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# THE PIP0’S CERTITUDE : Le Secret De L’anglais à POLYTECH 1

## 1 Supervision: FOULAMI FEH Alban Valère VP2 AEENSPY (4GM)

Tel:( +237) 76189660/90375527
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THE PIP0’S CERTITUDE : Le Secret De L’anglais à POLYTECH 2

1. Table de matière

## 1- numerical representation .................................................................................................... 4

1. Mathematical symbols ....................................................................................................... 8
2. fractions ............................................................................................................................. 10
3. Factors ............................................................................................................................... 15
4. Equations and formulae (many formula) .......................................................................... 18
5. Lines and angles ................................................................................................................ 20
6. triangles ............................................................................................................................. 23
7. Circles ............................................................................................................................... 24
8. Two dimensional figures ................................................................................................... 28
9. Three dimensional figures (solids).................................................................................... 30
10. Dimensions .................................................................................................................... 31

## 2 Supervision: FOULAMI FEH Alban Valère VP2 AEENSPY (4GM)

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PROLOGUE

Une fois de plus je me présente à vous ! Cette fois si c’est sous une nouvelle forme,
« THE PIPO’S CERTITUDE ». Ce document rendu du cours d’anglais du professeur constitue
ce que j’ai appelé le secret d’anglais à POLYTECH. Il apparait dans le but de résoudre les
problèmes des étudiants de MSP notamment en ce qui concerne les notes de cours qui sont
déjà très difficile à assemblé et aussi, la facilité avec laquelle les cours sont énoncés est une
certitude pour l’étudiants de maitriser la langue anglaise d’où le nom du document.
Ce document comporte :
 Les notes de cours de l’enseignant en charge de l’UE
 Les exercices d’application après chaque notion évoquée
Ainsi donc je vous prie de bien vouloir appréhender en profondeur et avec beaucoup
d’attention toutes les notions évoquées dans ce manuel tout du moins conseillé et
recommandé par la voie la plus autorisé des étudiants.
Point n’est question pour nous d’encourager la facilite destructive du « FAX »-ce que nous
déconseillons d`ailleurs aux pipos-mais la philosophie principale de ce document est d’une
part de partager les difficultés que nous avons eu à rencontrer et d’autre part y proposer
des solutions et donc aider l’étudiant à assimiler les enseignements reçus en classe.
Conscient par ailleurs de nos imperfections toute suggestion en vue de l’amélioration (en
fond et en forme) de ce document sera la bienvenue.
Je remercie donc les amis qui n’ont ménagé aucun effort pour que ce document soit fait
dans ses qualités les plus élogieuses. Il s’agit de :
KAMGA KAMDEM (2MSP)
TSE Ernest (3GM)
Merci à vous.

Valère FOULAMI

## 3 Supervision: FOULAMI FEH Alban Valère VP2 AEENSPY (4GM)

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1- numerical representation

## There are two main types of numerals: cardinal numbers

and ordinal numbers.

►CARDINAL NUMBERS

## They are numbers that are used to express quantity.

E.g.:

1 One
2 Two
3 Three
4 Four
5 Five
6 Six
7 Seven
8 Eight
9 Nine
10 Ten
11 Eleven
12 Twelve
13 Thirteen
14 40 Fourteen
forty
20 Twenty
30 Thirty
100 One hundred
201 Two hundred and
one
1,000 One thousand
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## 1,111 One thousand

,one hundred and
eleven
27,999 Twenty seven
thousand, nine
hundred and
ninety nine
18,000,014 Eighteen million
and fourteen
12,684,740 Twelve million,
six hundred and
eighty four
thousand, seven
hundred and forty
1000000 One million(GB
ET USA)
1000000000 One thousand
million or a/one
milliard
1000000000000 One/a billion
1000000000000000 One thousand
billion

TRES IMPORTANT:
→bien différentier les nombres se terminant en teen (compris entre 10 et
20) et ceux se terminant par ty (qui marque la progression des dizaines).
→Ne pas mettre le and entre les milliers et les centaines. Ex: One thousand
one hundred and eleven et non One thousand and one hundred and eleven.
→a l’oral, pour les nombres composes de centaines et/ou des milliers, il
faut toujours ajouter and avant le dernier élément. Ex: - 442: four hundred and forty-
two
- 1002: a/one thousand and two
-1323000: one million three hundred
and twenty-three
Thousand
→notez qu’en anglais, la séparation des milliers et des millions s’écrit avec
une virgule et la séparation décimale avec un point alors qu’en français la
séparation des milliers et des millions s’écrit avec un espace blanc et la
séparation décimale avec une virgule.

