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BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGY

ABSTRACT
Bluetooth is a Radio Frequency (RF) specification for short-
range, point-to-point and point-to-multi-point voice and data
transfer, which enable users to connect to a wide range of
computing and telecommunication devices without the need
for proprietary cables that often fall short in terms of ease-of-
use. Bluetooth has emerged as a very popular ad hoc network
standard today. The Bluetooth standard is a computing and
telecommunications industry specification that describes how
mobile phones, computers, and PDA s should interconnect
with each other, with home and business phones, and with
computers using short-range wireless connections.
It is a wireless communication technology that
permits communication between Bluetooth enabled devices.
Bluetooth network applications include wireless
synchronization, e-mail/Internet/intranet access using local
personal computer connections, hidden computing through
automated applications and networking, and applications that
can be used for such devices as hands-free headsets and car MASTER Wireless SLAVE n
kits. Bluetooth
Channel
Packets Bluetooth Packets to
for scheduler the master
INTRODUCTION Slave n queue
n
The original architect for Bluetooth, named after the 10th
century Danish king Herald Bluetooth, was Ericsson Mobile
Unlike a WLAN that comprises both a wireless
Communication. In 1998, IBM, Intel, Nokia, and Toshiba
station and an access point, with Bluetooth, there are only
formed the Bluetooth SIG, which serves as the governing
wireless stations or clients. A Bluetooth client is simply a
body of the specification. The SIG began as a means to
device with a Bluetooth radio and Bluetooth software module
monitor the development of the radio technology and the
incorporating the Bluetooth protocol stack and interfaces. The
creation of a global and open standard.
Bluetooth architecture allows for defining security policies
Bluetooth was originally designed primarily as a cable
that can set trust relationships in such a way that even trusted
replacement protocol for wireless communications. Among
devices can get access only to specific services and not to
the array of devices that are anticipated are cellular phones,
others. It is important to understand that Bluetooth core
PDAs, notebook computers, modems, cordless phones, pagers,
protocols can authenticate only devices and not users. This is
laptop computers, cameras, PC cards, fax machines, and
not to say that user-based access control is not possible.
printers. Bluetooth is now standardized within the IEEE
802.15 Personal Area Network (PAN) Working Group that
formed in early 1999.
TWO TYPES OF CHANNELS
BLUETOOTH ARCHITECTURE AND COMPONENTS Asynchronous and synchronous.
Bluetooth permits the 802.11 standard. In this architecture,
client stations are grouped into a single geographic area and  For asynchronous communication the master
polls a slave and the slave responds in the
can be inter-networked without access to the wired
next slot. It is asynchronous and is initiated by
LAN. As in this piconet, one of the devices would be a
the master.
master, and the other two devices would be slaves.
 For synchronous communication the master
and slave talk to each other at regular
intervals of time. The interval of time is set up
before the synchronous communication starts.
This is mainly used for voice traffic.
Class 2 has a maximum transit power of +4 dBm (2.5milli
watts).
Class 3 has a maximum transmit power of 0 dBm (1milli
watt).
USAGE MODELS
A usage model is a set of protocols that implement a
particular Bluetooth-based application. Each profile defines
the protocols and protocol features supporting a particular
usage model.
 File transfer.
 Internet Bridge.
 LAN access.
 Synchronization Three-in-one phone.
BLUETOOTH ISSUES  Headset.
 Frequency usage Conflicts:
Bluetooth radios operate in the unlicensed 2.4-GHz
band. The problem that Bluetooth technology will face is that
even at 2.4 GHz, the bandwidth is finite. Because this is an
unlicensed band, any number of devices can use it. The 2.4
GHz frequency range used by Bluetooth is currently shared by
other wireless communication standards such as 802.11b
LANs, Home RF LANs, and urban and suburban wireless
telecommunications systems. At some point, devices start
interfering with one another.
 Compliance concerns:
Other organizations, including the Federal Aviation
Administration (FAA), are concerned about Bluetooth as well.
The operating airline has the ultimate responsibility for
approving Bluetooth, and testing by the SIG members
(including Intel and Boeing) is currently in progress.
Bluetooth technology uses the same bandwidth frequency that
several local wireless technologies use, which could mean
data collisions and lost data.
 Impact of Bluetooth on pacemakers:
Currently, the only recommendation available is for
cell phones. The Health Industry Manufacturers Association
recommends that a minimum separation of 2.5 cm be
maintained between a cell phone and a pacemaker.

