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This special edition has been published for orranintions of the

, FRANKLIN DELANO ROOSE VELT Army Air Forces by Pocket Books. Inc.• New York 20. N. Y., .
COmm.andcr-Jn.Chicl of tIl e Army and Navy arrane:ement with the Army Air Forces Aid Society, copyriiht
owners. For this edition the Socfety has relinquished all royalties.

rhe Official Guide to the Army Air Forces

Pocket Book edition published June 1944 FOREWORD

1ST PRINTING . . . . . • • . • . . .• . MAY 1944

2ND PRINTL~G .. . . • • • • • • . . . JUNE 1944 AAF is more than the abbreviated term for the Army
Air Forces. It is a symbol of massed American striking
power. Fundamentally, the AAF is a people's air force,
and its bombs dropping on the enemy represent the
, work of millions of Americans in and out of uniform.
In a democracy it is fitting that the people should
have th e opportunity to obtain a thorough understand-
• ing of their military air organization. This book fur-
THIS IS AN ORIGINAL POCKET BOOK PRO- nishes that opportunity. It coordinates l:he many as-
pects of OUT activity and provides an integrated picture
of the AAF as it is today.
GOVERNl\'I ENT'S REGULATIONS FOR CON- "This book is a useful, accurate guide to our opera-
tions and should be of wide personal interest to those
who know the AAF through relatives and friends in
MATERIALS. the service. It will be especially valuable to those who
hope to become directly associated with us. To the
officers, men and women of the AAF it should serve
as a helpful work of reference.

General, U. S. Army
Printed in the U. S. A. Commanding General, Anny Air Forces


CONTENTS The need for airbascs-Types and fun ctions-Maintenance and
control-The battle for airbases-llow we build our bases:
construction fa cts and figurcs-Camouflage-Aviation and air-
v borne engineers-Use of combat bases.
" T MGET-An Introductioll to tlle AAF I OUR BATTLEFIELD
Natural hazards of the air-Army Airways Communications
"HAT WE ARE 8 System-:\AF \\feather Service-The body in flight: anoxia.
Tcam1Aork: key to AAF operations-Organization for air war- aer~n~bolism, .b~ackoll~s. and redouts, cold, fatigue-Oxygen
Continental air forces and commands-Parts of an air force: -Anabon me(hcllle-Btllhng out-Forced landings-Sun'j"al in
aircrcws, flights, squadrons. groups, wings, divisions, com- tropics, desert and arctic.
mands-An air force ill combat-Command, staff and control
-Unified planning-\Vorking with others. OUR AIR FORCES IN ACTION 254
Strategic and tactical operations- Target selection-The homb·
"HO ''IE ARE 37 ing problem-Heavy bombardment and the bombsight-Me-
Personnel expansion and requirements-Aviation cadets-Gen- dium and light bombardment-Fighters and fighter escort-
eral duties of air and grollnd crcws-\liIitary occupational Air defense-Airborne warfare-Reconnaissance-Na\'igation-
specialties-Aeronautical ratings and badges-Pay scales-In- -Intelligence-Communications-Gunnery-The combat air
signia-The redistribution program-\\'omen in uniform- forces-Unit and indi"idual citations-Chronological war rec-
Civilian personneJ-'Vomen \'olunteers. ord. .


Training for pilots, navigators, bombardiers, gunners, glider Chronological record from Civil \\'ar to Pearl Harbor.
pilots, ~adar observers-Technical, administrative and supply
training-J low air and gronnd units prepare for com hat- AWARDS AND INSIGNIA ::!:q
Ch.'erseas training-AAF Tactical Center-School of Aviation
Color Plates .... - ............. _ " ............... ;!3~
Medicia~taff officers cOtlrscs-Convalcsccnt and rehabilita-
tion training-Prevention of flying accidents.
"'HAT WE FIGHT WITH 12 3 Our Leaders (with biogmphies )-Mcn of .\\1' .. ...... 56
Procurement and ~rodllc tion-AAF airplanes: types. perform - Aircraft of the AAF .... ......................... 1 n
ance, characterishcs-Engineering-Engines-Jet proplllsion- The AAF in Combat ............................ 301
Aviatioa fuels-Propellers-Electrical and hydraulic systems-
~Iachine guns, turrets. aerial c.'1nnon-Bombs-lnstruments- DRAWINGS, DIAGHAi\IS. \lAPS
Parachctes-Photographic equipmcnt-\Vright Field-Tcst pi-
lots-Proving for combat. Listed by subjects in the iude)"


Air logistics-Sopply and transport al;cllcies---Types of slIpplv- Bibliography ..................... •• . . . . ........ .,:;:8
Air depots, baSe IUPPIy, JCn'ice ccntcrs--Tramportation hy 'bbrevlatlons
no .. .................... . .. ... .. ...... 366
~ouncf ana IerrMovinc lUI AAF unit-(hcrscas mo\'elll cllt- AAF Vernacular ........•.....•.....•....••..... 36S
n1IIIP,"'~ .~tbin t~eatcn-Ferrying of aircraft-Air trans-
port-M pnontleS-Maintenance prohlclll ,) and methods- INDEX
Ecbelou Of maintenance-Reclamation and "':l lv:lge.

If you would know the Army Air Forces today, consider firs t
a global network of men and airplanes, supply lines, COI11-
munications routes and airbases; think of this network as a
striking force that since the start of the war has made morc
than 700.000 combat fl ights, dropped more than 600,000
tons of bombs, fired morc than 75.000,000 rounds of am·
munition against the enemy.
Now think of a part of this striking force: of 1000 heavy
bombers stretched across 100 miles of sky, with as many
fighter planes fanning a protective cover; 30,000 tons of
metal, 11,000 fighting men and 2500 tons of high explosives
roaring along in battle formation to a common objective.
Consider the objective: a production cen ter that is 3
source of enemy power; a German equivalent of Detroit or
Pittsburgh fashioning weapons of war for use against Ameri·
can troops and the troops of our Allies; a vital, stmtegic
target protected by land and sca, accessible only through the
Think of the attack: 1000 bombers forci ng thcir way to
within 5 vertical miles of this enemy stronghold; men who
take aim and hurl their bombs down those 5 miles onto the
target; metal and men who wi11 be back over the target to·
morrow or the next day, who are capable of repeating the tude heavy bomber, would be the backbone of our air force, and
:performance again and again, of shifting their attack to other that supcr-bombers would bc required.
'targets at will; think in terms of repeated bombings; think That the maximum st rength of our weapon could be realized and
:o{ each mass attack -as a major military campaign taking its limitations offset by our ability to make sustaill cd mass att::lcks_
iplace within the space of hours.
Nlore than 3 months before Pearl H arbor, the AAF, in
ITHE CHALLENGE OF WAR response to an instruction of the Presiden t, submitted to th e
In that sober hour on Dec. 7, '94', the challenge to the \Var D epartment an air war plan based on the following
:AAF was clearly outlined: assumptions:
I Could we, the air organization of the u~ S. Army, mass That we might be at war with Ccnmmy and Japan si11lulbneollsly.
and perfect the men and materials to graduate from a minor That Germany, as the center of thc Axis system and its principal
tairpower to the mightiest air force the world had ever military power, would have to bc dealt with first.
known? That a land invasion of Cermany would take considerable tim e to
i Could we, with our limited strength, fight holding actions prepare. ,
lover 5 continents while we amassed the necessary resources? That a sustained and powerful bombing assault against specific
I Could we, in minimum time, launch an air offensive that targets migh t m.-;lke an invasion unnecessary, or if nccessary, would
I would fatally weaken the enemy's ability to resis t? playa vital role in any such effort.
Actually, considerable planning had gone before. The na- That a specific numbcr of bombardment planes cOl1ld be sct lip as
the power element of an air offcnsivc.
tions already at war had proved that airpower would be a That in addition to bases in Britain, cfforts sho uld be made to de·
I decisive factor in the struggle, that airpower could only be
velop bases in the Ne:u East; and to obtain Atlantic and \ Vestem
defeated by superior airpower. Ever since World War I Mediterranean bases-if necessary by land. sea and air action.
farsighted military men and civilian students of military That a long-range, heavily armed escort fightcr would be needcd to
. affairs in this country had been convinced that the airplane offset German defenses.
would have a profound effect on future warfare. During th e That a "strategic defensive" would be necess.lry in Asi.l until Ger-
i 19'0'S this thinking and study began to crystallize into many was defeated.
I certain definite conclusions within the AAF. We believed :
The plan, as submitted, called for the crcation of an al r
. That the most efficient method of waging war was to destroy the force numberi ng more than 2,000,000 men and upwards of
enemy's weapons while they were still in production, thus de- 88,000 planes.
priving his armies of those weapons and eventually rendering him The val uc of an air offensive was predicated on th e con·
powerless. viction that th e German industrial effort, and conscqucntly
,That 2irpower. capitalizing upon its inherent long-range strategic the continued existence of the German anny, was dependent
: capabilities and operating in sufficient strength, could accomplisll
this objective.
on the following elements: the electric power sys tem, the
That precision bombing was the heart of such airpower and the transportation sys tcm, th e oil and petroleum system, eivili,m
I key to our operations. moralc.
I That airpower, operating in cooperation with ground and Se.1 units, vVe believed that destruction of specified targets in th e
could be a decisive factor by isolating the battle area and par- first 3 ca tegories would paralyze the fun ctioning of c.leh, and
ticipating on the battle6c1d. that th e same result co uld be accomplished by a collapse of
11lat land·based aircraft. with emphasis on the long-range, high alti- enemy civilian morale.
\Ve realized that it might be desirable to accomplish certain
"intermediate" objectives, as: neutralization of the Gennan air THE FIRST RUSH OF WAR
oree, att~ck on airbases, attack on aircraft factories (engine Pearl Harbor converted our long-delibcrated PLAN of ac-
nd airframe), and attack on aluminum and magnesium tion into ACTION itself. In th e sudden h"ansfonnation from
lants producing the essential metals from which airplanes a nation at peace to a nation at war, our air program was
re built. like an animal unleashed from its cage after long confine~
In order to secure OUT bases and maintain supplies, we ment, but with neither his tceth nor claws sharp enough or
ecommcnded "diversionary" objectives such as submarine strong enough to be immediately effective.
bases, surface sea craft, "invasion" bases. The very nature of the war made it necessary that we, as
the flying force of the nation, should bear the brunt of the
PLAN OF I1MEDIATE At.TION enemy's first rush of conquest. Our efforts during the first
A weol after the U. S. was attacked, the AAF submitted 6 months of war were valiant but meager when measured
lCfollowing recommendations: by today's standards. Yet we did delay the enemy, and in
Since the Axis powers command a substantial advantage in forces some, measure held him and interfered with his plan of
available for immediate use, protection of the military and in- domination. We built up the hard way the combat expcri~
ence required to put our own plan into full-fledged action.

dustrial strength of the U. S. is the FIRST and most basic COIl-
sideratioo; protection of the British Isles, as a base for future of- In th e early days of expansion everything we wanted was
fensive operations, is the SECOND consideration. needed "yesterday"; and mostly we wanted strength. The
'Offensive action against the sources of Axis military strength is quotas we set up were of necessity as changeable as our
mandatory, if we are to win. initial organization charts. And while we were still CREATING
As steps In the creation of an air force for the preservation the essential industrial means, the enemy was in a position
of national security and the defeat of the Axis powers, we to USE his means to push us further and further back from
recommended the acquisition of 88,000 planes and-stepping the points from which we could launch a future offensive.
up the pre~PearI Harbor estimate-2.,90o,Ooo men and offi- Between 1939 and 1941 the production facilities at our
cers. \Ve further recommended the prm·iding of air defense disposal had increased 400 %, but the liou's share of that
for the U. S., Panama and Hawaii; the providing of h emi~ expansion had gone to Great Britain under "defense aid" and
sphere defense; the providing of supplies necessa ry to secure lend~lease agreements. Yet, foreign purchases of the na-
I bases in Britain and the Near East; the maintenance of lines tion's aircraft had given us the valuable asset of battle~tested
of communication; the reinforcing of the Philippines; th e planes. And alth ough lend~lea se had cost us immediate
providing of shipping needed for the offensive; and th e con- strength, it had also prompted expansion of our original pro~
struction of bases in Alaska and the Aleutians for an ultimate duction facilities and prepared us for the far greater ex~
offensive against Japan. pansion needed.
Since all military plans are subject to alteration in th e Our training facilities were wholly inadequate for th e job
face of action before the enemy. new wavs must be devised ahead, but we could utilize those of private and commercial
for attaining the objective, new plans dra,,'n to conform with flying that fortunately had becn built up in the peacetime
changing circumstances. Objectives originally tagged "di- years; we could make use of the nation's educational system,
versionar)"" or Hintennediate" may for immediate reasons be- could transfonn hotels into training centers. The "combat
come "primary," thus inRuencing other elements of a plan. aircrew," as we know it today, was unknown in ea rly 1942.
However, the overall strategy remains unchanged . Balance was lacking among th e necessary components of the
selves understood in Hindustani, Italian, Arabic, Bcn g~l'
.\AF-the ainnen, technicians, ground crews-and we didn't Eskimo, pidgin English; and our planes are making th em
have enough planes with whicb to instruct OUT men. But a selves understood in the tropics, arctic and desert; over sc'
training program initiated in 1939 had ~ven us a nucleus of mountain and glacier, . ,
skilled personnel; and every rural and CIty area of the nab on In China, at this moment, some of us may Just be.Iand11l
I could contribute to a vast pool of trainable men, many of medium bombers after raiding Japanese warehouses n.l Ind
whom not only had a keen interest in the airplane, but a China. Every ounce of gasoline ol~r plan:s use?-h~e th
similarl) valuable aptitude for things mechanical. gas for the jeeps and trucks o,n the aITfic1d~ In Chma, like th
\V e lacked both transport facilities and bases. Naval gas for the hcavy bombers Just now . tak111g off for ,a daw
strength had to be devoted largcly to securing lines of com- mission to bomb Formosa-was ea rn ed over th e I-Illnala ya
munication; this not only placed a heaVIer burden on air by air. In India our ,transports are coming i,n after a day 0
operations but also gave the enemy a chance to wage sub~ shuttling th ese supplies. Several thousa nd 1111les to the sout
marine warfare, which in turn absorbed some of our aerial east, on a Pacific island once headquarters for the Japanes
operations and by necessity diverted them from industrial others of us are beiilg briefed to ~wee'p o,vcr an cnel~ly I~Hrho
targets. However, after the first threat of direct attack. had and from zero altitude attack hIS shlppmg. On a tiny Isb n.:!
passed, the location of the U. S. guaranteed security for the in the Arabian Sea we ' si t out a sandstorm and wait fo r til(
productton program that lay ahcad. \Ve could grow without evening transport. On the h?t Tunisian desert we arc stil
the destructive time·loss factors of bomb·harried production busy looking for salvageable Items from the ycar-old wreck!
which both Great Britain and GermanI' had suffered. The of enemy planes, Over the Central Pacific our ~ight seard
Briti'ih Isles could become one huge 'airbase for strategic planes with their equipmen t that sees better III the dad
bombing operations. In the South Pacific we could benefit than ~n y man has ever seen in daylight, are on patrol. 01
from the aid offered by Australia. Throughout the world we the west coast of the U, S., while another shift is coming of
had other Allied nations to assist us in our prosecution of the work in the great airplane factori es, thousands of us arc till.:.
war. ing off in training flight~ in small, aircraft that ollt-perfo rn
the combat planes our pIlots flew 111 th e .last war. In a Nc"
THE NEtWORK IN ACTION York City procurement office a .eolonel d~~tates a req uest fa;
4 mi11ion rivets. In the Aleutians th e I Bombed Japa n
After we had pushed through the first year of combat, club is initiating some new members. Vie are o~er Kan sa:
graduallv the cycle of war began to turn to our advantage. on our first solo; high over central G~rmany With encl11)
Our accumulation of strength began to mesh with the con- fighters attacking; low over a Japanese airfield stra fin g plane:
ce"P.b of our war plan; combat experience meshed with train - on the runway; far out over the Pacific with an, enemy wnr
ing, supply and communications with the establishment of ship clearly fixed in the cross-hairs of our bombSight. \Ve ~n
bases-until the global network took shape. the AAF.
fo:arly in 1944 we massed our first loo-mile procession of
bombers, Simultaneously, we were preparing to strike in * * *
In this bOOK we tell about our men and our planes- wile
even grClt~r numbers, were Hying even larger bom bers, and they are and what th ey do- and about our whole globa
were planmng to carry massed aerial attack across th e world nchvork.
to ,apan Bllt early '944 was the start of the real air offensive. I
Today, while 1000 of our bombers stretch across th e sky
over Ccmlany. alJ O\'er the glob<; om men art making thcm -

themselves; and among the forces back home-both militar~

and civilian-whi ch develop and build the planes, ship the
supplies and train the men. Nor is teamwork confined to any
one branch of the anned forces. Essential to success in the
war is AAF teamwork with the ground armies, with the Navy,
WHAT WE ARE and with Allied forces in combined ai r-sea-ground operation s.

