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Biology for IGCSE Reference 1.1 Characteristics and classification of living organisms, pp.

2-3 1
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link
Section 1 Characteristics and classification of living organisms - Characteristics of living organisms ( 1 core)
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
List and describe the characteristics of living This section may be largely recall / revision for many students. Prepare a table to compare these processes
organisms: However, the definitions used in the syllabus should be learnt as the with examples for both the animal and
• nutrition as taking in of nutrients which are correct wording is required to answer questions. plant kingdoms.
organic substances and mineral ions, A question and answer session is useful and can be illustrated by living For advanced students consideration
containing raw materials or energy for growth and plants and animals to illustrate the living processes. might be given to other major groups of
tissue repair, absorbing and assimilating them A fill in sheet will save time from copying definitions with words organisms.
• excretion as removal from organisms of toxic blanks to make it interactive.
materials, the waste products of metabolism (chemical If living organisms are not available then pictures of animals, short Cover the term ‘homeostasis’ which will
reactions in cells including respiration) and substances videos etc. may be useful to start the discussions. be covered later in the syllabus in greater
in excess of requirements Nutrition is important to compare plants – photosynthesis and human detail.
• respiration as the chemical reactions that nutrition – you can ask what was eaten at a previous meal and go
break down nutrient molecules in living cells through the idea if digestion to egestion to separate from excretion.
to release energy Excretion – here it is important to distinguish from egestion.
• sensitivity as the ability to detect or sense Respiration – discuss this process and how breathing is not the same.
changes in the environment (stimuli) and to Sensitivity – ask for ideas of what changes plants and animals respond
make responses to and how.
• reproduction as the processes that make Reproduction – asexual and sexual with a range of examples from
more of the same kind of organism moulds to humans.
• growth as a permanent increase in size and Growth – often difficult – stick to definition.
dry mass by an increase in cell number or Movement – give examples.
cell size or both The order in which the processes are covered can be varied.
• movement as an action by an organism or One example is where the mnemonic MRS GREN might be used:
part of an organism causing a change of Movement, Respiration, Sensitivity, Growth, Reproduction, Excretion
position or place. and Nutrition are covered in that order.
.
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
List the characteristics of living organisms. By observation of preferably living organisms or illustration and prepare a poster. This could
Describe the characteristics of living involve group work as an ice-breaker.
organisms. Paper cut outs of definitions and names of processes to be sorted.

Biology for IGCSE Reference 1.2 Classification, pp. 4-5; 1.3 Arthropods, pp. 6-7; 1.4 Vertebrates pp. 8-9; 1.5 Microorgaisms pp. 10-11; 1.6

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Flowering plants pp. 12-13; 1.7 use of keys, pp. 14-15 [This section will taken more than one teaching session] 2
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (core 1.2 ) Classification and diversity of living organisms ( core 2.1) (extension Microorganisms) Concept and
use of a classificatory system ( core 2.2) Adaptations of organisms to their environment, to be illustrated by examples wherever possible (core 3)
use of keys.
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
Define and describe the binomial system of Describe the naming of organisms – common The microorganisms [extension] need to
naming species as a system in which the name differs around the world whereas the covered in detail. Normally size is not
scientific name of an organism is made up of Latin binomial name is universal. Give examples, emphasised but all of these organisms are, by
two parts showing the genus and species. e.g. Homo sapiens. Give a range of local definition, minute and need to be viewed by
Classify the five main classes vertebrates examples. use of a microscope for cellular detail and even
using visible, external characteristic features Construct a hierarchical tree from kingdoms to then an electron micrograph is essential.
only. species with examples. Explanation of measurement is useful; an
List the main features used in the Go through group by group the kingdoms. In turn awareness of magnification.
classification of the following groups: the invertebrates, phyla by phyla with specimens Three main shapes of bacteria and examples
viruses, bacteria and fungi, and their or illustrations if possible indicating the important both friendly – saprobionts, and the pathogenic
adaptation to the environment, as appropriate external features and describing the lifestyles named examples are useful.
flowering plants (monocotyledons and with special emphasis on arthropods, annelids, Fungi need to similarly be covered with main
dicotyledons). nematodes and molluscs. features by group and examples.
Arthropods (insects, crustaceans, arachnids Then the vertebrate groups with named examples Viruses including some plant, bacterial and
and myriapods), annelids, nematodes and or outline diagrams to be labelled with the main animal examples of these total parasites.
molluscs, using visible, external external features.
characteristic features only. Similarly the flowering plants.
Use simple dichotomous keys based on Use simple keys where possible for the major
easily identifiable features. groups to focus on the key features for
identification.
A series of leaves covers observation skills
needed to devise a simple key.

Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources


Define the term binomial system. Observation of living organisms: plants and animals. Opportunity for field work or visits to
Describe the external features of the zoological gardens. If insufficient time then in the classroom consider use of videos, web sites,
invertebrate and vertebrate groups of illustrated books.
animals. Microorganisms – edible examples used in food such as yoghurt bacteria, mycoprotein – links with
Describe how the animals are suited to their later sections in the syllabus. Moulds on fruit or bread can be shown, but cover for health and

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environment. safety reasons if Penecillium sp. are involved because of penicillin allergies.
State the main features of bacteria, fungi and Plants can be used for construction of simple keys. It maybe necessary to use hand lenses for detail
viruses and the adaptation of each group to of hairs etc.
their environment.
Describe the main features of flowering
plants and state the differences between
dicotyledons and monocotyledons.
Use of simple dichotomous keys to identify
plants and animals and practice in making
keys.

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Biology for IGCSE Reference 2.1 Structure of cells, pp.18-19 3
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link
Section 11 Organisation and maintenance of the organism (50% of teaching time) Cell structure and organisation
(1 core - plus some extension) Cell structure and organisation
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
State that living organisms are made of cells. Introduction to study of cells based on the need Extension - relate the structures seen under
Identify and describe the structure of a plant for magnification as cells are small. the light microscope in the plant cell and in
cell (palisade cell) and an animal cell (liver List the types of cell in a flowering plant and in the animal cell to their functions.
cell), as seen under a light microscope. students’ bodies.
Describe the differences in structure between Describe the basic structure of a plant cells as Completion of table format for the names
typical animal and plant cells. illustrated by a leaf palisade cell to include cell for labels and for common structures as well
Relate the structures seen under the light wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, vacuole as differences between plant and animal
microscope in the plant cell and in the animal and chloroplast. cells. Link to the functions of the sub-
cell to their functions. Describe the basic structure of an animal cell as cellular structures.
illustrated by cell membrane, cytoplasm and
nucleus.
Draw large labelled diagrams side by side with
the plant cell larger.
Complete a table on the board to show both
similarities and differences between the two types
of cell. This could be printed with suitable gaps
for students to complete if time is short.
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
Describe the structures of plant and animal If microscopes are available, then it is useful to prepare fresh slides of onion epidermis and
cells as seen under the light microscope. cheek cells. If students handle sterile cotton buds to wipe a few cells from the lining of the cheek
Describe the differences in structure between onto a slide and stain with methylene blue [0.5%] and all equipment is disposed of safely in
plant and animal cells. strong disinfectant this procedure should comply with health and safety regulations.
Relate the structure and function in plant and If this equipment is not available there are a number of websites such as www.cellsalive.com that
animal cells. may be useful. Otherwise illustrations are available in books. Large outline drawings for
labelling are useful to learn the names of cellular parts for palisade cells from leaf for plant cell
and liver cells for animal cell.

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Biology for IGCSE Reference 2.2 Different types of cell, pp. 20-1; 2.3 Levels of organisation pp. 22-3 4
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (2 core) levels of organisation (3 core) size of specimens
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
Relate the structure of the following to their functions: Each of the following different types of cell Extension - other types of cells may
• ciliated cells – in respiratory tract need to be shown so students can recognise be covered as students enquire, e.g.
• root hair cells – absorption the cell and relate to where this cell can be bone cells, nerve cells.
• xylem vessels – conduction and support located and its function. This may be done
• muscle cells – contraction separately but presented in a table with Large diagrams and poster work will
• red blood cells – transport outline drawings for labelling as students tend help consolidate the cells, tissue and
Define: to present small drawings. These diagrams organs.
• tissue as a group of cells with similar structures, can be used later for measurements for size
working together to perform a shared function and magnification calculations.
• organ as a structure made up of a group of • ciliated cells – in respiratory tract
tissues working together to perform specific • root hair cells – absorption
functions • xylem vessels – conduction and support
• organ system as a group of organs with • muscle cells – contraction
related functions, working together to • red blood cells – transport
perform body functions Use definitions as given in the syllabus for
Size: using examples covered in Sections 2 and 3, tissue, organ and organ system with as many
calculate magnification and size of biological specimens examples as possible from both flowering
using millimetres. plants and animals.
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources Work with microscopes if available and websites to
Relate structure of different cells to their function. illustrate the different cells. Large drawings and colour green chloroplasts in palisade
Define terms tissue, organ, and organ system. cells. Compare with root hairs – easily seen en mass in germinated seedlings, e.g.
Calculate magnification and actual size. cress to illustrate flowering plants.
Use equation for calculation of actual size which could be larger or smaller than
image and magnification. Use of millimetres as unit of measurement. Calculators can
be used in examinations.

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Biology for IGCSE Reference 3. Movement in and out of cells; 3.1 Diffusion pp. 26-7; 3.2 Osmosis, pp. 28-9; 3.3 Osmosis in plant and
animal cells, pp. 30-2 5
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (4 core ) Movement in and out of cells (4.1 core) Diffusion (4.3 core ) Osmosis
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
Define diffusion as the net movement Explain the idea of diffusion and link to processes in the Extension - describe and explain the
of molecules from a region of their body where this plays an important role, e.g. gas importance of a water potential gradient in
higher concentration to a region of exchange at the lungs, uptake of digested food for the uptake of water by plants. This term
their lower concentration down a nutrition or uptake and balance of water. requires detail and explanation but once the
concentration gradient, as a result of The concept of gases, random movement does not need a concept is clear it is a most useful term to
their random movement. membrane. Illustrate with sense of smell. use.
Describe the importance of diffusion Water as the universal solvent for exchange by diffusion
of gases and solutes and of water as a in biological systems. Details of membrane may be included to
solvent. Osmosis the special term for diffusion of water. explain the importance of small molecules
Define osmosis as the diffusion of Link to structure of cells – illustrate with the egg demo or and this can be linked to digestion and
water molecules from a region of dried fruit and rehydrate. uptake of smaller soluble molecules.
their higher concentration (dilute Allow practical time for students to investigate or to Use of models to consolidate the idea of size
solution) to a region of their lower observe materials previously set up. of molecules.
concentration (concentrated solution), It is important to allow time for data handling by one of Data handling of results from other
through a partially permeable the approaches plasmolysis / flexibility [measure angle of investigations can be handled by students to
membrane. bending] / mass / length etc. to appreciate the point of explain the balance / isotonic concentration
Describe the importance of osmosis balance. where the water entering balances the water
in the uptake of water by plants, and Explain the difference between the plant cell with the cell leaving cells, estimating on a graph. If
its effects on plant and animal tissues. wall which prevents the cell bursting on endomosis and tissues are not uniform at the beginning, it is
Extension - describe and explain the shrinking of cell contents on exosmosis. Explain the possible to calculate percentage change.
importance of a water potential importance of the precise definition terms including
gradient in the uptake of water by partially permeable membranes; direction of movement
plants. and diffusion and osmosis does not need energy.
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
Define the term diffusion. Diffusion – movement of alkaline ammonia from one end of 4 cm glass tube containing a ‘ribbon’ of red
Describe the importance of diffusion litmus paper. Block both ends with rubber bung. It is possible to time the colour change from the end
of gases and solutes. where the gas has been introduced under varying conditions of temperature.
Describe the importance of water as a Use of diffusion through water – drop a crystal of potassium permanganate in a large beaker of water.
solvent. Osmosis – to represent a large animal cell – de-shell a birds egg [dissolve the shell using hydrochloric
Define the term osmosis. acid but leaving the membrane intact]. Submerge in a beaker of water and a second treated egg in strong
Describe the effect of osmosis on saline. Observe changes in mass and buoyancy.
plant and animal tissues. Using plant tissues – potato chips again in salt solution save the ‘stickiness’ of sugar solutions. Follow
Extension – explain the movement of the change in mass / length or flexibility. Curvature of sections of flower stem or petioles can be
water into and out of cells using the demonstrated with curling of the long sections in two directions.
term water potential. If microscopes are available – plasmolysis can be observed taking place by watching the changes to the
Describe how water can enter and cells as they are flooded with concentrated saline.
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leave plant cells by osmosis.
Describe how osmosis can affect
animal cells.
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Biology for IGCSE Reference 3.4 Active transport [all extension material], pp. 32-3 6
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (4.2 extension ) Active transport
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
Define active transport as movement of ions Need to explain that at times uptake against a All of this topic is extension.
in or out of a cell through the cell membrane, concentration gradient is needed to permit, for Link to respiration and the need for oxygen
from a region of their lower concentration to example in plant root hairs. to release energy from glucose by structures
a region of their higher concentration against [Chance to revisit these cells] for uptake of within the cell.
a concentration gradient, using energy fertilisers; uptake of digested food from the Explain the basic structure of membranes
released during respiration. alimentary canal into the body – involving the and the carrier proteins to help with this
Discuss the importance of active transport as villi in the small intestine and into the blood for process.
an energy-consuming process by which circulation to all cells. Poster work to compare with diffusion is
substances are transported against a That this takes energy – use of an analogy – useful.
concentration gradient, e.g. ion uptake by pushing a bicycle up a hill as opposed to free-
root hairs and uptake of glucose by epithelial wheeling down.
cells of villi. Discuss the source of the energy needed from
original definition in opening section to the
course.
Use of a video or interactive website can help to
explain process but comparison to diffusion
helps.
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
Define the term active transport. This needs to be theoretical as the equipment required is extensive.
Explain the importance of active transport as Poster work to compare with diffusion is useful. Similarly it is useful to explain membrane
an energy-consuming process. structure even in simple terms.
Describe the active transport of ions in plant
roots.
Describe the active transport of glucose by
epithelial cells in villi.

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Biology for IGCSE Reference 4 Enzymes; 4.1 Structure and action of enzymes pp. 36-7; 4.2 Factors affecting enzyme action, pp.38-9 7
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (5 core and extension) Enzymes
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
Define the term ‘catalyst’ as a substance that Explain the term ‘catalyst’ and link to enzymes as Extension - explain enzyme action in terms
speeds up a chemical reaction and is not biological catalysts produced by cells to of the ‘lock and key’ model.
changed by the reaction. breakdown and to build up different molecules Extension - explain the effect of changes in
Define enzymes as proteins that function as needed in metabolism for life. temperature and pH on enzyme activity in
biological catalysts. Explain the structure of proteins and the effect of terms of molecular structural changes of
Explain enzyme action in terms of the ‘lock temperature [use the analogy of egg albumen]. proteins.
and key’ model [extension only]. Explain the movement and collision of molecules
Investigate and describe the effect of changes increases with raising temperature in terms of Work through past questions and distinguish
in temperature and pH on enzyme activity. kinetic energy. Explain the effect of pH on the change in rate / formation of products /
Explain the effect of changes in temperature protein molecular structure in terms of changing breakdown or build up of molecules with
and pH on enzyme activity [extension only]. the shape so the activity decreases. examples from plants and animals.
Collect data from investigation – explain
optimum levels, enzyme denaturation [not killing
enzymes].
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
Define the term catalyst as a substance that Use 3D models or cardboard cut outs of enzyme molecules and substrate molecules to show the
speeds up a chemical reaction and is not breakdown or build up of substrate molecules. Use of a cut out ‘E’ for enzyme is helpful.
changed by the reaction. Activity of amylase [diastase] on the breakdown of starch is a fairly straightforward
Define enzymes as proteins that act as demonstration to be carried out. The disappearance of the blue/black colour is visual. Care is
biological catalysts to speed up the rate of required with the use of iodine solution. This can be carried out at room temperature and above
chemical reactions. and below this with the use of ice and warmed water to submerge the test-tube holding the
Extension - explain how the model works mixture. Another demonstration is using photographic film which involves the use of a protease
using the ‘lock and key’ model. enzyme [trypsin]. The film is gelatine based on the plastic backing, the film floats free; the use of
Describe the effect of changes in temperature rennin on clotting milk [this can be sold commercially].
and pH on enzyme activity. Catalase is present in a variety of plant or animal tissue sold for human consumption and the
Extension - explain the effects of temperature formation of oxygen bubbles can be counted. Diluted hydrogen peroxide is needed for the
and pH on enzyme activity. substrate.

