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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬
2‫א‬‫א‬
212
  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
   212  ‫א‬

 
 W،،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫؛‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 K ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
‫א‬         ‫א‬   ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬ ?‫א‬??2‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
   212  ‫א‬

 

 KK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?2‫א‬‫?א‬‫א‬‫א‬
?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K? ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K1J ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬E F
،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬


  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
   212  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

       

 2‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
2‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
   212  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 
  ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1‫א‬
K  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E1
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E2
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E3
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

2‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

1
 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫• א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬
،
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ •

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٪100
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K20W‫א‬‫א‬ •

W‫א‬‫א‬ •

K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K1
K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K2
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K3
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K4

-1-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1J 1

،،‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬E…،
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ EF‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
( Close Range Photogrammetry ) ‫اﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮﻳﺔ ﻗﺮﻳﺒﺔ اﻟﻤﺪى‬‫א‬J 1
 K(Aerial Photogrammetry)‫א‬‫א‬J 2
‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
C23
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬(Aerial Camera)‫א‬‫א‬،23

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ،
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،(Analytical or Digital Plotters)‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،(Analog Systems)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬K(Digital System)،(Analytical Systems)
‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،(Image Orientation) ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ (Parallax) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ (Analytical Plotter)‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬‫ א‬-
 K1957

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Orthophoto‫א‬ -
 KComputer-based Orthophoto


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 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 (Digital Cartographic Systems) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K(Disks)‫א‬ (Data) ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ((GIS) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F
 K (Digital Data) ‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ (SPOT) ‫ اﻷﻗﻤ ﺎر اﻟﺼ ﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﺜ ﻞ ﺳ ﺒﻮت‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K (Data)‫א‬ K1
 K‫א‬‫א‬ K2
 K K3
 K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫ א‬K4
 K‫ א‬ K5

 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬J 1
 K‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 2
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 3
 K‫א‬‫א‬J 4
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬

-4-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2J 1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫؛‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 K

 WEHard WareF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1J 2J 1
W ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ CCD 
 ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،EscannersF
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬1J 1J 2J 1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-5-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬

 WE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬J 1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Noaa‫א‬Landsat‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Spot IRS
 W

 W(Landsat 1)1‫א‬J
‫א‬ ‫א‬990‫א‬‫א‬ 197223
‫א‬‫א‬9‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬18
‫א‬‫א‬103،14‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬
،‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬9:45‫א‬
 K19876‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W(Landsat 2)2‫א‬J
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬197522
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K1982‫א‬25‫א‬

 W(Landsat 3)3J
KEE1J 1FF4‫א‬81519755
‫א‬34002،1‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K19837‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،186C185‫א‬‫א‬

-6-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬


 3‫א‬WE1J 1F

WE2J 1F‫א‬(Landsat 4)4‫א‬J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬198216
 K1983‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 705


 ‫א‬4‫א‬WE2J 1F

-7-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬

W(Landsat 5)5‫א‬J
E3J 1F‫א‬4‫א‬19841
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،30
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬24‫א‬99


 5‫א‬WE3J 1F

‫א‬‫א‬185‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K 16

WE5J 1FE4J 1F‫א‬(NOAA)‫א‬J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،1960‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬1500‫א‬

-8-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬


 KNOAA‫א‬WE4J 1F


 11‫א‬‫א‬WE5J 1F

-9-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬

 W(Spot)J
1986‫א‬22EE6J 1FF(Spot-1)1–‫א‬
‫א‬825‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬4–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K26‫א‬
، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 4‫א‬WE6J 1F

 WE7J 1F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬199222
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K 2613‫א‬

-10-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬


 5‫א‬WE7J 1F

K ‫א‬‫א‬400‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
60‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬27‫א‬‫א‬،
‫א‬،،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬120 ، ‫א‬800
‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 WE9J 1F،E8J 1F‫א‬‫א‬J
199528IRS1C ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 1999
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-11-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬


 IRS1C‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE8J 1F


 EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE9J 1F

-12-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬J 2
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
WE10J 1F‫א‬(Seasat)‫א‬J
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K1978
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