 Bluetooth on an airplane:
Like with your cell phone and pager, Bluetooth must FEATURES
be turned off in an airplane. Bluetooth like our cell phone and 1. Uses 2.4 GHz ISM frequency band.
pager are radio devices and are prohibited by the airlines 2. Piconet supports up to eight connected devices where
during flight to minimize the risk of interference with the one acts as a master and all others act as slaves.
airplane’s radio frequency equipment such as radar and radios. 3. Public/Private key authentication and encryption are
key elements of the Bluetooth standard.
POWER TRANSMITTED BY THE BLUETOOTH 4. The Bluetooth logo program is a key initiative within
There are three classes of radios, which are the Special Interest Group (SIG).
characterized by their output power. 5. Does not require line of site between devices to
Class 1 is specified to have a maximum transmit power of +20 establish a connection.
dBm (100milli watts).
ADVANTAGES
1. Multiple piconets (scatter mode) are able to connect to 3. Authorization—a third goal of Bluetooth is a security
each other via the master devices thus increasing the service developed to allow the control of resources.
total number of connected devices beyond eight. This service addresses the question “Has this device
2. Limiting range to ten meters helps reduce power been authorized to use this service?”
requirements making Bluetooth a practical technology
by eliminating the hassle of proprietary cables for a SECURITY LEVELS OF BLUETOOTH
broad range of battery operated devices like notebook The security levels can be described as follows:
computers and cellular phones. 1. Service Level 1—those that requires authorization
and authentication. Automatic access is granted only
3. Provides a degree of security for communications to trusted devices. Untrusted devices need manual
between Bluetooth devices. authorization.
4. The Bluetooth logo program will provide the industry 2. Service Level 2—those that require authentication
with a mechanism to identify Bluetooth enabled only. Access to an application is allowed only after an
devices that meet stringent compliance criteria and authentication procedure. Authorization is not
ensure seamless interoperability between devices and necessary.
enhance overall ease-of-use and customer experience. 3. Service Level 3—those that opens to all devices.
5. Provides greater flexibility and ease-of-use over Authentication is not required, and access is granted
wireless technologies like IrDA, which require a line automatically.
of site between devices.
ENCRYPTION MODES OF BLUETOOTH
6. Allows connections to be established through barriers. The Bluetooth specification also allows three different
7. Qualification program ensures that products encryption modes to support the confidentiality service:
displaying the Bluetooth logo have been tested to 1. Encryption Mode 1—No encryption is performed on
meet stringent expectations for ease of use. any traffic.
8. Tremendous momentum not only within the computer 2. Encryption Mode2—Broadcast traffic goes
industry but other industries like cellular telephones unprotected (not encrypted), but individually
and transportation. addressed traffic is encrypted according to the
individual link keys.
3. Encryption Mode 3—all traffic is encrypted
DISADVANTAGES according to the master link key.
1. Early stages of development make Bluetooth an
immature technology that will need to prove itself. CONCLUSION
2. Bluetooth shares the same frequency range as 802.11b Bluetooth is a short-range wireless communication technology
Wireless LAN products (i.e. 2.4GHz) which mean that for ad-hoc communication between devices, each of which has
under some conditions these two technologies will not a range of around 10m. Bluetooth-enabled consumer devices
be able to operate in the same physical space. to enhance wireless connectivity among the array of devices
that are anticipated are cellular phones, PDA s, notebook
computers, modems, cordless phones, pagers, laptop
SECURITY SERVICES FOR BLUETOOTH computers, cameras, PC cards, fax machines, and printers.
The three basic security services defined by the Bluetooth Bluetooth is now standardized within the IEEE 802.15
specifications are the following: Personal Area Network (PAN) Working Group that formed in
1. Authentication—a goal of Bluetooth is the identity early 1999. Bluetooth also include vending machines, banking
verification of communicating devices. This security and other electronic payment systems, wireless office and
service addresses the question “Do I know with whom conference rooms; smart homes, and in-vehicle
I’m communicating?” This service provides an abort communications and parking.
mechanism if a device cannot authenticate properly.
2. Confidentiality—Confidentiality, or privacy, is “EVERY THING WILL BE IN WIRELESS”.
another security goal of Bluetooth. The intent is to
prevent information compromise caused by
eavesdropping (passive attack). This service, in
general, addresses the question “Are only authorized
devices allowed to view my data?”