 151
Laissez-aller 148
Laissezfaire 151
Landlord 32
Landlords 4
Law-and-order 84, 87
Law-breakers 34
Law-enforcing 11, 14
Lawbreakers 84
Lawlessness 11
Leadership 3, 4, 13, 16, 18, 29, 39, 41,
47, 54, 99
Legacies 29
Legally 13
Legislation 99, 100
Legislations 59, 61, 62, 68, 79, 100,
101, 103, 109, 112, 116, 137
Legislature 6, 21, 151
Legitimacy 58, 62, 68, 74
Leitmotif 89
Life-fluid 30
Life-style 68
Lifesaving 142, 145
Lifestyles 80, 151
Line-system 55, 73
Loyalty 12, 18, 29, 47
Luctation 55, 66, 72, 80, 137

Magistrate 35, 108, 113, 121, 122,

123, 131
Maharastra 141
Maladies 16, 70, 79
Management 17, 22, 41, 54, 55, 72,
73, 75, 77, 141, 142
Mangalasutra 35
Mankekar 100
Manu 83, 102
Marriage 102, 103, 104, 112, 113, 116,
117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123,
125, 126, 136, 137, 151
Marriages 103
Martial 43
Masters 2, 11, 12, 14, 20, 28, 38, 94,
McGregor 61, 63
Medico-legal 122
Mediocre 45, 73, 79
Mediocrity 79
Metamorphose 34, 102
Metamorphosis 30, 136
Metropolitan 60, 70
Mhatre 9
Militancy 8
Militants 9, 10
Military 50, 51, 71, 150
Mobilisation 83, 94, 95, 96
Mobility 57, 150
Modalities 39, 100
Modernisation 19, 43, 44, 77, 78, 82
Modernization 44, 78
Monoxide 133
Motivation 22, 57, 62, 63, 66, 92
Multi-channel 108
Multi-national 152
Multidimensional 67
Murphy 57
Myopic 31
Mysore 83

Narcotics 7, 139, 140, 141, 145
Nationality 31
Nationals 10

Nationhood 149
Naxalism 8, 25
Naxalites 97
NCC 94
Nerve-centre 91
Noncooperation 36
Nuclear 149, 152
Nutrition 141

Occupational 60
Odd-job 11
Officialdom 71
Opportunist 6, 11
Overhaul 55, 75, 84, 85

Panacea 142
Panchas 124, 131, 133
Paradigm 50, 92, 103
Paradigms 35, 37, 48
Paradox 99
Paramatma 53
Parapsychology 151
Patriotism 3, 4, 86, 91
Patrolling 59, 75, 145
Patronage 3, 5, 6, 7
Peace-keeper 54
Peacetime 94
Phenomena 85, 97
Phenomenon 7, 8, 9, 14, 20, 23, 80,
82, 137
Plenipotence 34
Polarization 25
Police-public 94
Policies 8, 29
Polio-struck 47
Politically-motivated 8
Politicians 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11,
12, 13, 14, 18, 20, 21, 23, 24, 25, 36,
63, 79, 80

Politicisation 6, 11
Politics 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 24, 27, 47,
148, 149
Politique 9, 42
Polity 25, 66
Polygamy 102
Post-democratic 50
Post-independent 47
Post-mortem 113, 124, 128, 129, 130,
132, 135
Power-brokers 1, 6, 11, 31
Power-games 6
Prakrithi 56
Praveen 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,
12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,
22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31,
32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41,
42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51,
52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61,
62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71,
72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81,
82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91,
92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100,
101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107,
108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114,
115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121,
122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128,
129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135,
136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142,
143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149,
150, 151, 152, 153
Pre-independent 18
Principle 1, 2, 32, 57, 67, 85, 89, 112
Principled 48
Principles 10, 41, 75, 77, 103
Professionalism 6, 29, 33, 61, 68, 69,
73, 75, 76, 140
Prohibition 102, 103, 104, 116, 119,
Punjab 9, 11, 25
Purusha 56

Qualities 12, 16, 18, 30, 39, 41, 44, 47,
53, 61, 64, 86, 90

Quality 3, 4, 18, 21, 22, 23, 24, 30, 39,

41, 42, 55, 72, 73, 75, 76, 84, 90, 92,
97, 141
Quantum 61, 96
Queasy 102, 107
Quiescent 30