Evolution of the AAF-The AAF stems from modest be-
ginnings. Created in 1907 as a tiny branch of the Signal
Corps, the Army air arm mushroomed during World War I
to what then seemed giant proportions. During the latter
months of the war the Ai r Service was set up as a separate
branch of the Anny, distinct from the Signal Corps. In 1926
it was renamed th e Air Corps. In 1935 a combat air organiza-
tion was establish ed to complement the Air Corps-the
General H eadquarters (GHQ) Air Force. Later renamed the
Air Force Combat Command, this was a unified combat force
composed of the various fighting air un its. It was an early
Wehave a saying in the AAF that 10 men in a bomber will testing ground for the strategical and tactical doctrines on
never replace a combat aircrew. Similarly, 210 million m en which our present aerial offensives were conceived.
and 1 00,000 airplanes will never replace an air force. " lith the creation of the Air Force Combat Command,
The AAF is, first of all, a huge team. T eamwork is the the Air Corps concentrated on supply and training functions.
corncrstcne of al1 our acti,"ities-in the air and on the ground. From its Materiel Division and its training centers grew the
No onc man in a bomber crew ca n carry out a 111ission by continental commands of the AAF which have been chiefly
himsc1f. Unless the work of each member is planned, disci· responsible for building the AAF into the fighting machine
plincd and coordinated with the others, all will fail. One man it is today.
cannot win a battle, but one man can lose it. Shortly after Pearl Harbor, the U. S. Army was reorganized.
Between plane and plane, teamwork is as necessary as it The Air Corps and Air Force Combat Command were
is between man and man. A cohesive formation of bombers merged into the Army Air Forces. The Infantry, Cavalry,
is essentlal for mass bombing and for seU-protection . If one Field Artillery and other surface combat elements were
;1ircraft fail s to mai ntain its appointed position it jeopardizes merged into the Army Ground Forces. The supply and
not only itself ?U~ the ~~tire formation, and pcrhap!; th e suc- service agencies-Quartennaster, Ordnance, C hemical \Var-
cess of the n1lSS1011 . Fighters must work c10sely with th e fare, etc.-were merged into the Services of Supply, subse-
hom bers they are escorting. rnley fly in teams, cover one quen tly renamed the Army Service Forces. ResponSibility for
.mother, attack in unison. coordina ting th e 3 forces was lodged in the General Staff, a
AAF aircrews have no monopoly on teamwork. It must exist body composed of equal numbers of air and ground officers.
between them and their ground men; among ground crews The military air arm currently consists of the following
clements: th e Commanding General, AAF; th e Deputy Com·

I mandcf; the Air Staff; 4 continental air forces; 6 AAF COt~l · H. S. HANSELL. J R., BRIG. GEN. P. TIM BERLAK E, BR IG. GEN . U
i mands and certain oth er AAF agencies which are enga~ed m VVILSON-Assist the C hief of Air Staff in the performance of
I va rious specialized activities; and 11 combat air forces m th e duties.
I th eaters of opera tions. ASS ISTANT CIII £F OF AI R STAFF, PLANS : M AJ . GEN. L , S. KUTER- R
The Commanding General, AAF and the omm cnds strategy and deploym en t of air combat units; in terpret
Air Staff- The Commandin g General, AAF, 10 appro\'ed wa r plan s in term s of air combat require ments.
, add ition to th e duties of his command, is a
QUIREMENTS : MAJ . G EN. H . A , C RA IG-Translates approved al
• member of the Combined Chiefs of Staff and war plans into an in tegrated AAF program covcring personnel
th e Joint Chiefs of Staff, which determine th e strategic ob- eq ui pm ent , trained uni ts an d replaceme nt crews; establishes tac tic
jectives and plans of th e Allied amled forces (see page 3?)· and tech n iques of aerial warfare, standards and characte ristics rf
11,e Air Staff is the arm of the Commandmg General whIch quired of aircraft and combat unit plans; ord ers the c reat ion 0
enablcs bim to direct and control all th e far-flun g parts of the un its. the mo,oement of un its and aircraft to overseas theaters.
_ AA F. It translates the war plans laid down by th e PresIdent ASSISTANT C H IEF OF AIR STAFF, PER SONNE L: MAJ . GEN, J. M . BEVAN
I and th e higher planning agencies into concrete courses of - Plans, establish es pol icies for and supervises th e AAF pe rsonne
I AA I" ac!lon. It keeps in close touch with the theatcrs of opcra- program , both milita ry and civilian; supervises recreational an<
m orale ac tivities; administers personnel operations for the personn e
I tions in order to see that productIOn and trammg program s a~c
of the Air Staff.
gea red to the changing requirements of t~e war. Month? m ASSISTANT ClII EF OF AI R STAFF, INTELLIGENCE: BRIC. GEN. T . D
adva nce it plans where, when and what kmds and qu~nht.ICs \ V IIITE- E stablish es policies and plans for air intelligence ac tivities
of plane:; and men will be ne~ded : It develops and ma mt~ms including co unter-intelligence, photo.in terpretat ion and in telligenc(
a synch ronized schedule takmg mto ~ccount . the .m ulbpl.c train ing; collects, evaluates and d issemina tes informa tion bea r i n ~
facto rs affecting fully trained and eqUIpped aIr UnI ts. TillS on th e air war.
schedule serves as the basis for specific directives from the ASSISTANT CHIEF OF AI R STAFF, TRAININC : MAJ , GEN. R . W . H ARPER
Commanding General to AAF agcncies in the field . - Establish es training sch edules and policies and supe rvises AA F
T he Headquarters of th e AAI", m Washm gton, D . C ., training act ivities; stim ulates and coordinates the development and
incl udes th e Commanding G eneral, AAF, the D eputy C om- lise of t raining aids, such as texts, training 61ms, syn thetic train ing
mander, and th e Air Staff . The Air Staff consists of a Chief devices and posters.
of Air Staff (who is also th e Deputy Commandcr, AAF ), as- ASSISTANT CUU;:F OF AIR STAFF, MATERIEL, MA INTENANCE AND DISTRI-
BUTION : MAJ . GEN . O. p , E Cllo Ls-Establish es plans a nd poliCies
sisted by 4 D eputy Chiefs; 6 Assistant Chiefs ?f Air Staff, each fo r all supply activities of the AAF, including th e developm ent,
responsible for a main phase of AAF operations; and several procure ment and prod uc t ion of aircraft and related equipm ent,
special o/licers, each a specialist in a particul ar fi eld . the supply and maintenance of all such supplies within the conti·
COMMANDI NG GE NE RAL, AAF nen tal U, S" and air transportation to overseas thcate rs; also works
in close coord ina tion with the Army Se rvice Forces in the furnish-
G ENERAL H. H. ARNOLD ing of supplies and services by other b ranch es of the \ Var D epart-
OFF ICE RS OF T Il E AIR STAF F men t to the Arm y Air F orces. .
DE I'UTY COMM AN DER, AAF, AND CHI EF OF AI R STAFf' : LT. GEN. organ iza tional. admin istrative and procedural matters; prepa res rec-
B. M . G ILES-Assists and advises th e Comm and ing Ceneral; directs, olllln endations to obtain t he most effi cient utiliz.1 tion of AAF man-
supervises, coordinates act ivities of the Air Sta ff , the comma nds power; obtains and main tains c urrent statistical information rela·
a nd the conti nental ai r forces. t i,oc to all A:\F acti\'ities.

-- -'" -... -- -
---'" ..
i ;l
Alit I'NSPECT01l: BRIC . GEN. J. \V . JONEs-Develops plans and polio c ~
c ~

~ ~

I ties for all AAF inspections; conducts periodic and special in· IU:! Q Q

spections of AAF activities for the Commanding General.

AIR SURG EON : MAJ . GEN. D. N. W . GRANT-Plans and directs all
: medical fa cilities and personnel of the AAF, including aero-


::I :::i

'- ~


• medical research. ~

Supervises and administers all AAF budget and fiscal mattcrs.
AIIl JUDGE ADVOCATE: BRIC. GEN. L. H . HEDRICIC-Acts as legal .---- ~

:! i;l

I counsel Jf the AAF.


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-Determines policies and programs for air communications activi- I:! C
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ties, including radio, radar, teletype, pigeons, etc.
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matters involving relationships with Congress, including proposed
legislation. 0;


-Advise, on all antiaircraft activities affecting the AAF.
special projects as the Commanding General may from time to
L- iii
-- ---'" r-: ~


time ass:gn. >- ~

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..."""" ." -'" -,.
I carries out a fl ying safety program for the prevention of aircraft
accidents; develops and enforces procedures for the control of
military air traffic.




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Under direction of AAF Public Relations Board plans and super·
vises public relations and related activities.
-- -.
-- - - -



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The AAF Commands and the Continental Air Forces- ~
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During tbe prewar period and the early months of the war, '--
tthe AAF concentrated on growing. In 1943, as it approached
its scheduled size, it gradually shifted its emphasis from ~
training to op<;rations. But even after it has reached its peak, it
must continue to train mcn and produce planes and equip·
mcnt in ordcr to maintain its combat forces at full strength .

ew and better planes mllst replace old ones as well as those Q

damaged and destroyed; new crews must be trained to replace

hose lost in action and those relieved from combat duty.

, In charge of building and maintaining combat air forces The Air Transport Command is composed of a ferryin
. arc the several AAF commands, the 4 air forces in the con- division whi ch ferries new airplanes from factory to destin
tinen tal U. S., and certai n other AAF field agencies. Sub ject tion, either in th e U. S. or abroad; a domestic transportatio(i
! to the overall di rectives and programs of the Commanding division for th e transport of supplies and passengers in th~
General, AAF, the commander of each of these organizations continental U. S.; and several foreign wings, each operatin~
has full au thority and responsibility for organizing his COl1l~ transport routes over a specified region of th e world.
mand and devc10ping methods and procedures for accom-
111e 4 continental air forces originated as Air Districts TRAINING COMMAND-Fort \¥orth, T ex.; Lt. Gen. B. K. Yount. Or·
under the old GHO Air I'orce in the winter of '940-41. ganized-Tech. Tr. Comd. 26 Mar. '41; Flying Tr. Com(l. 23
Sct up as air comb:rt organizations, each was assigned a ecr- Jan . '42; combined in to Training Comd. 7 July '43. Function-
Itain area of the U. S. in which to operate. Thus the 1st Air Training of pilots, bombardiers, navigators, gunners, mechanics
1 Force operates along the eastern seaboard; the 2nd in the and other ground technicians; basic training of aU incoming per-
A-. sonnel ; officer candidate training.
: Ilorthwestern and mountain areas; the 3rd in the southeastern
Iarea; and the 4th along the west coast and in the southwest. I TROOP CARRIER COMMAND-Indianapolis, Ind .; Brig. Gen. F. \ V.
IDuring the early part of the war, a major responsibility, par~ Evans. Organized-As Air Transport Comd. 30 Apr. '42; redesig-
I ticularly of th e 1st and 4th Air I'orces, was to guard against nated I Troop Carrier Comd. 20 June '42. Function-Organiza-
tion and training of troop carrier, glid er and medical air evacuation
I possible attack on the continental U. S. Today, although units and crews; joint training with Army Ground Forces of
they still maintain a defensive force, their main job is the airborne units.
organizing and training of air units for overseas comba t.
AIR TRANSPORT COMMAND-Washington, D . C.; Maj. Gen . H . L.
Each rommand and air force has its own headquarters and George. Organized-As Ferrying Comd. 29 May '4 1; redesignated
its own subordinate field organization. ll1ese organizations Air Tran sport Comd . 20 June '42. Function-Ferrying of new
are characterized by the nature of their varying activities. The aircraft from factory to llsing locations all over the world; world-
Materiel Command, for example, which deals primarily with wide air transport service for personnel, supplies :md mail.
. priva te industries, functions through procurement di stricts MATERIEL COMMAND-Wright Field, Dayton , Ohio; Maj. Gen . C . E .
located at or nca r principal industrial centers. These districts Branshaw. O rganized-As Air Corps Materiel Division 15 Oct.
maintai n offices in th e variolls aircraft factories. The Air '26; redesignated Materiel Comrl. 9 Mar. '42. Function- Re·
Service Command has 11 air depots as well as a number of search, development and procurement of aircraft and related eq uip-
special depots and stations. Each major AAF installation has ment. .
a supply and maintenan ce orga nization which draws on an AIR SERVICE CO:MMAND-Patterson Field, Fairfield, Ohio; Maj. Gen.
. appropriate air depot for supplies and heavy maintenance \V . H . Fr;lIlk. O rganized-As Air Corps Provisional Maintenan ce
work. Comd . 15 Mar. '41 ; as Air Corps Maintenance Comd. 29 Apr.
'41; redesigna ted Ai r Service Comd. 17 Oct. '41. Function-Dis-
The 4 continental air forces opera te through sub-com-
tribution and supply to AAF units of AAF equipment and sup-
mands or wings, each of which supervises airbascs of a par- plies; maintenan ce and repair of aircraft; training of service, supply
ticular type or in a particular area. The Training Command is and maintenance un its for assignment overseas.
'organized into several sub-commands, including 2 techlli cal PROVING CROUND COht:MAND-Egli n Field, Fla.; Brig. Gen . G. Gard-
training commands, each operating technical schools in a ner. Organized-As Air Corps Prov ing Ground 15 May '41 ; re-
pccified area of the continent, and 3 flying training com· designated Proving Ground Comd. I Apr. '42. Function-Opera-
ands, £<jch operating Hying schools in a specified area. tional test s and ,tudies of aircraft and aircra ft equipment.

Field, Hempstead , t. I., N. Y.; Maj. Gen.


