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TABLE OF CONTENTS

No. Title Page


1 Abstract/Summary 2

2 Introduction 3

3 Aims/Objectives 3

4 Theory 4-5

5 Apparatus 6

6 Methodology/Procedure 6

7 Results 7-8

8 Calculations 9-11

9 Discussion 12

10 Conclusion 13

11 Recommendations 13

12 Reference 14

13 Appendix 15-16

ABSTRACT / SUMMARY
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In this experiment, diffusion coeeficient of acetone vapor was to be determined at
400C and 500C by using the Gas Dispersion Apparatus and by applying the Winklemann’s
Method. Firstly, we filled in the water bath until 40mm of the capillary tube obtained and the
capillary tube was filled with acetone until it is leveled with the used of the syringe. Then, the
tube of air pump filled into the capillary tube and the vertical height of the microscope was
adjusted until capillary tube was visible. After the meniscus of the acetone was determined,
the air pump and the water bath was switched on and the temperature was set to be 40oC. The
initial level of the acetone inside the capillary tube was recorded and for every 10 minutes for
1 hour, the level of the acetone was measured. After that, the experiment was repeated but
with different temperature which was 50oC. After doing some calculation, the diffusion
coefficient of acetone vapor at 40oC and 50oC was determined to be 7.93×10-5 m2/s and
7.91×10-4m2/s respectively.

INTRODUCTION

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The diffusivity of the vapor of a volatile liquid in air can be conveniently determined
by Winklemann’s method in which liquid is contained in a narrow diameter vertical tube,
maintained at a constant temperature, and an air steam is passed over the top of the tube to
ensure that the partial pressure of the vapour is transferred from the surface of the liquid to the
air stream by molecular diffusion.

The apparatus that we concerned with for this experiment is the Gas Dispersion
Apparatus that consist of an acrylic assembly which is sub-divided into two components. One
compartment is constructed from clear acrylic and is used as a constant temperature water
bath. The other compartment incorporates an air pump and the necessary electrical controls
for the equipment. The assembly is mounted on adjustable feet.

The transfer or movement of individual molecules through a fluid by random


molecular movements is called the molecular diffusion. In the diffusion process, the
molecules of interest flow from regions of high concentration to low concentration. Molecular
diffusion can occur in both directions with the system. Molecular diffusion of gases has been
studied for many years. Molecular diffusion is a mass transport process. Motivation for its
study comes from the fact that chemical separation processes such as distillation, drying, ion
exchange systems as well as many other processes depend on molecular diffusion.

AIM / OBJECTIVES
There are two objectives that needed to be achieved while conducting this experiment.
The objectives are as follows :

(a) To determine the diffusivity of the vapour of acetone.


(b) To study the effect of temperature on the diffusivity.

THEORY

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The diffusivity of the vapour of acetone in this experiment was basically determined
by using the Winklemann’s method. From this method, we can use the equation as follows :

The rate of mass transfer is given by

N'A=DCALCTCBM

Where:

CA = Saturation concentration at interface [kmol m-3]

CBM = Logarithmic mean molecular concentration of vapor [kmol m-3]

CT = Total molar concentration = CA + CBM [kmol m-3]

L = Effective distance of mass transfer [mm]

D = Diffusivity [m2s-1]

Considering the evaporation of the liquid:

N'A=ρLMdLdt

Where ρL is the density of the liquid:

Thus ρLMdLdt=DCALCTCBM

Integrating and putting L=L0 at t=0

L2-L20=2MDρLCACTCBMt

Note that when L0 and L cannot be measured accurately but L0- L can be measured accurately
using the vernier on the microscope.

L-L0L-L0+2L0=2MDρLCACTCBMt

Or

tL-L0=ρL2MDCBMCACTL-L0+ ρLMDCBMCACTL0

Where

M = Molecular weight (kg/kmol)

t = time (s)

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If s is the slope of the graph of tL-L0 against L-L0 then:

s = ρL2MDCBMCACT or D =ρL2sMCBMCACT

where:

CT = 1kmol volTabsTa

CB1= CT

CB2= Pa-PvPaCT

CBM= CB1-CB2lnCB1CB2

CA= PvPaCT

APPARATUS
1. Gas Dispersion Apparatus
2. Acetone
3. Water bath
4. Microscope
5. Capillary tube
6. Syringe
7. Stop watch
8. Thermometer