Seasat‫א‬WE10J 1F

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1981‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

-13-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬

 W1–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 3
‫א‬‫א‬CCD‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E11J 1F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E12J 1F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 E11J 1F


-14-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬


 E12J 1F

 WStorage Media‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2J 1J 2J 1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
W  ‫א‬‫א‬9J
 K8،16،4‫א‬،
،‫א‬2 GB‫א‬ 4J

 K
5 GB , 10 GB ‫א‬8J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬150‫א‬(Cartridge Tapes)J
 ‫א‬(Track Tapes)‫א‬9J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬10‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬
 

-15-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬


 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،8،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬CD-ROM‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 644 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
8 DVD‫א‬KJ
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 WScanners‫א‬3J 1J 2J 1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K ‫א‬‫א‬ (Raster Format)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ KE13J 1F‫א‬‫א‬
K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 ‫א‬‫א‬
6‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
2247‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬CCD ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬30  ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬


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 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬



 ‫א‬‫א‬E13J 1F‫א‬


Resolution‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬Gray Values‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬،Large Scale Aerial Photographs‫א‬
K ‫א‬‫א‬K
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫אא‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
Data‫א‬ ‫א‬K Resolution
‫א‬‫א‬KCD-ROM‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬
KEE14J 1FF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K20000300‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
F2000:1‫א‬‫א‬
 15‫א‬
 KEF35000:1E

 K16‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE14J 1F
‫א‬Resolution‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
Dot K10 m (2500 dots per inch (dpi))250 m (100 dots per inch (dpi))
 (8 bit byte)8‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Gray Value‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬KEE15J 1FF
 ‫א‬255‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬dpi(m)
 K‫א‬
-18-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬


 K‫א‬‫א‬WE15J 1F




-19-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬

 5000:1‫א‬‫א‬WE16J 1F
 K60000:120000:1



-20-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬

 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE17J 1F
 K25 mScanning Resolution‫א‬

‫א‬Scanning Resolution‫א‬E17J 1F‫א‬E16J 1F‫א‬
0.124‫א‬25m (1000 dpi)64m (400 dpi)‫א‬

85 M 13‫א‬‫א‬20000:15000W1‫א‬1.28m
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬K bytes
 KPCS‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
2،‫א‬Feature 4 
 KLine Pair

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬15~30 lpr/mm1:1.6Contrast20~40 lpr/mm‫א‬
1/60 (17 m)1/30 (33 m) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Scanning Resolution‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE18J 1F


KPhoto Resolution‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
E19J 1FImage Feature Size‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K10‫א‬10‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-22-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE19J 1F
 K1010‫א‬F

 WE20J 1F‫א‬4J 1J 2J 1
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Ex, y, zF
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ J 2
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 3
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬
Ex, y, zF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 4
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E21J 1F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 5
 KEPlottersF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 6

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E20J 1F‫א‬ 

-24-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬



‫א‬‫א‬E21J 1F‫א‬


 WESoft WareF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2J 2J 1
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 KESocetsetF‫א‬،EPDVF‫א‬،EPSF‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-25-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،
‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،EDTMF ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 2
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 3
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ J 4
‫א‬،E ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 5
K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 6
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KE‫א‬‫א‬F
‫א‬‫א‬EDTMF ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 7
K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،EDigital OrthophotoF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 8
KEDigital PhotomapF


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-26-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ K
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K
K‫א‬‫א‬

 WEEnhancementF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3J 1
 Image Enhancement‫א‬
 ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬Features‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،K‫א‬
 W‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
 ،Parameters‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 2
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 3

 W‫א‬1J 3J 1
WRadiometric Correction‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1J 1J 3J 1
‫א‬‫א‬E F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬

 Sensor‫א‬J 1
‫א‬‫א‬،Stripping or Banding‫א‬‫א‬
1، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