F. 0'0. Hunter. Organized-As NE Air District 16 Jan. '41;

redesigns.ted 1 St Air Force 9 Apr. '41. Function-Organi7..ation
and training of bomber, fighter and other units and crews for
assignment overseas; participation with Army Ground Forces in
combat :r3ining maneuvers; provision of units and planes for de- THE PARTS OF AN"AIR FORCE
fense of the continental U. S. To understand precisely what an air force is and what
2ND Alit FORCE-Co1orado Springs, Colo.; Brig. Gen. U. C. EDt. makes it tick, it is necessary to know fhe units which comprise
I Organized-As NW Air District 16 Jan. '41; redesignated lnd it and how they arc organized to work together,
Air Force 9 Apr. '41. Function-Same as 1St Air Force. The Airplane and Crew- Basic unit of .all aerial combat or·
:3RO AIR FORcE-Tampa, Fla.; Maj. Gen. W. T. Larson. Organized ganizations is the individual airplane and its combat crew.
-As SE Air District 16 Jan . '41; redesignated 3Td Air Force 24 In the fighter airplane, the crew is a one-man organization-
May '41. Function-Same as 1St Air Force. the pilot, who also acts as his own navigator, gunner, radio-
14TH AIR FORCE-San Francisl:u, Calif.; Maj. Gen. W. E. Lynd. Or- operator and even bombardier. In contrast, a heavy b omher
ganized-As SW Air District 16 Jan. '41; redesignated 4th Air -has a crew of 10 or morc highly specialized men, The medium
Force 31 Mar. '41. Function-Same as 1St Air Force. bom ber normally has a crew of 6.
OTHER AAF AGENCIES The F light-Two or morc ai rplanes may be organized , for
• tactical purposes, into a flight. ll1is means that they tn-lin ,
MF BOARD, Orlando, Fla.-Development and determination of AAF fly and fight together. One of the planes is the flight kodcT;
military requirements. its pilot, the flight commander, directs the operations of the
TACTICAL CENTER, Orlando, Fla .-Testing and demonstrating tacti- entire flight. The flight, as a sub-division of the next larger
cal unit organization, equipment and techniques; training of se- unit, the squadron, simplifies the problem of control by the
lected MF, Army and Navy personnel in air tactics and doctrine;
training of air intelligence officers and air inspectors.
squadron commander, who would otherwise have to deal
directly with a large number of individual airplanes. A flight
1 REDISTR IBUTION CENTER, Atlantic City, N. J.-Processing and assign-
ment of AAF personnel returned from overseas; operation of rest
usually consists of 4 or more airplanes which in combat may
I camps for such personnel. fly in pairs, trios, or fours known as elements of th e Hight.
The Squadron-rnle smallest air force unit having both
Provision of world-wide system of communications along military tactical and administrative duties is the squadron. Unlike the
airways, including radio stations, airbase control towers, beacons, flight, it includes ground personnel whose duties 3re to ad ~
I telctype systems, radio ranges and other communications facilitics. minister the squadron and to furnish nccessary ground service.
WEATHER WINC, Asheville, N . C.-Provision of scientific weather in- When necessary, it ca n be stationed at an advanced base and
fonnation service for the AAF' and the rest of the Army. operate on its own resources for a short period. The make~up
SCHOOL OF AV IATION MEDICINE, Randolph Field. Tex.-Training of of a squadron is determin ed by th e type of airplane it operates
AAF medical personnel; research and development in science of and the nature of its mission. Basic types of flying squadrons
aviation m ed ic ine. include very heavy, heavy, medium and light bomber, 2 ~en ~
FIRST MO'T10N PICTURE UNIT, Culvcr City, Calif.-Production of mo- gine fighter, single-engine fighter, night fighter, troop carricr,
tion pictures for the training and orientation of AAF personnel. tactical reconnaissance, photo-reconnaissancc, transport and
AEkONAUTICAL CHART PI.ANT, St. Louis, Mo .-Procu rement, repro- ferrying squadrons.
duction and distribution of 3cronautical c harts for AAF operation s While th e composition of th ese different types varies
around the world, widely both in equ ipment and personnel, sq uadrons of a
>lAKE-UP OF TYPICAL HEAVY BOMBER CREW-(B-1 7) and in T ables of Equipment (T/Es) which au thorize equlJ)-
m ent by t ype and quantity for eaeh kind of squadron.
TITLE Th e squaClron has a comma nd ing . officer and a group o f
ilot 1ST LT.-Commands airplane sllbordinate officers to assi st him in plan n ing an d carrying out
and crcw; pilots airplane .
th e squad ron 's m ission. Its activi ties normally fall in to 4
:opilot 2ND LT.-Assists pilot in Aring
basic division s :
plane; opera tes fi re control.
~ o lllba rdier 2ND LT.-Locates, ident ifi es and Chin turret 1 . TilE TACTICAL DIVISION includes an operations nnd an in tell igence
bombs target; directs plane section and all t he aircrews. T he operations officer usually acts as
while over target. the squadron commander's chief assista nt. lJ e directs the tra ining
avig'ltor 2ND LT .-Navigates plane to tar- Alternate on of all the crews and prepares the detailed pla ns for all missions.
get and home. chin turret The intell igence officer collects and provides necessary information
erial engineer- T .!ScT .-Handles and corrects Top turret rela tive to the enemy, the war situation, targets, etc. TIle opera-
gunner mechanical tro uhles in Right; tions officer is also assisted hy a communications officer, an arma-
checks airplane before Right; ment officer, an oxygen officer and perhaps other specialists.
gunnery. 2. THE ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISION handles all the office work required
55't . aerial engt- S,/SCT .-Assists aerial engineer- \Vaist gun for squadron administration, and such housekeeping activities as
! neer-gunner gunner; gunnery. sq uadron supply, transportation and mess. It is headed by the
diD opcmtor- T .lSc1.'.-Operates all radio com- Radio hatch
meChanic gun- munications; makes necessary gun • sq uadron executive and includ es the squadron adjutant.
3. TilE SERV ICE DIVISION consists of chemical, medical and ordnance
ner radio repairs; gunnery. services, and includes the squadron flig ht surgeon and the squad-
Ass' t . radio oper- S,/SCl' .-Assists radio operator· Ball turret ron ord nance officer.
m echanic gunner ; gunnery. 4 . TilE TECHN ICAL DIVISION is responsible for all ground mainten:l.I1ce
gunner and servicing of airplanes and equipmen t. It normally handles the
Armorer-genner T '!Sc T.-Maintains and repairs Waist gun supply of technica l aircraft equipment and parts. This divis ion
annalllcnt, incl uding gUllS, is headed by the squadron enginecring officer. It may also include
gunsights, turrets, bomh racks, armament, cOllllllunications and photographic sect ions.
etc.; gunnery.
IAss't. armorer- S./ScT.-Assists armorer-gunner; Tail gun Service and R epa ir- T h e scrvice a n d repa ir person ncl of a
gunner gunncry. . . squadron a re organized into grou n d crews, eaeh of which
(Note: Ranks and duty assiglllll cnts varv som t:wh;:lt III different is no rm ally rcsponsible for th e scrvice and maintenan cc of a
organizations. O ffi n :r r;l1lks are 'a ll ont: grade lugher jf pa rtic ular plane. Ground crews con sist of aircraft mechani cs
the airplane is a fl ight leader.) an d sp ecialists in propel lc rs, instruments, armor, etc. Each
ground crew is supervised by a crcw ch ief and the crew chiefs
arc supe rvised by a 1ine ch ief- a m aster scrgcan t .
given type a re similar. T ests and experien e~ d e te rmine th e Th e p erso nn el of cach sqlwdron are d ivided into an air
numbe r of planes which sh ould be grouped In one squad ron cch elon a n d <l ground echc1on. l11e air ech elon may fly wh en
for m axim uin effic ien cy in comba t, and wh a t person~el , th e sq uadron moves from one station to another. It includ es
equipment and supplies are required to kecp the planes Hymg. th e squadron commander, the aircrews, the engincer ing offi-
Suc h determination s th en b ecom e a p rescnbcd standa~d . TIl ey cer, th e fl igh t surgeon , key ground mech anics and specialists.
are published in T ables of Organization (T / Os) which state 'l1l e ground ech elo n , whi ch in cl udes th e rest of t h e sq uad ron,
!thc numbe r of pe rsonnel in each specialty and in each rank , travels b y b oa t, rai l or t ru ck.

The Group-Next organizational level above the squadron

is the group. This usually consists of from 2 to 4 combat
squadrons and a group headquarters. It is both tactical, in
that it provides a grouping of aircraft to perform combat
missions together, and administrative, in that it forms a
nucleus for administrative services for all its squadrons. All
squadrons in a particular group fly the same type of planes;
groups, like squadrons, are referred to by type of plane-
heavy bomber group, light bomber group, fighter group, etc.
When an entire group is stationed at one large airbase,
the ground personnel of the various squadrons may he
pooled to provide conso1idated maintenance, mess, transpor-
tation, personnel and other services. However, squadrons are
sometimes stationed at separate bases ~nd must furnish these
services wholly or in part. All squadrons of a group train
together and the group usually moves and fights as a unit.
It is a vital organization in combat operations and is the J
basic yardstick in AAF planning.
Higher Levels of Command-Above the group level, the or-
ganiz<ltionallayers in different air forces reflect a variety con·
ditioned by the requirements of a particular theater and its
air strength. Normal1y, 2 or more groups constitute a wing,
OJ non-administrative body concerned chiefly with tactical
plans and operations. Similarly, 2. or more wings are usually
grouped with auxiliary units to form a command, which is a
large striking organization of one major category of air
strength. In some cases where a particular type of aviation
is too unwieldy, in point of size, for a single command to

control, air divisions may be formed between the wing and
command levels. The air force itself is the next level, usual1y
composed of 3 or more commands.
It is difficult to avoid overSimplification in describing
i these organizations. In practice, they follow no standard
formula. If direct air force control is desirable, a group or
wing may be attached directly to an air force. Dominance
I of one type of activity may cause an air force to be formed
within a theater air force. Because of this, tactical and stra-
tegic air forces were formed in Africa and in England. (For
explanation of strategic and tactical operations see page 255.)
22 OFFICIAL AM GUIDE n~andcr for air ~pcration s . In addition to commanding lh c
Supporting Units-The bomber or the fighter squadron is air force, he adVISes th e theater commander on air matters.
only rel~tively and temporarily self-sufficient. It cannot supply No two air forces are identical. Eaeh is conditioned br its
Itself wIth the bombs, bullets and gasoline necessary to 8y strategic situation, geographi c ;md climatological condit{ons,
mISSIons day after day_ It cannot carry the heavy equipment cncmy operations and ta ctics, and oth er factors. As the war
necessary to overhaul 3 fouled engine or scrape a smooth progresses and th e strategic "Iitnation changes, rapid shifts
runway out of a jungle_ For these needs and others combat occur in th e loc'lti on, nature and use of th e different air
~nits ~epend upon ground organizations, or supporting serv· forces. The commanding gcncral of an ai r forcc dctcT1nines
ICC UDltS. its organization.
Specially trained units supply and, if necessary, repair All units of an air force are comhincd under a single com-
b~mbs, g,uns and other ordnances; chemicals, medical sup- mander for th e accomplishm cn t of a comm on objcctivc. nlC
phcs, .radiOS and telephones. Truck units move up men and essential offensive elemcnt of air organi za ti on is a bomhing
sUl?phes fro.m the. rear and transpo.rt salvaged equipment. forec for strategic att1cks wcll behind th e cnemy's front
MIlItary pohce furnish ground protection to bases and aircraft. lines on in~u s trial and transportation centers and other key
\V ea~~r detachments .pro~jde vital forecasts for the planning targets. This force may be organized as a strategic air force
of r:"JSslons. Co~m1U1lIcatlOns units perform any number of (such as th e 8th and 15th Air Forces) consisting of heavy
dutJe:. Other umts provide the ordinary needs of living: food, and sometimes medium bomber units, fighter un its for escort,
c1othmg, shelter. S upportin~ units range all the way from and photographic aviation. In other cases, these attack); arc
work battahons to hIghly skIlled groups of topographic engi- carried out by a bomber command of an air force with fi oohtcr
neers, ~eteorol?g~sts, ph~tog.raphers and rada~ specialists. escorts drawn from the fighter command .
Certain specialized umts In an overseas air force are at· In a theat~r wl~crc an air force is operating with ground
tached directly to combat units or to higher headquarters. forces, a .tactical au force becomes a bas ic component of th e
Mo~t of them, however, become part of the air force air th ea ter au force. It usually contains light and medium bomber
service command (see page 178). This command is on the units, fighter-bomber uni ts, reconnaissa nce units, fighter units
same level as th e bomber and fighter commands and performs and troop carrier units. " ' hen, as in the New Gui nea cam-
dubes e9ually essen tial; It draws heavily upon the supplies paign, transpo rtation of m ~n ' and equipment by air is an
and services of the Army Service Forces in the theater. In a Important d cment of opera bans, a troop cmricr command or
theat~r where the only A~erican forces arc the air force, how. a troop ca rri er wing may be es tablished dirccth- und er th e air
ever, It may have to prOVide a11 th e supplies and services itself. force. .
~n a~r force normally possesses an air defensc command,
which lIlc1u~l es. fighter ~ro ups as wc! l as various grou nd de-
f: l1se orgamzabo~l s . Tlll~ command s mission is to protect
aIr and ground lIlstall nhons and commu nica tions from en-
emy attack. "fllc air force air service command con trols th e
servi~e. units ~ss ign ed to an. air force an~ is respo nsible for
ORGAIIIlATIIN FOR AIR provldlllg services and su pplICs to the enbre air force.
Another important air force ac tivity is reconnaissance in-
. The Air Forces in Combat TheaterrEach theater of opera- c111dill~ ph oto~ra phi c rcconna.i'\sancc. Vital bo th to air' unci
tions nonnally has one or more al[ forces. The air force ground operations, a rcconn;]Jss:mce group or wing may be
commander normally is responsible to the theater com.

attached directly to the air force headquarters. Construction
of mbases IS ordinarily planned and controlled by air force Cooperation Command as well as eoas tal defense, photo-
headquarters. Tra~mng IS a. continu~us air force activity. reconnaissance and service units.
The No~ ~frican ExperIence-BasIc requirements of air As the campaign progressed it became apparent that these
force orgaDlzatJon are 8exibilitr and adaptability. A specific forces would have to be integrated. In attacks against rear
c~ample ~~ the a?apt?hO~ of aIr force organization to a par- . targets, fighter aircraft had to be used in conjunction with
tlcular mJ~ltary situabon IS the experience of the Northwest heavy bombers. In missions against enemy ground and air
Afncan Au Forces in 1942-43. forces in the battle area, fighters had to team up with
medium and light bombers. In defense against enemy air at·
tack, figh ters had to be used alone.
T h e bomber command was confronted by similar de-
STRAnGlC AIR 10RC[ mands for flexibility, For attacks on enemy shipping and
AttIcki 1m fa. btpts .1Id cDmmlllicatioDS. enemy ports, a striking force of. bombers was required. For
" NY)' Miters; ISCtrt ~$. coordinated mass attacks on enemy forces in the battle area,
medium and light bombers had to he removed from the con-

_.,""' ......
_TAl AI. 10RC[ TACTICAl ". 10RC[ trol of scattered anny commanders in the field and concen-

IiiI; ........... "'lnl:
SOl " "... is . . . ; ... \
Contrel ttl, air, IttJck tr"". iI·
stallatiOlls; coop'rate witt! 11'01IIII
f.rets; "".aliuance. lair
1IiY-= -.. io-., liPton.
trated under a single air control. Another air. force mission,
the defense of Allied shipping and Allied ports in North
Africa, required various types of aircraft.

H,,,, & lIIedium Hllllars; TACTICAL BOMB 10RC[ In February 1943, the month which marked th e turn ing
'ia_ters. M_, 1iPt; ............ point of the African campaign, a11 th e air elements in the the-
::Iter were reorganized on the basis of types of tasks to be per-
formed rather than types of aircraft employed. .
A strategic air force of heavy bombers and escort fighters
WING AfRICAlt ASrfitIll cMS1nIetieI1IIII was established for attacks on enemy shipping, ports and
,. 1IIir. tieater. AIR 1IIiIII.a.et. bomber bases in Sardinia and SiCily. Air units previously as-

signed to grou nd commanders were fu sed in a tactical air force
undcr air command. Its tasks included operations against
l AI. l [ RVIC[ COMMAND TRAINING COMMAND cncmy air forces, bombing and strafing attacks on enemy
TI'IiAiI( of lIIWIy 'niwed armies and transportation lines, and reconnaissance and map-
Sewtr. NilltetallC. _I.
uti smite. ping. :Morcover, a tactical bombardment force to bomb en-
TIDOP CARRI[R COMMAND All types of aireratt.
Airborne OPlrJtioa; air
cmy ground forces was set up under the direct control of the
I'facuation of wound ... tactical air force, while a coastal air force was set up to defend
Troop CllTi.r pllnts. Allied ports and shipping.
Because of th e tremendous areas that had to be covered,
The forces originall y available to th e All ' d A' C the coastal air force was divided into 4 gcographical coastal
rnaod . N th f ' . Ie rr orn- commands, and the tactical air force into 3 geographical
er OD .or A nca !Deluded the bomber> fi gIt
support ·
1 er au
, serv~ce ... cOlllmands and troop carrier win of' th tacti cal divisions.
U. S. 12th Au I'orce; and, am~.H1g British air units. ~le Ann; This reorganization safeguarded and enhanced the peculiar
advantages of the air weapon in regard to mobility and 8exi-
bility by rctaining ccntral planning and control in the stra- trol di rectly the movemen t of marc than a few of th em:
tegic air force and the tactical bomber force. Units and air· therefore th e planes arc group~d into fli ghts, each und er ~~
planes were not frozen under any command; they were used fli ght comm ander. Since th e fhght command cr cm~n o t pe r
wherc they could function most effectively. In attacking key sonally direct th e aiming of all th e gun s or the openl1l~ of ~n
targets, the tactical air force and the strategic air force fur- the b omb bays of all tl, e planes in his Bight,h e deals WIth t e
DIshed each otl,er w,th bombers and escort fighters. This kind ai lane commander of each plane-th e pilot. 111e pilot 111
of collaborallon was also reBected in the relationship between ~l:rn command s the aircrew of his plane. In the la.rgest pl::tnes.
the tactical air force and surface forces . It has become a model crews arc subdivided into sections so th at th e auplane CO~ll ­
for combined action .. It is no exaggeration to say that the mand er will not have more th an 3 or 4 subordmates With
Northwest Afncan Air Forces furnished the pattern for sub- whom to deal. .
scqocnt operations in Sicily and Italy, and that the plan of air The Use of Staff- Although a commander must see. t? It
organ~za~on for the, a.s~ault on western Europe follows simi- that his orders are carried out and must take full responslbl.h ty
lar pnnclplcs of BeXlblhty and collaboration . for the way they are carried out, h e alo~le ca,?not possl~ly
solve all the problem s of his comm~ nd . l'or thiS h e requtrcs
expert advice and assistance from l~ls staff. .
HOW AN AIR FORCE OPERATES The purpose of a staff is to aS~lst th e commander III th e
111c Principle of Comm3nd- The North African air cam- performan ce of his command dutIes. .
paign was won by an air force composed of several hundred In the AAF, an airplane comm and er does not rcql.lI ~e a
th?~sand men, operating equipment worth several hundred fonnalized staff, nor does a fli ght con~ m ;:l1:der. The \·3 T10~tS
mll~I01! dollars o~er ~n area of thousands of square miles. For assistants to a squadron commander ad Vise lll!,n bu.t are n ot, I ~l
all ,Its nnmense Size, It was won by an air force operating as ooc th e strict sense, a staff to him ~ecau se th eu cllIcf responsI-
UIlIt, controlled and directed by one man. bilities are operational- th e carrym g out of orders. In a group
Obviou~ly, no single commander can personally direct al1 and in all higher levels, however, every air comm and er h as ;1
the men In such a force. Nevertheless his plan and his will sizeable staff. .
n.lUSt .controJ every n,-tan. The . device which makes this pos- The staff does not, of itself, possess any aU~lOnty . l~ nu y
Sible IS the orgamzatlon of umts and levels of units under a issue orders to subordinate commanders, but m so domg It
plan known as tl,e principle of command. According to the merely carries out the wish es of its c~mmander and employs
pnnc~pJe of command, every unit has a single commander the autllOrity of his posi tion. Its dull es may b e broadl~ de-
who IS completely responsible for his command and who di- fined as assisting the commander of th e umt by (I ) :1dvlsmg
rcct~ the .actions. of his subordinates. By this method no man him on policy matters and on str~tegic and ta~tical 'plat~S,
receives I11structions from more than one immediate com- (2 ) mainta ining current informa bon and k~epl11g hun 111-
mander. formed at all tim es, ( 3) elaborating upon hiS gencral phlns
. 'Joe number of .in~i vi.duals one commander ca n pcrsonally ,md preparing appropriate orders to carry th em out, and ( 4 )
duect and control IS 111TI1ted. When it exceeds that limit it is fo llowing up to sec that his orders arc properly e.xecutcd ..
subdivided into groups, each one under a subordinate 'com- Staff Organization-"ll,e duties of staff office; s are logIcall y
~lande~. This subdividing continues all the way down the div ided into 4 main categories, or staff sections. F or con-
hne. Smce a squadron commander cannot personally direct venience of reference, th ese sections are commonly referred
:111 ~oo or more o.f his men, hc organizes his squadron into to in th e wing and h igh er levels by ~umbcr as A.- I. ( p~rson
\cctions. When Ius planes arc in flight, it is difficult to COll - nel ); A-l (intclligence); /\-3 (opcratlons and trallllllg), and

A-4 (supply). Similar staff sections in the groups are desig- -...- E:--"-
I: _ -

- -

nated as S (for staff) -S' l, S-2, S-3 and S-4.