## 5 Supervision: FOULAMI FEH Alban Valère VP2 AEENSPY (4GM)

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## Ex: français anglais

1 422 1,422
8 999 999 8,999,999
7,8 7.8
La prononciation de la séparation décimale sera étudiée dans un chapitre
ultérieur.
→a partir du milliard il existe une différence entre l’anglais américain
(USA) et l’anglais de la Grande Bretagne(GB)
American English British English
One/a million=10 6
One/a million=106
One/a billion=109 One thousand million=109
One/a trillion=1012 One/a billion=1012
One/a quadrillion=1015 One thousand billion or a thousands of
billion=1015
One /a quintillion=1018 One/a trillion=1018
Evolution en puissance de 3 Evolution en puissance de 6

►ORDINAL NUMBERS

## Are those used to express the position or to make a classification.

E.g.:
Premier 1st first
Deuxième/second 2nd second
Troisième 3rd third
Quatrième 4th fourth
Cinquième 5th fifth
Sixième 6th sixth
Huitième 8th eighth
Neuvième 9th ninth
Dixième 10th tenth
Onzième 11th eleventh
Douzième 12th twelfth
Treisième 13th thirteenth
Entre 14 et 19 ajouter th devant le nombre cardinal
Vingt et unième 21st twenty –
first

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## Vingt et 22nd twenty-

deuxième second

TRES IMPORTANT :
→neuvième s’écrit ninth et non nineth
→huitième s’écrit eighth et non eightth
→remarquer la terminaison de twelfth (‘Ve’ remplacé par ‘f’)
→les cardinaux se terminant en ty donnent les ordinaux se terminant par
tieth.
Ex : vingtième twentieth
Trentième thirtieth
→sauf first, second et third, tous les autres ordinaux ont la même forme
abrégée qui consiste à ajouter aux cardinaux ‘th’. Ce pendant lorsque le nombre
ordinal est un compose de first, second ou third, les formes abrégées de ceux-ci
sont maintenues.
Ex: 21st twenty-first
32nd thirty-second
53rd fifty-third
→HUNDRED ET THOUSAND prennent également la terminaison th
Centième hundredth
Millième thousandth
Millionième millionth
Milliardième one thousand millionth/milliardth
→les nombres ordinaux servent comme en français les fractions.
Ex : un cinquième one fifth (1/5)
Deux dixièmes two tenths (2/10)
NB : lorsque first est employé comme adjectif il se place avant le nombre
contrairement à l’usage en français.
Ex: learn the first two lessons.
Apprenez les deux premières leçons.

EXERCICE

## Give the kinds of numerals

What is another appellation of integers?

## 7 Supervision: FOULAMI FEH Alban Valère VP2 AEENSPY (4GM)

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## NUMBERS ORDINAL NUMBERS

1
2
3
4
5
8
11
99
70
99
21

NUMBER I N WORD
12685421
1800000014
11335
11121
20 40
12

2. Mathematical symbols

## Mathematical symbols are symbols use in mathematics.

There are many:

►+ is the plus symbol use for addition (to add a quantity to another).
And the result obtained is called sum (It’s the result obtained when we add
a quantity to another). Ex: 5+2=7 ↔five plus two equals/is equal to seven
(It means that →when we add two to five the result obtained is seven
→the sum of five and two is seven)

## 8 Supervision: FOULAMI FEH Alban Valère VP2 AEENSPY (4GM)

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## ►- minus or subtraction symbol use for subtraction (to subtract a quantity

from another).the result obtained after the operation is called difference (is the
result obtained when we subtract a quantity from another).
Ex: 8-3=5 ↔eight minus three equals/is equal to five
(It means that →when we subtract three from eight the result obtained is five
→the difference between three and eight is five)