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Biology for IGCSE Reference 4.3 Enzymes in industry [all extension], pp.40-1 8

Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (5 all extension) Enzymes


Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
Describe the role of enzymes in the Recall the structure of a seed – such as pea or This section is all extension material.
germination of seeds, and their uses in bean as visible. Emphasise where the stored food Consolidation might involve visits to
biological washing products and in the food for the developing seedling is stored and the need brewery or local industry if situated in the
industry (including pectinase and fruit juice). to break this down into simple substance to be local area.
Outline the use of microorganisms and used in respiration to release energy for growth. Link to malting and germination of barley
fermenters to manufacture the antibiotic Biological washing powders need to explain and the source of diastase used in enzyme
penicillin and enzymes for use in biological briefly that enzymes are obtained from experiments.
washing powders. microoganisms and processed to breakdown Fermenters and antibiotics – there are videos
Describe the role of the fungus Penicillium in proteins and fats in the stains on clothing. Lower and websites that may prove useful and
the production of antibiotic penicillin. temperature means saving in energy and protects informative for students. Large labelled
delicate fabrics. Practical demonstration helps to posters of fermenters will help.
explain pectinase activity.
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
Explain the role of enzymes in the Germinate some seeds or look at ones that can be purchased, e.g. bean sprouts / cress.
breakdown of stored materials in seeds Follow growth in water and compare mass of seedling with soaked seeds. Compare different
during germination. seeds – fat storing, e.g. sunflower; starch storing e.g. cereals, etc.
Describe the role of enzymes in malting. Link to malting and germination of barley and the source of diastase used in enzyme
Describe the role of enzymes in biological experiments.
washing powders and the role of pectinase in Biological washing powders can be used to quantitatively compare with non-biological ones for
the production of fruit juices. low temperature activity to remove stains from pieces of cloth of various composition.
Describe the role of microorganisms and Pectinase [sold in powder form as pectolase for winemaking] added to apple pulp produces
fermenters in the production of the antibiotic larger volumes of juice on filtering and the juice is clear compared with no enzyme present.
penicillin. Laboratory fermenters may be based on large conical flasks to demonstrate adaptations to control
conditions and to explain the need to cool the contents.

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Biology for IGCSE Reference 5.1 Nutrients, pp. 44-5; 5.2 Chemical tests for nutrients, pp. 46-7; 5.3 Sources of nutrients, pp. 48-9 9
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link) 6 Nutrition ( 6.1 core) Nutrients
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
Define nutrition. Recall the definition from the first Investigate contents of different packaged
List the chemical elements that make up: section on metabolism. List the foods observing the current labelling
• carbohydrates • fats • proteins. elements C, H and O for systems.
Describe the synthesis of large molecules from smaller carbohydrates; the same for fats but Check different web sites or other sources
basic units, i.e. less O; proteins also include N. for list of nutrients which should be included
• simple sugars to starch and glycogen Using paper models describe the in a daily diet.
• amino acids to proteins structure of these three types of Check content of different foods in
• fatty acids and glycerol to fats and oils. nutrient in turn and describe sources nutritional lists for vitamin content.
Describe tests for: common in diet. Point out that these Investigate deficiency symptoms for
• starch (iodine solution) are formed by plants from Vitamins C and D and mineral iron and
• reducing sugars (Benedict’s solution) photosynthesis and build up of calcium and find out how they are
• protein (biuret test) larger molecules from simple one. important.
• fats (ethanol). Carry out the main food tests on
List the principal sources of, and describe the importance pure substance to illustrate the
of: positive colour changes including
• carbohydrates • fats variation with lower concentrations.
• proteins • vitamins (C and D only) State the components of a balanced
• mineral salts (calcium and iron only) diet as outlined in syllabus. Describe
• fibre (roughage) • water. where the main sources of the listed
Describe the deficiency symptoms for: vitamins and minerals can be found
• vitamins (C and D only) and the symptoms and diseases
• mineral salts (calcium and iron only). caused by shortage of these
substances in table form.
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
Define the term nutrition. Demonstrate the food tests for starch (iodine solution); reducing sugars (Benedict’s
List the elements present in carbohydrates, fats and solution);
proteins. protein (biuret test) and fats (ethanol) using sources which will give positive colour
Describe synthesis of large molecules from smaller ones. changes.
State how to carry out food tests. Suggest students list the types of food they have eaten over a short period to check
State some good sources of the nutrients in a balanced if they have a balanced diet.
diet. Introduce a range of food substance and allow students to carry out a range of tests
Describe the deficiency symptoms due to lack of vitamins or use mixtures of different substances.
C and D, and mineral salts, for example iron and calcium.

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Biology for IGCSE Reference 5.4 Uses of microoganisms in industry, pp. 50-1; 5.5 Food additives, pp. 52-3 10
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (6.1 extension) nutrients
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
Describe the use of microorganisms in the Make a list of foods in which microorganisms or All extension.
food industry, with reference to yoghurt and their products are used. Describe what happens
single-cell protein. during yoghurt production and the role of the Ask students to investigate the current
Describe the uses, benefits and health bacteria – illustrate by the drop in pH over a additives which are not allowed [differs for
hazards associated with food additives, number of hours. [This can be set up before class different countries].
including colourings. and stored in fridge at low temperature.] Making
a batch of yoghurt will help to illustrate ‘batch’
culture as opposed to continuous culture for
mycoprotein. List products available for students
to check in local food suppliers or adverts.
Explain the purpose of using additives – the
positive reasons and the hazards – this can be
centred around food labels to achieve greater
understanding.
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
Describe the role of bacteria in yoghurt Compare the pH of fresh milk and yoghurt. Show photomicrographs of the bacteria involved in
production yoghurt production. Make yoghurt if possible – takes about 6 hours using UHT milk and
Describe the role of a fungus in production of sufficient starter [about 1 tablespoon of yoghurt keeping at approximately 400 C in a wide-necked
mycoprotein (single-cell protein). thermos flask.]. If a microscope is available, the bacteria can be viewed under high power if
Describe the uses and benefits of food stained but the individual cells are small. Show some meat substitute mycoprotein [not soya-
additives. based tofu] and enquire if any students have cooked or eaten this food. Ask them to make a list
Describe the hazards associated with food of types of food in local store using mycoprotein. Ask students to collect food packaging and
additives. observe the labels. List the additives and explain briefly the labelling system which is current at
the time. List the E numbers and explain the groups of additives listed to find out which types of
food contain most additives.

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Biology for IGCSE Reference 6 Plant nutrition; 6.1 Photosynthesis, pp. 56 -7; 6.2 What is needed for photosynthesis pp. 58– 9; 6.3 Products
of photosynthesis pp. 60-1 11
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link ( 6.2 core and extension) Plant nutrition ( 6.2.1 core and extension) Photosynthesis
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
Define photosynthesis as the fundamental process by which Use the definition given in the syllabus. Extension - state the balanced
plants manufacture On a diagram of a flowering plant, label equation for
carbohydrates from raw materials using energy from light. the sources of the raw materials and how photosynthesis in symbols:
State the equation for the production of simple sugars and these are involved in the process. For 6CO2 + 6H2O → C6 H12 O6 + 6O2
oxygen in words. core, write the equation and use symbols The requirement for each raw
Investigate the necessity for chlorophyll, light and carbon and balance for extension. material
dioxide for photosynthesis, using appropriate controls. Carry out investigations to show is investigated further in the
Describe the intake of carbon dioxide and water by plants. chlorophyll, light and CO2 are required by extension as shown on the next
Explain that chlorophyll traps light energy and converts it testing the leaves for presence of starch as sheet.
into chemical energy for the formation of carbohydrates and indicated below.
their subsequent storage. Collect oxygen given off by submerged
waterweed and test gas collected with
glowing splint.
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
Describe the process of photosynthesis. To show chlorophyll is required for photosynthesis – use variegated leaf and test
State the word equation [core] and balanced chemical for starch using the normal method of testing.
equation [extension] for photosynthesis. To show light is required – de-starch a leaf by keeping in the dark or covered with
Describe how to test a leaf for starch. foil for 24 hours and then test for starch.
List the raw materials that are needed for photosynthesis. To show CO2 is required, expose a trapped leaf in a flask containing a CO2
Describe the experiments that prove that chlorophyll, carbon absorber, e.g. NaOH and exposing to light then testing for starch.
dioxide and light are needed for photosynthesis. To show oxygen is produced – use submerged waterweed and collect oxygen
given off.

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Biology for IGCSE Reference 6.7 Mineral requirements, pp. 68-9
14
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (6.2.3 core and extension) Mineral requirements
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
Core: Discuss the need to use nitrates as a source of Explain the effects of nitrate ion and
Describe the importance of: nitrogen for plants and link with previous magnesium ion deficiency on plant growth.
• nitrate ions for protein synthesis knowledge of protein structure.
• magnesium ions for chlorophyll synthesis. [The nitrogen cycle comes later in the course] and Link with later work in leguminous plants
Describe the uses, and the dangers of magnesium in the synthesis of chlorophyll. and nodules with nitrogen fixing bacteria;
overuse, of nitrogen fertilisers. Link here how shortages can be observed from discuss the rotation system of growing crops
the external appearance and chlorosis of leaves. before the widespread use of fertilisers.
Biology
Extension: for IGCSE Reference 6.4 Rate of photosynthesis, pp. 62–3; 6.5 Glasshouse production, pp. examples
Use 64 -5 [Allaround
extension]
the world where flood12
Cambridge IGCSEofSyllabus
Explain the effects nitrate ionLink
and (6.2.1 extension)
Recall Photosynthesis
the need for soluble sources of magnesium plains by rivers were traditionally used and
Learning Objectives
magnesium ion deficiency on plant growth. Suggested
and nitratesTeaching
for uptakeActivities
by plant root hairs by Extension and are
where flooding Consolidation
now controlled the need
Investigate and state the effect of varying Recall
diffusiontheand
structure
active of cells and the chloroplast
transport. It
andis the
possible for of
expense students to investigate the
using fertilisers.
light intensity, carbon dioxide concentration where chlorophyll pigment is located. effect of different colour of light on the rate
and temperature on the rate of photosynthesis Carry out one
Deficiency investigation,
symptoms will bee.g. on light
apparent inintensity
the of photosynthesis by using filters between
(e.g.in submerged aquatic plants). and explain
growth the importance
experiments – if notof controlling
possible the
observe the light source and the weed. If using
Define the term limiting factor as something other factors. This
coloured photographs. aids the understanding of celluloid filters, make sure the material
present in the environment in such short limiting
. factors and impresses the meaning of the doesn’t touch the light bulb as it will melt.
supply that it
Learning Outcomes restricts life processes. definition. This maybe
Practical Work carried out in small groups
and Resources
Explain
Describethe theconcept of nitrate
need for limiting factors
ions and in with
Followthethe
temperature
growth of and COseedlings
cereal 2 shared in nutrient solutions. These mixtures can be purchased
photosynthesis.
magnesium ions in plant nutrition. investigations.
from biological suppliers or prepared in laboratories in advance. Set up and encourage students
Explain
Describethe theuse of carbonofdioxide
application nitrogen The link with
to observe commercial
at regular growth
intervals of crops using
for deficiency symptoms over 6 weeks. Measurements of length
enrichment,
fertilisers. optimum light and optimum glasshouses is long term
and stem can be made weekly. and will rely on
temperatures in glasshouse systems. available
Discuss the data forfor
need yields.
covering the roots with foil to prevent the growth of algae in the nutrient
Learning Outcomes Practical
solution – competitionResources
Work and for nutrients. Discuss the need to include a control set-up.
Describe the effect of varying light intensity Using a freshly cut 5–10 cm length of waterweed weighted down under water and changing the
and temperature on the rate of light conditions, controlling temperature [use a large beaker with the weed held down by an
photosynthesis. inverted funnel] investigate the effect on oxygen production in a timed period. This can be
Explain the term limiting factor. achieved by counting bubbles or collecting the gas in an inverted test-tube by downward
Describe the effect of carbon dioxide displacement of water. It is useful to add a very small quantity of sodium hydrogen carbonate to
concentration of the rate of photosynthesis. the water to make sure there is sufficient carbon dioxide present in the water. The set-up needs to
Explain the use of carbon dioxide enrichment adjust the light source nearer the weed. Using the inverse square law – intensity = 1/ distance2
and temperature in greenhouse systems. [start no further than 20 cm distance between light and weed].
Repeat procedure with the light at the same distance but vary the temperature between 10-250 C.
Page 17 of 70
Visit to local commercial glasshouses is ideal or, if not, short film or diagrams and handle data
available to compare yield or growth rates of crops.
Biology for IGCSE Reference 6.6 Leaves, pp. 66-7 13
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (6.2.2 core) Leaf structure
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
Show a collection of different leaves and discuss Microscope work if possible to observe the
Identify and label the cuticle, cellular and similarities and differences. surface of different types of leaf, to observe
tissue structure of a dicotyledonous leaf, Use large diagrams of sections through the leaves to the difference between dicotyledonous and
as seen in cross-section under the light label and annotate to locate and learn names of monocotyledonous leaves.
microscope, and describe the significance tissues and the main functions for the different parts. Compare leaves from different plants and
of these features in terms of functions, to Recall the structure of palisade mesophyll cells as in modifications of leaves – divided leaves,
include: earlier section and the distribution of stomata. heterophylly of waterweeds – submerged
• distribution of chloroplasts – Use of two elongated balloons and strips of adhesive versus floating leaves; tendrils for climbing,
photosynthesis tape applied to one side when inflated resemble the etc.
• stomata and mesophyll cells – gas curvature to illustrate opening of guard cells. Compare the rates of CO2 uptake for
exchange Emphasise these are the only epidermal cells to photosynthesis and release of CO2 from
• vascular bundles (xylem and phloem) – contain chloroplasts. respiration – discuss compensation points.
transport and support. Explain the xylem and phloem in the veins for
support and transport.
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
Recall the variety of leaf shapes and colours and link to type of environment. Recap determination of
Identify and label the parts of a leaf. surface area – large thin leaf blades – the effect of sun and shade on leaves.
Describe the functions of these different Chance to practise use of keys or to devise a simple dichotomous key.
leaf tissues, including the role of stomata If microscopes are available or projection of image – with the use of large labelled diagrams,
in gas exchange. identify in a plan the different tissue and annotate the labels – including arrangement of ‘veins’.
To view the surface of both surfaces and to take epidermal ‘peels’ using nail varnish – if not view
photomicrographs. Count the number of stomata to give an idea of the number in a given area.
Plunge a leaf using forceps into hot water and observe the gas bubbles escaping on expansion of
gases.

Page 18 of 70
Biology for IGCSE Reference 7 Animal nutrition; 7.1 A balanced diet, pp. 72-3; 7.2 Balancing energy needs, pp. 74-5; 7.3 Starvation, pp. 76-
7 15
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link 6.3 Animal nutrition ( 6.3.1 core) Diet ( 6.3.1.1 core and extension) Food supply
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
State what is meant by the term balanced Recall nutrition from earlier sections. Look at Extension - discuss the problems of world
diet and describe a balanced diet related to published data for energy needs through life. Link food supplies.
age, sex and activity of an individual. with lifestyle and activity. Compare over and Extension - discuss the problems which
Describe the effects of malnutrition in under nutrition in table and link to health contribute to famine (unequal distribution of
relation to starvation, coronary heart disease, problems – deficiencies and over eating. food, drought and flooding and increasing
constipation and obesity. Explain the effects of obesity and how this population).
Food supply - discuss ways in which the use problem in increasing in some countries more
of modern technology has resulted in than others and discuss reasons. Discuss new varieties of crop plants grown
increased food production (to include Look at the history of food production – selective in local area – genetically engineered crops
modern agricultural machinery, chemical breeding, green revolution and new higher and the advantages to save costs of
fertilisers, pesticides and herbicides, artificial yielding varieties – might base this on a local pesticides, etc.
selection). crop e.g. bread wheat or maize.
Discuss the problems of world food supplies. Use world map to identify where certain crops are
Discuss the problems which contribute to grown. Follow sources of available food where
famine (unequal distribution of food, drought exported or imported. Link with modern methods.
and flooding and increasing population).
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
Define what is meant by balanced diet. Resource government health web sites or recommendations – 5 fresh items of fruit and/or
Describe a balanced diet based on age, vegetables each day. Keep a record of what is eaten by students each day for a week.
gender and activity. Look at food labels; explain the labelling system.
Describe the effects of malnutrition to Measure calorie content of food items by simple calorimeter – measuring increase in temperature
include obesity [health risks] and starvation. of a know volume of water. Compare with use of commercial calorimeter.
Explain the role of roughage in the diet. Energy content = volume of water × rise on temperature × 4.2 / mass of food.
Extension: discuss the problems of world World map to show over production and under production. Discuss effect of climate – drought
food supplies and the problems that and flood. Use of modern ways of agriculture.
contribute to famine.