A- I , OR 5-1, is concerned with all policics and plans relating to per-
~ ~

- - '" --
~ ~ ~

!! ...

1: .... ~

sonnet These include such matters as person nel authorizations,

procalurcs, classifications, procurement, assignment, promotions, i< -"
leaves, reward s, citations, honors, punishment, religious and rcere-
ational services, morale, Anny postal service, custody of prisoners ~
.- ;:
of war, quartering of soldiers, relations with civil government and
civilians, maintenance of order and discipline, burials and sim ilar

:z - -
., ., . -
., D

l!' "• ~
t "~

... -
A-2, OR $-Z, keeps the commander informed as to the situation and C> = ~
capabilities of the enemy. This office is concerned with photo- ~
o •
~ 0
graphic intelligence and reconnaissance, interrogation of prisoners ~
.§· ~

- --'g"
of W2r, issuance of intelligence reports, maintenance of pertinent x E
., -
maps and charts, interrogation of pilots after return from missions z ~

:;: :;: ~~
and intelligence training of all personnel. It also makes studies of
o •'"'~
v> ~
enemy targets, han.dles policies and regulation::; relating to sccurity % x
o ,
and counter-intel1igence and advises the commander on public re- v> ~

~ "<.l~
latior:s matters. A most important function of a squadron inteIli- i<
;::: -;::
genet officer is to brief combat crews prior to missions, providing
~ ~ o •
them with relcvant information on the enemy.
. ··.-
~ ~ ~

•:.: =
x z (;
A-3, OR 5-3, is concerned with all plans and policies pertaining to th e
organization and movement of the unit or subordinate units, to ...""
~ =
~ :;; :;; ~

o _
~ ~ 0
their training, and to combat operations. This office prepares the v> ~
tactical plans for all combat missions . It must keep informed as C>
z 's•
to the strenrh and state of training of units, the availability and
I condition 0 aircraft and other equipment, and combat readiness "C>
z -- -- -- -- ~ •

geneony. It is concerned in all matters pertaining to fl ying, such :IE


-- - - - -

as oxygen equipment, communications, weather, flight control. :IE
- - -- - ";:a ..t

D D D U u
C> ~
flying safety and others. ::; ~ ~

" '4, OR 5-4. performs an staff fun ctions pertaining to supply and ~
C> ..o •

.--;: ~
maintenance. This office must keep thoroughly familiar with the
status of all supplies, determine supply requirements and prepare '""" <>--"
o ••


logistical plans to support tactical operations. It is responsible for
policies, organizations, facilities and personnel for servicing and
m:Jinten:Jnce of aircmft; for procurement, distribution, transpor-
tation, storage, reclamation and salvage of supplies; for construe-

,.,.• ::E
z: ---




== ~ ~=
- "l:I""
·... "'.

tion and maintenance of airbases, supply depots and other fa- = ~~ ~. ~~ EX

co x_

x~ ~-

c iliti~. u ~~ x'" ~-
::;s ~'"

-. ..'"
c;~ -~
'-' =~
- ,"
- ~
~= ~"
x - ~= x=~ ~'"
It should be noted tllat while the squadron does not have
x ..,
"" '"'"
!;~ u= u
a formalized staff, its prin cipal officers are grouped along the ::; !;;: =
same general lines as the staff section s. .., u "=u u= =
u =

. The Sl""'ial Staff- In additioll to the gcneral staff scctions
lust .dc.scnbed, each commander is provided with a group of command of engineer troops in the construction of airh:l)'c~. land
spcctahzed officers., commonly referred to as the special staff. ing fiel ds and relnted fa cilities.
~11esc .officers advise the commander and his staff on matters ORDNANCE OFFICERS ' Advice on all ord nance 1llatt er~ and ~edlllic<i1
III which they are particularly qualified. Some of them arc supervision of ordnance activities.
also responsible ~or carrying out ?perations in their particular QUARl'f;RMA STERS' Advice on all quartermaster matters :md tcd1l1iC::I1
fields. The special staff usuall y lIleludcs some or all of the supervision of quartermaster troops.
follo\VIng: The Inspection System- A primary means of control, whi ch
h as long been es tablished in all military organiZ<ltion"" is that
ADJUTANTS CEN~RA~ OR .\DJU!.\~TS ". IIandling of official correspond- of inspection. Inspection in t he AAF starts at th e very bottolll
ence, authenttcation and distrIbution of orders; maintenance and - th e mechanic inspecting a planc, th e sergea nt inspecting
cus~y of records, rosters, reports; office procedure and adminis- the military bearing of his men . At high er levels th e COlll -
mander of every unit must make frequent inspec tions of th e
INSPECTORS CENERAL OR INSPECTORS· Inspections and investigations
for :he commander of the internal situation of his command. units immedia tely below him and occasional inspections of all
FINAN~II: OFFICERS' Pay of troops and maintenance of a finan ce subordinate units.
sen lce. However, the com mandin g officer of a large organizahon
JUDGE .A~VOC~TES · Le~~l cOl~nse} to the commander and his staff; lacks the necessary time to make regular inspections. For this
adm l1llStratton of mlhtary Justice; the handling of all other legal reason th e commander of each un it is assisted by an inspector,
maLers. or a staff of inspectors whose full -tim e responsibilities arc to
STATISTICAl: CONTROL OFFICERS " Provision of fa ctual data necessary keep him currently infonn ed of the condition of his CO I11 -
for effectIVe management. ,
mand and to initiate corrcctive action wherever necessary.
WEATI:ER OFFICERS · Provision of information. foreca sts and advice There are 3 main types of inspection in the AAF: adminis-
on weather.
COMM~NI~ATIONS OFFICERS " Advice and staff supervision of air com-
trative inspection, deSigned to deternl ine the degree of effi-
mumcabons. ciency of administration and to ass ure compliance with orders
SURGE~NS . Advice and .inf?rmati~n .on the health and physical fitness and regulations; technical inspection, concerned with the
of a.l personnel, sam tation, aVla~lOn medical problems, evacuation condition of aircraft, aircraft parts and techniques empl oyed
of sd: .and wounded,. ~~d medical training; technical supervision in th eir maintenance; and tactical inspection, whi ch is the
of rne(ilcaI troops, fa cilities and supplies_ inspection of an entire unit to ascertain the efficiency with
SPECIAL SERVICE OFFICERS · Development and main tenan ce of the which it can perfoml its primary mission and its readiness for
b cntaI and physical well-being of the troops by utilization of wel-
re, recreation, oricnt~tion, information and morale activities.
active combat service. "-
A spccialized type of inspection made by th e Air Inspector
PROV~ST MARSIIALS' AsSistance in supervision and operation of all
pollee matters. of th e C om manding General, AAF, is known as the Prepa ra-
PJlOTOCRA.PHlC .o~~ICERS • Advice and technical supervision of pho- tion for Overseas Movement (POM) Inspection . This is a
tograplJJC activities. thorough and detailed inspec ti on which is made of every AAF
CHAPLAINS" Provision of rc1igious and morale guidance to an pcr. unit before it is sent overseas. In this inspecti on every factor

I sonnel of the command.

CliEMICAL OFFICERS· Advice on all matters pertaining to chemical
warf.ne. •
bearin g on th e ability of th e unit to perform its assigned job
is checked-from the condition of th e tee th of every man,
the compl eteness of every record , th e spark plugs in every
Ala FO~CE ENGINE ERS · T echnical advice on engineering matters and plane, to the combat effectiveness of every aire rew. An in-
spection of this type culminates in ,3 detailed report which is

submitted to the Commanding General, AAF. Upon the

basis of thi s information, it is determined whether th e unit
should cr should not be sent overseas, and appropriate action
is recommended to the War D epa rtment General Staff.
Stati~tical Control System-Basis for an decisions and for
all plans of a unit comomandl"" is accurate and complete in-
formation. He must know exactly what his subordinate unit$
are able to do---how many planes they arc able to put in the A bomber forma tion bom bs a small railroad bridge. south
air, how many train ed crews arc rcady to go on a III ission, of ~landalay. A cloud of B-17S and B-24S baiters an alrphne
l what shortages or deficiencies of supplies, equipment or per- fac tory deep in Germany. Several gro~~ps of medlUm b ombers
sonnel might impede operations. To furnish such factual data, attack a storage dump in northenl It ranee. All of th ese .op-
a statistIcal control system has been established throughout erations seem unrelated except for the common denOtnmCl-
all eehe:ons of the AAF. It is a system for the collection, tor that they arc air attacks on enemy targets. But why these
compilation, analysis and presentation of statistical data con- particular targets? H ow docs the AAF. happen to h.~lVe th ~se
cerning: personnel, housing, training, operations, aircraft, particular planes, personnel and bases III these pa[be l~lar \\ <lr
I equipment, supply and maintenance. area s? How was it decid ed what types of pla~ es, : nd III what
Summary rcports on al1 AAF operations arc regularly fur- numbers should be provided for such opera tIons.
nished to the Commanding General, AAF in \Vashington, TIle first of th ese questions is a matter of. target selec-
D. C. These provide him and his staff information upon tion. The second is onc of deploym ent of avmbb1c forces.
whieh are based the strategic, tactical, production, training TIle third is one of program. T he answers to all of them must
and personnel plans of the AAF. be determ ined in the light of an overall waf :plan for th e
Budget and Finance-Financial control is exercised in the defeat of th e en em y. This war plan must take mto account
AAF through its budget and fiscal system. Budget and fiscal all the forces available for usc against the en~m y : Army,. N3\·Y
officers are assigned to cach of the higher lcvels of com mand; and Allied forces. It must be correlated With productive re-
through their allocation of funds and accounting of cxpcndi- sources, manpower, shipping facilities and other broad factor~
tures, they arc able to maintain for their commanders com- in an all-out war. . ...
plete control over th e fiscal aspects of th eir organizations. Combined and Join~ C hiefs of Staff-U I~l1nat~ respon sll~lh t~·
Anny Air Forces Board-TIle Army Air Forces Board is th e for our war plan rests III the Commander-m-C h tcf- th e 1 r~s l­
AAF laboratmy group for tactical research and experimenta- dent- together Wit~l th e. ~overllln ~ntal leaders of our Allies.
tion. The board utilizes the personnel and facilities of the Their broad stra tegic deCISIons arc nllp1cm entcd by th e Com-
AAF T actical Center and the Proving Ground Command to bined C hiefs of Staff, th e high est m il itary plannmg ~od y of
conduct tests which precede its decisions and recomm enda- th e Uni ted Na tions. Th e C ombin ed C hi efs of ~t~ff 1I1 ~I ~ld cs
tions. Direetives issued by the board foml a basis for de- th e top commanders of th e AI~l cri ea n and .,Bn.h sh ~ll1ht~ ry
termining operational suitability of individual aircraft and services. Its American m embers mcludc the I reS ident s C hief
I items of equipment, and for developing improved operational of Staff th e Chief of Staff of th e U. S. Arm y, the Command-
technique. The key assignments on the board- tactics, or- ing G Cl;eral, AAF, and the Co mmand er-in.Chi ~f of the U .. s.
ganization, equipment, aircraft, armament and ordnance, and Fleet. In itself, this American group eompnses the Jomt
communications-are held by officers with combat experi- C hiefs of Staff. whi ch is th e planning body for all U . S. forces.
ence who are speCialists in th eir field s.


chemicals, and is responsible for protective llleasures .aga.inst
The Combined Chiefs of Staff normally does not name spe- gas attack. The Signal Corps and our own eOI:llllullI.C:J ttons
cific targets for air attac~ but does indicate the priori tic!! svs tcm work lwnd in hand in developing at~d . tnstlllmg t,h e
of different types of strategic targets in the various theaters. l;~ltes t communications equipment. ~l1lc tralllJ11g of sc ~v~ee
This body also makes overal1 plans which in turn determine personnel for AAF units has been to a huge ex t~ nt a }omt
the conduct of tactical air operations. On the basis of such ~ und ertaking. The AAF and the Arm y Ground l' o r~es ,,"o,rk
priorities the air force commanders select individual blrgets elosely togeth er in joint training activities. AAF ta cttcal ltl1~tS
and execute plans for aerial missions against them. regularly participate in grol1~l(l force . n~aneuve.rs. AAI" Ulllt.'
Th. General Staff and tbe Air Staff- The ""ar Department and equipment arc also lIsed m th e traJ1l1ng of aubornc troops:
Gcnernl Staff is the planning agency for the U. S. Annv. It co- including glider troops ~Ild para~roope~s. A ~VOrld-\vld,~
ordinates planning problems relating to air, ground and sen-· weather service for the entne Arm y IS furlll sh~d b) the AAI .
icc activities. It maintains direct contact with all th e theaters Similarly, the Air Tnmsport Command pr?~' ldes for ~pccdy
of operations, determines what units will be sent to what air transportation of key personnel and ~ ntJcal supplies for
theater, correlates supply and transport rcq,l1ircments with th e entire Arn1\' as well as for othcr agencl,es. .
tacticaJ plans, steers the en tire Army training program to meet Army and Navy combine i~ ,t!le planmng ,of atrer,~ft pro·
anticipated war needs. TIle Air Staff of the Commanding duetion raw materials and faclhtIes. TIle AAF Sllpen Ises th e
General, AAF, works in cJose coordination with both th e produet'ion of scveral types of planes .for th e avy, and the
Combmed and Joint Chiefs of Staff and the War DelJart- Navy reciprocates on other types. ~lInng the lirst yea~ and a
ment General Staff. The Air Staff prepares and submits to half of war, the AAF Antisubmarine Comma~ld J?ro\"ldcd an
these agencies recommendations relative to the AAF pro- air patrol al?ng vital s~a lanes, The ~ooperahve mt~rel: an ge
gram, the employment of airpower and the d~loym e nt of of informatIon, techmques and taehcs betwcen N.IV) and
AAF units. It interprets the decisions of th ese planning bodies AAF is illustrated in the joint staff trainin g of Aml y and N a."y
into specific courses of AAF action a.nd follows through to officers at the AAF Tactical Ccnter, the de\"e1opment ~f t~a Ill ­
see th at they are successfully accomplIshed. ing devices, exchan ge of maps and charts, commumea hons
and radar developments.
WORKING WITH OTHERS Through th e mechanism. of lend-lease, th~ AA F ha,s p~r.
ti cipated in the strengthemng. of all our Allies., \Vor~l\l.g 111
Nothing better illustrates the fact that this is a war of a collaboration with representatIvcs of oth er ~ lllted attOns,
whole people than the teamwork between the military forces AAfi' has programmed. procured and superVised .the p roduc-
and civilian agencies. The continuous, hour-to-hour inter- tion of thousands of airplanes for oth er e?untnes, and has
dependence of the AAF with co untless other organizations provided for th eir shipment. I~ has also tramed thousa n,ds of
touche~ almost every aspect of OUT national life. \Vithin th e fliers for Canada, England, Clll~a, Fran~e and o,th er A~hes,
Army itself, the AAF, th e Army Service Forces and the Arm v The civil agencies, both publIc and pnv~ te,. wlth whIch th e
GroUI},C Forces work as one team. . AAF works arc legion , Governm ent ageneles lI~c1 udc th e \ Va r
T1le Army Service Forces provides our food, our cJothing Production Board, th e Joint Aircraft COlll l~l lttee, the \~a r
and other everyday essentials for the MI". 11,e Corps of :rvral lpower COlllmission and m~ n y oth er ltedern.l. agencIes.
Engineers has built many of our airbases and has provided Thc Na ti onal Advisory COllllTiittec on ~cro.nallhes, cst,jlb.
tiS with trained personnel to build new oncs in combat zo nes. lisllcd in 191 5, has prO\'idcd in va luable aI d III ,neronauticlI,1
The Ordnance Department designs and procures our bomb~ de"c1opmen ts, many of whi ch arc now standard 111 the 1\/\1',
and Ch emical 'Varfare Service provides incendiaries and other