-27-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬

24‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬32
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬MSS‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Atmospheric Effects‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 2
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬،Scene Matching‫א‬‫א‬
 Dark Pixel Subtraction ‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 Radiance to Reflect Conversion‫א‬‫א‬J
‫א‬،‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
KGPS‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
Linear Regression‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 Atmospheric Modeling‫א‬‫א‬J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Filters‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2J 1J 3J 1
Raster‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
24‫א‬8‫א‬
 ،5C53C3‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ Kernel‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
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 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬Image Mosaic‫א‬‫א‬J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
Eddgesenh‫א‬‫א‬J 
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬J 
‫א‬‫א‬ 9WAGV3C3J 1
 KE22J 1F

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬


 AGV3C3WE22J 1F

 MED3C3‫א‬J 2
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE23J 1F

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬


 MED3C3WE23J 1F

 MED5C5‫א‬J 3
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬25‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬J 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬Linear‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 1
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Stretching
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 2
‫א‬‫א‬(x, y)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬LaplaceJ
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬DFDXJ
‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬Y‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬DFDYJ

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬D2FDX2J
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬DFDY2J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬SHADOWJ
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬MAJORITYJ
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 WEGeometric CorrectionF‫א‬‫א‬4J 1
‫א‬Scanner ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬Sensors‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬4‫א‬ 4‫א‬
 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 1
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 2
 ‫א‬J 3
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 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 4
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1J 4J 1
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 1
E24J 1FF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬EPixelsF‫א‬E24J 1F‫א‬

-33-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬

WEE25J 1F‫א‬F‫א‬J 2
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬4‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 K

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE25J 1F

-34-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬J 3
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬2J 4J 1
‫א‬Change Detection‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
(Ground Control  ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Points)
 W‫א‬‫א‬
Ground Control Points‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
(x, y)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W(Source Coordinates)‫א‬‫א‬ J
Reference Image‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬WReference Coordinates‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬Map Coordinates‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KTransformation Matrix‫א‬‫א‬J 2

 K(Output Image File)J 3

(Methods for Rectification of Aerial Photographs)‫א‬‫א‬‫ق‬3J 4J 1
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 E26J 1F‫א‬F‫א‬J
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 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬

 E27J 1F‫א‬F‫א‬J
 E28J 1‫א‬F‫א‬J
 ‫א‬‫א‬J
 ‫א‬J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE26J 1F




-36-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE27J 1F


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE28J 1F

-37-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬Preprocessing‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Systematic Displacements
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Coarse Pixel Resolution‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 KEE29J 1F‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KEE1J 1FF‫א‬

Relief‫א‬‫א‬Relief Displacement (de)‫א‬‫א‬WE1J 1F


K100 mm50 mm50m25m

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬(de)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE29J 1F

 WE30J 1F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 WJ ‫א‬‫ א‬J 1
K‫א‬24-bit (color)8-bit (256 gray level)
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
25m 10000W1‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 K0.25m‫א‬
‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬
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 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬Control Points‫א‬‫א‬WE30J 1F
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Ground Control Points (GCPS)‫א‬‫א‬J 2

 K
X, Y, Z ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KUTM‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KAerial Triangulation‫א‬‫א‬GPS‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬Fiducial Marks‫א‬‫א‬J 3
 Kx, y‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
X, Y, Z ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬J 4
 Kx, y ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KEDifferential  Polynomial
 K‫א‬5‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 5
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 Differential Rectification‫א‬‫א‬J 6
‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬5J 1
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1J 5J 1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KEPixelF
،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬

x' Z a1*x H b1*y H c1 …………………………………….. (1)

y' Z b1*y H b 2*y H c2 …………………………………….. (2)

 
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
،Ea 1, b 1, c 1, a 2, b 2, c 2 FEF6‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬E31J 1F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬EFiducial MarksF
4‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Ex'،y'FE2F،E1F‫א‬K
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Ex،yF،‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،Ea 1, b 1, c 1, a 2, b 2, c 2 F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KECollinearity condition equationsF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-42-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ E31J 1F ‫א‬



-43-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2J 5J 1
 ESpace resectionF‫א‬‫א‬J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
x, ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EXL , YL , ZLF‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،EOmega (ω) ,Phi(φ), , and Kappa (χ)F‫א‬y, z