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PROCEDURE

1. Distillate water was filled into the water bath until 40mm of the capillary tube was
obtained.
2. The capillary tube was filled with the acetone until the height of its level achieved
approximately 40mm with the used of the syringe.
3. The tube of air pump was filled into the capillary tube until it had fully covered the entire
capillary tube.
4. The vertical height of the microscope was adjusted until the capillary tube was visible.
5. If the capillary tube was not visible, the distance from the object lens was adjusted to the
tank until the meniscus of the acetone inside the capillary tube was clearer and as
necessary the position of the viewing lens in or out of the microscope body was adjusted.
6. When the capillary tube was viewed, the image of meniscus will be upside down so that
the bottom of the meniscus of acetone would be at the top of image.
7. When the meniscus of the acetone has been determined, the sliding vernier scale should be
aligned with a suitable graduation on the fixed scale.
8. The air pump and the water bath were switched on.
9. The temperature was set to be at 400C and obtained at steady temperature.
10. The level of the acetone inside the capillary tube was recorded for every 10 minutes. The
experiment was repeated at different temperature of 500 C.

RESULTS
Temperature = 40oC

Lo = 42.9mm

Reading of Liquid level


Time, t Time, t t/(L-Lo) t/( L-Lo)
vernier, L (L-Lo)
(min) (s) (min/mm) (s/mm)
(mm) (mm)
0 0 42.9 0.0 0.00 0.00
10 600 43.2 0.3 33.33 1999.80
20 1200 43.4 0.5 40.00 2400.00

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30 1800 43.5 0.6 50.00 3000.00
40 2400 43.7 0.8 50.00 3000.00
50 3000 44.0 1.1 45.45 2727.00
60 3600 44.4 1.5 40.00 2400.00

Temperature = 50oC

Lo = 40.6mm

Reading of Liquid level


Time, t Time, t t/(L-Lo) t/( L-Lo)
vernier, L (L-Lo)
(min) (s) (min/mm) (s/mm)
(mm) (mm)
0 0 40.6 0.0 0.00 0.00
10 600 40.9 0.3 33.33 1999.80
20 1200 41.5 0.9 22.22 1333.33
30 1800 41.8 1.2 25.00 1500.00
40 2400 42.3 1.7 23.53 1411.76
50 3000 42.4 1.8 27.78 1666.67
60 3600 43.2 2.6 23.08 1384.62

SAMPLE CALCULATION
At T = 40 °C :

S = 1294.4 Pa = 233 × 102 Pa x 1 atm

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1.01325 × 105 Pa
= 0.230 atm
1161.0

Pv = 10 7.02447 – 224 + T

1161.0
7.02447 – 224 + 40°C
= 10

= 423.39 mmHg x 1 atm


760 mmHg
= 0.5571 atm

Find total molar concentration (kmol m-3), CT:


CT = 1 Tabs
Kmol Vol Ta

CT = 1 kmol 273 K
22.414 m3 313 K

= 0.0389 kmol/m3

Find saturation concentration at interface (kmol m-3), CA:


CA = P v CT
Pa

= 0.5571 atm 0.0389 kmol/m3


0.230 atm
= 0.0942 kmol/m3
Find logarithmic mean molecular concentration of vapor (kmol m-3), CBM:

CT = CA + CBM

CBM = CT - CA
= 0.0389 kmol/m3 – 0.0942 kmol/m3
= - 0.0553 kmol/m3

Find diffusivity of acetone, D:

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D= ρL CBM
2MS CA . CT

= 0.79 g 0.0553 kmol mm2 mol m3 m3 1003 cm3 1 m2


cm3 m3 2(1294.4s) 58.08 g 0.0942 kmol 0.0389 kmol 1 m3 106 mm2

= 7.93×10-5 m2/s

At T = 50 °C:

S = 267.23 Pa = 233 × 102 Pa x 1 atm


1.01325 × 105 Pa
= 0.230 atm
1161.0

Pv = 10 7.02447 – 224 + T

1161.0
7.02447 – 224 + 50°C
= 10

= 348.21 mmHg x 1 atm


760 mmHg
= 0.806 atm

Find total molar concentration (kmol m-3), CT:


CT = 1 Tabs
Kmol Vol Ta
CT = 1 kmol 273 K
22.414 m3 323 K
= 0.0377 kmol/m3

Find saturation concentration at interface (kmol m-3), CA:


CA = P v CT
Pa

= 0.806 atm 0.0377 kmol/m3

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0.230 atm

= 0.132 kmol/m3

Find logarithmic mean molecular concentration of vapor (kmol m-3), CBM:

CT = CA + CBM
CBM = CT - CA
= 0.0377 kmol/m3 - 0.132 kmol/m3
= - 0.0944 kmol/m3

Find diffusivity of acetone, D:


D= ρL CBM
2MS CA . CT

= 0.79 g 0.0944 kmol mm2 mol m3 m3 1003 cm3 1 m2


cm3 m3 2 (267.23 s) 58.08 g 0.0806 kmol 0.0377 kmol 1 m3 106mm2

= 7.91×10-4m2/s

DISCUSSION
Throughout this experiment, we are to determine the diffusivity of acetone by
experimenting it with two different temperature which is at 400C and 500C. Diffusivity or
diffusion coefficient is a proportionality constant between the molar flux due to molecular
diffusion and the gradient in the concentration of the species (or the driving force for
diffusion). In other words, diffusivity is defined as the tendency to diffuse through a given
area in unit time.

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One of the way to determine the diffusion coefficient is by using the Winklemann’s
method which we have applied in this experiment. By using the Gas Dispersion Apparatus,
we were able to determine the diffusion coefficient of the vapour of acetone at different
temperature. From the results of this experiment, the diffusivity of the vapour of acetone at
40oC and 50oC were succesfully determined which are 7.93×10-5 m2/s and 7.91×10-4m2/s
respectively. The value that we get are slightly different from the actual value, this may be
due to some experimental error or mistakes while conducting this experiment.

There may be some plausible errors while conducting this experiument. The first error
in this experiment is the possibility of taking the wrong reading of the meniscus of the acetone
or the water bath which gives a slight change in our results. The eye position during taking
those reading should be parallel to the meniscus. Beside that, the apparatus used in this
experiment such as the capillary tube and syringe should be cleaned and rinsed with distilled
water before using them in this experiment. The temperature that we have specified should be
constant during conducting this experiment, an unsteady temperature can cause the diffusivity
value that calculated is different.

During conducting this experiment, there are one important note that should be paid
attention which is the temperature that we specified should not be more than the boiling point
of the fluid that we used in this experiment. In our case where we used acetone as the fluid,
therefore, the temperature should not be more than 56oC which is the boiling point of the
acetone. This will make the acetone to be vaporized into the atmosphere instead. That’s the
reason why we take 40oC and 50oC as the temperature to conduct this experiment.

CONCLUSION
As a conclusion, this experiment is considered as succesful because all the objectives
were able to be achieved. The value of the diffusion coefficient of the vapour of acetone at
different temperature were able to be determined by using the Gas Dispersion Apparatus and
the Winklemann’s method. The diffusion coefficient of the vapour of acetone at 40oC and
50oC are 7.93×10-5 m2/s and 7.91×10-4m2/s respectively.

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RECOMMENDATION
In order to get the best result for this experiment, some recommended steps can be taken.
The recommendations that can be made in order to get a more accurate results are as follows.
Firstly, in order to prevent the fluid used from being evaporated, the temperature must be
adjusted so that it is not more than the boiling point of the fluid used. In this case for acetone,
the temperature must not exceed 56oC.

Next, after the first part of the experiment which is when the temperature is 40 oC is done,
it is recommended that the acetone inside the capillary tube be replaced with a new batch of
acetone. This is to make the measurements easier to be read for the second part of the
experiment.

Lastly, if possible, the experiment can be repeated for the third time by using a different
set of temperature. This can make the difference between the diffusivity clearer to be seen.

REFERENCES
• Laboratory Manual, Chemical Engineering Laboratory II (CHE 523), Faculty of Chemical
Engineering

• (, 2000)Mass Transfer and Diffusion Coefficients. (2000). Retrieved 07 September 2010,


from Armfield Engineering Education :

http://www.armfield.co.uk/cer_datasheet.html

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• Determination of Gaseous Diffusion Coefficient. (n.d.). Retrieved 07 September 20109,
from Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering:
http://www.eng.nus.edu.sg/ChemEng/pdf/ExpM1.pdf

• Cussler, E. L. (n.d.). Diffusion : Mass Transfer in Fluids System. Retrieved 07 September


2010, from Cambridge University Press:
http://www.cambridge.org/us/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521871211&ss=exc

• J.D Seader, E. J. (n.d.). Retrieved 07 September 2010, from Students Resources for
Separation Process Principles:

http://www.eng.auburn.edu/~tplacek/courses/3660/Seader%202nd%20edition%20Student
%20Resources.pdf

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APPENDIX

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