## ►× or* times symbol use for multiplication (to multiply a quantity by

another). The result obtained after such an operation is called product (is the
result obtain when we multiply a quantity by another). Ex: 5*2=10 ↔five
times/multiplied by two equals/is equal to ten.
(It means that →when we multiply five by two the result obtained is ten
→the product of five and/by two is ten)
►÷or / (divided by) use for division (to divide a quantity by another). The
result obtained after such an operation is called quotient (is the result obtained
when we divided a quantity by another). Ex: 4/2=2↔four divided by two equals/is
equal to two.
(It means that →when we divide four by two the result obtained is two
→the quotient of four by two is two)
►= equality symbol (read equals or is equal to and used to express equality
between two thing).
E.g.: X=Y is read x equals y or x is equal to y
►< inferiority symbol (read is less than and used to express an inferiority).
Ex: 3<4 is read three is less than four.
►> superiority symbol (read is greater than and used to express a superiority).
Ex: 5>4 is read five is greater than four.
►∑ Use for sum of many terms

TRÈS IMPORTANT

## → évitez d’écrire au lieu de parenthèses, bracket. En effet les

quatre derniers symboles peuvent prendre le nom bracket.
→en anglais les adjectifs ne s’accordent pas au pluriel.
Ex: an angular bracket many angular brackets
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EXERCISE

- Sum?
- Difference?
- Product?
- Quotient?

## SYMBOLS NOUN FORM VERB FORM

* To multiply by
-
/

Write in words:
2+3=5; 12-6=6; 62/2=31; 65*1=61
The expression ‘a+b’ below is written in what symbolic notation?
1- [a+b]
2- (a+b)
3- <a+b>
4- {a+b}

3. fractions

## Fractions are results that we can obtain by dividing

numbers by numbers. In other word a fraction is a real number which can be put
under the form a/b, where a and b are integers.
NB : Lorsque les cas où b vaut 1 la fraction est un entier.

Integers are also called whole numbers or cardinal numbers. Then we have:
→a prime number (nombre premier) is a number which can be
exactly divided only by one and itself. Ex: 2; 3; 5; 11; …

## 10 Supervision: FOULAMI FEH Alban Valère VP2 AEENSPY (4GM)

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## →an even number (nombre pair) is a number which can be exactly

divided by two (2). Ex: 2; 4; 6; …
→an odd number (nombre impair) is a number which cannot be
exactly divided by two (2) or a number which when divided by two(2) leaves a
remainder(reste). Ex: 1; 3; 5; …

TRES IMPORTANT
A whole number has one or many digits. Ex: 15685 has five digits which are 1;
5; 6; 8; 9.

## There are two main types of fractions:

→vulgar fractions
Are fractions which are written without using the decimal point (la
virgule).
Ex: 5/2; 8/3; 2/20; …
The number above the slash (la barre) is called numerator and the
number below the slash is called denominator.
When the numerator is greater than the denominator we
talk about improper fraction (fraction where numerator is greater than
denominator).
Ex: 4/3 and 9/2 are improper fractions.
When we use improper fractions, we usually write it as mixed numbers
(a number formed by combination of a whole number and a vulgar fraction).
Ex: 9/2 will be usually replaced with 41/2 which is read four and a half
11/3 will be usually replaced with 32/3 which is read three and two
thirds.
NB: To add or to subtract vulgar fractions we look for the lowest/least common
multiple of denominators (PPCM).
Ex: 2/3+5/2= (2*2+5*3)/6

→Decimal fractions

Are fractions which are written using the decimal point (la virgule)
We obtain a decimal fraction by dividing the numerator of a vulgar fraction by
its denominator
Ex: 2.5; 0.001; 8.6; …

## 11 Supervision: FOULAMI FEH Alban Valère VP2 AEENSPY (4GM)

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## Reading: après la lecture du nombre avant la virgule, le groupe de

chiffres après la virgule n’est pas lu comme un nombre plein comme en français
mais il est lu chiffre par chiffre.
Exemple: 2.36548 (2, 36548 en français) est lu: Two point three, six, five, four,
eight et non two point thirty six thousand five hundred and forty eight.