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E32J 1F ‫א‬

-44-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ECollinearity condition equationF‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬
 ،E32J 1F‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬

m11(XA-XL) + m12 (YA-YL) + m13 (ZA-ZL)


xa = -f {------------------------------------------------------} ………………………… (3)
m31(XA-XL) + m32 (YA-YL) + m33 (ZA-ZL)

m21(XA-XL) + m22 (YA-YL) + m23 (ZA-ZL)


yp = -f {--------------------------------------------------------} ……………………... (4)
m31(XA-XL) + m32 (YA-YL) + m33 (ZA-ZL)

 W
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬Wf
 ‫א‬ WXA, YA, ZA

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Wxa, ya
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ WXL, YL, ZL

cos φ cos χ W m11

cos ω sin χ + sin ω sin φ cos χ W m12

-cos ω sin χ - cos ω sin φ cos χ W m13

cos φ sin χ W m21

cos ω cos χ + sin ω sin φ sin χ W m22

sin ω cos χ + cos ω sin φ sin χ W m23

 sin φ W m31

 - sin ω cos φ W m32

cos ω cos φ W m33

-45-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W Omega (ω) ,Phi(φ), Kappa (χ


 
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
Omega (ω) ,Phi( φ), , and Kappa (χ)F‫א‬ELeast SquaresF
 KE XL , YL , ZL,and

 WESpace IntersectionF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3J 5J 1
‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬E4F،E3F‫א‬‫א‬E33J 1F
 KEOmega (ω) ,Phi(φ), Kappa (χ)F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 1
EXL, YL, ZLF‫א‬ J 2
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 3
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


-46-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E33 J 1F ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
،ELeast square solutionFK ‫א‬
 KEX, Y, ZF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬6J 1
Aerial Triangulation
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EX, Y, ZF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 1
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 2
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 3
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 4
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 5

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 1
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 2
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 3
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬

EStrip AdjustmentF‫א‬‫א‬1J 6J 1
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KEE35J 1F‫א‬E34J 1F‫א‬F

2 3 4 5 6 
1 






 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E34J 1F‫א‬










‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E35J 1F‫א‬ 

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬

 EIndependent Models adjustmentF‫א‬‫א‬2J 6J 1


‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬EBlock of ModelsF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE36J 1F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬











‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ‬ 
‫أ‬



‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ أﻓﻘﻲ‬ 
‫أ‬ 

‫א‬ E36J 1F ‫א‬ 

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬

 EBundle Block adjustmentF‫א‬3J 6J 1


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E37J 1F‫א‬
 KEBundle Block AdjustmentF‫א‬

















‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E37J 1F‫א‬



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EX, Y, ZF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 KE‫א‬F‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
Xo, F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

  KEOmega, Phi, and KappaF،،‫א‬‫א‬،EYo, and Zo


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ECollinearity Condition EquationF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


j j j j j
a 1(Xi-X o) + a 4 (Yi-Y o) + a 7 (Zi-Zjo)
Vxij + xij = -f { ---------------------------------------------------------}……………………………. (5)
j j j j j
a 3(Xi-X o) + a 6 (Yi-Y o) + a 9 (Zi-Zjo)

j j j j j
a 2(Xi-X o) + a 5 (Yi-Y o) + a 8 (Zi-Zjo)
Vyij + yij = -f { -------------------------------------------------------}………………………………(6)
j j j j j
a 3(Xi-X o) + a 6 (Yi-Y o) + a 9 (Zi-Zjo)

 W

.j ‫א‬i ‫א‬‫א‬ Wxij،yij
 . j ‫א‬‫א‬ WXjo , j
Y o , Zjo

 .  j ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Waj1………….. aj9


. i‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬WXi, Yi, Zi

-51-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬

 W

 cos φ cos χ W a11

cos ω sin χ + sin ω sin φ cos χ W a12

-cos ω sin χ - cos ω sin φ cos χ W a13

cos φ sin χ W a21

cos ω cos χ + sin ω sin φ sin χ W a22

sin ω cos χ + cos ω sin φ sin χ W a23

 sin φ W a31

 - sin ω cos φ W a32

 cos ω cos φ W a33

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W Omega (ω) ,Phi( φ), Kappa (χ