Page 19 of 70
Biology for IGCSE Reference 7.4 Digestion, pp.78-9 16

Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation


Define ingestion as taking substances (e.g. food, Using a simple box diagram for processes involved Discuss other types of animal
drink) into the body through the mouth. and label where ingestion, digestion, absorption, besides humans.
Define digestion as the break-down of large, assimilation and egestion occurs and annotate with Recall that plants make their own
insoluble food molecules into small, water-soluble definitions. food and store materials which
molecules using mechanical and chemical processes. Label and annotate large diagram of alimentary canal we use as foods.
Define egestion as passing out of food that has not and try to locate where these structures are located in Discuss staple foods and link to
been digested, through the anus. the body. balanced diet.
Identify the main regions of the alimentary canal and Make a table to compare physical and chemical
associated organs including mouth, salivary glands, breakdown of food in the process of digestion and the
oesophagus, stomach, small intestine: duodenum and significance of breaking down large complex food
ileum, pancreas, liver, gall bladder, large intestine: substances into simple, soluble substance which can
colon and rectum, anus. be absorbed into the body and into the blood to
Describe the functions of the regions of the circulate around the body.
alimentary canal listed above, in relation to Cardboard cut outs of complex molecules can be cut
ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation and into smaller pieces to symbolise this process or paper
egestion of food. puzzles.
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
Define mechanical and chemical digestion. Use a length of visking tubing [or other material] to demonstrate the alimentary canal.
State the function of amylase, protease and lipase, Use mirror to view teeth and note types of teeth.
listing the substrates and the end-products. Use a large diagram of mount and another of whole digestive system to label and
Describe the events that take place during the annotate. Model of torso can be used if available.
chewing and swallowing of food including the role
of saliva.

Page 20 of 70
Biology for IGCSE Reference 7.5 Teeth, pp.80–1; 7.6 The stomach and small intestine, pp.82-3 17

Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link ( 6.3.3 core and extension) Mechanical and physical digestion (6.3.4 core) Chemical digestion
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
Identify the types of human teeth and Identify types of teeth and label printed outline Research the age when teeth appear and fall
describe their structure and functions. diagrams of incisor, canine, molar and premolar out.
State the causes of dental decay and describe as well as a longitudinal section. Describe how fluoride reduces tooth decay
the proper care of teeth. Explain the importance of thorough brushing to and explain arguments for and against the
Describe the process of chewing. clean teeth. Explain the causes of tooth decay and addition of fluoride to public water supplies.
Describe how fluoride reduces tooth decay formation of plaque. Modern tooth pastes have Enzyme activity – recall earlier section and
and explain arguments for and against the many additives, including fluoride and introduce extend breakdown of protein if not covered
addition of fluoride to public water supplies. that section. Possible to find if local supplies are previously.
Describe the role of longitudinal and circular fluorinated. Mix some oil with water to show the oil
muscles in peristalsis. Explain chewing – and swallowing – there are floats and then add bile salts and shake to
Outline the role of bile in emulsifying fats, to interactive sites and videos. show the fat droplets break up into smaller
increase the surface area for the action of Peristalsis can be demonstrated using a tennis ball droplets and link with increase in surface
enzymes. and long sock to show how a bolus of food area exposed for enzyme activity. [If no bile
State the significance of chemical digestion moves. Link with diagrams showing longitudinal salts available, use detergent.]
in the alimentary canal in producing small, and circular muscles in front of and behind a Look at teeth of other animals and recall
soluble molecules that can be absorbed. bolus of food. classification.
State where, in the alimentary canal, Describe by labelling and annotating a large
amylase, protease and lipase enzymes are diagram of the alimentary canal where amylase,
secreted. protease and lipase enzymes act on ingested
State the functions of a typical amylase, a complex food. Use different colours pencils for
protease and a lipase, listing the substrate and the three types of enzyme.
end-products. Describe the role of bile and where it is formed
and acts on fats in the alimentary canal.

Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources


Describe the structure and functions of Use of mirror to observe students own teeth and chart to complete. Discuss when there teeth
human teeth. formed and appeared through the gums. Emphasis the first deciduous / baby teeth and adult for
State the causes of tooth decay and describe rest of life. Identify the different types.
the proper care of teeth. Using models of diagrams label the different parts of teeth.

Page 21 of 70
Extension - describe how fluoride reduces Use disclosing tablet [available from health clinics, dentists or chemists] and show how plaque
tooth decay and explain arguments for and builds up. Students need to use own tooth brushes for hygiene reasons.
against fluoridation of drinking water Rub sterile cotton buds around the base of teeth and dip into fine sugar. Drop on universal
supplies. indicator and observe after 15-20 minutes [useful after lunch-time meal] bacteria will breakdown
Describe peristalsis. sugars and produce acids.
Describe the digestion of food in the stomach Use of model gut – Visking tubing and show chemical breakdown of starch + amylase [diastase].
and the small intestine, including the role of This can be used to demonstrate absorption.
bile in emulsifying fats.

Page 22 of 70
Biology for IGCSE Reference 7.7 Absorption and assimilation, pp.84–5 18
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (6.3.5 core and extension) Absorption; (6.3.6 core and extension ) Assimilation.
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
Define absorption as movement of digested Using the definitions in the syllabus and large Extension - describe the structure of a villus,
food molecules through the wall of the diagrams to label and annotate, explain the parts including the role of capillaries and lacteals.
intestine into the blood or lymph. of the alimentary canal where absorption takes State the role of the hepatic portal vein in
Identify the small intestine as the region for place and explain using paper models the way the transport of absorbed food to the liver.
the absorption of digested food. molecules pass through into the capillary Identify the role of the small intestine and
Describe the significance of villi in network. colon in absorption of water (the small
increasing the internal surface area of the Water soluble substance and into lymphatic intestine absorbs 5-10 dm3 per day, the
small intestine. system – lacteal for fat soluble substance. colon 0.3-0.5 dm3 per day).
Define assimilation as movement of digested The significance of large surface area with Define deamination as removal of the
food molecules into the cells of the body folding of the villi is important to understand. Nitrogen-containing part of amino acids to
where they are used, becoming part of the Large diagrams of villi and colouring the arterial form urea, followed by release of energy
cells. and venous blood can link this to the hepatic from the remainder of the amino acid.
Describe the role of the liver in the portal vein taking these absorbed substances to State that the liver is the site of breakdown
metabolism of glucose (glucose → glycogen) the liver to be processed. In table format explain of alcohol and other toxins.
and amino acids (amino acids →proteins and what happens – the students to complete these
destruction of excess amino acids). points by Q & A taking each substance in turn.
Describe the role of fat as an energy storage Cover deamination and the formation of urea to
substance. link later with excretion. Some other roles of the
liver, e.g. breaking down toxins and alcohol need
to be covered.
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
Define the terms absorption and Model gut using Visking tubing containing a mixture of starch and sugar suspended in a test-tube
assimilation. of water. Samples of surrounding water can be tested with iodine solution and Benedict’s
Describe how the small intestine is adapted solution and heated as well the contents after a period of time to show diffusion through the gut
for efficient absorption of food. wall. Paper molecular models can be used to make posters. Large diagrams to label and annotate.
Describe the role of the liver in assimilation. The increase in surface area can be explained using folded paper, similarly the long thin nature.

Page 23 of 70
Biology for IGCSE Reference 8 Plant transport 8.1 Transport system, pp.88-9; 8.2 Water uptake, pp. 90-1 19
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link 7 Transportation ( 7.1 core) Transport in Plant (7.1.1 Core and extension) Water uptake
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
State the functions of xylem and phloem - Start with a drawing or a specimen of a whole Extension - relate the structure and functions
identify the positions of xylem and phloem plant and then show transverse sections of root, of root hairs to their surface area and to
tissues as seen in transverse sections of stem and leaves and link up to show the water and ion uptake.
unthickened, herbaceous, dicotyledonous approximate areas of change in a herbaceous, Look at different plants and relate to leaf
roots, stems and leaves. non- woody dicotyledon – a weed species is area.
Identify root hair cells, as seen under the useful or a pot plant with soil removed. Discuss the different environments in which
light microscope, and state their functions. Describe the structure of xylem in terms of dead plants are found and how these conditions
Extension - relate the structure and functions tissue for support and transport from root to influence the survival of different plants.
of root hairs to their surface area and to water leaves and stem.
and ion uptake. Describe the phloem in terms of living cells and
State the pathway taken by water through two-way transport from leaves upwards to
root, stem and leaf (root hair, root cortex growing point and downwards to root and
cells, xylem, mesophyll cells). storage. Observe germinating seedlings and root
Investigate, using a suitable stain, the hair development and explain cellular structure
pathway of water through the above-ground and function. Follow uptake of dye in stem or
parts of a plant. petiole and cut sections to show how far the dye
travels – observe with hand lens.
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
State the functions of xylem and phloem. Germinate seedlings e.g. mung beans or cress in shallow container using water not soil or damp
Identify the positions of xylem and phloem paper to show development of root hairs and view with hand lens. Submerge a freshly cut end of
in transverse sections of roots, stems and a petiole, e.g. celery to show uptake of coloured dye or ink and cut sections to show how far the
leaves. dye has reached. If use thin stems of Impatiens the transparent nature of the stems permits the
Identify root hairs as seen under the uptake of coloured dye to be observed without cutting sections. If a microscope is available –
microscope and relate their structure to water observing root hairs shows the number of them clearly in the zone of the root just behind the
uptake. growing tip.
State the pathway taken by water through Large outline diagrams or photomicrographs are useful to label and annotate to explain where the
root, stem and leaf. vascular tissue is located in root, stem and leaves.

Page 24 of 70
Biology for IGCSE Reference 8.2 Water uptake pp.90-1; 8.3 Transpiration, pp.92-3; 8.4 Adaptations of plants to different environments, pp.
94-5 20
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (7.1.1 core and extension) Water Uptake (7.1.2 core and extension) Transpiration
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
Define transpiration as evaporation of Cover the definition of transpiration with the practical Extension - explain the mechanism of
water at the surfaces of the mesophyll demonstrations both using the cobalt chloride paper test water uptake and movement in terms of
cells followed by loss of water vapour and the loss in mass. transpiration producing a tension (‘pull’)
from plant leaves, through the stomata. Explain the concept of ‘transpiration pull’ with the from above, creating a water potential
Describe how water vapour loss is related analogy to sucking up a straw. Cohesion demonstration gradient in the xylem, drawing cohesive
to cell surfaces, air spaces and stomata. with water between two glass slides and trying to pull water molecules up the plant.
Describe the effects of variation of apart. Explain use of potometer. Explain how light, Extension - discuss the adaptations of
temperature, humidity and light intensity humidity and temperature affect water loss. the leaf, stem and root to three
on transpiration rate. Large diagrams to label and annotate to show the contrasting environments, to include
Describe how wilting occurs. pathway for loss of water vapour through stomata and pond, garden and desert, with emphasis
Discuss the adaptations of the leaf, stem cuticle. Using local examples of waterweed or on local examples (where appropriate)
and root to three contrasting illustrations, discuss the distribution of stomata [lack of] and the factors described in the core.
environments. in submerged leaves or only on the upper surface of
floating leaves. Use cactus as an example of a desert
plant and how water loss can be reduced.
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
Identify root hairs as seen under the Washing line experiment is simple to set up and for students to participate. Using leaves of the same
microscope and relate their structure to species and similar size cover both surfaces, just upper and another just lower surface with a thin
water uptake. layer of ‘grease’ e.g. Vaseline – have a control for comparison and follow loss in mass on exposure
State the pathway taken by water through to the atmosphere – strung up on a piece of string. Observe two similar plants, one of which is not
root, stem and leaf. watered to show wilting. Test surfaces of leaves [still attached to a plant], ‘sandwiched’ between
Define the term transpiration. glass slides and blue [dry] cobalt chloride paper and compare the colour change to pink. Handle
Describe how water vapour loss is related cobalt chloride paper with forceps not fingers. Use of potometers if available is advised or at least a
to cell surfaces, air spaces and stomata description and data handling.
Describe how variations in temperature,
humidity and light intensity can affect
transpiration rate.
Describe how wilting occurs.

Page 25 of 70
Biology for IGCSE Reference 8.5 Translocation, pp. 96-7 21
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (7.1.3 core and extension) Translocation
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
Define translocation in terms of the To recap structure of phloem and link to movement of Extension - describe translocation
movement of sucrose and amino acids sugars, amino acids from where these are formed in the throughout the plant of applied chemicals,
in phloem; leaves [refer to this as ‘source’] to where these including systemic pesticides.
- from regions of production substance are to be used or stored [refer to this as Extension - compare the role of transpiration
- to regions of storage OR to regions of ‘sink’]. Flow diagrams to label and annotate to show and translocation in the transport of
utilisation in respiration or growth . use in respiration to release energy or to be stored and materials from sources to sinks, within
Extension - describe translocation where and outline the chemical changes to starch or plants at different seasons.
throughout the plant of applied protein or changed to oils. Outline at least one line of
chemicals, including systemic evidence – feeding by insects or use of systemic
pesticides pesticides for the extension studies.
Extension - compare the role of Use a table to compare transpiration and translocation
transpiration and translocation in the with headings including tissues, materials moved,
transport of materials from sources to pressures involved, seasons e.g. winter in temperate
sinks, within plants at different seasons. zones – no leaves on deciduous plants, effect in dry
conditions, even link with climate change.

Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources


Define the term translocation. Remind students where the source of syrups are, e.g. cane syrup or maple syrup, and the commercial
Extension - describe the translocation methods of collection. Test these for sugars – extension work – non- reducing sugar.
of applied chemicals, such as systemic Recap structure of phloem from earlier work on plant tissues.
pesticides, throughout the plant. Poster work to show two-directional flow. Describe these or view website or descriptions of evidence
Extension - compare transpiration with using osmometers.
translocation.

Page 26 of 70
Biology for IGCSE Reference 9 Transport in human; 9.1 Circulation pp.100-1; 9.2 The heart, pp.102-3 22
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (7.2 core) Transport in humans (7.2.1 core) Heart
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
Describe the circulatory system as a system of Using large diagrams, videos or interactive websites. Extension- explain opening and
tubes with a pump and valves to ensure one-way Discuss the circulatory system and the need for such a closing of valves in the heart
flow of blood. system in our body. Explain the need for pressure to and in veins – to prevent back-
Describe the double circulation in terms of a low reach the extremities of the body and if such pressure flow.
pressure circulation to the lungs and a high was everywhere the consequences. The supply to the If atria are intact in the heart or
pressure circulation to the body tissues and relate delicate structure of the lungs is less than to the rest of through use of a model heart –
these differences to the different functions of the the body – about one-fifth. The need for one-way flow ask students individually to
two circuits. and a double circulation can be shown here – covering make flow chart of stages in
Describe the structure of the heart including the the circulation from one site in the body and back again. cardiac cycle. Many diagrams
muscular wall and septum, chambers, valves and Structure of the heart can be covered by a large diagram give pressures in blood vessels
associated blood vessels. to label and annotate. Refer to the special muscle which in different areas of body.
Describe the function of the heart in terms of never tires to keep the heart beating throughout. Describe Extension – look at hearts in
muscular contraction and the working of the the events in one cardiac cycle emphasising the action of fish, amphibians, reptiles and
valves. the valves and pressures involved. Construct a flow birds. Observe in invertebrates.
Investigate, state and explain the effect of physical chart. Can be cut-out and used for revision later. Simple Discuss fetal heart
activity on pulse rate. 3R’s link Right side of heart – tRicuspid valve, Rotten development.
Describe coronary heart disease in terms of the blood – deoxygenated blood.
blockage of coronary arteries and state the possible
causes (diet, stress and smoking) and preventive
measures.
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
Describe the one-way flow of blood around the Large diagrams of blood vessels including the heart in the outline of the body. Colour in
body. the oxygenated and deoxygenated blood red and blue respectively. Label right and left
Describe the heart as a pump for the flow of blood sides of body as though the structures were in the body – explain reversal. Obtain an
and the role of valves to permit only one-way animal’s heart from legal sources to demonstrate both external and internal structure –
flow. especially useful to show thickness of the atrial and ventricular walls and the closing of
Describe the four chambers of the heart and locate valves. Ask students to measure each others pulse rates when sitting still and after exercise.
the major blood vessels and valves associated with Link this to the explanation of heart / cardiac cycle. Measure blood pressure using a
the heart. monitor and relate to systole and diastole. Use paper cut-outs to sequence stages of cycle.
State the sequence of events that take place during

Page 27 of 70
one heartbeat.

