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OT3—Study Paper 2007 Brendan Moar

Very Brief Notes on the Other Exilic Prophets (i.e., not


Ezekiel)

1. Second Isaiah [40-55]

1.1. Key Themes: What they are, what they're about and where
to find them.

Word; Creation; Redemption; Servanthood; Zion; Messiah

1.1.1. Word
YHWH's word is Powerful
• The Powerful word of God goes forth from the throne in Ch 40
• It is painted as powerful and enduring: it will achieve its purpose and can
be trusted ch 40 and 55 (1st and last chapter of this section)
• The power lies in its origin: YHWH and his will 55:10-11

YHWH's word is Predictive


• The predictive nature of YHWH's word stands as a polemic against the
other gods. He influences history; they can't 41:21-24

1.1.2. Creation
• The hope of the exiles lies in YHWH; the incomparably powerful creator
40:12-26

1.1.3. Redemption
Redemption through a new creation
• Israel created by YHWH for his glory [43:21]
• Redemption tied with the second exodus [51:9-11]
• End goal of redemption is the reversal of the Gen 3 curse: a new creation
[55:12-13]

Redemption through power


• 50:1-2 speak of YHWH not having any debt to repay in redeeming Israel.
He sent them away [c.f. 43:3-4], and he has the power to redeem them.

1.1.4. Servanthood
Israel as servant
• 41:8-9 tell us that the nation is the servant.
• Exile came because of failure of Israel to be the servant.
• 43:14-21 foreshadows a new exodus: the exiles corporately called to be
God's servant
Servant Israel is blind and deaf
• The exiles will be returned to the land and called to be the obedient servant
• but they are blind and deaf (unresponsive) to YHWH's word. [42:18-19]

Brief notes on other Exilic Prophets 1 of 3


OT3—Study Paper 2007 Brendan Moar

• They need their sin dealt with. I.e., they need more than a physical
restoration to the land; they need a spiritual restoration.

A mini-me Servant?
• There seems to be a servant with the servant, who suffers and atones for
the sins of the servant community. Ch 53.

The Servants (pl)


• after Ch 53 the idea of servants (pl) arises (e.g. 54:17).
• An individual and corporate idea: the new Israel of the future.

Servanthood is grounded in election, affected through (atoning) suffering, suffering


brings exaltation, and the result is mission; the glory of the Lord is proclaimed to the
nations.
1.1.5. Zion
City and People
• Zion is the name for judged and restored Jerusalem; God's holy city.
• 51:15 applies Zion to the people in exile themselves.

Eschatological Symbol
• Zion is the focus of eschatological hope [ch 65-66; Zion is the centre of the
renewed universe]
• The future city where all nations come to worship YHWH [45:14]

1.1.6. Messiah
Messiah: Cyrus?
• The Lord's anointed in 45:1
• He is a temporary messiah: a divinely ordained ruler to achieve God's will
in the absence of a Davidic ruler.

Messiah: Servant?
• 40-55 finishes with a reaffirmation of the covenant, looking forward to a
future time when the Davidic promises will be fulfilled. Anticipates a
future messiah.

2. Jeremiah
Jeremiah was working hard before the exile and then got to experience the fall of
Jerusalem firsthand in 587 BC.

2.1. Key Themes: What they are, what they're about and where
to find them.

Judgment and Hope; Remnant; Cultic Theology; Covenant Theology;


Messianism

2.1.1. Judgment and hope


• Israel has been disloyal to the covenant ch 2

Brief notes on other Exilic Prophets 2 of 3


OT3—Study Paper 2007 Brendan Moar

• They would be severely judged: the prophets weren't allowed to intercede


for them 11:14; 14:11; 15:1
• Looks forward to the hope of the remnant

2.1.2. Remnant
• The 'fig' vision of ch 24 identifies the exiles as the true Israel
• Submission to Babylon was the right thing to do: it was God's will.

2.1.3. Theology of the Cult


• Ch 7 shows the focus of the judgment coming on the temple
• The ark will be lost—ch 3—and this challenges the belief that their
religion was all about following temple regulations.

2.1.4. Theology of the Covenant


• 31:31 is the biggie: a new covenant!
• The covenant is a 'new initiative of God guaranteed to secure faithful
obedience.'

2.1.5. Messianism
• No hope for political restoration [22:30]
• Big future hope for Davidic House restoration [ch 23]
• Key term "righteous branch"

Brief notes on other Exilic Prophets 3 of 3