TRES IMPORTANT

## Ex: π=3.144 is written correct to four significant numbers but

correct to three decimal places.

## ► RATIO, PROPORTION, PERCENTAGE.

These three words are used to express the relationship between two quantities.
The representative ratio is the scale (échelle) on the map
showing the ratio of the distance on the map to the real area on the land.
Reading: l’échelle A: B (où A et B sont des nombres) est lue : A
is to B
Ex: 5000:10 five thousand is to ten.
Two quantities are in direct proportion/ directly if they
decrease or increase (augmentent ou diminuent) at the same time.
Two quantities are in indirect proportion/ in inverse
proportion/inversely proportional if when one is increasing, the
other is decreasing.
Ex: by the relation R=ρL/S we can say that:
-R and L are in direct proportion.
-R and S are in indirect proportion.
By the relation U=E-RI we can say that:
-U and I are in indirect proportion.
-U and E are in direct proportion.

EXERCICE

## Give two kinds of fractions and an example of each type.

What is a mixed number?
Two quantities that increase or decrease at the same time are said to be:
Or .
17/3=5.67 correct to decimal .
Π=3.142 correct to figures.
What do you understand by:
12 Supervision: FOULAMI FEH Alban Valère VP2 AEENSPY (4GM)
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- Odd number?
- Even number?
- Prime number?
- Improper fraction (an example)?
- Vulgar fraction?
- Decimal fraction?
- Representative ratio?
Give an example for each of them.
Can a number be both even and prime? If yes, which one?

NUMBER IN WORDS
1.23
1,23
14.752
999.23
73/2
81/4<83/4
150°C
10% Ten percent

## Write number with denominator as an ordinal number:

- 1/3
- ½
- 11/14
- 15/21
We can convert a vulgar fraction a decimal fraction dividing
the numerator the denominator.
The scale on the map shows the ratio of the distance the map the
distance land covered by the map.
If we borrow a sum of money an interest rate of 10%, we must pay it
back the same proportion.
Powers and roots

## Raise a number A to a certain power means to calculate

AxAxAxAx……..xAxAxA where A appears many times. The number of times
p that A appears in such an expression is called the power/the index/the
exponent of the number and all the expression can be wrote as Ap.
Ex: in the expression 52= 5 x 5, 2 is the power or the index or the exponent.

## 13 Supervision: FOULAMI FEH Alban Valère VP2 AEENSPY (4GM)

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## Exponentiation is the act of raising a number to a certain power (éléver

le nombre a une certaine puissance).
When the power is the inverse of an integer we talk about the root.
3
Ex: 741/3 =√74 is the cube root of seventy four.
When the power is a vulgar fraction we talk about a fractional index.
When the exponent is negative we talk about a negative index.

AP is read A raised to the power of p/A raised to the pth power/A to the
power of p/A to the pth power.
(AP) t is read A raised to the power of p all raised to the tth power.
𝒑
A1/p= √𝑨 is read A to the power of one pth or the pth root of A.
𝒑
At/p=( √𝐀)t is read the pth root of A all raised to the power of t.
(A+B)p is read A plus B all raised to the power of p.
The empty symbol √ is call radical and when it contain a number, this

## Exemple et cas particuliers (CP):

(CP):A2 is also read A squared.
A3 is also read A cubed.
𝟐
√𝑨 is read the square root of A
3
√𝑨 is read the cube root of A.
(2+3.5)2 is two plus three point five all raised to the power of two/all squared.
𝟑
X2/3 = ( √𝑿) 2 is read x to the power of two third or the cube root of x squared /all squared.
𝟓
x1/5 = √𝒙 is read x to the power of one fifth or the fifth root of x.
2227 is read two hundred and twenty two raised to the power of seven (or raised two the
seventh power).
12-2 is read twelve raised two the power of minus two.
NB: square est un mot anglais qui est à la fois un nom, un verbe et un adjectif
La forme plurielle de ‘index’ est ‘indices’.