Page 28 of 70
Biology for IGCSE Reference 9.3 Blood vessels pp.104-5; 9.4 Coronary heart disease, pp. 106-7 23
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (7.2.1 core) Heart. (7.2.2. core and extension) Arteries, veins and capillaries
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
Investigate, state and explain the effect of Describe the relative sizes of blood vessels and the Extension - explain how structure and
physical activity on pulse rate. pressures in these as the blood passes through. function are related in arteries, veins
Describe coronary heart disease in terms of A large diagram to label of a capillary network and capillaries.
the blockage of coronary arteries and state surrounding group of similar cells. Recap the definition Describe the transfer of materials
the possible causes (diet, stress and smoking) of a tissue. Explain the barrier of the capillary wall and between capillaries and tissue fluid.
and preventive measures. list what substances to be found in the blood which can
Name the main blood vessels to and from the pass through this barrier and those which cannot pass Videos to demonstrate the causes of
heart, lungs, liver and kidney. through – like a sieve. coronary heart disease and handle data.
Describe the structure and functions of Compare plasma and tissue fluid in composition. Discuss the risks and list measures to
arteries, veins and capillaries. Carry out the planning exercise on physical activity and prevent development of CHD.
Extension - explain how structure and pulse rate. Discuss the need for repeats, controls, etc.
function are related in arteries, veins and and points to evaluate.
capillaries. Discuss CHD and how it can affect humans of different
Describe the transfer of materials between ages. Discuss the causes and preventative measures –
capillaries and tissue fluid. back-up with posters.
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
Name the major blood vessels to and from Plan an investigation into the effect of physical activity on pulse rate. After planning is complete
the heart, lungs, liver and kidney. – carry out the designed exercise and time the recovery period when sitting. Plot the data, discuss
Extension - describe the structure and and evaluate the findings.
function of arteries, veins and capillaries. Use diagrams or photomicrographs and websites to show the structure of these blood vessels and
State and explain the effect of physical label outline diagrams. Stress the size of capillaries relative to the other blood vessels.
activity on pulse rate. Handle data on coronary heart disease and prepare posters on causes and preventative measures.
Describe the nature of coronary heart disease.
State the possible causes and preventative
measures of coronary heart disease.

Page 29 of 70
Biology for IGCSE Reference 9.5 Blood, pp. 108 -9; 9.6 Blood in defence, pp.110–11 24
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link ( 7.2.3 core and extension) Blood
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
Identify red and white blood cells as seen under By observing blood smears or photomicrographs – Extension - describe the immune
the light microscope on prepared slides, and in describe each blood cells and its role in turn. system in terms of antibody
diagrams and photomicrographs. Draw the different cells and carry out the size production, tissue rejection and
List the components of blood as red blood cells, measurement / magnification exercise. phagocytosis.
white blood cells, platelets and plasma. Construct a table below a diagram of capillary and Extension - describe the function of
State the functions of blood: show again the substances and components of the the lymphatic system in circulation
• red blood cells – haemoglobin and oxygen blood which can pass through capillary walls – useful of body fluids, and the production of
transport to explain how the white blood cells – phagocytes lymphocytes.
• white blood cells – phagocytosis and can work to prevent pathogens developing to cause Extension - describe the process of
antibody formation disease. clotting (fibrinogen to fibrin only).
• platelets – causing clotting (no details) This can lead onto the idea of immunity – active and
• plasma – transport of blood cells, ions, soluble antibodies. Comic strip approach is useful to
nutrients, hormones, carbon dioxide, urea and Blood clotting to be linked with the role of platelets / cover phagocytosis. Flow chart for
plasma proteins. thrombocytes. blood clotting.
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
State the main constituents of blood. Use microscopes to observe blood smears or photomicrographs. Identify the different
Identify red and white bloods cells in diagrams components – red and white blood cells, platelets, plasma. Explain the difference between
and under the microscope. lymphocytes and phagocytes so these cells can be identified and named. Drawing these cells
Describe the role of red blood cells and or using diagrams can be used as a magnification / actual size exercise for practice.
haemoglobin in oxygen transport. Bio viewers and strips of blood cells maybe useful if available.
Describe how white blood cells such as Poster work will help to remember processes of blood clotting for extension work.
lymphocytes and phagocytes protect the body
from disease.
State the role of lymphocytes in immunity.
Extension: describe the process of blood clotting.

Page 30 of 70
Biology for IGCSE Reference 9.7 Lymph and tissue fluid, pp. 112-13 25
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (7.2.2. extension) part of Arteries, veins and capillaries. (7.2.3 extension) part of Blood section
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
Describe the transfer of materials between Recall the large diagram which was labelled of a Extension - describe the transfer of materials
capillaries and tissue fluid. capillary network surrounding group of similar between capillaries and tissue fluid.
Describe the function of the lymphatic cells. Recap the definition of a tissue. Explain the Extension - describe the function of the
system in circulation of body fluids, and the barrier of the capillary wall and list what lymphatic system in circulation of body
production of lymphocytes. substances and components of the blood can pass fluids, and the production of lymphocytes
through this barrier and those which cannot pass Discussion of vaccination programs.
through – like a sieve.
Using diagrams of the lymphatic system –
identify the link with the blood and the nodes in
different parts of the body.
Point out the similarity of suffices of lymphocyte
and lymphatic system to aid learning.

Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources


Describe the exchange of materials between Poster work and watching video or use of bio viewers to observe lymphocytes in action and the
capillaries and tissue fluid. flow chart leading to development of active immunity.
Describe the functions of the lymphatic
system.

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Biology for IGCSE Reference 10 Respiration 10.1 Respiration, pp. 116-17; 10.6 Anaerobic respiration, pp. 126–7 26
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (8 core) Respiration; ( 8.1 core and extension) Aerobic respiration (8.2 core and extension) Anaerobic
respiration

Page 32 of 70
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
Define respiration as the chemical reactions Recall the definition of respiration at the beginning Extension - state the equation for
that break down nutrient molecules in living section. The need for energy and how the body needs this aerobic respiration using symbols
cells to release energy. energy for other processes including enzymes [good (C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O)
State the uses of energy in the body of humans: revision and discussion points]. Extension - state the balanced
muscle contraction, protein synthesis, cell Explain on the metabolic basis that all cells respire 24/7 equation for anaerobic respiration
division, active transport, growth, the passage and the need for oxygen in aerobic respiration – link to in muscles
of nerve impulses and the maintenance of a survival of humans. Useful lead into anaerobic (C6H 12O 6 → 2C3H6O3)
constant body temperature. respiration in muscles for extension, when muscles cells and the microorganism yeast
Define aerobic respiration as the release of a during hard exercise suffer from shortage of oxygen and (C6H12O6 → 2C2H5OH + 2CO2),
relatively large amount of energy in cells by the consequences of this; why training is so important for using symbols.
the breakdown of food substances in the athletes and other sport participants. Use CO2 indicators E xtension - describe the effect of
presence of oxygen. to show it is given off in exhaled breath, slowly bubbling lactic acid in muscles during
State the equation for aerobic respiration, using through the indicator available. exercise (include oxygen debt in
words – extension – use symbols. Introduce the uses of yeast in industry and the structure outline only).
Define anaerobic respiration as the release of a [photomicrograph] and reproduction of these cells. Use a Show the gluten content of
relatively small amount of energy by the living culture to show the gas given off and test it to different types of flour. Link with
breakdown of food substances in the absence show CO2. celiac disease.
of oxygen. Investigation on rising of bread dough is useful to
State the equation for anaerobic respiration in compare different flours and additives. Gives original
muscles during hard exercise (glucose → lactic data [can use published data otherwise] for opportunities
acid) and the microorganism yeast (glucose → to plan experiments.
alcohol + carbon dioxide), using words- Discuss use of yeast in brewing beer and fermentation of
describe the role of anaerobic respiration in fruit juices to make wine – use flow charts to sequence
yeast during brewing and bread making - the various stages.
compare aerobic respiration and anaerobic
respiration in terms of relative amounts of
energy released.
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
Define aerobic respiration and anaerobic Paper cards for words and symbols, arrange in order for the equations.
respiration.. Poster work for listing all the uses for the energy released for aerobic and anaerobic
Compare the amounts of energy released in respiration.
anaerobic and anaerobic respiration. Photomicrographs to illustrate the cellular structure of yeast and link with asexual reproduction
State the word equation for anaerobic – possible exercise for calculation of actual size of mature cells.
respiration in muscles during hard exercise and Using bubbles from yeast or exhalation show that the gas released is CO2 by testing with
in yeast. limewater [clear to cloudy] or red hydrogencarbonate indicator [red to yellow]. Distinguish
Extension - describe the effect of lactic acid in these tests from the use of CO2 absorbers such as soda lime or NaOH.
muscles during exercise. Research bread making and visit a local bakery to observe stages involved.
Describe the role of anaerobic respiration in Investigation – to compare rising of bread dough in oiled measuring cylinders left in warm
yeast during brewing and bread making. water bath – use of different types of flour and the addition of flour improvers.
Page 33 of 70
Demonstrate bread dough and if was strong wheat dough with water to remove the starch
grains – you can separate the protein – gluten to show its elastic properties
Research brewing of beer and wine making. Visit a local brewery or vineyard.
Biology for IGCSE Reference 10.2 The gas exchange system, pp.118-19; 10.3 Gas exchange, pp.120-1; 10.4 Breathing, pp.122-3 27
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link ( 8.3 core and extension) Gas exchange
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities. Extension and Consolidation
List the features of gas exchange Large diagrams to label and annotate are useful to identify Extension - describe the role of the ribs, the
surfaces in animals. the structures involved. internal and external intercostal muscles and
Identify on diagrams and name the Explain the location of the gas exchange surface at the the diaphragm in producing volume and
larynx, trachea, bronchi, alveoli and list the features of this surface and how these pressure changes leading to the ventilation
bronchioles, alveoli and associated are found in the thin epithelial lining of the wall. Explain of the lungs.
capillaries. the lung tissues do not contain muscle – indicate and show Explain the role of mucus and cilia in
State the differences in composition the elastic nature of lung tissue. protecting the gas exchange system from
between inspired and expired air. Practical work and data tables to show the difference in pathogens and particles.
Use lime water as a test for carbon composition of inhaled and exhaled air. Using their own Use of photomicrographs to illustrate the
dioxide to investigate the thorax follow movements of intercostal muscles during cellular basis of tissues in the bronchus –
differences in composition between these processes. Use of diagrams to explain the lining of cartilage rings C shaped to hold airway
inspired and expired air. the airways – mucus and cilia protecting the surfaces. open.
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
Identify on diagrams and name the Large diagrams or use of a model torso to show the positions of the organs involved. If a skeleton or wall
larynx, trachea, bronchi, chart is available it can be used to demonstrate the protection of these organs in situ. A large bell jar with a
bronchioles, alveoli and rubber sheet attached for a diaphragm and glass tubes with balloons attached and supported by a rubber
associated capillaries and describe bung at the neck can be used to demonstrate the action of the diaphragm. A wooden model of the ribs
the functions of these structures. attached to a wooden sternum and spine will permit the movement of the ribs or students can use
Compare the composition of themselves and feel these as they breathe in deeply and exhale. If available a spirometer can be
inspired and expired air. demonstrated, if not a diagram and explanation is useful. Many such diagrams can be found printed in
List the features of gas exchange advanced textbooks or websites. The trace can be used to explain the intake and exhale of a breath. Tidal
surfaces. volume and vital capacity can be measured using a ‘blow tube’ that has been calibrated or an inverted
Describe gas exchange at the plastic container by downward displacement of water in a large sink. Students can count their breaths
alveolus. while sitting still and after exercise. This can be linked to the pulse rate investigation earlier and the need
Explain the role of mucus and cilia for more oxygen. Lung tissue is sold as ‘melts’ in commercial outlets and it is possible to obtain sets from
in protecting the respiratory system certain sources.
from pathogens and dust particles.

Page 34 of 70
Biology for IGCSE Reference 10.4 Breathing, pp.122-123; 10.5 Rate and depth of breathing, pp.124-125 28
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (8.3 core and extension) Gas exchange
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
Describe the role of the ribs, the internal and If available a spirometer can be used, if not a Extension - explain the link between
external intercostal muscles and the diaphragm in diagram and explanation is useful of a trace physical activity and rate and depth of
producing volume and pressure changes leading to before and after exercise. breathing in terms of changes in the rate
the ventilation of the lungs. Use of ‘huff puff’ apparatus to compare the at which tissues respire and therefore of
Use lime water as a test for carbon dioxide to carbon dioxide concentration of inspired and carbon dioxide concentration and pH in
investigate the differences in composition between expired air, tissues and in the blood.
inspired and expired air. using limewater or hydrogencarbonate This can be linked to the pulse rate
Investigate and describe the effects of physical indicator. investigation earlier and the need for
activity on rate and depth of breathing. Explain the sites in the body where increase or more oxygen.
Extension - explain the link between physical lowering of pH in the blood is detected and
activity and rate and depth of breathing in terms of using large diagrams of the brain show the
changes in the rate at which tissues respire – CO2 position of the medulla / brain stem area where
and pH. the control of breathing is located. Discuss the
means of connecting to the rib cage and
diaphragm to increase or decrease rate and
depth of breathing.
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
Describe how volume and pressure changes lead If available a spirometer can be used, if not a diagram and explanation is useful of a trace
to ventilation of the lungs. before and after exercise. Increase in number of breaths needs a helper as it is difficult to
Investigate and describe the effects of physical count your own as the natural tendency is to hold a breath longer – personal counts are
exercise on the rate and depth of breathing. inaccurate. Time how long the body takes to return to that rate at rest.
Extension - describe how the effects of exercise The drop in pH with carbon dioxide can be shown with the use of hydrogencarbonate
increase the carbon dioxide concentration and indicator – red to yellow. Compare students who are active in sports with those who do not
lower pH in the tissues and how this affects the participate.
rate and depth of breathing.

Page 35 of 70
Biology for IGCSE Reference 11 Homeostasis and excretion; 11.1 Controlling conditions in the body pp.130-1; 11.3 Excretion pp.134– 5
29
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link ( 9 core) Excretion in humans (10.4 core and extension) Homeostasis
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
Define homeostasis as the maintenance of a Introduce homeostasis definition and explain the E. - explain the concept of control by
constant internal environment. need for control of internal environment in terms negative feedback
Identify, on a diagram of the skin: hairs, sweat of efficiency of enzyme activity, control of body Observe the surface of finger tips –
glands, temperature receptors, blood vessels and fluids and metabolism. discuss finger print and unique nature
fatty tissue. Use large diagrams of skin to label and annotate. and use in forensics.
Describe the maintenance of a constant body Carry out investigation using containers and Vary the investigation with range of
temperature in humans in terms of insulation and huddling to show cooling and keeping warm. coverings representing clothing or fur.
the role of temperature receptors in the skin, Tabulate reaction to cold and hot environments Use test-tubes bound together to
sweating, shivering, vasodilation and To include vasodilation and vasoconstriction of illustrate the effect of animals huddling
vasoconstriction of arterioles supplying skin arterioles in the skin; sweating v shivering, together to keep warm in cold
surface capillaries and the coordinating role of the position of body hair. Discuss the control of body conditions. Show the extra cooling of
brain. temperature. Discuss the role of the liver as wet coverings and discuss with
Define excretion as the removal from organisms of source of core temperature as well as forming reference to evaporation and latent
toxic materials, the waste products of metabolism urea for excretion. heat of evaporation.
(chemical reactions in cells including respiration)
and substances in excess of requirements.
Substances should include carbon dioxide, urea
and salts.
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
Define the term homeostasis. Observe skin on palm of hands and back of hand for external features. Use large outline
Extension - explain the concept of negative diagrams to label and annotate. Bioviewers or photomicrographs useful to show skin
feedback. Describe the control of blood glucose sections. Loss of temperature in bodies can be followed using containers and following
concentration. cooling rate – large versus small containers to represent adult and baby sizes; different
Identify the different structures in the skin on coverings; different shapes of containers of equal volume. Use lids to prevent loss of heat
diagram. that way. Discuss surface area to volume ratios.
Describe how body temperature is kept constant.
Define the term excretion.