Rajiv 87, 92, 93
Reflexes 88, 90, 91, 96
Rehabilitation 106, 107
Reorganisation 42, 71
Research 22, 39, 75, 83, 84, 86, 87, 91,
95, 140, 149, 150, 151
Researchers 22
Researches 66
Resource 2, 6, 71, 72
Resources 1, 17, 22, 38, 41, 55, 57, 67,
69, 70, 72, 73, 80, 82, 83, 84, 85, 87,
88, 91, 92, 95, 150
Restructuring 67
Revolution 99, 100
Revolutionaries 99
Rexine 141
Rhino 10
Righteousness 2, 25, 33
Role-play 12, 56, 62
Rural 70
Russia 149

Sabotage 72, 82, 84, 85, 94, 95, 139
Sacrifice 21, 25, 86
Sacrifices 25, 105
Sadism 34
Sangfroid 90
Sartre 101
Sati 103
Scapegoat 28
Schism 99
Security 6, 16, 22, 28, 38, 39, 41, 42,

55, 60, 61, 62, 66, 68, 69, 71, 72, 75,
80, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90,
91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 101, 139,
140, 141, 151
Self-disciplining 60
Self-esteem 101
Self-image 14, 57
Self-righteous 25
Self-sustaining 152
Sensibilities 42, 45
Sensitisation 56, 109
Sensitised 54, 114
Sensitivities 13, 91
Sensitivity 106
Sensitization 109, 110
Sensitized 109, 110, 112, 118
Sikh 8, 10
Sivarasan 10, 92, 96
Skolnick 101
South-east 149
Spastic 14, 47
Spinoza 53
Springboard 62, 148
Srilanka 25
Sriperumbudu 87
Stagnation 99, 112
State-crafts 31
Stockholm 10
Structural 101
Stuartpuram 34
Subculture 34, 51
Subha 10, 92, 96
Substruction 45, 58, 60, 63
Sukhadev 10
Superconductors 150
Superpowers 148
Supremacy 149
Surgeon 56, 143
Sycophancy 47
Sycophants 30, 31
Symbiosis 7, 104
Symbiotic 10
Symptomatic 16, 25
Synergy 5, 15, 24, 69, 71, 146
Synod 30

Technicalities 108
Techniques 1, 19, 20, 23, 39, 41, 44,
54, 55, 58, 62, 76, 82
Technology 30, 66
Tekanpur 140
Tendencies 9, 24, 34, 56, 61
Terrorism 8, 24, 72, 82, 83, 85, 150
Terrorist 8, 9, 15, 44, 82, 83, 85, 87,
88, 89, 97
Terrorists 8, 9, 10, 70, 72, 83, 84, 88,
Tetanus 145
Theoretical 76, 109
Third-degree 34
Thyroid 136
Toynbee 100
Tradition 17, 62, 112
Traffic 15, 31, 43, 113
Training 5, 16, 17, 21, 22, 23, 42, 43,
54, 55, 56, 63, 67, 72, 73, 75, 76, 84,
85, 86, 92, 109, 140, 141, 145
Trait 18, 22, 85
Traits 12, 17, 18, 19, 30, 86, 90, 92,
Tyranny 29, 31, 101, 108

Ulceration 134
ULFA 8, 9, 10, 97
Under-utilisation 95
Undercover 90, 92
Underworld 2, 5
Unemployment 82
Unhygienic 141
Universal 23, 148, 150, 151
Universality 23
Unlawful 59, 79, 119, 121
Unproductive 19, 95
Untouchability 102, 104, 105, 106
USA 149
Utilisation 46

Values 1, 2, 25, 27, 30, 41, 45, 48, 55,

56, 72, 80, 99, 102, 106, 110, 116
Verification 60, 93
Vicarious 107
Vicissitudes 56, 80
Vigilance 15, 141
Villain 29
Villains 109
Violation 24, 99
Violence 4, 7, 8, 12, 25, 58, 59, 76, 79,
82, 101, 128, 135
Virtue 28, 109
Virtues 1, 2, 4
Viscera 124, 133
VVIP 72, 141

Yield 9, 12, 13
Youngsters 48
Youth 7
Youths 82

Warming-up 45
Wars 7, 150
Warsaw 149
Wartime 94
Watch-dog 2
Weapon 2, 13, 20, 70
Weaponry 15, 43, 78, 86, 90, 93
Weapons 88
Welfare 46, 68, 85, 99, 108
Western 102, 141
Wherewithal 54, 55, 56, 57, 62, 66, 72,
Wherewithals 59
Woman 112, 113, 119, 120, 121, 122,
Women 99, 102, 112, 113, 121, 122,
127, 128
Woolbert 63
Wordsworth 53
Work-culture 32
Work-pressure 61
Work-pressures 61
World-culture 148
Worsley 99

Zealots 82
Zealous 105
Zeitgeist 66
Zoetic 99