EXERCICE

What is exponentiation?
Give another appellation of power.

## 14 Supervision: FOULAMI FEH Alban Valère VP2 AEENSPY (4GM)

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THE PIP0’S CERTITUDE : Le Secret De L’anglais à POLYTECH 15

## Give the plural form of index.

Which different types of indices can we have?

NUMBER IN WORDS
22=4
2135
𝟔
√𝟔𝟒 = 2
(√𝟗𝟖)10
(24+10*9)4
235/3
52-1/29

Square
cube

Write in word 124-14/6 and give the appellation of -14/6 in this representation.
3
Write in word ( √47) 5 and give the name of 47 and 3 in this representation.

4. Factors

Here, we will study the divisibility of whole numbers and algebraic expressions.
A factor of a number / an algebraic expression is another number /
expression which can divide it without a remainder (exactly).
There are two main types of factors: Arithmetical factors and algebraic
factors.

## Algebra is the branch of mathematics that use letters and symbols to

represents numbers.

► ARITHMETICAL FACTORS

## 15 Supervision: FOULAMI FEH Alban Valère VP2 AEENSPY (4GM)

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For this part we can define a factor of a number as another number which can
exactly divide it. So, every number is the multiple of all of his factors (factors
are also called divisor).
NB: one is a factor of every whole number and every number is a factor of zero

## →The highest common factor (PGCD)

The highest common factor (plus grand commun diviseur) of many numbers
is the highest of all the numbers which divide both all of them.
E.g.: the highest common factor of height, twelve and twenty is four.

## →The lowest common multiple (PPCM)

The lowest common multiple (plus petit commun multiple) of many numbers
is the lowest of all the numbers that they can exactly divide.
E.g.: the lowest common multiple of two, four and six is twelve.

→A prime factor

## A prime factor is a factor which cannot be a multiple of numbers other than

one and itself.
E.g.: two; three; five; seven …
NB: one is not a prime factor
→Even and Odd numbers (nombre pair et impair)

## An even number is a number which can be exactly divided by two whereas an

odd number is the one which cannot be exactly divided by two.

TRES IMPORTANT

## →every number has a unique way to be written as a product of prime factors.

→to normally write a vulgar fraction, we find the highest common factor of the
denominator and the numerator in the order to simplify it.
. E.g.: 8/24 is usually written 1/3 because the highest common multiple of eight and twenty
four is eight.

► ALGEBRAIC FACTORS

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## In this part we study the divisibility between algebraic expressions (expression

where we find letters and symbols representing numbers). Then the factor of an
expression is another expression which divides it in a Euclidian division without
a remainder.

## To expand an expression (developer une expression) means to write it as a sum

of monomials or terms (most simple algebraic expression formed by the
product of a number and a letter or a symbol which represents a number). To
factorize means to write an expanded expression as a product of other
expressions prime to each other (so factorization is the inverse process of
expansion).
E.g.: when we expand 2x(x-8) we obtain 2x2-16x which can be also factorize to obtain 2x(x-
8)

→polynomials

## A polynomial is an expanded algebraic expression that is formed by many terms

or monomials.
Ex: A monomial is an algebraic expression which contains only one term.
E.g.: 3a, 4x, 785k, 21§, 2, 145,3x2, 3t9…
A binomial is an algebraic expression formed by the sum of two terms.
E.g.: 3x+5y8, 5f3+2, 3x2+9t…
A trinomial is an algebraic expression formed by the sum of three terms.
E.g.: 3f+2y-2, 6x3+9t8+5, 2y3+3y2+6y…

EXERCICE

## Give the two main kinds of factors.

What do you understand by:
- Algebra? What is his adjective form?
- HCF?
- LCM?
- Algebraic expression?
- Polynomials?
- Monomial?
- Binomial?
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- Trinomial?
- Expand an expression?
- Prime factor?
The expression 3x (3x+2) and 9x2+6x are the same. What can you do to the first
to obtain the second? And to the second to obtain the first?
Give an example of:
- Monomial.
- Binomial.
- Trinomial.
What is the inverse process of factorization?
Give the HCF and the LCM of numbers:
- 2,4,5
- 78,96,100,458
- 21,56
If an algebraic expression is made of two terms, it’s called a binomial.