The Ci\'il Aeronautics Administration and the AAF work

togdbcr in the development and utilization of civil air facili-
ties, the training of pilots, the control of air traffic and re-
lated activities.
An outstanding example of civil participation in the AAF
prog"'" is the Civil Air Patrol (CAP). This organization
consists of volunteer civilians, many of them fliers using thei r
own planes. The Civil Air Patrol has operated in close col-
Jaboration with the AAF on various types of projects since
th e war began and it was made an AAF auxiliary by Executive
Order on April '9. '94 3. During the bitterest part of the
antisubmarine campaign, from :M arch 1942 to August 1943 ,
it prmlided an antisubmari ne air patrol which totalled more
than 14 mi1lion miles of over-water flying and spotted 173
submarines. The Civil Air Patrol provides an cxtcnsi"e air
courier service for the transport of critical supplies, parts and
mail between AAF bases as weB as for other <lgcncies. Other
important Civil Air Patrol contributions include training of
pre-induction personnel (see page 121), search missions for
lost aircraft, a southern air patrol over the :M exican border. We total more than two and a third million individuals. \Ve
Combined Operations-The ultimate flowering of team- hail from every part of th e coun try and we have been sen tbto
work is rcRected in combined military operations of ground , almost every part of th e globe. Soon one-half of our num er
sea and air forces. 111e necessity for timing, for integrated will be on duty outside our borders,
planni:lg and for joint action in sllch operations involves Nine out of every ten of us werc gath ered into the ~AF
more than mere cooperation between one service and an- in the last four years- siu ce Jun e of 1940 wh en our expan-
other. Combined operations, such as th ose ca rri ed on in th e . began Ycstcrch)' we were the clerks, salesmen,
slon program . < •T d ' e tl e
i~land offensives in the Pacific and in the conquest of North students and farm h ands of the nabon .. 0 ay we.u 1f
Africa, require the application of military power in mass and pilots, gunners, radio operators and mlIl1ten:.mce men 0
speed as one force. In North Africa, combined ground-air op- the AAF. .. t II t tl c
erations werc developed to a point where the ground com- \ \forkin g alongside us and contnblltmg no a) y . ? le a -
mander and the air commander worked in the samc h eadquar- com plishmcnt of our progra1l~ .arc some 500:?OO cl.v1han elll-
ters; the ground plan and the air plan were one plan. Except loyccs at AAF stations, rangmg f~~m ll1lskllled laborers ~o
for strategic air attacks behind enemy lines, virtllal1y all the highly specialized technicians. Ad,chtlOnal thou s:.l11 ds serve m
major offensive operations of the United Nations have been auxiliary capacities-including natlves of the arctic, desert <lnd
combired operations-air-ground, alT-sea, or air-sea-ground.
trog~~~ h as b cen a twofold problem of expansion; first,. that of
buildi ng an imll1ensc organi 7. ation fr.om scratch ; secolld,. tl.wt
of investing til ,lt untrailled bod y With hundreds of sep.u,ltc
skills. TI,e possessors of th ese skills arc not only th e fighting REPLAC EMENT- R eplacements must be made for th ose un ablc
men of th e AAF, but also th e far larger number requi red to to con tin ue: th e casualties. Such replacem ent varies COII -
maintain, supply and support the figllting m en. stantly with th e fortun es of war.
T oday OUf problem of expansion is licked . Our strength is All th ese factors arc aflee ted by th e co urse of ba ttle. M od-
at its intend ed peak. Our acquisition of personnel is now based em aerial wa rfare knows no static plan.
on rCFiacenlcnt. G rowth- In 1938 tll cre were approximately 1300 officers
. The men who pa\'cd the way for our expansion grew up and 1 8 ,000 m en , wi th an addi tional 2 8 0 0 officers and 4 00
with the AAF and with the predecessor air arms from which Jll en ill th e R eserve Corps, to b cgi n th e job of expanding thc
th e AAF sprang. Despite dwindling appropriations and conse- AA F to its present strength .
quent lack of personnel and equipmen t, th ese pioneers carried V arious metlJ ods wcre used to a ttain tllis strength . Officers
on th e essential plan'ning and experimenting. an d enlisted m cn in th e Reservc C orps were called into serv-
Tociay th e pioneers and th e newcomers merge to fornl th e icc; officers and men in other componen ts of th e Regular
largc~ t air force in the world. Army were perm itted to apply for t ransfer into the AAF; 4 00C
men in the Na tional G uard were taken inj recruitin g cam-
p;ligns utilizing such facili ties as radio, pamphlets, posters and
PROCUREMENT OF PERSONNEL motor trailers werc used from time to tim e to ob tain more
Requirements- Personnel procurement is a continuous proc- mechanics, rad io opera tors or a\' ia tion . cadets, depending on
ess, subject to constant m odification in its details. For ex- th e urgent n ceds of the mom ent.
ampl e, a decision, m oti vated by combat experience, to ad d one New officers were ob tained by 2 meth ods : civilians with ex.-
gunner to th e crew of each heavy bomber might cause a revi- pcrience valuable to the technical needs of th e A AF wcrc com-
sion i:l th e number of men to be taken into th e AAF, th c missioned by a special procurement organi zati on ; poten tial of-
n urnb:::r of gunn ers to be seleetcd from tha t in take, th e n UI11 - ficer material among enlisted m en was selected and sent to th e
bcr and size of gunn ery schools to be establish ed and th e in- O fficer C andidate School at ~ l ialTli Beach, Fla., and gradua tes
tensity of the training period for gunners already in schools. were granted com missions. ...
Th is h ypoth etical case concerns tll C addition of just one
man to a crew. Procurement changes arising from a m ore COI11- 2,373,882
pliea ted problem such as tll e adop tion of an enti rely new air-
pJan.e are Jl?turalIy grea ter. Such ch anges are constantly oe-
Once. allowa nce has been made for such changes, and once
th e dcsITed strength h as been reach cd, the problem becom es
one of keeping strength at th e desired level. H ere several fac-
tors enter:
AU'l'IIORIZ ED STR ENGT II- This q~ota is the minimum plus th e 51.11lI
reSCTves of manpower reqUired for superiority over th e
cIH.m y. 1940 1940 1941 1942 1943
"0 I A:1I0N-1l1C rigors of aerial combat makc it necessary t o JULY DEC. DEC. DEC. DEC.
relieve personne1 for res t after a period of service; this re-
qui -cs aV;:lilable rese rve personne1. GROWTH OF AAF PERSONNEL * OFFICERS AND ENUSTED MEN

AI:hough the Selective Service program supplied quantities appointed flight officers (se~ page 52) . 11,e program com-
of personnel to tJle AAF, our growing and specialized needs prised aircrew trainees-pilots, bombard~ers .and navl~ato~s­
continuously out-distanced the supply_ ln the fall of 1942, a and men trained in armament, commulllcabons, engmeenng,
SPCCi,ll recruiting campaign was undertaken to obtain sorely meteorology and photography. .
needed mechanics, armorers, radio technicians and other spe- At present, entrance to the Aviation Cadet Program IS con-
cialists. This campaign alone resulted in 1 28,000 enlistments. fined to certain AAF officers and enlisted men. However, the
During this period, from September to December 1942, over requirements of war may at any time prompt the re·establish·
500,000 men were absorbed by the AAF. m ent of aviation cadet recruiting.
Present Procurement-Selective Service is the basic procure- For the most up·to·date information, civilians may consult
[ ment source for male military personnel. Those entering mili- th eir nearest U. S. Recruiting and Induction Center; an Avi-
tary ~ervice pass through its induction centers, and are as- ation Cadet Examining Board; a Civil Air Patrol .unit h ead·
signe:l to one of the 3 major forces of the Army in prorated quarters, or the adjutant of any Army post.
vo]une dependent on needs and available supply. AAF Enlisted Personnel-The only enlisted personnel who
~nlOSC not yet of Army age may prepare tllcmselves for fu· may apply for aircrew training are enlisted m en of the AAF
ture aviation training tluough the Civil Air Patrol training who are combat crew members returned from overseas thea·
program. The original CAP enrollment com prised 40,000 ca- tcrs after completion of a prescrihed number of con~bat mis-
dets. Present plans call for enrollment of 250,000 by the end sions or in accordance with 'Var D epartment regulatIOns.
of 1944- High sch ool students from the ages of 15 to 18 will Application for those eligible may be made through th e or-
be enrolled with the cooperation of civic organizations gclllization commander or at a R edistribution Station upon
throughout the country. ll1is training is planned on a 3-year return to the U. S. An enlisted man found qualified and as-
period; future aviation cadets will have the most thorough signed to aircrew training (bomba rdier, pilot or navigator )
prcp<iration for flying studies ever furnished to citizens of tllis mav elect to train as an aviation student instead of accepting
coun:ry. CAP, Chambers of Commerce , Rotary , Kiwanis, apljointment as an aviation cadet. H e th en retains all the pay
Elks, Lions and other civic organizations can furnish infomla- and al10wances of his enlisted grade during his training period.
tion on this program. ... OfJieers-A very limited number of AAF officers in th e grade
of 2nd and 1 St lieutenants are being qualified for aircrew
t raining. These men are called stud ent officers.
Basic Physical Requirements
VISION-Minimum 2 0120 each eye without glasses; mllst ha\'c
pcrfect COIOT vision.
AVIATION CADETS TI::ETH-No minimum , jf free from gross dental infections and •
cOTTec tible bv full OT paTtial dentures.
The AAF's principal source of flyi ng officers and ground Il EARINC-M illi~um 2 0120 each ear (whispeTed ,'oice).
officer specialists has been the Aviation Cadet Recruiting llE1 CHT- Mininllllll 60" ma ximum 76" (pilots minimum 64").
Program. WEICHT-Miuimum 105 Ibs. maximum 200 Ibs. (pilots milli·
This ac.ti~i.ty, tempora~jly suspended in March 1944, was mum 114 lbs.)-based on relation to height and age.
open to cl':Jhans and enlIsted men able to satisfy certain en- Ed ucational Requirements- Formal schooling is n ot re·
trance reqUirements. Successful completion of Aviation Cadct quired; applicants are given a qualifying examination of short·
Training qualified men to be commissioned 2nd lieutenants or an swer, multiple·ch oice type.
'Tlle foHowing subjects have -been found extremcly helpful fi cation for the enlisted man. H ere the newcomer is issued his
for yo ung men of school age in preparation for flyi ng service first eCluipment and the Army obtains the first indication of
with the AAF: his ability. After an introductory orientation lecture, he takes
PILOT-ScieIiCC (gases. he.'lt, gravity, stress, stra in , energy, forces); the most important of the various tests-the Arm y General
matllC'llatics ( fund:nncnt;11 processes, fomlulas and equations ) ; Classification Test, known as GCT. Other tests given at the
1ll~c1lille shop , be nch mctal work , mechanica l drawing, blueprint reception centers inc1ude: Oral Trades Test; General M e-
reading and physic-.Il training.
BOM8ARDIER-i'. fa thematics tll rougll trigonomctry; science (propcrties
chanical Aptitude Test; Radio Operator Aptitude T est.
of nlateria ls, heat, gascs. forces, frictions, air c urrcnts); m cellani- ll1ese tesfs are not intended to furnish proof of exact or de-
eal drawing, map and blucprint reading and ph ysical tra ining . tailed knowledge but to serve as an indication of aptitude for
NAVIGATOR-Mathematics as above; science (astronom y, weather cle· training in the technical categories involved .
ments, temperature, variation , air masses and currents, electricity); From the reception centers the AAF receives its quota of
maps, charts and radio; geography, blucprint reading, mcchanic:tl enlisted personnel. Then addi tional tests are given to select
drawing and physical training. men for the various technical training schools. T ests given at
. Tests-Applicants arc givcn a series of ps),chomcter and AAF Basic Training Centers are: Wea ther Aptitude Trade
i placement tests at th e Basic Training Center in order to check T est; Radio Operator Trade Test; Cryptography Test; Tut
I mental and muscular coordination. Scores made on thesc and Bolt Manual Dexteri ty Test; U-Bolt Assembly Test; Tech-
~ tests detennine the particular phase of flying-pilot, bom - nical Trade T est.
~ bardier or navigator- in which applicants can be best and AAF classification does not stop here. With each new job at
I most qcickly trained. Failing to meet the minimum standa rds each new station, individual classification is rechecked in the
I for any of these, applicants arc eligible to apply for aerial light of the soldier's current activities as compared to his po~
gunnery training. tentialities. Officers follow the same general proced ure.
Typical AAF Jobs- Listed below are more than 2 0 fields
of skill required by the AAF. Pilot, bombardier and navigator
are officer members of the aircrew. Unless indicated, all other
classifications in this section are held by enlisted men. All du-
.WARY ties are described in broad tenns, with only major functions
Classification-From Jan. 1, 194 2, to June 30, 1943, the
period of grea test growth, th~ A~~' eXjJanded fron: 354,161 to
1,197,1l4----o r 520%. Each Illdlvldua had to be mterviewed J' 1T~oT-Hand les controls of p lane and commands aircraft; in addi-
classified and assigned- l ,842,953 in 18 months. The pro~ tion , fighter pilot fires guns, navigates, communicates with radio.
curement program poured into uniforms a varied mass of sometimes directs and releases bom bs.
skills, backgrounds and mental abilities, and varying dcgrccs lIOMBA RDIER-Direc ts fl ight of bomber when approaching and 01'er
of cduc<ltion and training. target; operates bo mbsight; releases bombs; gunner during attack .
NAVIGATOR- Plo ts course of plane to and from th e objec tive; fur·
!h. e AAF rcq~i!ed a high level of technic~ll aptitudes or
nish es pilot with fligh t directions; keeps Bigh t log bookj gunner
abIlities (see .Mllitary OccUpatiol1al Specialties, page 45 ) . during attack.
A~ceptcd claSSification procedures were not adequate to obtain .A ER IAL ENG INEER- Flies with multi.engine bomber a nd t ransport ;
slIItable personnel. New methods had to be devised . makes repairs a nd adjustments in flight; substitutes tor or helps
Reception centers arc the first step in Arm y and AAft c1nssi- copilo t opcmte Raps, landing gear, ctc.; g unner during Mlacl::.
44 OffiCIAL AAf GUIDE 45
RAOIO oPuAToa-Opcratcs plane radio, direction finder, radio com- PIIOTOCRAPHIC TECHNICIAN-Develops films and p rin ts pictures; as-
pass, etc.; rcl.1YS data by radio to personnel au ground; rcccil'Cs sembles mosaic maps; takes motion and still photographs in RigM
wcatllcr and otller information; gunner during attack. or on ground.
AU!.\l CU~N ~ R-.\1aus guns; informs pilot of approaclling enemy RADIO OPERATOR, ),,'IECHANIC AND REPAIRMAN-Operates and adjusts
pia Irs; services guns and turrets in flight. all transmitter and receiver equipment; repairs detective radios
and parts; tests circuits and tubes.
observes illstrum ents recording wind velocities, changes in tem-
AR~rAMENT OFFIcER-Superviscs maintenance, loading and repair perature, humidity, barometric pressure, amount of rainfall aud
of armament equipment; i.~ responsible for knowledge of l;ltcst othcr conditions; prepares weather maps and reports.
armament devices and techniques. SU PP LY CLERK-Receives, stores and issues equipment, material, mer-
COMM~ N 1CATIONS OFf:ICER-Supcrviscs maintenance, operation and cll andise and tools; checks incoming orders; counts, grades and
repror of radar, radIO, telegraplJ , teletype and directional equip- weighs articles; takes periodic inventories; prepares reports,
mCJlt including radio compasses. AI)'I1Nl STRATlVE CLERK- Prepares reports; ta bulates and posts data
AIR C R~T :MAINTI::N~NCE O~l'lCER~SUpcn'ises engineering ground in record books and on bulletin boa rds; op erates office machines;
duties ot crew chiefs, 3eIJal engmecrs, inspectors .1nd mechanics. may supervise l)eadquarters clerks.
ME'~E?ROLOCY OF~' l c ER-Analyzes wcatller conditions; forecasts CO I/ .
ellhons along flIght routes; keeps navioator informcd· supcH'iscs Distinctive Patches for Specialties-Enlisted technical spe-
" 'cather tecImicians. /) , cialists of the AAF in job categories of annament, communi-
1·1I0TOGRAPHY. OFFICF.R-Dirccts operations of mobile and fixcd cations, engineering, photography and weather arc authorized
photographIC 1.1boratories an~ cquipJ~lcnt; supen,jscs aerial pho. to wear the patches shown below. Patches are orange on blue
tographers .and camcra rcpamnen; IS responsible for accurate background and worn with lowest point 4 inches above edge
pholograpluc mapping of strategic arcas.
of right sleeve (left breast pocket on fatigue uniform ) .
ARMoRER-lnspect~, adjusts and repairs acrial machiuc g uns, can.
nons, synchro.lIlzcrs. gun c.1mcms, bomb racks aud other anna-
mcn~ mccbamsms. ARlilAMOO COMMUNlCATlGN$
METAL .WORKER-Rcpairs airbase cquipment including too ls; rcmakes
ccrtam brokcll and worn parts.
\\,EI.DER-l"USCS metal parts by means of electric weIcliug apparatus
or o.tyacclylcnc tordl.
AIRI'LA.'lE MJ'.CHA:" IC AND REPAIRMAN-Chccks tIle coudition of air-
planes and eu!;mesj m:lkcs repairs, rcplacements and adjustments;
J~spects cJcctncal and control systems, undercarrj;lge, bmkcs cn. qualifying period of time in his assigned duties, every soldier
gUlcs and propellers. '
is classified according to his Military Occupational Specialty
WIRE 1ECIINICIAN-[llstalls, inspects, scrviccs and rcpairs tclephone
an~ t~legr~ph communicMions systcms; scts up switcllbo;mls; (MOS ) . Each specialty has a number which becomes a part
mamtams Illlcs O\'cr largc arcas. of the soldier's record. Progressively, as more specialized tasks
S\'NTI.IETIC 'I:RA ININC DEVICE INSTRUCTOR- T eaches instrumcllt Hying are perform ed, his record is supplemented by add itional MOS
(bl"~ Ilr mg) to pilot students t11Tough tlle lise of thc Link numbers to show a complete picture of the soldier's experi-
Trainer; mstructs 011 oVlcr syntllctic training deviccs. ence. The AAF utilizes app roximately 500 m ilitary occupa-
P.\RACHUTE JUCCER-SCW~ and patcll cs by lland ;lIId mach inc dam- tional specialties, about evenly divided between officers and
aged paraclwtc canoplcs; rcplaces defective shro uds; rcpairs har. enlisted men . The fo11owing summary indica tes the diverSity
IICSSCS; repacks par:lclJutcs.
of technicians required to accomplish the AAF mission .