Page 36 of 70
Biology for IGCSE Reference 11.3 Excretion, pp.134-5; 11.4 Kidney function, pp.136-7; 11.5 Kidney dialysis and transplant, pp.138-9 30
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link ( 9 core) Excretion in humans
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
Describe the function of the kidney in Large diagrams of urinary system to label and Outline the structure of a kidney (cortex, medulla,
terms of the removal of urea and annotate and use of torso can help to locate the and the start of the ureter) and outline the
excess water and the reabsorption of organs. Relate to own body to locate organs. structure and functioning of a kidney tubule
glucose and some salts (details of List the main components of urine and sources of including:
kidney structure and nephron are not these in metabolism and breakdown of alcohol, • role of renal capsule in filtration from blood
required). drugs and hormones. Discuss intake and output of of water, glucose, urea and salts
State the relative positions of ureters, fluids and the volume involved as well as control to • role of tubule in reabsorption of glucose,
bladder and urethra in the body. maintain homeostasis of water. Refer back to most of the water and some salts back
State that urea is formed in the liver previous diagrams of the brain to locate the testing into the blood, leading to concentration of
from excess amino acids. and control regions – location of these in the brain. urea in the urine as well as loss of excess
State that alcohol, drugs and With each part of the kidney tubule it role can be water and salts
hormones are broken down in the outlined around a large diagram – filtration [the - explain dialysis in terms of maintenance of
liver. need for blood pressure to function and molecular glucose and protein concentration in blood and
size of substances to pass into tubule] reabsorption diffusion of urea from blood to dialysis fluid
of glucose and amino acids and some water. - discuss the application of dialysis in kidney
Discuss what happens when kidneys fail and what machines
can be done – diet [low protein] dialysis and kidney - discuss the advantages and disadvantages of
transplant. kidney transplants, compared with dialysis.
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
Name the excretory organs and Use fresh kidneys purchased for consumption to demonstrate external features. If purchased with suet
excretory products. then the ureter and blood vessels can be found. Model or large outline diagrams can be used if not
Describe the structure of the urinary available. These can be used whilst watching video to label and annotate for study of microscopic
system and the internal structure of tubules. Using simulated urine preparations [coloured using very dilute tea plus glucose and / or
the kidney including the kidney albumin] it is possible to test for sugars and protein under situations of kidney failure and uncontrolled
tubule diabetes using simple food tests or clinistix and albustix obtainable from chemists. Use controls for
Describe the role of the kidney tubule colour comparison as tannins, from tea, can alter the end colours slightly.
in filtration and reabsorption.
Page 37 of 70
Biology for IGCSE Reference 12 Coordination and response; 12.1 Nervous control in humans, pp. 142-3 31
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link 10 Coordination and response (10.1 core and extension ) Nervous control in humans
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
Describe the human nervous Introduce the nervous system by listing all the processes Observe different types of brain scan for
system in terms of the central involved in a physical activity such as catching a ball. Remind different health conditions.
nervous system (brain and students of a young child learning to catch a ball to explain Understand the need for head and neck
spinal cord as areas of learned reflexes. protection for certain activities and jobs and
coordination) and the peripheral Using a model torso and skeleton or large diagrams distinguish the correct way of lifting heavy weights.
nervous system which together between the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous
serve to coordinate and regulate system
body functions. Discuss the autonomic nervous system to recall the control of
heartbeat, breathing, kidney action [water control], peristalsis
and introduce reflex actions.

Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources


Describe the structure of the Introduce the nervous system by listing all the processes involved in a physical activity such as catching a ball
nervous system. try this with right, left and both hands. Practise a few times.
Extension - distinguish between Use model of brain and look at skull protection if possible or view large diagrams. Individual vertebrae show
voluntary and involuntary protection given to spinal cord. Observe photomicrographs of TS spinal cord and locate white and grey matter
actions. and locate these on diagrams of the brain.
Test sensitivity of finger tips to distinguish different textures without using sight – rough [sand paper]; smooth
[piece of silk]; Braille; etc. Test skin surface by touching with ‘straightened’ paperclip without sight and find
the number of correct answers from 10 touches with one or two ends on different parts of hands and arms.
Testing temperature of water with three containers; one cold water; one containing warm/ tepid water; one
warmer water. After holding two fingers in the warm /tepid water transfer one to cold and other to the warmer
water to sense the different relative to the first. Record the actual temperatures using a thermometer.

Page 38 of 70
Biology for IGCSE Reference 12.2 Neurones and reflex arcs, pp. 144-5; 12.3 Reflexes and antagonistic muscles, pp.146-7 32
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (10.1 core) Nervous control in humans
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
Describe the human nervous system in terms of the Use large diagrams to label and annotate to Distinguish between voluntary and
central nervous system (brain and spinal cord as describe the structure of the three types of involuntary actions.
areas of coordination) and the peripheral nervous neurone. Recall the TS of spinal cord and link up Use paper cut out puzzles to sequence
system which together serve to coordinate and the neurones involved in a reflex arc. Distinguish the steps in a reflex arc.
regulate body functions. between a reflex arc and a reflex action. Cover Extend the reaction time investigation
Identify motor, relay and sensory neurones from the involuntary response of touching a hot object to cover the practised responses; the
diagrams. and with the aid of the reflex arc diagram, explain effect of age or influence of caffeine.
Describe a simple reflex arc in terms of sensory, the process [stimulus, receptor through to
relay and motor neurones, and a reflex action as a response of effector muscle] and direction of
means of automatically and rapidly integrating and impulse. Discuss what happens to the impulse at
coordinating stimuli with responses. the synapse. With the aid of a large diagram show
State that muscles and glands can act as effectors. how the arm moves to pull the hand away from a
Describe the action of antagonistic muscles to hot object, labelling muscles, to bend and
include the biceps and triceps at the elbow joint. straighten the arm. Determine reaction time by
dropping the ruler exercise.
Make a glossary of terms and names.
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
Describe and distinguish between the three types Use large diagrams to label and annotate for the three types of neurones and the insulation
of neurone found in a reflex arc and their along the axon and dendron by the myelin sheath. Compare with a length of insulated wire
functions. to represent a nerve. Bio viewers or photomicrographs to illustrate the size of nerve cells.
Explain the importance of reflex actions to the Carry out an investigation in reaction time by dropping the ruler. The distance measured
body. below the hand when the ruler is caught is recorded in millimetres. This exercise can be
Describe the role of antagonistic muscles as extended by varying the right or left hands and with sight of the ruler or with a blindfolded
effectors. and audible instruction only.
There are reaction tests online http://getyourwebsitehere.com/jswb/rttest01.html - traffic
light timed response in seconds.

Page 39 of 70
Biology for IGCSE Reference 12.4 Sense organs, pp. 148-9; 12.5 The eye, pp. 150–1 33
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (10.1 core) Nervous control in humans
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
Define sense organs as groups of List the different senses which can be experienced and Distinguish between rods and cones, in
receptor cells responding to specific tabulate with the organs involved. This list may include terms of function and distribution.
stimuli: light, sound, touch, temperature taste as well as light, sound, touch, temperature and Opportunity to check colour vision of
and chemicals. chemicals. students with test charts.
Describe the structure and function of The sense organ studied in detail is the eye. Use large Use of lenses to demonstrate the effects of
the eye, including accommodation and diagrams to label and annotate to explain structure. these on focussing – explain
pupil reflex. Explain reflexes – blinking and iris to protect the eye accommodation.
Distinguish between rods and cones, in from damage and recall reflex actions. Explain long Opportunity to extend study to different
terms of function and distribution. and short sightedness and accommodation. Look into animals and their vision – link to colours
the layers of the eye and especially the retina. Compare and visual range in electromagnetic
the distribution of rods and cones and the intensity of spectrum.
light needed to stimulate these light sensitive cells. The
three colours red, blue and green and link to colour
blindness [more common in males].
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
Define sense organs as groups of It is useful to arrange a ‘circus’ of senses - demonstrations that students pass round - these testing the
receptor cells responding to particular sense of smell; touch [ rough, smooth]; sight [ show diagrams of visual illusions], hearing; temperature
stimuli. [ piece of ice]; chemicals [ detergent, scent, raw onion].
Describe the structure and function of There are videos available to show aspects of vision.
the eye including the pupil reflex. Use a model eye to show major parts of the eye structure. Large diagrams label and annotate. Show
Describe the structure and function of the light rays bending at the cornea and lens to focus onto the retina. Mark the fovea by drawing a
the eye including accommodation. horizontal line from the front to the back of the eye and explain this area of the retina has the largest
Extension: distinguish between rods number of cones for colour vision.
and cones, in terms of function and For the sense of taste, students could map out areas on the tongue to taste salt, sweet, sour and bitter at
distribution. home [for safety reasons – do not taste in class].

Page 40 of 70
Biology for IGCSE Reference 12.6 Hormones, pp.152-3; 11.1 Controlling conditions in the body, pp.130-1 34
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link ( 10.2 core and extension) Hormones
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
Define a hormone as a chemical Define what a hormone is and tabulate the hormones Discuss diabetes.
substance, produced by a gland, carried students can name, where these are produced in the body Discuss the use of steroids.
by the blood, which alters the activity of and their effects. Use a large diagram to label and annotate Discuss the use of hormones in food
one or more specific target organs and is for these hormones and introduce the term endocrine Production.
then destroyed by the liver. organs. Explain how these are ductless glands and compare Use of video and web sites for
State the role of the hormone adrenaline with digestive glands – salivary glands. Explain the industrial uses. If combined with site
in chemical control of metabolic activity, passage of hormones around the body in the blood from the visits to farms or laboratories or
including increasing the blood glucose endocrine organ – site of production, to the target organ factories to a local farm or dairy.
concentration and pulse rate. which maybe one or a range of organs using some named
Give examples of situations in which hormones – adrenalin, insulin and reproductive hormones. Introduce plant hormones.
adrenaline secretion increases. Recall the position of adrenal glands above the kidney in
Compare nervous and hormonal control the abdomen and close proximity to blood vessels and the
systems. heart. Discuss situations where adrenaline is involved and
Discuss the use of hormones in food stress the breakdown in the liver as this heightened level of
production. activity cannot be maintained in the body.
Discuss the use of BST in milk production.
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
Define the term hormone. Large diagrams of human body to locate endocrine glands and label. Use paper cut out cards to
State the role of adrenaline in control of match glands and hormones with their effects.
body metabolism.
Compare the nervous system with the Demonstrate the use of blood glucose testing kits used by diabetics. Test solutions containing
endocrine system. glucose with Benedict’s solution and Clinistix.
Extension - discuss the use of hormones Poster work to compare nervous system with the endocrine system in speed and duration of
in food production. response, nature of response and how it occurs.

Page 41 of 70
Biology for IGCSE Reference 12.7 Tropic responses, pp. 154–5 35
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link ( 10.3 core and extension ) Tropic responses
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
Define and investigate geotropism Show young seedlings as the growth occurs – indicate . explain the chemical control of plant
(as a response in which a plant grows positive geotropism – growth towards gravity of roots growth by auxins including geotropism and
towards or away from gravity) and and negative geotropism but positive phototropism of phototropism in terms of auxins regulating
phototropism (as a response in shoots. Observe seedlings set up in box with only a small differential growth, and the effects of
which a plant grows towards or away hole for light to enter from one side. Have control in light synthetic plant hormones used as weed
from the direction from which light is and others in complete darkness. killers
coming). Distinguish between tropism and etiolation as plants
Explain the chemical control of plant develop over longer periods of time.
growth by auxins including Discuss the use of klinostat to negate the effect of
geotropism and phototropism in terms gravity. Explain these tropic responses with the idea of
of auxins regulating differential auxins and natural h [plant hormone].
growth, and the effects of synthetic Introduce the research into synthetic hormones which
plant hormones used as weed killers. will encourage braod leaved plants to grow and have
little effect on cereals – hence the use of these substances
as weed killers.
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
Define the terms phototropism and Grow cereal seedlings in gas jars or similar containers to keep the coleoptiles and roots straight during
geotropism. growth. Turn container onto its side to show positive geotropism of roots and negative geotropism and
Extension - explain the chemical positive phototropism of coleoptiles. Pin some germination beans [as these are lager to pin] onto the
control of plant growth by hormones. rotating surface of a klinostat to negate the effect of gravity for comparison.
Extension - explain the effect of Grow seedlings such quick growing cress or cabbage seedlings in a pot or dish to show response of
synthetic plant hormones used in shoots to light from one side [use a box with a small hole in one side.] Controls ingrown in the full light
weedkillers. and others in complete darkness.
If possible use different growth boxes with coloured filters to experiment with light of different
wavelengths.

Page 42 of 70
Biology for IGCSE Reference 11 Homeostasis and excretion; 11.1 Controlling conditions in the body, pp. 130-1 36
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (10.4 core and extension) Homeostasis
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
Core: Recall the term homeostasis as the control of the Explain the concept of control by negative
Define homeostasis as the maintenance internal environment even though there maybe external feedback.
of a constant internal environment. influences and discuss the needs of the body. Describe the control of the glucose content
Describe the maintenance of a constant Recall the structure of the skin and in a table compare of the blood by the liver, and by insulin and
body temperature in humans in terms of changes when the temperature of the body decreases glucagon from the pancreas.
insulation and the role of temperature and increases. Use this familiar example to explain Discuss the different types of diabetes and
receptors in the skin, negative feedback. use the idea that type 2 is not just related to
Extension: Start a flowchart with the intake of food, digestion, body size – obesity, but has been found to
Explain the concept of control by absorption and assimilation of glucose to show the have a genetical basis.
negative feedback. control of blood glucose levels. Describe the receptors,
Describe the control of the glucose hormones released from the endocrine organs – islets in
content of the blood by the liver, and by the pancreas. Insulin to lower blood glucose by
insulin and glucagon from the pancreas. converting it to glycogen in the liver, muscles and
adipose tissue and glucagon for breakdown of glycogen
and conversion to glucose to raise blood glucose levels
back to a norm - negative feedback. Recap the effect
of adrenaline which will also stimulate this process to
raise blood glucose level.
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
Define the term homeostasis. Construct flow diagrams of how the body responds to too much and too little glucose in the blood.
Extension - explain the concept of Demonstrate the use of blood glucose testing kits used by diabetics. Test solutions containing glucose
negative feedback. with Benedict’s solution and Clinistix. Handle secondary data to illustrate the way the body controls
Extension - describe the control of blood glucose levels within narrow limits.
blood glucose concentration. Handle secondary data on levels of blood glucose during the day. This aids understanding of the speed
of reaction and what happens if intake is delayed.

Page 43 of 70
Biology for IGCSE Reference 13 Drugs; 13.1 Drugs and how they work pp. 158-9; 13.2 Heroin, pp.160 – 1; 13.3 Alcohol, pp. 162– 3; 13.4
Smoking and health, pp. 164–5 37
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (10.5 core and extension) Drugs
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
Define a drug as any substance taken into the body that Introduce the term drug and construct a spider Explain why antibiotics kill
modifies or affects chemical reactions in the body. chart which can be annotated. This needs to bacteria but not viruses.
Describe the medicinal use of antibiotics for the treatment be covered with students’ welfare in mind and This will need large diagrams to
of bacterial infection. not to stimulate experimentation. show the wall covering of bacteria
Describe the effects of the abuse of heroin: a Antibiotic allergies need to be checked before and virus particles to aid the
powerful depressant, problems of addiction, severe using any practical demonstration. Many explanation.
withdrawal symptoms and associated problems such as students will have received treatment for Distinguish between bacteriocide
crime and infection, e.g. HIV/AIDS. bacterial infection. Short history of discovery and bacteriostatic effects.
Describe the effects of excessive consumption of alcohol: is useful to introduce topic. The same applies Differences between stimulants
reduced self-control, depressant, effect on reaction times, for other drugs on syllabus. and depressants and effect on
damage to liver and social implications. Cover each in term covering dangers and nervous system.
Describe the effects of tobacco smoke and its major toxic legal aspects as well as health issues. Care needed with religious aspects.
components (tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, smoke Summarise with a table to cover main points.
particles) on the gas exchange system.
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
Define the term drug. Use antibiotic disks or Mastrings on bacterial colonies growing on agar plates or
Describe the use of antibiotics in the treatment of show image. Use only recommended and permitted bacteria from reliable sources.
bacterial infection. Poster work on heroin or watch educational / health video. Stress the sources, the
Extension - explain why antibiotics kill bacteria but not legal issues and the link with sharing needles and HIV. The addition in individuals
viruses. from babies onwards and the treatment including withdrawal problems.
Describe the effects of heroin the problems of addiction, Alcohol – many sources of data in books and on the web. Poster work. Can use
severe withdrawal; problems such as crime and HIV dilute alcohol and show effects on heartbeat of Daphnia if microscope and camera
infection. are available. Smoking – video from health sites can be useful. Images of blackened
Describe the effects of drinking excessive quantities of lungs [maybe visit to museum] experiment in a fume cupboard of cigarette attached
alcohol including the long-term effects. to water pump and collect tar on cotton wool in tube.
Describe the effects of the components of tobacco smoke
on the gas exchange system and the heart.