►EQUATIONS

## An equation is a statement which establishes equality between numbers and

algebraic expressions. To solve an equation means to find the values of the
letters or the symbols representing the unknown value (usually x) which
satisfies it.

## When an equation is solved, the found value must be checked (testé) by

substituting it for x in the original equation.
Exemple: x-2=1, x2+x+1=5, x+y=6, x=y, t*f=0, t=6,…
→simultaneous equations

## Simultaneous equations (systeme d’équations) are equations that we solve at

the same time in order to find several unknown values.
2𝑥 + 3𝑦 − 63𝑡 = 5
𝑥+𝑦−𝑧 =1
E.g.:{ 𝑥+𝑦 =0 {
𝑥∗𝑦−𝑡 =0
3𝑦 − 𝑡 = 1
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## A quadratic is an expression which contains a square as the highest power of

unknown values (letters).
Then, a quadratic equation is an equation obtained by establishing equality
between quadratics and numbers. To solve it, we usually use factorization.
NB: it means that the main difference between quadratic and quadratic equation
is that a quadratic is not an equation but is when we form an equation by
E.g.: x2+3y6-6 and x8+3t9+2 are just quadratics but x2+3y6-6=x8+3t9+2 is a quadratic
equation.

►FORMULAE

A formula is a fixed pattern which has been proven to be true and can be used
to solve a particular problem easily. So, when we solve a problem we can write
down the method of solving as a formula that can be used to solve a similar
problem.
E.g.: to calculate the average speed (vitesse moyenne) of a motion we use the formula:
v= distance/time (d/t)
In a formula the subject is what we are looking for. Ex: in the formula above
the subject is the average speed v but it can be change by the distance or the
time. So we can have: d=v*t (d is the subject) or t=d/v (t is the subject).

EXERCICE

## What is an equation? A formula?

What is the plural form of formula?
What do you understand by:
- Unknown value?
- Simultaneous equations?
- The subject?
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## - Give an example for each of them

When we reduced the resolution of a mathematic problem to a fixed pattern, this
pattern is called: .
To check the answer of an equation, we use the value the variable and
substitute it the variable.

## 6. Lines and angles

►LINES

A line is any path that we can trace by joining two points or passing
through two points.
NB: line ici peut être tordue ou même discontinue; donc il ne s’agit pas des
lignes droites comme en français.
→classification of lines

We classify lines considering their physical outlook and their position in a plane.

Physical outlook
This is a straight line.
------------ This is a broken/a dotted/a discontinuous line

## This is a crooked line

This is a curved line

This is a zigzag

## Position in the plane

A straight line can take different position in the plane. Then we have:

Horizontal line

Parallel line
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Vertical line
(3)

Oblique line or
Slanting line or (3) is a transversal line: an oblique
Inclined line drawn across two parallel lines

→ Locus

## A locus of a point (lieu géometrique en français) is the path traced by that

point which moves according to a given law.

E.g.: this is the locus of a point which moves by keeping the same
- - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - distance to the other two lines. The law here is the equidistance to
those two lines

►ANGLES

## An angle is formed by two straight lines which meet at one point.

B
A
C
(AB) and (AC) meet to form/forming an angle written as BAC
So we have many types of angles:

This is an acute angle (angle aigu): angle which value is less than ninety
degrees
Interior angle

Exterior angle
This is an obtuse angle (angle obtus): angle which value is greater than ninety
degrees and less than one hundred and eighty

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This is a reflex angle: angle which value is greater than one hundred an
eighty degrees.

This is a right angle: angle which value is equal to ninety degrees. These two
lines are said to be perpendicular to each other (straight lines which meet at
one point forming a right angle).