• •\T~D PERSONNEL-l9 types of AIRcREw-gunners, photogra . includes geodetic computers,
WE.~·I'IIF.R-forecasters. climatolo. phe~s, radio operators, aerial surveyors, laundry technici:lns;
p!'ots from glidcr to 4.cn. gists, occauograpltcrs.
glllC, 7 types of bomh:lCCliers engmeers. construction men including
r,' INANCE, BUDGET AND FISCAL ADMINISTRATIvE-financial, typ- bricklayers, ca mouBeurs, rig-
and navigators; airbase Com- a..-to·ICERS
lIl.mdcr. ing and mail clerks; interpre- gers, carpenters.
AI):"!IN~STRATIVE-adiutaut; pllh. ters, translators and investi- MAINTENANCE-includes super-
IJcatJons and inspcctioll offi- gators; business machine op- cllargel, power plaut, and fab-
1I13mtcnancc ellgillcers, ill'
Speclors alld aeronautical en. ccrs, non-tactical utlit COil/- erators; supply technicians in ric and dope specialists; elec·
malldcrs, communications, ordnance, trical instrument, automatic
I' ERSO.:\'~to: .L~UJi/it:lI.r persolluel engineer and qua.rtermaster pilot and fire control special.
mccbamcal, surveying COli- and CJVJ/J;lll personnel officcrs equipment. ists; gyro, optical, hydraulic
struct~ou. camouflagc' aud classification and assigumcllt AIRCRAFT WARNINc-control1crs, and mechanical instrument
mappmg engincers.
officers; psychologists. aircraft observers, information technician s; machinists; para-
CIJ .\f'L.\INS
A.R~U.MENT AND ORD!'iANCE_in_ center operators. c hute, and propeller special-
SI'~CIAL SERVICES-iucltldcs ph vs.
eludes . torpedo, hombsigltt ANTIAIRCRAFT-includes gunners, ists; sheet metal workers, we ld-
alld mmc specialists' bomb Ical fitncss and orientation repairmen, beightfindcrs, lis- ers, woodworkers.
disposal and oHlcr drdnallcc teners, searchlight men . MEDICAL-laboratory, supply, op-
officers. .\IEJ)lC.U-S3 types including Sur. ARMAMENT AND ORDNANCE- tical and dental technicians;
geo~ls,. nurscs, l'cteriuarians, power turret, bombsight, mu-
cOMMUS'ICATlON5-includes sig- pharmacy and veterinary spe-
S~ lJJt;ltIOU cngineers, dieti.
nal, messagc centcr, crvptallil. nitions and armament techni· cialists.
l.\'.tic ami pigeon officers; ra. cmus, l?hysical tllcrapy "iels cians. }.tARINE-includes able seamcn,
dlO, telephone, telephoto, and vaned mcdical specialists. BANDSMAN-12 types classified by mates, oilers, engineers, etc,
radar and telegraph enginccrs. SUI'I'LY-quartclillaster, arlllY c\". instrument. PHOTOGRAPHiC-includes ca mera
OJ'ERATioN,s-personal equip. change. sahtage, laundry, tech- CHEMICAL-toxic gas handlers, and motion picture techni·
ment. Rlgllt control, prioritics nica l, freight , pctrolc um. pro. decontaminating equipment cians, p ho tograpll ers and pro-
and traffic, and weight and CIitClOent and rencgotiation technicians, jectionists, laboratory assistants.
balance officers. officers.
• .\DAR-.. irborne alld ground of- TR"' NS I'~KTATIO N_lIIarjll e officers
code, cryptographic, pigeon, lithographic and printing spe·
ficers. c1as~lfied as master, mare iwd cia lists. •
signal and facsimile tec hni-
AIJlCJlAFT WARNINC OFFlceKS ellgl1leer; motor and ." -",'/ tr,lllS-
portation officers. cians; radar mec hanics and ra- SERVICE AND REPAIR-iucJndes
PIiOTOCIlAPIIIC-i.lcllldes grotlJld dar repairmc;n ; radar operators, shoe repair, leather and can-
a~d ae~ial pllOtogmphers, mo- radio operators; telephone tech· vas lVorkers; painters; refrig-
tI?'! pJcture producers, tecl!- U:C.AL-iudge advocates; lcgal as.
slstance :Iud claims officers. nicians and telegraph techni- eration mechanics; demolition
DJCI:ms, laboratory supervisors. cians. specialists; water supply tech·
INI'P.LI.!CENCE-hi<;torical, pllblic CIJEMICAL-alt iatioll Cllcllli cal
lV:Jrfare spccia/ists. DRAF'TsMEN-draftslncfl and pho- nicians.
~elatrcJl! and prisoner of lVar togra til Jll Ct rists, TRAINER EQUIPMJ::N I'-n:lvigation
~nterrogat;on officers; pIioto {'k?VOST MARSIJAL-includes lIlil-
Itary police aud prisou officers. DUTY AND INSTRUCTION-includes tr:lin ers; instrumcnt Bying
mtcrpreters. military police g llard,~ , at1detic trainers; altitude chamber a lld
C~RS instructors, tec hnical instruc· Be,'(ible gunnery speci:llists,
tors, airplaue handlers, TRANSI' O RT ATION-a 1I t 0 11101 ive
~ [ I S C£LLANEOUs-iJl cllldcs
at 25 % , Flying timc in non -m ilitary aircraft of 400 or m ore h orse-
eq~ipmcnt operators aud re- dog
p:urmcn, diesel meclm nics, trainers, tire (ebuilders, cuter· power is credited at 100 % . . ,. ~ I

SERVICE PILOT- Obtainable b y lOdl\'lduals b etween 18 and 4, \\,ho

motor ,mel tractor specialists. ta inmcnt directors, physics
laboratory ~ ssis tants . have passed physical qualifi cations and ,who , possess. o utstandmg
WEATHER-forecasters. observers;
cqlllpl11Cnt, radio·so nde men. qualifications for the performance of service pilot d uties as de~ned
in AAF Reg. 35-23. Completion of a flight test a n~ profesSion al
AERONAUTICAL RATINGS-In order to be rated as anv 01
tJle various types of Bying personnel, officers, warrant oHi~crs.
flight officers and enlisted men on duty with the AAF must
examination. certain fl ying time. an d a recomm endation hy a board
of officers is required. , '
SE N IOR SERVIC E Pll.oT- Obtainable b y a rated servlCC pil ot wh o ha s
1500 hours' logged time according to 'Var D:cpa rt~cnt records,

L IAISON PILOT-Gran ted only to officers, warrant o ~ccrs a~d enhs~e?

and has had 5 years' e:-''Pcricn ce as a licen sed pilot With the AA .

meet certain qualifications. men assigned to organic air observat ion of ~he Fld d A~tJllery. Laal;
PI LOT-A rating of pilot in the AAF may be obtained: son pilot ratings formerly granted to enlisted m en III the AA I
* By success ful completion of a prescrihed course of instruction have been discontinued.
ftt hea vier-thrln-air pilots at an AAF advanced pilot school. This GLIDER PILOT- Requires successful completion of a prcsc:ribed ~d­
method is the onc from which the bulk of our pilot personnel vanced course of glider pilot traini~g at .an AAF spcclal ,serVIce
is ohtained. schooL Individuals m ay be rated glider pilot who h old ,ratings .as
* U')on the recommendation of a board of officers on the basis of command pilot, senior pilot, p ilot, service pilot or sCOIor serncc
meeting one of the following requirements :
(1) Pre"iolls aeronautic.11 ra tings held or pre"iolls acronautical in -
shuction passed within a specified past period; certain rec}uire-
ments of fI ying time; completion of a Right test . .
(2 ) A rating as service pilot currently hdd; ecrtain requirements
of Hying time; determination by the hoard of qualifications and
radincss for assignment to th e comb<lt duties appropriate for a
pi:ot who has graduated from an AAF <ldva nced fI ying schooL
(3 ) Graduation from a course of instruction for hC;I\-icr-than-air
pilots in :mned forces of friendl y forc igh nation s or the acc umu-
L'ltion of certain required fl ying tim e with the armed forces of
hiendly foreign nations.
lENlOft PILoT-Reqllires not less than 5 years' service as rated pilot SENIOR PILOT PILOT
with aviation componcn ts of the militarv or na val services and
not bs than 1500 hours' logged time acCording to \Var Depart-
ment records.
COMMAND PILOT-Obtain;lble by an y ra ted pilot having certain com-
~inati~ms o~ the following: 1 0, 15 or 20 years' acti,c duty or se rv-
Ice Wlth air components of the military or n;I\'al sen 'ices, and SERVICE PILOT
2000 or 3000 hours or more logged tim e according to \Var De-
partment records. C redited at 100% is tim e fl own in heavier-than-
air military aircra ft as pilot. copilot, or whcn not at the controls
hilt octing in c.1J>:1city of command pilot in unit opcr;ltion s of 2
or more aircraft , All other fi ying tim e in milit:1ry he:tvier-than -air
aircraft is cred ited at 50%, Lighter-than .air pilot tim c is cred itcd
pilot and who have flown as pilot of tactical type gliders 3 hours AIR CRAFT OBSERVER (bombardier, navigator, radio obscrver n igllt
or more and have made at least 10 landings, passed a flight test, fighter, radio observer Re M, Right engincer )-Cranted upon
and ale recommend ed by an exam ining board. successful complction of the prescribed course of instruction for
AI.CRAY':' oBsEIIVER-Obtainable by individ uals who hold ratings as SUch. ratings at an authorized AAF special service school. Rating
command pilot, senior pilot, pilot, senior balloon pilot or balloon as aIrcra ft observer (bomb:lrdicr, navigator and radio obscn'cr
pilot-provided they have qualified as expert aerial gunner or night fightcr) is also granted to individuals who havc demon-
aerial sharpshooter . have been certified by their commanding offi- strated in a theater of operations their ability to satisfactorily per-
cers as competent to carry out the fun ctions of an aircraft ob- form the duties of b ombardicr, navigator or radio obscn'cr night
server. and satisfy onc of the fonowing additional requirements: fighter, are certified by their commanding officers as competent
(I ) Have served as a regularly assigned member of a combat crcw ' to carry out the functions proper to such ratings, and have Aown
in observation and reconnaissance aviation units of the AAF; 50 ,hours, performing combat m issions as bombardier, navigator or
completion of a course in aerial navigation , including celestial; radIO observer night fi ghter.
establishmen t of quali6cation as bombardier 1st class, 2nd class, SENIOR AIRCRAFT OBSERVER-Obtainable by ra ted aircraft observcrs
or 3rd class. who have not less than 5 years' service as ratcd aircraft observcr
(2 ) Have served as a regularly assigned member of a combat crew with air componcnts of the military service and have flown as
in iI balloon squadron, and are certified by their commanding rated aircraft obscrver 500 hours or morc.
ofOCers as competent to carry out the fun ction s of an aircra ft TECHNICAL OBSERVER-Obtainable by commissioned officcrs who hold
ob!erver. ratings as cO,mmand pilot~ s~n i or pilot. pilot, senior balloon pilot
(3 ) Have graduated from the AAF tactical school and have 6 or balloon pilot, whose prmclpal d uty should be that of a technical
y~rs' service as a rated pilot in the AAF.





observer and whose experience with the AAF makes them espe- ( 1) 150 hours' fl ying duty as regularly assigned aerial gunner or
cially qualified to perform technical duty incident to the opera tion aircrew member.
of aircraft in Hight. Requirements include certification by t he com- ( 2) Participation as regul~rlr assign~d aeri.al gunner or aircrcw
maDding officer of the individual concerned that the principal member in 10 combat miSSions durmg which exposure to enemy
duty of the individual should be that of technical obseryer~ that 6re was probable and expected.
he is qualified by both experience and ability to perform sl1ch du ty,
wlut specific duties arc to be performed as technical obscn"cr, (3) Physically incapacitated through ~n emy action or while dis·
and a summary of the applicant's c).:perience pertinent thereto. charging duties as member of an Slrcrew.
SENJOI BALLOON PILOT-Obtainable by ho1ders of balloon pilot rating Army Air Forces Technician Badl;e-AAF enlisted techni-
who have 10 years' service with air components of the mil itary cians and mechanics have been authOrIzed to wear a distinctive
service and who have piloted military airships or military motorized silver badge indicating the skills !n which they are qualified.
balloons for 100 hours. Qualifications: at least 6 months serVICe With the AAF and
BALLOON PILOT-Crantcd only to individuals who complete a pre- ci"ther graduation from an ~~th ~rized course in techn ical
scribed balloon pilot course. No such course is bcing conducted training or evidence of cap~blhty 111 one or more of .the fol-
at the present tim e. lowing 24 specialties for whIch the badge has been deSIgnated:
(AAF Regulation 50-7 describes in detail aeronautical ratings.)
Airplane annorer; airplane electrical, h y?raulic a?d
Fligbt Oflicers-On July 8, '942, the grade of flight officcr instrument specialist; airplane mechamc, mach m-
was established. Upon graduation, aviation ( flying tra ining) ist, metal worker and welder; airplane power plan t
cadets who have not qualified for commissions as 2nd lieuten- specialist; airplane propeller s'pecia~ist; AC.S ra~io
ants may be appointed flight officcrs with a status equi,·alent to specialist; bombsigh t mechamc, Lmk T ramer m-
that (If warrant officer, junior grade. Promotion from fl ight of- structor, parachute rigger, photographer, ph oto·
ficer to 2nd lieutenant is permitted. graphic laborat ory tech nician, powe~ t urre.t and
gunsight specialist, radio V -I mechamc, rad iO V·I
observer, radio mechanic. radio operator, teletype·
Wearing of Aerial Gunner and Aircrew Member Badges writer m echanic, weather forecaster, observer.
AERIAL CUNNE R- Upon authoriza tion by his commanding officer, a
reglilarly assigned aerial gunner member of an aircrew, who 113S PAY AND INSIGNIA OF RANK OR G RADE
demonstrated his proficiency as such, may wear the badge during OFF ICERs-Comm issioned, warrant and Righ t. The f?llowing chart
such time as he is assigned to such duties. Graduates of an AAF showing rank iden tifying insignia (worn on garnson caps and
flexible gunnery school, or of an AAF instructors' school (flexibl e outer clothing), and rates of pay and ~llowances, does n?t 1T:clude
gU':1nery L may wear the badge during such time as they afC pay increases based on length of service, etc. Information 111 the
asS I~ed as a regular gunner member of an air crew, are awaiting chart on the next page is base pay only.
assi€nment to such duties, Of are perfonning duties of an in struc-
tor :n flexible gunnery. ENLISTED MEN-Grades arc known by both name and number, i.e.
enlisted man, 7th grade, is a private; 6th grade, a private 1St class.
AIRCREW MEMB ER- Upon authorization by his command ing offi cer, The chart on page 55 shows grades, identifying chevrons (worn on
a regularly assigned member of an aircfew who has dem onstra ted sleeves of outer clothing) and pay scale of enlisted men.
bis proficiency as such , may wear the badge during suell t ime as
he i5 assigned to such d uties. Ind ividuals auth orized to wem spe. AVIATION CADETs-Base pay $75 per month and a subsistence allow·
cific badges may cont inue to wea r such badges when no longer ance of $ 1 per day. (As with officers, aviation cadets, after gradu-
to assigned if they meet one of the following requirements: ation, arc granted $250 clothing allow;mce.)