-52-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬

 W
 W‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 W‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬J
 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J







-53-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬

 
 W‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W1
 ‫؟‬ESpotF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W2
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W3
 ‫؟‬Scanners‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W4
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W5
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W6
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W7
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W8
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W9
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W10
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W11













-54-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K1
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ K2
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬J   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K3
K‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  K1
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K2
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K3

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K1
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K2
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K3





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 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬



WE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬E3F {‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ {‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬
    

    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K1
    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K2
    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K3
     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K4
     ‫א‬‫ א‬K5

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬? ???‫א‬،
 K‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬

 WE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW‫א‬‫א‬
 4321W‫א‬  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW‫א‬
  K10
 K‫א‬٪80W‫א‬‫ א‬ KKKKKKKKKW‫א‬
 K‫א‬٪100W‫א‬‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K1
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K2
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K3
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K4
  ‫א‬‫ א‬K5
  ٪100‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬
KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW
KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK
 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK
 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

2‫א‬‫א‬



2
 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
   212  ‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫• א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ •

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
W‫א‬
K‫א‬ K1
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K2
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K3
K‫א‬‫א‬ K4
K‫א‬‫ א‬K5
٪100‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
40W‫א‬‫א‬ •

W‫א‬‫א‬ •

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K1
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K2
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K3
K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K4

-61-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
   212  ‫א‬



 1J 2
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 KEMicro stationF‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬E F‫א‬ ‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
   212  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E1J 2F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E1J 2F

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬


 106      3  
 144      4  
 150  ‫א‬    3  ‫א‬
 120     1  
 122      1  
 311     1  
 312     1  
 405      2  
 407      2  
 605      5 500
 606      5 250





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 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
   212  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬2J 2
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3J 2
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬،،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E1J 2F‫א‬،
 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E1J 2F

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
   212  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 KKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬E2J 2F‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E2J 2F‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
   212  ‫א‬


‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬E3J 2F‫א‬،KKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  E3J 2F ‫א‬


 W‫א‬‫א‬J 1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬E1J 2FE‫א‬F‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
   212  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬J 2
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE1J 2F‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬E4J 2F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬



‫א‬ E4J 2F 

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
   212  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 3
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE1J 2F‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬J 4

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E6J 2FE5J 2F، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 K‫א‬‫א‬









 ‫א‬ E5J 2F ‫א‬ 

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
   212  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬KSurface or area interpolationLinear interpolation
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬



‫א‬‫א‬E6J 2F

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
   212  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬J 5
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬
E7J 2F،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K



‫א‬E7J 2F



-70-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
   212  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬4J 2
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬J 1
 K‫א‬J 2
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 3
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬J 4
 K‫א‬J 5
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
-71-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
   212  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
E8J 2F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬EF

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬



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 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
   212  ‫א‬



‫א‬‫א‬EFE8J 2F‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
   212  ‫א‬

 W
 W‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬J
 W‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬
‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J







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 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
   212  ‫א‬

 
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KW1
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W2
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W3
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W4
 ‫؟‬‫א‬
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W5
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W6
 ‫؟‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W7
 















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 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
   212  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K4

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫؟‬J ‫א‬ K4

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K4



 
 

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
   212  ‫א‬

WE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
{‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E3F {‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KW ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬
    

    ‫א‬‫ א‬K1
    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K2
    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K3
   ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K4

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬? ???‫א‬،
 K‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
   212  ‫א‬

 WE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW‫א‬‫א‬
 4321W‫א‬  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW‫א‬
  K10
 K‫א‬٪80W‫א‬‫ א‬ KKKKKKKKKW‫א‬
 K‫א‬٪100W‫א‬‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫ א‬K5
  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K6
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K7
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K8
  ٪100‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬
KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW
KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK
 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK
 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW‫א‬

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  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  212  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬،?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?W‫א‬،‫א‬J 1
 2005J 1426
1- American Society of Photogrammetry:" Manual of Photogrammetry", 4th Ed. Fall
Church, Va, 1995.
2- Andrew Calarco, Alex Dam and A. Stewart Walker " GEOMETRIC PRECISION OF
SCANNED IMAGERY FOR PRODUCTION PHOTOGRAMMETRY ".
3- Francelina A. Neto:," ADVANCES IN DIGITAL PHOTOGRAMMETRY
AND MAPPING FROM SPACE", California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, 2002.