K
A B
C
CK cuts across (intersects) AB forming supplementary angles (angles which
sum to give one hundred and eighty degrees
Complementary angles are angles which sum up to give ninety
degrees/whose sum equals ninety degrees.
A bisector is a straight line which divides an angle in two equal parts. So,
when we bisect a right angle we obtain two angles of forty five degrees.
a b
p r q

## b and r are opposite angles (angles opposes)

b and q are corresponding angles( angles correspondant)
r and q are alternate angles (angles alterne-interne)

EXERCICE

What is a line?
Give all types of lines that you know.
What are parallel lines? A transversal line?
What is a locus? And its plural form.
When a point is equidistant two points it can mark a when it move.
How is formed an angle?
Give all the type of angles that you know and the definition of:
- Acute angle
- Obtuse angle
- Right angle
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- Reflex angle
- Complementary angle
- Supplementary angle
What is a bisector? Give its verb form.
When we a right angle we obtain two angles of .
If two lines meet and form an angle of 90° they are said to be .

7. triangles

## A triangle is a geometrical figure having/with three sides or a three-sided

figure. These sides meet at point call vertices. So a vertex is a point where the
sides of a triangle meet.
The vertex at the top is called apex
Two vertices at the bottom

Three sides

At the bottom

KINDS OF TRIANGLES

## There are many kinds of triangles:

- Equilateral triangle
An equilateral triangle is a triangle whose side’s lengths are equal.
- Right angled triangle
A right angled triangle is a triangle which has two perpendicular sides.
Here we have the Pythagoras theorem (the square of the hypotenuse [side
opposite the right angle] is equal to the sum of squares of the others sides)
- Isosceles triangle
An isosceles triangle is a triangle which has two equal sides (in length).
- Scalene triangle
It is a triangle with all sides unequal in length.

## CONGRUENCY, SIMILARITY AND SYMMETRY

- Two triangles are said to be congruent if their following parts are equal:
Two sides and the including angle
Two angles and a corresponding side
All the three sides
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- Two triangles are similar if the length of any side of one can be obtained
by multiply a length of a corresponding side of the other by the same
number.
- Two triangles are symmetric if they have equal corresponding sides and
one common side which is the axis of symmetry.

EXERCISE

What is a triangle?
We can also say: a triangle is a figure.
What are vertices?
The vertex the top is called and the side at the bottom is the .
What do you understand by:
- Isosceles triangle?
- Equilateral triangle?
- Right angled triangle?
- Scalene triangle?
- Hypotenuse?
When an equilateral triangle is divided by a line passing through the center and
one vertex, two triangles are form.
What are congruent, similar, symmetric triangles?

8. Circles

A is the point of origin of the circle or the center of the circle (the point which
is equidistant to all points of circle.
The circumference is the distance around the circle.

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## R is a radius (rayon).it is a straight line drawn from the point of origin to a

certain point of the circumference. The plural form of radius is radii.

## D is a diameter: it is a straight line drawn from a point of the circumference

to another point of the circumference passing through the point of origin.

## An arc is any part of the circumference of the circle.

A chord is a straight line drawn from a point of the circumference to another
point of the circumference.
NB: a diameter is a particular case of chord

Segment
Sector

## A segment is a part of a circle enclosed by/within an arc and a chord.

A sector is a part of a circle enclosed by /within two radii.

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Secant
Tangent

## A secant is a straight line drawn across the circumference of the circle

intersecting it at two points.
A tangent is a straight line that meet the circumference of the circle but when
produced will never intersect it.

## A circumcircle of a triangle is a circle that passes through the vertices of the

triangle and it center is call circumcenter (the center of the circumcircle).
 The circle is circumscribed around the triangle and the triangle is
inscribed in the circle.

aaa

Arc
The angle subtended by the arc at the center
(angle au centre)
The angle subtended by the same arc at a point of the circumference
(Angle inscrit)
There is a triangle enclosed by the circle. The angle subtended at the center by
an arc is twice as much as (double) the angle subtended by the same arc at
any point of the circumference.

Concentric circles are circle which have the same point of origin.
Eccentric circles are circles which have distinct points of origin.