Page 44 of 70
Biology for IGCSE Reference Section 111 Development of the organism and the continuity of life [ 25% of teaching time) 38
14, Reproduction in plants; 14.1 Asexual and sexual reproduction, pp.168-9
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link Reproduction (1.1 core and extension) Asexual reproduction (1.2 core and extension) Sexual
reproduction
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
Define asexual reproduction as the process Recall definitions of growth and reproduction. Discuss the advantages and
resulting in the production of genetically Discuss the differences between sexual and asexual disadvantages to a species of asexual
identical offspring from one parent. reproduction and record definitions. reproduction.
Describe asexual reproduction in bacteria, Illustrate asexual reproduction by describing Discuss the advantages and
spore production in fungi and tuber formation examples mentioned in the syllabus bacteria, fungi disadvantages to a species of sexual
in potatoes. and tuber [stem] in potato. It is helpful to include reproduction.
Extension - discuss the advantages and other examples, especially if specimens are available
disadvantages to a species of asexual such as runners, bulbs and rhizomes. Pin moulds or Examples of cloning can be discussed
reproduction. others on infected fruit will show the asexual fungal – the importance in maintaining
Define sexual reproduction as the process spores but not mushrooms. Discuss aspects of specific strains of crop and garden
involving the fusion of haploid nuclei to form a cloning with genetically identical offspring and plants. The research into animal
diploid zygote and the production of discuss the advantages but also disadvantages of this cloning – Dolly the sheep. Stem cells
genetically dissimilar offspring. similarity in table form. The haploid nuclei in and the research which is going head
Extension - discuss the advantages and gametes – genetically dissimilar can be added to the to develop in the health fields
disadvantages to a species of sexual same table for comparison purposes. including organ transplant.
reproduction.
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
Define asexual and sexual reproduction. Observe plant specimens, e.g. strawberry runners, bulbs, tubers and rhizomes, etc. - discuss the
Describe asexual reproduction in bacteria, asexual and perennating aspects include the potato.
spore formation in fungi and tuber formation in Observe growing moulds on food, e.g. oranges but be careful with spores – keep covered.
potatoes. Can use ‘blue vein’ cheeses to show fungal growing and spores if microscopes are available –
Extension – describe the advantages and if not show images in books or web sites.
disadvantages of asexual and sexual Poster to cover aspects from genetics – identical genome.
reproduction. Discuss cloning and show plant clones, e.g. runners still attached to parent plant.

Page 45 of 70
Biology for IGCSE Reference14.2 Flower structure, pp. 170-1; 14.3 Pollination pp.172-3; 14.4 Fertilisation and seed production, pp. 174-5 39
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link ( 1.2.1 core and extension ) Sexual reproduction in plants
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and
Identify and draw, using a hand lens if necessary, the sepals, petals, Using a specimen of a large dicotyledonous insect-pollinated Consolidation
stamens, anthers, carpels, ovaries and stigmas of one, locally flower for each student – observe the number and whorls of floral . - distinguish
available, named, insect-pollinated, dicotyledonous flower, and parts and as detached stick down on paper and cover with between self-
examine the pollen grains under a light microscope or in transparent adhesive tape. Label and record details of colour, pollination and
photomicrographs. markings [honey guides] , scent etc that will fade and dry out. cross-pollination
State the functions of the sepals, petals, anthers, stigmas and In table format list the functions of each different part in turn. - discuss the
ovaries. Examine anthers and pollen grains. Appreciate the size and implications to a
Use a hand lens to identify and describe the anthers and stigmas of individuality of pollen grains between species to distinguish species of self-
one, locally available, named, wind-pollinated flower, and examine between those of flowers which are insect-pollinated. pollination
the pollen grains under a light microscope or in photomicrographs. Compare with wind-pollinated flowers trees or grasses mainly. and cross-
Candidates should expect to apply their understanding of the Maize has large visible flowers on separate parts of the plant. pollination
flowers they have studied to unfamiliar flowers. Compare the two types of flower and the need for the adaptations
Define pollination as the transfer of pollen grains from the male for the two types of pollination. Define pollination. Introduce the
part of the plant (anther of stamen) to the female part of the plant ideas of self-pollination and cross-pollination discussing the
(stigma). implications to a species. Observe the development of pollen
Name the agents of pollination. tubes, germinating pollen grains of slides if microscopes are
Compare the different structural adaptations of insect-pollinated available. Use diagrams to show the tube growth and its
and wind-pollinated flowers. development to fertilisation.
Describe the growth of the pollen tube and its entry into the ovule
followed by fertilisation (production of endosperm and details of
development are not required).
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
Describe the structure of an insect-pollinated flower. Observe a range of flowers growing in the local area starting with those that have a
State the functions of sepals, petals, anthers, stigmas and ovaries. large flower to those which have many small flowers making up an inflorescence using
Describe the structure of a wind-pollinated flower. examples that students can easily separate and remove floral parts to count numbers -
Compare the adaptations of different types of pollen grain. not those complex flowers with fused floral parts. Use hand lens or microscopes to
Define the term pollination and name the agents of pollination. observe details including pollen grains to discuss structure of anthers and dispersal of
Compare the different structural adaptations of insect-pollinated pollen grain. Opportunity to recap size and magnification. Use large diagrams to
and wind-pollinated flowers. prepare posters. Compare with wind pollinated plants – maize is an example of separate
Extension - distinguish between self-pollination and cross- male and female flowers on the same plant. Poster work for range of flowers or display
pollination and discuss their significance. would aid the variety to be shown or a visit to local nature reserve or garden.

Page 46 of 70
Biology for IGCSE Reference 14.4 Fertilisation and seed formation, pp. 174-5; 14.5 Fruits and seeds pp.176-7; 14.6 Growth and
development, pp. 178-9 40
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (1.2.1 core) Sexual reproduction in plants ( 2. core) Growth and development
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and
Describe the growth of the pollen tube and its entry into the ovule Recap the idea of pollen tube extending and fusion of the Consolidation
followed by fertilisation (production of endosperm and details of nuclei to form diploid zygote. Use large diagrams to trace Germinate variety of
development are not required). the pathway and identify the ovary and what develops seeds.
Investigate and describe the structure of a non-endospermic seed in after this stage. Table format for names of structures and Set projects to find variety
terms of the embryo (radicle, plumule and cotyledons) and testa, what develops is a short convenient form to present this of different fruits for
protected by the fruit. data. By investigating soaked seeds of the largest type display and label types of
Outline the formation of a seed (limited to embryo, cotyledons, available – removing tests and observing the embryo and dispersal. Wind dispersed
testa and role of mitosis) and fruit (produced from the ovary wall). dissecting it – with the aid of large labelled diagrams helps fruits – measure range of
State that seed and fruit dispersal by wind and by to explain the arrangement of the various parts. distance – discuss
animals provides a means of colonising new areas. Look at variety of fruits and discuss dispersal – list the effectiveness of dispersal,
Describe, using named examples, seed and fruit main types seen. Test how effective the shapes are when e.g. samara types.
dispersal by wind and by animals. falling from different heights. Follow stages of
Define growth in terms of a permanent increase in size and dry germination and conditions required for successful
mass by an increase in cell number or cell size or both. germination.
Define development in terms of increase in complexity. Measure the growth in seedlings by drying samples of
Investigate and state the environmental conditions that affect different ages and recording dry weight changes.
germination of seeds: requirement for water and oxygen, suitable
temperature.
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
Describe the events that lead to fertilisation. Follow investigation in pollen tubes observing extension using suitable growth media –
Describe happens when a seed is formed. to be found in many advanced books. Use large diagrams to draw the pathway the tube
Describe the structure of a seed. passing through into the ovary, explain the fusion to form the diploid zygote.
State that seed and fruit dispersal, by wind and by animals provides Observe large soaked dicotyledonous seeds such as beans [broad beans] to recognise
a means of colonising new areas. Describe examples of dispersal by the testa [by squeezing the seed the micropyle releases liquid] the scar of attachment.
wind and animals. Define the terms growth and development. Remove the testa to observe the embryo and the two cotyledons [pull apart] plumule
Describe the germination of seeds. State the environmental and radicle. Repeat with other seeds of the same type to follow the early stages of
conditions that affect the germination of seeds. development later stages of germination. Investigate the environmental conditions
needed for germination with apparatus lacking in one of oxygen, warmth, or water.
Collect variety of fruits and discus means of dispersal.

Page 47 of 70
Biology for IGCSE Reference 15 Sexual reproduction in humans; 15.1 The male reproductive system, pp. 182-3; 15.2 The female
reproductive system, pp.184-5 41
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (1.2.2 core and extension) Sexual reproduction in humans
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
Identify on diagrams of the male Use diagrams showing frontal and side views of Compare male and female gametes in terms
reproductive system, the testes, scrotum, reproductive systems. Label and annotate as each of size, numbers and mobility.
sperm ducts, prostate gland, urethra and reproductive structure is covered. Label other
penis, and state the functions associated body structures linked with the Remember the ‘u’ words urethra, ureter,
of these parts. excretory and digestive systems. uterus – stress the need for accurate spelling.
Identify on diagrams of the female Use ‘fill in the gap’ type questions to help with
reproductive system, the ovaries, oviducts, the use of specific terms and the functions. Can discuss development during stages in
uterus, cervix and vagina, and state the Photomicrographs or diagrams with a scale to life and reproductive years.
functions of these parts. illustrate the differences between gametes.
Extension - compare male and female Present in table format to show similarities and
gametes in terms of size, numbers and differences – in size, numbers produced and
mobility. mobility.

Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources


Identify on diagrams the parts of the male Use large diagrams to label and annotate.
reproductive system and state their functions. To be covered sensitively – sex education should have already been covered in earlier years.
E – Compare male and female gametes.
Identify on diagrams the parts of the female
reproductive system and state their functions
Describe sexual intercourse in humans.

Page 48 of 70
Biology for IGCSE Reference 15.6 The menstrual cycle, pp.192-3; 15.3 Fertilisation and implantation, pp.186-7 42
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (1.2.2 core and extension ) Sexual reproduction in humans
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
Describe the menstrual cycle in terms of Stress the female fetus has ovaries and pre-eggs laid Explain the role of hormones in controlling
changes in the uterus and ovaries. down before birth. The menstrual cycles start at the menstrual cycle (including FSH, LH,
Outline sexual intercourse and describe puberty and the fact that this is getting earlier in life progesterone and oestrogen).
fertilisation in terms of the joining of the with better living conditions. Explain the cycle with
nuclei of male gamete (sperm) and the suitable diagrams on the basis of 28 days. Four line
female gamete (egg). graphs in the same time frame is a useful guide – the
Outline early development of the zygote thickening of uterus lining; the hormones for build up
simply in terms of the formation of a ball the lining and develop the egg; then mark ovulation;
of cells that becomes implanted in the the development of the corpus luteum [colour in
wall of the uterus. yellow] and the release of progesterone. Outline
Extension - explain the role of hormones intercourse, mobility of sperm and where fertilisation
in controlling the menstrual cycle takes place, fusion of gamete nuclei to restore diploid
(including FSH, LH, progesterone and status on formation of zygote and the events that
oestrogen). follow during the next 7 days leading to implantation
of embryo.

Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources


Describe the menstrual cycle in terms of Construct either linear or cyclic charts to illustrate sequence of events involved in the menstrual
changes in the uterus and ovaries. cycle on 28 day [lunar month] basis.
Extension – explain the role of hormones It is possible to link the changes in the uterus wall lining with the thickening prior to ovulation and
in controlling the menstrual cycle. also to show the timescale for the changes in the ovary before and after ovulation.
Describe fertilisation in humans. The nature of the hormones, the stimulus, source, day of release and effect(s) can be tabulated.
Describe the early development of the
zygote to form a ball of cells that is
implanted into the uterus wall.

Page 49 of 70
Biology for IGCSE Reference 15.4 pregnancy pp. 188-19; 15.5 Ante-natal care and birth, pp. 190-1 43
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link ( 1.2.2 core and extension) sexual reproduction in humans
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
Outline the development of the fetus. Use of work sheet to follow monthly development of fetus, Indicate the functions of the
Describe the function of the placenta and including size. amniotic sac and amniotic fluid
umbilical cord in relation to exchange of Discuss the role of the placenta listing by reference to size describe the advantages and
dissolved nutrients, gases and excretory the materials that will cross the membrane and those which disadvantages of breast-feeding
products (no structural details are required). will not pass and what materials are needed for development. compared with bottle-feeding
Extension - indicate the functions of the Extension - describe the protection of the developing fetus in using formula milk.
amniotic sac and amniotic fluid. the uterus with reference to the amniotic fluid contained in Comparison of different formula
Describe the ante-natal care of pregnant the amniotic sac. milk for bottle fed babies and
women including special dietary needs and List the ante-natal checks done for pregnant women and compare with cows milk to
maintaining good health. briefly the reasons for dietary needs – needs and materials to illustrate the modification. Go
Outline the processes involved in labour and leave out of diet. through the sterile techniques
birth. Outline the three stages of labour and birth. needed.
Extension - describe the advantages and Extension - discuss differences between modified cows milk
disadvantages of breast-feeding compared and breast milk and advantages and disadvantages of both.
with bottle-feeding using formula milk.
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
Describe the development of the fetus. Use models or images of the monthly stages of gestation to make diagrams. Use work sheets
Describe the functions of the placenta and with to scale drawings or others with scales to realise the growth and increase in size of the
umbilical cord. developing fetus. Large diagrams / posters to show structure and role of placenta – listing the
Extension – state the functions of the amnion materials that will cross and those which will not.
and the amniotic fluid.
Describe the ante-natal care of pregnant
women; Describe the processes involved in
labour and birth.
Extension – breast and bottle feeding –
advantages and disadvantages.

Page 50 of 70
Biology for IGCSE Reference 15.7 Sex hormones, pp. 194-5; 15.8 Methods of birth control, pp. 196-7 44
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link ( 1.3 core and extension) Sex hormones (1.4 core and extension) Methods of birth control
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
Describe the roles of testosterone and oestrogen in Recall the menstrual cycle – link with the Describe the sites of production and the
the development and regulation of secondary female hormone oestrogen and the roles of oestrogen and progesterone in the
sexual characteristics at puberty. secondary sex characteristics; similarly the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy.
Extension - describe the sites of production and effects of testosterone and production of Outline artificial insemination and the use of
the roles of oestrogen and progesterone in the sperm. Link progesterone and menstrual hormones in fertility drugs, and discuss their
menstrual cycle and in pregnancy. cycle – recall the four line graphs. social implications.
Outline the following methods of birth control: Discuss methods of birth control and
• natural (abstinence, rhythm method) tabulate the details of the four main
• chemical (contraceptive pill, spermicide) approaches.
• mechanical (condom, diaphragm, femidom, IUD) Discuss methods used to overcome fertility
• surgical (vasectomy, female sterilisation). problems and discuss social problems and
Extension - outline artificial insemination and the expense.
use of hormones in fertility drugs, and discuss their
social implications.
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
Describe the roles of testosterone and oestrogen in Large diagrams, tables. Poster work.
developing secondary sexual characteristics at
puberty.
Extension- describe artificial insemination and the
use of fertility drugs and discuss their social
implications.
Describe the following methods of birth control:
natural, chemical; mechanical and surgical.

Page 51 of 70
Biology for IGCSE Reference 15.9 Sexually transmitted diseases, pp.198-9 45
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link ( 1.5 core and extension ) Sexually transmitted diseases
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities. Extension and Consolidation
Describe the symptoms, signs, effects and These topics have to be treated sensitively but Outline how HIV affects the immune system
treatment of gonorrhoea. are important in personal development of in a person with HIV/AIDS.
Describe the methods of transmission of human students.
immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and the ways in Explain what the pathogens are and how they Discuss data from reliable sources such as
which HIV/AIDS can be prevented from are spread. Remind students prompt treatment WHO observe trends in different countries
spreading. can help. around the world.
Extension - outline how HIV affects the immune Spider charts and tables to summarise
system in a person with HIV/AIDS. discussion points are helpful.
Link with the immune system from the
previous studies on blood.

Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources


Poster work and large diagrams to label and annotate of life cycle of \HIV. Explain latency
Describe the methods of transmission of HIV and the treatments to extend this. Explain the nature of the virus. Review some aspects of
and the ways in which HIV/AIDS can be spread and how some ways can be prevented. Spider diagrams of ways to prevent body
prevented from spreading. fluids transferring the virus.
Etension – describe how HIV affects the immune Websites such as WHO have data on occurrence, spread and current research and treatment.
system. Discuss the birth of babies to affected mothers and ways to prevent this transfer.
Describe the symptoms, signs, effects and
treatment of gonorrhoea.

Page 52 of 70
Biology for IGCSE Reference 16 Inheritance; 16.1 Chromosomes, genes and DNA, pp.202-3 46
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (3 core) Inheritance; 3.1 core) Chromosomes
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and
Define inheritance as the transmission of genetic Recall the structure of a cell and focus on the nucleus and link Consolidation
information from generation to generation. with inheritance. Define inheritance. Recall the human Human karyotype – start
3.1 Chromosomes - define the terms: karyotype and 23 pairs of chromosomes. Define a with a photomicrograph of
• chromosome as a thread of DNA, made up of a chromosome in terms used in the syllabus. a diploid set of human
string of genes A short outline of the structure of DNA shown by making chromosomes and cut out
• gene as a length of DNA that is the unit of paper models. The history of the discovery of the structure – individual chromosomes
heredity and codes for a specific protein. A Watson and Crick et al needs to be mentioned. and pair up.
gene may be copied and passed on to the Define the gene as a length of DNA as in the syllabus.
next generation Define the term allele which is a shortened version of
• allele as any of two or more alternative forms allelomorphic pair – to explain the term. Give examples e.g.
of a gene gene for height and alleles for tall and dwarf – introduce the
• haploid nucleus as a nucleus containing a work of Mendel.
single set of unpaired chromosomes (e.g. Recall the life cycle of gamete formation, fusion on
sperm and egg) fertilisation in terms of chromosome number in humans.
• diploid nucleus as a nucleus containing two sets 23 pairs of chromosomes in diploid body cells and 23
of chromosomes (e.g. in body cells). chromosomes in gametes – egg and sperm.
Describe the inheritance of sex in humans Recall the human karyotype and locate the sex chromosomes
(XX and XY chromosomes). and explain the gender difference and size difference.
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
Define inheritance. Build paper models of DNA for posters to show DNA. Many interactive websites to show
State the meaning of the terms chromosome, rotating models of DNA. Outline the history of the discovery of DNA by Watson and Crick
gene and DNA. et al. Observe images of the karyotype of human chromosomes and discuss the formation of
gametes – halving the chromosome number to restore on fertilisation..
Indicate the sex chromosomes and the genes located on these maps for future work on
inheritance of certain conditions such as colour blindness.

Page 53 of 70
Biology for IGCSE Reference 16.2 Mitosis and meiosis, pp. 204-5 47
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (3.2 core) Mitosis ( 3.3 core) Meiosis
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and
Define mitosis as nuclear division giving Recall the basis of asexual reproduction and body cells in humans. Use a pie Consolidation
rise to genetically identical cells in which chart cycle to explain mitosis and the duration of the interphase between Examples to show
the chromosome number is maintained nuclear divisions. Explain the continuity of genetic material in terms of mitosis and meiosis
by the exact duplication of chromosomes DNA replication during this interphase. Poster work to explain amongst the plant
(details of stages are not required). multiplication of chromatids, separation of these to give rise to two identical kingdom can be used
State the role of mitosis in growth, repair ‘daughter’ cells so all offspring is alike. Recap cloning in plants, animals, to link Mendel’s work
of damaged tissues, replacement of worn bacteria as well as for growth and repair of damaged cells using suitable with inheritance.
out cells and asexual reproduction. examples e.g. mending of broken bones.
Define meiosis as reduction division in Recall the basis of sexual reproduction and formation of gametes in plants
which the chromosome number is halved and animals and link with meiosis [reduction division]. Use a flow diagram
from diploid to haploid (details of stages to explain the haploid and diploid stages in the life cycle involving sexual
are not required). reproduction and the continuity of chromosome number. Poster work with
State that gametes are the result of two sets of different coloured straws may help to explain the difference
meiosis. between mitosis and the double division of meiosis. The exchange of parts
State that meiosis results in genetic of chromosomes and unique combinations of the different colours helps in
variation so the cells produced are not all the explanation of genetic variation in formation and recombination of
genetically identical. gametes on fertilisation to form the diploid zygote.
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
Define mitosis and state its importance Use plastic drinking straws stuck in twos to represent the chromatids. Use these in poster work for
in growth, development and asexual mitosis. Video on mitosis or interactive website. Label the stages in the life cycle where DNA
reproduction. replication occurs and then separation of the chromatids to become chromosomes.
Define meiosis and state its importance in Using two sets of different coloured straws and poster work to show meiosis – label in the formation
the formation of gametes and in of gametes. Video on meiosis or interactive website to illustrate this type of division in sexual
producing genetic variation. reproduction. Cut the straws and rejoin so the transferred sections appear in different colours to
illustrate the variation in chromosomes that will be present in the gametes.

Page 54 of 70
Biology for IGCSE Reference 16.3 Genes and chromosomes, pp. 206-7; 16.4 Monohybrid inheritance pp. 208-9 48
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (3.4 core ) Monohybrid inheritance
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and
Define the terms: Recall the terms gene and allele and define terms: Consolidation
• genotype as genetic makeup of an organism in homozygous; heterozygous; dominant and recessive; It is possible to purchase
terms of the alleles present (e.g. Tt or GG) phenotype and genotype using the inheritance of one seeds of genetic crosses to
• phenotype as the physical or other features of an characteristic e.g. height of plant. Link to life cycle of germinate to show
organism due to both its genotype and its flowering plant to recap events leading to fertilisation. inheritance of seed colour,
environment (e.g. tall plant or green seed) Circle the genotypes of gametes and explain the use of e.g. tobacco. Germination
• homozygous as having two identical alleles of a upper and lower case letters of the same letter of the can sometimes be slow – up
particular gene (e.g. TT or gg). Two identical alphabet for dominant [upper case] and recessive allele to three weeks.
homozygous individuals that breed together will be [lower case]. Explain the use of Punnett squares.
pure-breeding Explain the ratio of 3:1 crosses. Distinguish between
• heterozygous as having two different alleles homo- and hetero – zygous dominant offspring with back
of a particular gene (e.g. Tt or Gg), not pure cross or test cross and the 1:1 ratio.
breeding Students can work similar crosses on other characteristics
• dominant as an allele that is expressed if it is e.g. flower colour [dominant red or white flowers with no
present (e.g. T or G) intermediates] wrinkled v smooth seeds [use of
• recessive as an allele that is only expressed photographs of maize cobs to count the seeds – to be found
when there is no dominant allele present (e.g. t or g). in textbooks, past exam questions or websites].
Calculate and predict the results of monohybrid Use animal examples and explain limited number of
crosses involving 1 : 1 and 3 : 1 ratio. offspring – unusual ratio may result e.g. fur colour.
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
Describe the inheritance of sex chromosomes. Poster and board work to explain inheritance of one characteristic, e.g. height of plants.
Use the terminology of inheritance. Use of coloured drinking straws to show homozygous and heterozygous states. Use
Distinguish between gene and allele. Punnett squares to follow inheritance, include the explanation of noting genotypes of
Define monohybrid inheritance. gametes. Link to life cycle of plants. Calculate and predict the results of monohybrid
Explain examples of monohybrid crosses. crosses involving 1 : 1 and 3 : 1 ratio; test and back crosses using seed colour, etc.

Page 55 of 70
Biology for IGCSE Reference 16.4 Monohybrid inheritance, pp. 208-9; 16.5 Codominance pp.210-11 49
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (3.4 core and extension) Monohybrid inheritance (part)
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
Extension - explain Introduce the idea of codominance – if compare with red and This is all extension material.
codominance by reference to the white flower colour in terms of ‘paint box’ it can help to
inheritance of ABO blood explain intermediates where both alleles exist and give rise to Other examples of codominance can be used
groups, phenotypes, A, B, AB pink intermediate colour for offspring to explain 1:2:1 ratio. to illustrate this type of inheritance such as
and O blood groups and Then introduce the concept of blood groups which are difficult fur colour in cattle – roan or other
genotypes IA, IB and I0. for students to visualise. Explain genotypes have I followed by intermediate characteristics.
superscripts [ I stands for isohaematoglutinogen] to explain
homozygous IA IA ;homozygous; IA Io heterozygous for
phenotype A etc. use crosses involving pedigree tree diagrams
to explain inheritance within families and across different
generations. Include ideas of paternity and adoption to explain
unrelated crosses.

Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources


Extension – explain the term Testing of blood as a body fluid is not permitted now. Most students will not know own blood group.
codominance. Explain blood groups to distinguish between phenotype A, AB; B; O and genotype and the use of I prior to
Describe the inheritance of superscript using A, B or o in terms of codominance and recessive – IA ; IB ; Io in combination to show
blood groups AB and O. homozygous or heterozygous condition..
Use board work to explain inheritance of blood groups.

Page 56 of 70
Biology for IGCSE Reference 17 Variation and selection; 17.1 Variation, pp. 214-15; 17.2 Mutations, pp. 216-17 50
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (3.5 and extension core ) Variation
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and
State that continuous variation is influenced by genes Define the terms continuous and discontinuous variation Consolidation
and environment, resulting in a range of phenotypes and using suitable examples analyse data which can be
between two extremes, e.g. height in humans. collected within the group and published data. Blood
State that discontinuous variation is caused by genes groups will need to be explained in core only students – Describe sickle cell
alone and results in a limited number of distinct the phenotypes as the interpretation of genotypes in is anaemia, and explain its
phenotypes with no intermediates e.g. A, B, AB and O extension work. incidence in relation to
blood groups in humans. Introduce the idea of mutation on one base level as that of malaria.
Define mutation as a change in a gene or chromosome. shown in sickle cell; as chromosome as shown in Down’s
Describe mutation as a source of variation, as shown by syndrome and as sets of chromosomes as in some plants
Down’s syndrome. such as bread wheat.
Outline the effects of ionising radiation and chemicals For extension work on explanation of survival to malaria
on the rate of mutation. – some reference will need to be made to the pathogenic
Extensiuon - describe sickle cell anaemia, and explain Plasmodium being unable to live on red blood cells.
its incidence in relation to that of malaria.
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
State the difference between continuous and Measure height, hand span or other examples of continuous variation to illustrate the
discontinuous variation. range of measurement and discuss the use of tally charts and histograms to process
Identify and explain examples of variation. data. Use examples in plants such size of seeds, fruits or vegetables or different
Define the term mutation. colour of the same species or number of beans that can be picked up in one handful.
Describe Down’s syndrome as an example of mutation. If possible control certain factors such as age or gender.
Describe the possible effects of radiation and certain In discussion of discontinuous variation – use examples of a limited number of
chemicals on the rate of mutation. distinct phenotypes with no intermediates e.g. tongue-rolling versus non tongue-
Extension- describe sickle cell anaemia as an example of rolling; etc. handle secondary data on blood groups and link with codominance
mutation. studies for extension studies but just groups for the core.
Recall karyotype studies for Down’s syndrome and charts of radiation and chemicals
for explaining mutation. Describe sickle cell inheritance with use of published data
to support link with malaria and survival..

Page 57 of 70
Biology for IGCSE Reference 17.3 Natural selection, pp. 218-19 51
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (3.6 core and extension) Selection
Learning Objectives - Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
Define natural selection as the greater chance of Introduce the work of Charles Darwin and recall Describe variation and state that
passing on of genes by the best adapted studies on variation. Link to the production of large competition leads to differential
organisms. numbers of offspring in fish with external fertilisation survival of, and reproduction by,
Extension: and development or seeds in plants. List the problems those organisms best fitted to the
Describe variation and state that competition of reaching maturity and introduce the terms environment.
leads to differential survival of, and reproduction competition and ‘survival of the fittest’. Using Extension - assess the importance of
by, those organisms best fitted to the examples such as sockeye salmon, birds or weed natural selection as
environment. plants. a possible mechanism for evolution
Assess the importance of natural selection as Discuss the Galapagos finches, adaptation and Extension - describe the
a possible mechanism for evolution. evolution identified on the different islands. development of strains of antibiotic
Describe the development of strains of For extension work – discuss the bacterial resistance resistant bacteria as an example of
antibiotic resistant bacteria as an example of to use of antibiotics e.g. MRSA. natural selection
natural selection.
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
Describe how the best adapted individuals Observe several plants of the same species to illustrate variation. Similarly observe pictures
survive to pass on their genes to their offspring. of animals with markings e.g. zebras to show variation in patterns of stripes; markings on
Extension – state that competition leads to snail shells; mimicry of insects to blend in with background. Look at individuals in the group
differential survival. to see variation between each other.
Observe the growth of tree seedlings in woodland – note density – discuss what happens as
these grow older. Plant different densities of seeds in pots and follow growth and
development.
Use videos or data for bacteria and use MRSA as an example of problems in hospitals to
explain resistance to antibiotics.

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Biology for IGCSE Reference 17.4 Artificial selection and genetic engineering, pp. 220-1 52
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (3.6 core and extension) Selection; (3.7 core and extension) Genetic Engineering
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
Describe the role of artificial selection in the Introduce artificial selection by listing examples contributed Extension - explain why, and
production of varieties of animals and plants by students. Add examples to cover bread wheat and milk outline how human insulin genes
with increased economic importance. production in cattle to recall previous work and stress the were put into bacteria using
Define genetic engineering as taking a gene economic links and advantages. genetic engineering.
from one species and putting it into another Define genetic engineering and recall the changes to genome
species. by isolating the gene involved and transferring from one
Extension - explain why, and outline how unrelated species into another.
human insulin genes were put into bacteria Extension material – using videos, website and large
using genetic engineering. diagrams to label and annotate explain the stages involved in
locating, transferring the gene for human insulin into
bacteria. Recall the use of fermenters to grow bacteria in
bulk and link to advantages of this insulin production to that
from animal sources.

Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources


Describe the role of artificial selection on Choose some examples of animals and plants where humans have selected for economic
producing varieties of animals and plants purposes – e.g. wheat, maize and animals - sheep, horses, dogs, including examples made by
with increased economic importance. students. Poster work to show features selected for.
Describe examples of artificial selection Videos, diagram or interactive web sites for genetic engineering especially the development of
Define the term genetic engineering. human insulin. Discuss advantages over insulin from animal sources.
Extension – describe how bacteria can be Make diagrams of stages involved in genetic engineering and relate to insulin production
genetically engineered to produce human including the use of fermenters to grow the bacteria – as a link to savings on land use.
insulin.

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Biology for IGCSE Reference 18 Energy and nutrient transfer; 18.1 Food chains and food webs pp. 224-5 53
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link Section IV – relationships of organisms with one another and with their environment (20%
of teaching time) (1. core) Energy flow; (2 core and extension) Food chains and food webs – emphasis on examples occurring locally.
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and
State that the Sun is the principal source of energy input to biological Recall plant nutrition and Consolidation
systems. photosynthesis. Explain the use of light in
Describe the non-cyclical nature of energy flow. Explain the term producer and its photosynthesis. 1% efficient.
Define the terms: importance at the beginning of food
• food chain as a chart showing the flow of energy (food) from one organism
chains. Using local examples request Explain each stage of the
to the next beginning with a producer (e.g. mahogany tree → caterpillar →
song bird → hawk) students construct simple land based food chain the organism uses
• food web as a network of interconnected food chains showing the energy and aquatic based food chains. some energy for growth, to
flow through part of an ecosystem Explain the importance of arrows to keep warm to move etc.
• producer as an organism that makes its own organic nutrients, usually using show the flow of energy through the Not all of an organism plant
energy from sunlight, through photosynthesis stages. Explain trophic levels and or animal is consumed or
• consumer as an organism that gets its energy by feeding on other organisms primary consumer as second level of digested to be absorbed.
• herbivore as an animal that gets its energy by eating plants feeding.
• carnivore as an animal that gets its energy by eating other animals Construct diagrams of different food
• decomposer as an organism that gets its energy from dead or waste organic chains linking with practical
matter observations e.g. nettle plant and the
• ecosystem as a unit containing all of the organisms and their environment,
organisms found on the leaves.
interacting together, in a given area e.g. decomposing log or a lake
• trophic level as the position of an organism in a food chain, food web or A food web is an inter-linking of food
pyramid of biomass, numbers or energy. chains and use diagrams to illustrate
Describe energy losses between trophic levels. this on land and in water.
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
Describe a food chain and each feeding stage in it. Opportunity to go into local natural area to identify feeding
Distinguish between a food chain and a food web. relationships of the organisms and if not possible – show videos of
feeding in a different ecosystem. It is possible to collect plants e.g.
nettles and bring into class room to work there using pooters to catch
insects that move and to collect others on the plants.
Discuss methods of collecting the consumers. Aquatic ecosystems can
be sampled. Be careful with water born diseases e.g. leptosporosis.
Emphasise the direction of the arrow to show energy flow.