4- Ghosh, S. K.: " Theory of Stereophotogrammety", OSU, Coulombs, Ohio, 1985.


5- HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAMMETRY Surveying Engineering Department, Monograph,
Ferris State University.

6- Karsten Jacobsen: ´ PC-BASED DIGITAL PHOTOGRAMMETRY ", Institute for


Photogrammetry and Engineering Survey, University of Hannover, Germany,
Workshop on Data Analysis and Image Processing Techniques, Damascus, GORS 25-
29 March 2001.

7- Moffitt, F. H., Mikhail, E. M.: " Photogrammetry", 3rd Ed. New York, Harper & Row,
1980.
8- Robert Burtch: ´ CORRECTIONS TO PHOTO COORDINATES", Lecture Notes,
Surveying Engineering Department, Ferris State University

9- Roy Welch and Thomas Jordan: " Using Scanned Aerial Photographs, by Center for Remote
Sensing and Mapping Science (CRMS), University of Georgia - Athens, GA 30602, 1996.
10-
11- The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information
Sciences, Vol. 34, Part XXX, 2004.
12- Veress, S. N.: " Numerical Photogrammetry- Lecture notes", UW, Seattle, Wa, 1990.
13- Walker, S., 1996. Digital photogrammetric workstations 1992-1996, International Archives of
Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 31(2): 384-395.
14- Wolf, P. R.: " Elements of Photogrammetry", 2nd Ed., McGraw Hill, 1997.

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  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  212  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬
 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K 
 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K 
 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K 2‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 1 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 2K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1J 1
 5 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2J 1
 5K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K WEHard WareF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1J 2J 1
 5K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W‫א‬1J 1J 2J 1
 15 K K K K K K K K K K WStorage Media‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2J 1J 2J 1
 16 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K WScanners‫א‬3J 1J 2J 1
 23 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K WE20J 1F‫א‬4J 1J 2J 1
 25 K K K K K K K K K K WESoft WareF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2J 2J 1
 27 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K WEEnhancementF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3J 1
 27 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W‫א‬1J 3J 1
 27 K K K K K K K K K K K WRadiometric Correction‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1J 1J 3J 1
 28 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K Filters‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2J 1J 3J 1
 32 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K WEGeometric CorrectionF‫א‬‫א‬4J 1
 33 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1J 4J 1
 35 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K  ‫א‬‫א‬2J 4J 1
 35 K (Methods for Rectification of Aerial Photographs)‫א‬‫א‬3J 4J 1
 41 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬5J 1
 41 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1J 5J 1
 44 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2J 5J 1
 46 K K K K K WESpace IntersectionF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3J 5J 1
 47 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K Aerial Triangulation‫א‬‫א‬6J 1
 48 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K EStrip AdjustmentF‫א‬‫א‬1J 6J 1
 49 K K K K K K K K K EIndependent Models adjustmentF‫א‬‫א‬2J 6J 1
 50 K K K K K K K K K EBundle Block adjustmentF‫א‬3J 6J 1
-80-
  2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  212  ‫א‬

 53 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W
 54 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K 
 55 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W‫א‬‫א‬
 Error! Bookmark not defined. K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 56 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K WE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
 57 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K WE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
 61 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W‫א‬‫א‬
 62 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K 1J 2
 64 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬2J 2
 64 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3J 2
 71 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬4J 2
 74 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W
 75 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K 
 76 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W‫א‬‫א‬
 77 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K WE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
 78 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K WE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
 79 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬

-81-





















 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
GOTEVOT appreciates the financial support provided by BAE SYSTEMS