Rank Insignia Yearly Pay Rent Allowance (Mo.) Rank Sleeve Insignia Monthly Base Pay
with d!!ndlnls si!!!!!
Private (7th grade) no chevrons $50
General ~~~~ $8.000 $120 $105
Private first class (6th grade) A 54
Lt General ~~~ 8,000 120 105 Corporal (5th grade) ~ 66
Maj. General ~~ 8,000 120 105 Sergeant (4th grade) ~ 78
Brig. General ~ 6,000 120 105
Colonel y 4,000 120 105
Staff Sergeant (3rd grade) ~ 96

Lt. ColQnel • (SiIYlr) 3,500 120 105

Technical Sergeant (2nd grade)
~ 114
$ ~aster Sergeant, (1st grade) ~
Captain §
(Gold) 3,000
First Sergeant ~ 138

Pay scale noted above shows. base pay amounts . This is the lowest
1st Lielltenant c:::J (Silver) 2,000 75 60 amount paid to each grade. To this may be added other amounts
for Bying pay, longevity, etc.; descriptions of which follow.
2nd Lieutenant = (Gold) 1,800 60 45
LONGEVITy-Every enlisted man receives an increase of 5 % of his
Warrallt Officer (chieO = ("OWl) 2,100 75 60 base pay for each 3 years of service up to 30 years.
FOREIGN SERVICE-The base pay of officers is increased by 10% (en-
listed men 20%) for any s~rvice wh ile on sea duty or duty in
Warrant Officer U.g,l ~ (Blown) 1,800 60 45 any place beyond the continental limits of the U. S. or in Alaska.
ALLOWANC E FOR DEl' ENDENTS (Class F Allotment )-Under the
Right Ifficer ~ (Blat) 1,800 60 45 Oct. 26. 19 43 amendment to the Servicemen's Dependent AI·
lowance Act of 1942, dependents of enlisted men receive increased
In the above, all officers with dependents receive $42 per month benefits. Several classes of benefits are allowed-for wife and chil·
(30 day period) subsistence allowance; single officers, $21 . (Ex- dren, for parents, brothers and sisters whose chief support is the
ceptKm: Lt. Col. and Maj., married, receive $63 .) serviceman, and for combinations of these famil y relationships.
Men with dependents al10w the government to deduct $22 per
PLYING PAy-Flying officers and enlisted men receive an increase month from pay, the remainder of the amount received by the
of 50% of their base pay when by orders of competent authority famil y is contributed by th e government. A wi fe will receive
they afC required to participate regularly and frequently in aeri.11 $50 per month; with one child , $80, and $20 for each additional
flights. Non-flying officers receive flyin g pay at the rate of $60 per child . A mother as a dependent will receive $37, i.n case of total
month when th ey participate in regular and frequent aerial flights dependency, $50.
ordered by competent authority. CHAPTER CONTINUED ON PAGE B9


Brief Biographies of Some AAF Men wilh Key Assignmenls·
• Henry H.
ARNOLD, General
First a irman to achieve the rank of General and one _of the nation's
first miitary piloh, Gen. Arnold serves on the Combined Chiefs of Staff
and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
Gen. Arnold was born in Gladwyne. Pa., June 25, 1886. He grad·
uated from the U. S. Military Academy and was commissioned 2nd Lt.
Inf. June 1-4, 1907; served in -th e Philippines; was d etailed to the
Signal Corps in April, 1911. After completing flying instruction at
Dayton, Ohio, in June, 1911. Gen. Arnold beceme an instructor at the
Signal Corps Aviation School; he was promoted to 1st Lt. in April,
1913. In February, 1917, after serving in the Philippines and California,
he we"t to the Panama Canal Zone to organize and command the
aviation service there. He was promoted to Capt. in May, 1916; to
Maj. (temp.) .in June, and to Cor. (temp .) in August, 1917.
With U. S. entry into the World War, Gen. Arnold was placed in
charge of the Information Service, Aviation Divisio n, Signal Corps;
later appointed Executive Officer; then, Assistant Director, Office of
Militar) Aero nautics. In 1925 he beca me Chief, Information Division.
Office Chief of Air Corps. He commanded Air Corps troops at Ft.
Riley, 1926 to 1928, graduated from the Command and General Staff
School in June, 1929. and until 1936 held command posts at Fa irfield,
Ohio, and at March Field. Calif. · Gen. Arnold received the 1934
Maday Trophy award in recognition ' of his leadership of the U. S.
Army Alaskan flight of that year. He was promoted to Brig. Gen.
(temp .) in February. 1935.
Service as Assistant Chief of the Air Corps was followed by a p-
pointment as Chief of the Air Corps, Sept. 29, 1938. He was desig-
nated Acting De puty Chie f of Staff for Air in October, 1940, and ap-
pointed Chief of the AAF in Jun e, 1941. He became a permanent
Brig. G.n. in December, 1940; permanent Mai. Gen., February, 194';
Lt. Gen. (temp.) , December, 194 1. When the War Dep artm ent was
reorganized March 9, 1942, Gen. Arnold became Command ing Gen-
eral of the AAF; in March, 1943, he was promoted to G e neral (temp.).
Ratings: Command Pilot, Aircraft Obse rver, Technical Observer. Dec-
orations: DFC, DSM, Air Medal.
• Ranl.s and assignm ents as of May 1, 1944. Space limifations do no f
permit a complete listing of Army Air Forces' /Nders.
58 59
LOVETT, Hon. Robert A. EMMONS, Lt. Gen. Oelo, C.
Born Huntsville, Ter., Sept. 14, 1895. Graduated WESTERN DEFENSE COMMAND
Yale Uni .... , 1918. Post·graduate courses Har- Bor n Huntin gto n, W . Va., Jan . 17, 1888. Grad ·
vard Law School 11919-19201 and Harvard Grad. uate d USM A and commissio ned 2nd Lt. Inf. June
uate Sch . of Busines5 Administration. 1920- 1921. II. 1909. Executi .... offic e r for Au't. Sec retary
Naval pilot, ensig n in 1917; served in France and of W ar for Air 1928-31. Commanding General.
awarded French wings. Established U. S. Naval G HQ Air Force March 1939. Assigned Ch ief
Air Service Transition Flying School ume year. of Air Force Combat Command Jun e 1941 and
Promoted to Lt. Commander and received Navy designated Commanding General, Hawaiian Dept.
Cron in 1918. Between 1921 ud 1940 engaged De c. 1941. Named C ommanding General West-
in p~ila"thropic interesh ~nd served as di,rector ,,~d. !rustee of nu~er. ern Defense C o mmand Sept. 1943. Ratings:
cus ,orporations. He resigned from bUSiness actiVi t ies and obtained Command Pilot. Aircraft Observer. Decordtions: DFC , DSM, Air Medal.
leo .... of absence from other interesls in 1940 to acce pt appointment as
Special Assistant to the Secretary of War; was appointed Assistant YOUNT, Lt. Gen. Barton K.
Secrttary of War for Air in April 1941.
McNARNEY, Lt. Gen. Jo,eph T. Born Troy, Ohio , Jan . 18. 1884. Attended Ohio
DEP. CHIEF OF STAFF. U. S. ARMY State Uni.... Graduated USMA, commiuioned
Born Emporium . Pa. , Aug. 28. 1893. Graduated 2nd Lt. Inf. June 14, 1907. Member Board of
USMA and commissioned 2nd Lt . Inf. June 12. Officen for reorganiIation of Air Ser... ice 1918·
1915. Complete d flying training and recei ... ed 19. Ass't. Military Attach e for Aviation, Paris
rating of Jr. Military Avi ator in April 1917. 1925-29; served as Techni cal Expert at Gen e va
Served in France during W orld War I. Grad- Disarmament Conference. G raduated Army War
uated Army War College 1930. Served in War College 1936. C ommand e r Air Corps Tra ining
Plans Di ... isio n. General Staff, 1939, and ap- Center. Randolph Field , Tex., 1938. Appointed
pointed member of J oi nt Army and Navy Plan- Au't. to Chief of Air C o rps July 1938. Pla ced in c harge of all train·
fling Committee . Member of Special Observers ing activities of the Air Corps l'n9. Command e d Panama Canal De pt.
GrClup, Lo nd on. 1941. Member of Roberts Commission 1941 -42. Desig- Air Force Oct. 1940; South e ast Air District Dec. 1940. Commanding
nated Dep . Chief of Staff, U. S. Army , March 1942. Roltings: Command General of AAF Flying Training Command March 1942. In July 1943
Pilot. Technical Obser.... r. Aircraft Observer. becam e Command ing G e ne ral , AAF Tra ining C o mmand . Ratin gs:
Command Pilot, Te chn ica l Ob server, Aircraft Observe r.
GILES, Lt. Gen. Barney McK. HUNTER, Maj. Gen. Frank 0'0.
Born Mineola, Ttil., Sept. 13, 1892. Attended 1st AI R FORCE .
East Texas College and Univ. of Texa s. Appointed Born Savannah . Ga .• De c. 8, 18904 . Enlided as
flying cadet and commiuioned 2nd Lt. Aviation fl ying cad et , and co mmission e d 1st Lt. Aviation
Sectio n of Signal Corps Reserve April 9, 1918. Section , Signal Corps Reserve , Sept. 12, 1917.
Rece i... ed Reg . Army co mmission July I. 1920 •. Reg . Army commission as 1st Lt . Air Service July
Served in France and in Coblenl, Germany. Dur-
" 1920. Shot down 9 plane s in World War I.
ing 1918-19. Organind and comm and e d 4th
Military Observe r in Lond o n 1940. In May 1942
Air Ser... ice Area C om mand and designated C o m.
becam e Commanding G e ne ra l of the 8th Air
manding General of 4th Bombe r Command
Force Fighter C o mmand . Re turne d t o U S in
19.a. Made Command ing General 4th Air Force. San Fran cisco . Calif .•
Sept. 1943 and d e signa t ed C o mmand ing General
Sept. 1942. In March' 1943 became Au·t. to Chief of Air Staff and in
1st Air Force . Ratings: C ommand Pilot. Aircraft Observer, Technica l
Jul., 1943 nemed Chief of Air Staff. Ratings: Command Pilot, Tech-
Observer. Decorations : DSC with 4 Oak Leaf Clusters, Silve r St ar,
nical Observer. Aircraft Observer. Decordtions : DFC. Air Medal.
leaion of Merit, Purp le H eart , Fre nc h Croix d e Gu e rre with Palm .
• ENT, Brig. Gen. Uzal G. GEORGE, Maj. Gen. Harold L.


Born Northumberland , P•. , Ma rch 3, 1900. At· Born Somerville , Mass., July 19. 1893. Commis'
tended Susquehanna Un;..,. S.rY~d 0' enlisted sio ned 2nd Lt. Aviation Section, S:gnal Corps,
man in Inf., Aviation and Ba lloon compani.s March 29, 1918. Served in War Pl ans Division ,
1918- 19. Graduated USMA and commissioned Air Service, 1925·29. Chief of Bombardment and
2nd Lt. Ai, Service June 1924. Military attache Air Force Instruction and Director of Air Tadics
at Lima, Peru, 1940. Assigned to 9th Air Force. a nd Strategy. Maxwell Field, Ala. 19)2·36. Com.
Middle East Command. Oct. 1942. Returned to ma nd ing General Ferry ing Command March
U. S. and designated Comm"nding Gener.1 2nd 19 .. 2: Air Transport Command Aug. 19"2.
Air Force Jan. 1944. Ratjngs: Commend Pilot, Ratings: Command Pilot , Aircraft Observer. Decoration : Silver Star.
Aircr.ft Observer, 8.lIoon Pilot , B.lloon Obs.r.... r. Decor.'ions: OSM
with O.k Luf Cluster, DSC , OFC with Oak leaf Cluster, Ai, Medal
with O.k Leef Cluder.

LARSON. Maj . Gen. Wesnide T. SPAATZ, Lt. Gen. Carl

Born Ve,nalis, Calif., April 18, IB92. Attended
Polytechnic College of Engineering at Oakland , Bor n Boyerto.... n. Pa., Jun. 28, 1891. Gr<!lduated
Calif. Enlisted Aviation Section Si9nal Corps USMA and commissioned 2nd Lt. Inf. June 12,
Reserv. Oct. 19, 1917, and completed flying 1914, Stationed Schofield Barracks, Hawaii 1914-
training at Perk Field , Te nn. Commiuioned IS, then detailed <!IS student at Aviation Sch. San
2nd Lt. May 18, 1918. Sarvad at Park , EUin9ton Diego, Calif. Served in France during World
end Kelly fields , and in Panama Canal Zone 1920· War I and credited with 2 German planes. C om.
28. Commanded 13th Bombardment Group, manded Kelly Field, Tex" 1920·21. Special Mili·
langley Field 1941. Designated Commanding tary Observer in En gl<!lnd 19-40. Chief Mate riel
S."."I: 1st Bomber Command 1942 : Antisubmarine Command , 1'1.. 2· Division of Air Corps Od. 1940. Chief of Air Force Combat C omma nd
43 : 3rtl Air Foree, Tempa , Fla. , Sept . 19 .. 3. Ratings : Commend Pilot , J<!In. 19 ..2. Commanding General 8th Air Fo rce May 19"2 : Nort h..... st
Aircraft Ob.. rver. African Air Forces, Nov. 1942. In Jan . 19 .... bec <!lme C ommand inq Ge n.
eral of U. S. Strateqic Air Forces in Europe . Ratings: Command Pilot,
Aircraft Observer. Decorations: DSC, DSM , DFC, Le gion of M.rit.

LYND. Maj. Gen. William E.

Born Santa Fe , Kan ., Sept. 10, 1893. Attended COMMAND I NG GENERAL,
Univ. of Seettle. Commiss ioned 2nd Lt. Inf. MEDITERRANEAN ALLIED AIR FORces
Id.ho Nat'l C)uard April .. , 1917. Served in France Sorn Llano , Tex .• April 13 , 1896. Commini on.d
during World Wer I. Graduat_d Naval War Col· 2nd Lt. Inf , Reg . Arm y Nov. IS , 1917 . C om·
I_q_ June 1918. Air BaSIl Commander , Wheel.r rT'!anded Mitch . 1 Field , N, Y., 1921 ·23 . Nam ed
Field , Hawaii 19)9. Commending G.n.ral 7th Command er of Bombardm . nt Euro pean Thut.r,
Bomb.,. ComrnenO i" Hawaii, aftd in No..,. 19.. 2- J"ly 19 .. 2 <!Ind l<!Iter C o mmand i n~ G e n.ral of 8th
named Army Air Offie.r on staff of Commander. Air Force . Designated Comm <!ln d er Mediter.
in·Chief of Pacific FI.et. Commandinq Gen_ral ranean Alli.d Air Forces in- Jan. 19~ . Rotin9s:
4th "'-r Foree July 194). R.t;n9': Command Pibt, Aircraft Observ.r. C ommand Pilot . Tec hnica l O bs. rve r, Airc raft
D~"iQlt.: Silver Star laward.d in 1918). OFC, Air M.dal .... ith Oak Obse rver. Decor.tions : Sil..,e, Star, DFC .... ith Oak Lea f C lust .r, l.g ion
i.e.f Clustar. Purpl. H.art. of M.rit.
IZ 13
DOOLITTLE, Lt. Gen. James H. CANNON, Moj. Gen. John K.
8o~n Alameda, Calif" Dec. 14, 1896. Attended Born S.lt lake City. Utah , March 9, IB92.
Unt¥,o of C.lif. Enlisted.s flying c.det, Sign. I Gr.duated U'.h Ag,icultural Colla ge 191<4. Com-
Corps Reserv., Oct. 6, 1917. Commissioned minioned 2nd Lt. Inf. Rese rve Nov. 27. 1917.
2nd ,Lt. March! I, 1918. Entered MIT 1923 end Director of Flying, later of Trai"ing . Rand ol ph
recerved ~.st.r $ and Doctor's degrees 1924 and Field . Tex., 1931-35. Chief of U. S. Military
1925. ReSIgned Reg_ Army commission on Feb
15. 1930 and ,commiuioned <II Maj., Spec . Res:
Ord,.red to .chv" duty.s Moj. July I, 1940. On
General ''05'Buenos Ai,es 1938. Commanding
Interceptor Command , Mitch el Field,
N. Y., Feb. 19<42. Became Commanding Gen e ral
. I Apr.' 18, 1942 led first uri,,1 ,.id on J • • nele 12th Air Force Dee. 19<43. Rutings! C ommand
m",n .nd. Commanded 12th Air Forc. Sept 1942 Com d' P G Pilot. Aircraft Observer. Decorations: DSM , Air Med.l, legio" of Merit.
er.l : NW African Strategic Air Forc. March' 1943: 15th A"!a"F '"9 N,n.
194] ' 8th A' Fo J . It oree 0'1'
I rce "n. 19..... Rating' Comm"d P',lot D
., ,. '
M d I f H on OS" S'I . . ecor. Ions:
':d" o'th 3 Co," "", I ver Star, OFC with O.k L..,f Clulter Air
me " WI LIsters. '
ANDERSON, Maj. Gen. Frederick L. Jr.
COMMANDING GENERAL, 15TH AIR FORCE Born Kingston . N. Y., Oct. <4, 1905. Graduated
Born Monroe, Wis., Oct. II, 1897. Graduated USMA and commissioned 2nd Lt. Cov. June 9,
from USMA and eomminioned 2nd It Inf N 1928. Graduated Advanced Flying Sch .• Kelly
I, 1918. Served at March Field C,I','f " dO,'" Field . Te •. Sept. 1929. Served in the Philippines
H awa,!.. 1927 ' " n In
. ·32. Designated Director of War until 191<4. Directo r of Bombardi er Instruction
Or~."'z.tlon and Movement AAF 1942. Ap. Air Corps Tadie,,1 Sch. July 19<40. Deputy Direc-
pOinted Commanding Gener.l 13th Air Force tor of Bo mbardment, Hq . AAF. in Jan. 19<42.
J~" . 19"~. July 1943 usigned Commander of Assigned .s Commanding General of 8th Bomber
:,rcr.ft .n
Solomon Islands, in which capacity h. Command . Becam e Deputy Commander for Operations USAFE in July
Co' i,.dad .11 air strength in thet ere. Becem 19<43. Ratings: Command Pilot, Technical Observer, Aircr.ft Observer.
mmend,ng Gener.1 15th Air Force Jan 1944 R ,· ·C d' Decof,J/ions: Silver Star, DFC, legion of Merit, Air Med.1.
Pilot- Airer ft Ob D ' " . "'9S: omman
LN,' CI..t.~. Air M'ed:i:
KOI",OIr.: OFC, legion of Merit with O.k

BRERETON, Lt. Gen. Lewis H. VANDENBERG, Maj. G en. Hoyt S.