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Biology for IGCSE Reference 18.2, Pyramids of numbers and biomass, pp. 226-7; 18.3 Shortening the food chain, pp. 228-9
54
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (2. core) Food chains (in part);
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
Describe energy losses between trophic Recap food chains and explain the use of energy Extension - explain why food chains
levels. between trophic levels in terms of consumers – usually have fewer than five trophic
Draw, describe and interpret pyramids of digestion and absorption. Explain the advantages in levels.
biomass and numbers. energy efficiency if producers are consumed and link - explan why there is an increased
Extension - explain why food chains with human nutrition instead of feeding plant crops to efficiency in supplying green plants as
usually have fewer than five trophic levels animals to eat the meat. human food and that there is a relative
- explain why there is an increased From practical work on numbers, construct pyramids of inefficiency, in terms of energy loss, in
efficiency in supplying green plants as numbers some with the complexity of large producers feeding crop plants to animals.
human food and that there is a relative such as trees and small parasites as top consumers –
inefficiency, in terms of energy loss, in creating imbalanced pyramids. Add the detritivore
feeding crop plants to animals. blocks deflected to one side. Calculating biomass
corrects these pyramids.
Explain fresh mass and dry mass and how to dry
organisms.
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
Draw, describe and interpret pyramids of Visit a field centre and catch organisms to explain food chains, feeding relationships and food
numbers and pyramids of biomass. webs.
Extension - compare these pyramids. Use leaf litter to search for detritivores and explain the food chains and feeding within these.
Explain energy losses between trophic Then progress to numbers of organisms and pyramids to illustrate the arrangement. It is possible to
levels in food chains. deflect to one side the detritivores. [Eltonian pyramids]
Extension - explain the increased efficiency Use secondary data if not available. Use data for biomass – measure fresh mass and dry mass of
in supplying green plants as human food producer if possible to explain how to determine dry mass.
compared to feeding crop plants to animals. Discuss energy transfer of feeding.
Draw diagrams to show the benefits for humans if live on producers as vegetarians in terms of
energy efficiency and the energy loss in feeding crop plants to animals..

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Biology for IGCSE Reference 18.4 Nutrient cycles pp. 230-1; 18.5 The nitrogen cycle pp. 232 -3; Resources pp. 240-1 55
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (3. core and extension) Nutrient Cycles.
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and
Describe the carbon and the water cycles Explain the carbon cycle – use large diagrams to label and Consolidation
Extension - describe the nitrogen cycle in terms annotate. Include calcareous sedimentary rock such as Discuss the effects of the
of: limestone [observe fossils to explain origin] and coal, oil combustion of fossil
• the role of microorganisms in providing usable and gas as fossil fuels. Recall forests and photosynthesis to fuels and the cutting down of
nitrogen-containing substances by decomposition lower CO2 content of the atmosphere. forests on the oxygen and
and by nitrogen fixation in roots Explain with diagram the water cycle and annotate the carbon dioxide
• the absorption of these substances by plants and processes. Describe the duration of each stage and volume. concentrations in the
their conversion to protein Recap the need of water to support living processes. atmosphere ( link with air
• followed by passage through food chains, Extension - nitrogen cycle. Use large diagrams to label for pollution later).
death, decay the different stages: nitrification, denitrification, nitrogen
• nitrification and denitrification and the return of fixation and link to nodules on roots of legumes.
nitrogen to the soil or the atmosphere (names of Recap the need for nitrogen in living organisms.
individual bacteria are not required).
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
Describe the role of bacteria and fungi in Use large diagram to show the carbon cycle. Link masses in giga tonnes to illustrate the
decomposition. cycle on global basis. Include limestone and if possible show fossils embedded in the rock.
Describe the different stages of the water cycle. A visit to a museum can sometimes link this with sedimentary rocks and coal as a fossil
Exension – describe the roles of microorganisms in fuel. Videos or websites can support these studies.
the nitrogen cycle. Explain the difference between renewable and non-renewable resources of carbon.
Extension - describe the absorption of nitrate ions Link the effects of deforestation on carbon dioxide levels.
by plants and their use in making proteins that Use large diagram to label of the water cycle and list the duration of the different stages to
enter the food chain. impress the volumes involved. Extension studies n nitrogen cycle – show examples of root
Outline the effects of humans on ecosystems, nodules on legumes. Look for pink colouration for active stages. Explain the decay of these
especially rainforests, oceans and rivers. to add nitrogen-containing compounds to the soil. Use photomicrographs of section
Explain the difference between renewable and through nodules to explain relationship.
non-renewable resources.

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Biology for IGCSE Reference 19 Human influences on the ecosystem; 19.1 Populations, pp. 236 -7 ; 19.2 Human populations, pp. 238-9 56
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (4 core and extension ) Population size
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
Define population as a group of organisms of one Introduce the term population with the use of varied Extension - explain the factors
species, living in the same area at the same time. examples from different ecosystems including that lead to the lag phase,
State the factors affecting the rate of population growth human. Use spider charts to list the factors exponential (log) phase and
for a population of an organism (limited to food supply, affecting population size and describe the stationary phase in the sigmoid
predation and disease), and describe their importance. importance of each factor. Recall use of fermenters curve of population growth
Identify the lag, exponential (log), stationary and death and describe population growth of microorganisms making reference, where
phases in the sigmoid population growth curve for a in a limited volume of nutrient – handle data to appropriate, to the role of
population growing in an environment with limited illustrate growth curve and the factors limiting limiting factors.
resources. growth.
Extension - explain the factors that lead to the lag phase, Discuss human population growth and the use of
exponential (log) phase and stationary phase in the diagrams – population pyramids and interpret these
sigmoid curve of population growth making reference, for different countries. Refer to social implications
where appropriate, to the role of limiting factors. and factors that currently discussed at international
Describe the increase in human population size and its conferences – The Hague, Bali etc.
social implications.
Interpret graphs and diagrams of human population
growth.
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
Define the term population. Discuss the term population and give examples. In diagram list the factors affecting
State the factors affecting the growth of a population. population size. Use the data on human populations and discuss factors leading to
Identify the different phases of growth in a population growth of populations. Relate to microorganisms and use graphs to explain lag, log
growth curve. and stationary phases. If time permits these could be recorded by increase in colony
Extension – explain the different phases of growth in a size on moulds or turbidity in yeast cultures. Use poster work to follow population
population growth curve. data. Records of human populations – increase and decrease. Population pyramids to
Describe and explain the increase and the social show changes in gender and age of developed and developing countries.
implications of the human population. Interpret graphs Videos or websites on environmental issues e.g. Bali conference etc.
and diagrams of human population growth.

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Biology for IGCSE Reference 19.4 Pollution pp. 242-3; 19.5 The greenhouse effect pp.244-5; 19.6 Acid rain pp. 246-7 57
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link ( core and extension) 5.2 Pollution
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and
Describe the undesirable effects of pollution to include: Important to identify source of pollutant, effect and Consolidation
• air pollution by sulfur dioxide control measures – in a table form. Extension - discuss the
• air pollution by greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide and Sulfur dioxide – direct effects and its contribution to effects of non-
methane) contributing to global warming acid rain. biodegradable plastics in
• pollution due to pesticides and herbicides Carbon dioxide levels – discuss sources, effect and the environment.
• pollution due to nuclear fall-out. control measures. Extension - discuss the
Extension - discuss the effects of non-biodegradable Methane – longevity as greenhouse gas as well as its causes and effects on the
plastics in the environment - discuss the causes and effects source [s] including enteric methane. environment of acid rain,
on the environment of acid rain, and the measures that Distinguish carefully the terms global warming, acid and the measures that might
might be taken to reduce its incidence - explain how rain and greenhouse effect. be taken to reduce its
increases in greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide and Identify different types of plastics and their disposal. incidence.
methane) are thought to cause global warming. Introduce pollution due to pesticides and herbicides. Extension - explain how
-recall from earlier - discuss the effects of the combustion The entry of these into water will be covered next. increases in greenhouse
of fossil fuels and the cutting down of forests on the Explain the use of nuclear energy the disasters and gases (carbon dioxide and
oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations in the effects of nuclear fall-out. methane) are thought to
atmosphere. cause global warming.
Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources
State the sources and effects of air pollutants such as SOs ; Use posters to show different types of air pollution.
CO2 and methane. Investigate the effects of sulfur dioxide to bleach plants e.g. bryophytes – mosses –
Describe the dangers of nuclear fall-out. must use a fume cupboard [this gas effective at low concentrations].
Extension – describe the effects of non-biodegradable Use world maps to locate nuclear power stations. Locate disasters and extent of
plastics. damage – Chernobyl.
Extension- describe the contribution of greenhouse gases
CO2 and methane to global warming.
Extension – explain how greenhouse gases cause global
warming.
Describe the causes and effects of acid rain
State measures that can be taken to reduce acid rain.

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Biology for IGCSE Reference 19.4 Pollution pp. 242-3; 19.7, Water pollution pp. 248-9 58
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link ( 5.1 core) Agriculture ( part); (5.2 core) Pollution ( part)
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
Describe the undesirable effects of overuse Poster of causes of water pollution. Extension - discuss the causes and
of fertilisers (to include eutrophication of Discuss the effects of acid rain and measures to reduce effects on the environment of acid rain,
lakes and rivers). the drop in pH. and the measures that might be taken
Describe the undesirable effects of pollution Explain by using a flow diagram the effects of to reduce its incidence.
to include: eutrophication when the levels of nutrients in river .
• water pollution by sewage and chemical water is increased by the run-off of fertilisers to sewage Discuss the effects on water pollution
waste / slurry spills. Discuss chemical leakage from factories and link to solubility and exchange of
• pollution due to pesticides and herbicides. – mercury etc from mines and the build up of pesticides aluminium ions.
e.g. DDT along food chains and in fatty tissues in top
carnivores. Link to reproduction problems e.g. shells of
bird’s eggs, sterility etc. bioaccumulation.

Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources


State the sources and effects of some water Visit sewage treatment plant to view the stages of treatment. Construct a diagrammatic flow
pollutants – recall acid rain. diagram.
Describe water pollution by sewage and Measure the pH of collected rain water. Acid raindrop projects – look at websites. Explain the
chemicals. pH scale and how to measure pH. Show the effect of dilute acids on rocks and the solvent
Describe the pollution of rivers and lakes due properties of acids.
to sewage and the over-use of fertilisers. Use data on acid water and the effects on fish and other aquatic organisms.
Describe how pesticides can accumulate Sample pond water – test using methylene blue method. Tubes must be covered with foil to
along food chains. exclude the light and keep at 200 C for 5 days to compare with the remaining blue colour using
Describe the effects of herbicides and sterile or freshly distilled water. If blue colour is loss this is due to changes in oxygen level
pesticides on the environment. because the presence of large numbers of microoganisms in the sample – i.e. more polluted
water.

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Biology for IGCSE Reference 19.8 Conservation, pp. 250-1 59
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link ( 5.3 core and extension ) Conservation
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
Describe the need for conservation of: Describe one endangered species of plant and Search the literature available in local area
• species and their habitats. one species of animal to open the discussion. as these species and habitats will be visited
Explain carefully the difference between or known to students and will receive
preservation and conservation of plants and visits or gain attention.
animals. Need to protect the habitat but also
need a management plan – extending over a
long time period. Discuss the ideas to preserve
embryos and seeds in collections.
Poster work to show ideas of monitoring and
management.

Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources


This is an opportunity for a visit to a zoological collection or botanical garden and perhaps a
Describe the need to conserve species and their talk on conservation of endangered species.
habitats. Use the red data lists on UCN website. Opportunity for individual research into endangered
Describe how endangered species are species.
protected. Look at sources of information on CITES lists. Discuss the World Wildlife Fund and research
projects around the world to preserve plants and animals.

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Biology for IGCSE Reference 19.3 Resources, pp. 240-1 ; Sewage treatment and recycling, pp. 252-3 60
Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (5.3 core and extension). Conservation.
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation
Natural resources (limited to water and non- Recap resources such as coal, oil and gas as fossil Extension - explain how limited and non-
renewable materials including fossil fuels). fuels and saving water. renewable resources can be recycled
Explain the idea of recycling of different (including recycling of paper and treatment
materials from organic matter and composting to of sewage to make the water that it contains
Extension - explain how limited and non- metals, glass and paper etc. investigate safe to return to the environment or for
renewable resources can be recycled procedures in local area. human use).
(including recycling of paper and treatment Diagrams to show stages in sewage treatment to Research local schemes for recycling.
of sewage to make the water that it contains release of treated effluent into rivers or solids – Research the recycling of aluminium
safe to return to the environment or for treated and dried as fertilisers. comparing costs of mining bauxite to pure
human use). Explain with large diagrams water treatment in metal versus recycling costs.
different countries – filtration, fast aeration plants
to desalination.

Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources


Visit sewage treatment plant / water treatment plant to view the stages of treatment. Construct a
Describe the need to conserve water and non- diagrammatic flow diagram to make water safe to return to rivers or fit for human use.
renewable resources. Research local community recycling schemes for plastics, paper , glass, metal [including
Extension – describe how sewage treatment aluminium] and organic refuse. Some countries differ widely in the approach to this from
can make water safe to return to the incineration plants to composting.
environment or fit for human use. Observe recycled paper under the microscope if available and discuss the composition. Try to
Extension – describe how limited resources make paper from plant material – there are many recipes on websites and information on
and non-renewable resources can be processing.
recycled.

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Concept Map.

SECTION 1 CHARACTERISTICS AND CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING ORGANISMS (5% teaching time)


1. Characteristics of living organisms
2. Classification and diversity of living organisms
2.1 Concept and use of a classificatory system
2.2 Adaptations of organisms to their environment
3 Simple keys
SECTION 11 ORGANISATION AND MAITENANCE OF THE ORGANISM (50% teaching time)
1 Cell structure and organisation
2 Levels of organisation
3 Size of specimens
4 Movement into and out of cells.
4.1 Diffusion
4.2 Active transport
4.3 Osmosis
5 Enzymes
6 Nutrition
6.1 Nutrients
6.2 Plant nutrition
6.2.1 Photosynthesis
6.2.2 Leaf structure
6.2.3 Mineral nutrition
6.3 Animal nutrition
6.3.1 Diet
6.3.1.1 Food supply
6.3.2 Human alimentary canal
6.3.3 Mechanical and physical digestion
6.3.4 Chemical digestion
6.3.5 Absorption
6.3.6 Assimilation
7 Transportation
7.1 Transport in plants
7.1.1 Water uptake

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7.1.2 Transpiration
7.1.3 Translocation
7.2 Transport in human
7.2.1 Heart
7.2.2 Arteries, veins and capillaries
7.2.3 Blood
8 Respiration
8.1 Aerobic respiration
8.2 Anaerobic respiration
8.3 Gas exchange
9 Excretion in humans
10 Coordination and response
10.1 Nervous control in humans
10.2 Hormones
10.3 Tropic responses
10.4 Homeostasis
10.5 Drugs
SECTION 111 DEVELOPMENT OF THE ORGANISM AND THE CONTINUITY OF LIFE ( 25% teaching time)
1 Reproduction
1.1 Asexual reproduction
1.2 Sexual reproduction
1.2.1 Sexual reproduction in plants
1.2.2 Sexual reproduction in humans
1.3 Sex hormones
1.4 Methods of birth control
1.5 Sexually transmittable diseases
2 Growth and development
3 Inheritance
3.1 Chromosomes
3.2 Mitosis
3.3 Meiosis
3.4 Monohybrid inheritance
3.5 Variation
3.6 Selection

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3.7 Genetic engineering
SECTION IV RELATIONSHIPS OR ORGANISMS WITH ONE ANOTHER AND WITH THEIR ENVIRONMENT (20% of teaching time)
1 Energy flow
2 Food chains and food webs
3 Nutrient cycles
4 Population size
5 Human influences on the ecosystem
5.1 Agriculture
5.2 Pollution
5.3 Conservation.

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