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EXERCISE

## According to you, what is a circle?

What is the point of origin of a circle? Give it another appellation.
expressions.
- Circumference
- Diameter.
- Arc.
- Chord.
- Sector.
- Segment.
- Secant.
- Tangent.
- Circumcircle.
- Concentric circle.
- Eccentric circle.
- Inscribed angle.
The circle is circumscribed the triangle and the triangle is the
circle.
Give a relationship between the diameter and the radius of a circle.
The angle at the center an arc is the angle subtended by the
same .

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## 9. Two dimensional figures

A two dimensional figure is a figure that can be drawn and studied in the
plane (in two dimensions).
There are many two dimensional figures:

This is a square (two dimensional figure with four equal sides and with angles
all equal to ninety degrees).
Objects shaped like this are square objects

This is a rectangle (two dimensional figure with two pairs of parallel and
congruent sides and four right angles).
Objects shaped like this are rectangular objects
A diagonal is a straight line drawn from a vertex of the figure to the opposite
one.

## This is a rhomboid or a parallelogram (two dimensional figure having two

pairs of parallel and congruent sides).

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## This is an ellipse. Objects shaped like this are elliptical object.

The four sides figure is called cyclic quadrilateral (a four sides figure
inscribed in a circle).
The perimeter of a two dimensional figure is the length of the distance
around the figure.
A polygon is a two dimensional figure with two or more sides.

EXERCISE

## What is a two dimensional figure?

Give and try to explain all the two dimensional figures that you know.
Try to classify in decreasing order (ordre décroissant) (in inclusion terms) the
following groups of quadrilaterals: square, rhombus, parallelogram, and
rectangle.
What is a diagonal? A cyclic quadrilateral? A perimeter?
Give the name of objects which have following shapes:
- Square
- Rectangle
- Ellipse
- circle

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in the plane.

object.

## - This is a cube. An object shaped like this is a cubic object.

- Objects shaped like prisms (prisme) are prismatic objects.
- Objects shaped like pyramids (pyramide) are pyramidal object.
- Objects shaped like cones (cone) are conical objects.

## - Objects shaped like cylinders (cylindre) are cylindrical objects.

NB: il existe deux types de coupe des solides (solid sections):
- Les coupes longitudinales (longitudinal section)
- Les coupes transversales (transversal section)

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EXERCISE

## What is a three dimensional figure? Give its other appellation.

Draw and give the name of an object which is shaped like a(an):
- Cube
- Sphere
- Ellipsoid
- Prism
- Pyramid
- Cone
- Cylinder
Draw the two cross section of a cylinder and give their usual appellations.
For each solid above draw and explain their two cross sections.

11. Dimensions

## dimension Noun form Adjective Unité

Longueur length long Meter (m)
Largeur width wide Meter (m)
Hauteur Height high Meter (m)
Surface area Meter squared
(m2)
Volume volume Meter cubed (m3)

TRES IMPORTANT

This rectangle is one meter long = this rectangular has a length of one meter.
This rectangle has a width of 2 meters = this rectangle is two meters wide
This pyramid has a height of 1 meter = this pyramid is 1meter high
This well is 150 meters deep = this well has a depth of 150 meter (depth =
profondeur)
This table has a thickness of 3 cm = this table is 3 cm thick.
 A bore is an empty space passing through a solid.
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TRES IMPORTANT
Plural form and verb form
- Le pluriel en anglais se forme généralement par le “s”. Toutefois, il existe
des exceptions.
- Contrairement au français, les adjectifs en anglais ne s’accordent pas.
- Le mot « square » est à la fois un nom, un adjectif et un verbe.
Ex: square root, a square object. (Adjectif racine carré, un objet carré).
The perimeter of a square (nom: le périmètre d’un carré).
To square a number (verbe: élever un nombre au carré).

Division To divide Divisible
Square To square square
Recurrence To recur Recursive
Representation To represent representative
Cube To cube Cubic
Curve To curve Curved
Simplification To simplify simple
Mathematics - mathematical

## Expression Plural form

Digit Digits
Index Indices
Vertex Vertices
Formula Formulae
Locus Loci
Ratio ratios
This locus These several different loci
One index Five hundred approximate indices
A straight variable radius Thousands of straight variable
That congruent triangular shape Those congruent triangular
shapes
The representative negative ratio The representative negative ratios

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