~or" Allegheny, P• ., June 21 , 1890. Graduated ALLIED EXPED ITIONARY AIR FoRcES
. S.•N~ .... r Acad emy 1911. Resigned a. ensign , Born Milwaukee, Wis., Jan . 24, 1899. Graduated
commissioned 2nd It Coed Arty Co A USMA and commissioned 2nd Lt. Air Service
17 1911 0" . 'ps ug . June 12. 1923 . Served in Hawtlii 1929· 3 1. Grad -
, ' . urlng World War 1 laW action in
Frlnce. Air Attach.e. American Embassy, Paril , uated Army War C ollege 1939. Operations .nd
~'i1'i- 22 . ~ommandlng Officer France Field and Tr.i ning Officer IA-3) Air Staff, Washington,
anama Air Depot, and Acting Ai; Office r Pan_ D. C. , March \942 . Assign ed to United Kingdom
am~ Cana l Department 1931·35. 'n Jul 19<41 .nd assisted in plans for African invasion June
• .'Slgned to command 3rd Air Force C y d 1942. Chief of Shff '2th Air Force Oct. 19<42.
I 1119 S."•• I: 10th Air Foree March 19<42 . 9th A' F . Oomman - Return ed t o U. S. and designated De puty Chi ef of Air Staff Aug . 19-43.
ReI;"9': Comm."d Pilot Tachnical Observ ' . Ir orce, ct. 1942. Bec. me Deputy Comm.nd e r-in .Chi ef Allie d Expeditio n.ry Air Fo ree s
DSC. Silve, St.,' with Oak luf CI:;;a~lr~s"~t g~e'::.r .
urp. H •• rt, Fre"ch Croix de 61.1." with 2 p'• Im • • . . Ir e" ,
MDdci" March 19<44. Rollings: C o mmand Pilot, Techn ical Ob server, Aircraft Ob-
serve r. Decorations: DSM , Silver Stu, DFC , l egion of Merit, Air Medal.

STRATEMEYER, Maj. Gen. George E.

I KENNEY, Lt. Gen. George C.
80'" y.,mou,h , Nov. Sco';" Au • . b, 1889. At·
Born C incinnat i. Ohio. Nov. 24, 1890. Grad. tend ed MIT. At outbre~k of World W~r I en·
uated USMA and commiuioned 2nd Lt, Inf. June liste d as fly ing c~det ; commissio ned 1st Lt. in
12. 1915. Commanding Officer. Air Service Avi~tion Sect ion. Signal Corps Reserve, Nov. 5,
Mechanical Sch. Kelly Fie ld . Tex . 1917 and Com. 1917. Served in Fr~",ce end G e rmany 1917·19;
manding Officer. Chanute Field. III., 1921 . In - credited .... ith destruction of 2 enemy ~ ; rcraft.
strudor at USMA un til 1929. Graduated Army Gradu~ted Army W~r Coll ege June 1933. Au't
"'!ar C~I.I~ ge 1939. Chief Training and Opera - Att~che for Air in Paris in 1940. Comm~nd i ng
. flons DIVI Sion, Office of Chief of Air Corps April G enera l 4th Ai r Force April 1942 . Command · .
1941. Co~mandl~g Genera l, Southeast Air Corps Training Center Jan . ing General Allied Air Forces in Au s tr~ lia n theater; 5th AIr Force
1942. Chief of Air Staff June 1942 . Air Advisor to Commanding Gen - Sept. 1942. Rolfings: Command Pilot, Aircreft Observer. Decorations :
er.l, ~hin • . 8urma -l ndia Theater July 1943 : Commanding General , East- DSC .... ith cluster, DSM, Silver Star , OFC , Purple Heart.
ern Air Commend . Aug. 1943. Rolfing s: Command Pilot , Aircraft Ob-
server. Decorations : DSM , Air Meda l.
HARMON, Lt. Gen. Millard F.
DAVIDSON, Maj. Gen. Howard C. • Born S~n Francisco, Ca lif., Jar'! . 19, 1888. Gr~d ·
COMMANDING GENERAL. rOTH AIR FORCE uated USMA , commissioned 2nd Lt. In f. June 12 ,
Bo,n Wharton , Tex .• Sept. 15. 1890. Graduated 1912. Saw actio n ~t Somme du ri ng World War
USMA . comminioned 2nd Lt. Info June 12, 1913. I. Ass', Prof. Military Sci e nce & Tactics, Un iv. of
Served at Tours and Paris 1917· 19. Ass 'f Mili . Washington 1923·24. Gr~duate Army War Col.
tary Attache , London 1922-26. Command in g Of- lege June 1925. C ommand ed Luke Field , Ha waii
fic er Bolling Field , D. C ., 1928·32. Command ed and 5t h Bomba rdment Group 193b-3 R. Air Ob·
19th Bombardme nt Group 1935·36. Graduated server and member Harr im~n Commiss ion 1941 .
A~my War College J une 1940 and ordered t o Commanding Gen e ral 4th Interceptor Command of 4th A.ir Force April
Hldam F ~e ld. Ha .... aii as Commanding Offic er . 1941 ; 2nd Air Force July 1941. Chief of Air St~ff , W e.5hlngton . D. ~ .,
C omma nd ing Genera l: Ha .... aiian Interceptor Ja n. 1941.. Commanding General U. S. Army Forces In South ~aclfic
Comm •• d Dec. 1941 : 7th Air Forc e June 1942 ; AAFTTC Mississippi Are~ Jul y 1942. Rolt ings: Comm~nd Pilot , Technical Observe~. Aircraft
~·llt. ~'e. Nov, 1942 ; 10th Air Force July 1943. Rolfi"9S; Comm a nd
lot, AI'cr.ft Observer.
Observer. D ecorolt ions: Navy DSM . Fre nch eroi.. de Gu erre .... Ith bronte

HARMON , Maj. G en. Hubert R.

COMMANDING GENERAL, 14TH AIR FORCE Born Chest er, Pa ., April ) , 1892. Graduated
Bor~ .CommercE', Tex. , Sept. 6, 1890. Attend ed U5MA , commissioned 2nd Lt . Coast Arty. Corps
~u~SI.n. State Univ . and Norma l Colleg e. Com _ June 12 , 1915. Became Chief of Air St~A' Air
miSSioned 1st Lt. Inf. Reserve Nov. 27 , 1917. In . Serv ice Com mand. Th ird Army 1919. Aviation
structor .end Diredor of Flying at Brooh Fi eld , Officer. U. S. Liquidation Comm itte e London
Te..... unfll 19)0. Author : Role of Defensive Pu r. 1919.20. Instructor USMA 1929· ) 2. C ommander
SUI~ 1935. Retired Apri l 30 , 1937 and .... ent t o 19th Bombardment Gro up 1936·37. Grad uate
China : mede a Brig . Gen . in the Chinese Air Army War College July 1938. Chief of Oper.
F~rce end pieced in charge of AVG (Fly ing a"tions , Perso nn el. Washin9ton , O. C . 1937·40.
Co' Tigers): R~cell ed to act ive duty April 1942. Comma nding Gen eral : Gulf Coast Tra ini ng Cente r 19-41 ; 6th Air Force
I mm.n~1n9 6~ne,.I : A,AF In Chin" July 1942 ; 14fh Air Force, March 1942 ; 13th Air Forc e Jan . 1944 . Ratings: Command Pi lot , Aircraft Ob -
'43. R.,,,,gs: AI,pl.,... Pilot, Aircr.ft Observer , D ecorations: DSM , OFC . server . Decorolfior'!s : Legion of Merit, Air Meda l.
HALE, Moj. Gen. Willis H.
Bor" Pittsburg , Ken., Jan, 7, 1893. Lt. in Philip.
WALSH, Maj. Gen. Robert LeG.
pine constabulary 1913 to March 20 , 1917 when U. S. ARMY FORCES, SOUTH ATLANTIC
commissioned 2nd Lt. Inf. Reg_ Army and pro- Born Walla Walla, Wash., July 25, 189". Grad-
moted fo 1st Lt. same date. Served in Chine t d USMA and comm issioned 2nd Lt. C.av.
end France 1917.18. Prof. Military Science and " ' . 13 1916 . After service in France
T"ctics Yale Un i". 1920-22. Gradueted Army J une, O. . .dUringf
W Id W I he was assigned to 1'1 lSI on 0
War Colle ge June 1937. Inspector Gene,.1 of
GHQ Air Force , langley Field. Va ., 1939.40.
or ar
Military Aeronautics in w.
as h'Ing to~,
20 Ass't Attache for A" at Pam an
O e 1919
'd 'M d ' d
a fI
Ch ief of St.ff 3,d Air Force, Tampa , Fl• . , 1940 .... '.
Commending Gener.' 7th Ai, Force Ha .. eii July 1942. Rating:s: Com- 1929-31. Commanded Albroo~ Field , C . Z. , b~3;:
mend Piot, Aircraft Observer. Decordtions: DSM, legion of Merit, 35. Graduated Arm y War College !9040· • Transport Command June
Purpl. H•• rt, Navy Cross. manding General: South Atlahntic IW~~g ' NA If 1942. R~t;n9s: Command
1942 ; U. S. Army Forces Sout A~ an IC .ov. f Merit
Pilot, Aircraft Observe r. Decor.I,on: legion 0 .
JOHNSON, Moj. Gen. Davenport
Bor" Tyler, Tex., March 28, 1890. Graduated '
USMA , commissioned 2nd Lt. Inf. June 12, 1912. BREIT, Lt. Gen. George H.
Military Observer with French Army during COMMANDING GeNeRAL,
World War I. Graduated Army War College CARIBBEAN DEFENSe COMMAND
June 1929. Commanded 3rd Attack Group to Born Cleveland Ohio , Feb. 7, 1886. Graduated
July 1932. Commanding Officer Hamilton Field , VMI 1909. Appointed 2nd Lt. Ph ilippine Scouts
Ca lif., 1937. Ass't to Chie f of Air Corps in March 22, 1910; 2nd Lt. of C ay. Reg. Army 1911.
Washington, D. C ., 19"0. Commanded 6th Air Commanded Crissy Field 1921 -24., Grct~ar~
Forc e, Pa nama , C . Z., 19"2. Became Director Arm War College June 1936. Ass t to Ie 0
I Militory l equi,..mants Hq. AAF Nov. 19 .. 2. C ommanding G eneral 2nd Air torps Jan . 1939. Chief of Air Corps May
Air Forc. Feb. 1941; 11th Air Force Sept. 19"3. Ratings: C om mand 1941. Became Deputy SUl?teme . C~mman.der of
Pilot, Aircr.ft Oblerver. Decor~';ons: Silver Star, Air Medal, Fre nch Allied Forces in South PaCific and .. n April '.942 d C ndin
Croj.. de Gue"a. d Ch' f f Allied Air Forc es In Australia . Name omma N 9
nam e Ie. 0 f Command and Panama Conal Dept., ov.
General C~rlbbeC an
1942. R.tlngs: omman De ed""
p "lot
I , Technical Oblerver , Aircraft Observer.
MIDDLE EAST Decorations: DSM , Silver Star, DFC.

GILES, Brig. Gen. Benjamin F. WOOTEN , Brig. Gen. Ralph H.

U. S. ARMY FORces, MIDDle EAST Born Tate Co., Min., Aug . 30, 1893 .• ~raduated
Born Mineola , Ter., Se pt. 13, 1892. Attended A & M College of Texas, 1916. C om.m lulone~.2 nd
Univ. of Ter. and commissioned 2nd Lt. Inf. Res. Lt. Inf. Reg . Army Aug. 8 1917;. ChIef of ~ l lltary
April 28 , 1917. Served in Fra nce during World Procurement and Transportation, Washln~ton,
War I. C omm issio ned 2nd Lt. Air Service , Reg . o C 1924-28. Military Attache, Santiago,
Army July I , 1920. Ch ief of Aviation Division, Chile " 1929-33; 1938-41. Graduated Army War
Nat'l. Guard Bureau 1939. Commanding Gen- C olle' e Jun e 1937. Air Of!icer G~n.e ral Hq.,
eral: Hq . North Atlantic Wing, Air Tra nsport 1941 9 Assigned AAF Technical Training Com-
C ommand Aug. 19.. 2 ; 9th Air Force Troop Car-
I rler Commend Oct. 19..3; U. S. Army Forces, Middle East Feb. 19..... mand , M~~mi B~ach, ~'ab'thM~~~h F~~:!' S~:v~~~9~!mmand
and Chief of
R.,i",s; Command Pilot, Aircraft Observe,. D8<o,..,;ons: DSM, Air Commahn
Staff 6t
F enera N • med
orce .
Commanding Gene ral 6th Air Force Nov.
M.d.l. 1943. R.tinqs: Command Pilot, Aircraft 0 server.
. •
. .... .

In the last analysis. AA F effectiveness rests upon the indi-
vidual soldier and the efforts hc expends in his assignment.
A discontented soldier, or a sick soldier, is seldom a good sol-
dier. The AAF th erefore takes a special interest in th e llse of
leisure time, personal and family problems, recreation and
Special Service- T'he duties of special service officers with
th e AAF" arc many-sided . The 2 main secti ons of th e special
service division, however, are ph ysical fitn ess and orientation.
An extensive ph ys ical fitness prog ram for all AAF perso n-
nel is supplemented by intra- and inter-unit athletic compe-
tition. A physic<lI fitn ess test is givell each quarter to eheck the
progress or improvement which m;:1Y have resulted from this
sustained conditioning program.
Early in the war th e need for current films and periodicals,
for touring stage entertainment and for recreational supplies
of <1I1 kinds was recognized by th e AAF. Indoctrination l edu-
ca tional prograllls of orientation, and Army Institute courses
are available to the men; from ping-pong to textbooks: the
problems of leisure time arc given constant attenti on. In the
forward stations for example, one of th e first buildings con-
~ tru cted is often an enlisted men's squad ron dayroom.
Chaplains-~nle provision of spiritual guidance for the men
is essential at all Arm y stations, wheth er at a permanent base
in the U. S. or an isolated outpost on New Britain or Iceland.
The AAF chaplain at island stations of the South Pacific is
likely to make his visits via bomber. 1\l fore than 1 600 chaplains
serve with th e AAF.
Personal Affairs-T'o provide assistance and advice 0 11 per-
sona l and financia l matters for the soldier and his depend ents,
a Persona l Affairs Division has been created, with Personal
Affairs Officers in the field . \Vh cn an individual joins th e AAF,
Personal Affairs is interes ted in seeing that:
lie is adcquately protectcd by U. S. CO\'Crnlllclit insurance.
Legal be llcficiarics arc dcsign<ltcd 10 rccei\'c gratu ity p:l}" in cvent
of 'lis death.
..-.;1~: -.?-
HUMAN RELAnONS Q<2D ~ -..J:; __

-'" -.I:

In the las t analysis, AAF effectiveness rests upon th e incli- dJt46.-

vidua l soldier and th e efforts h e expend s in h is i.lssignmcnt.
A disconten ted soldier, or a sick soldier, is seldom a good sol-
dier. The AA F therefore l akes a special interest in th e use of
l c i ~ll re time, personal and family problem s, recrea tion and


Special Service-The duties of special service officers with
th e MP arc many-s ided . The 2 mai n sections of the special
service di vision, h owever, are physical fitn ess and orientation .
An extensive physical fitn ess program for all AAF person- IIr wallr ...... . . . "air
nel i ~ su pplem ented by intra- and inteT-un it athle tic COlll )>C-
titian. A ph ys ical fi tness tes t is given each quarter to check the
progress or improvement which may havc res ulted from this
sustained conditioning program. by w;;,, 5:S'1~
Early in the war th e need for current film s and periodical s, ..._..-.-
for tourin g stage entertainm ent and for recreational suppli es
of an kinds was recognized by th e AAF. In doc trin ati on , edu-
ca tio:laI progra ms of ori entati on, and Arm y Institute COurses
are available to th e men; from ping-pong to tex tbooks: thc
problem s of leisure time are given co nstan t atten tion . Tn the
forward stations for exa m ple, one of th e fi rst build ings con-
structed is often an enlisted men 's squad ro n dayroom .
C haplains-Tl1 c provision of spi ritual guidance fo r th e m en
is eS5cn tiai at all Amly stati ons, whether at a perm ancnt base
in the U. S. or an isolated outpos t on New Britain or Iceland .
The AAF chaplain at island stations of th e So uth Pac ific is
li kely to makc hi s visits via bom ber. t\'[orc than 1 600 chapl:1ins
serv(; with th e AAF.
Personal Affairs-To prov id e assistancc and ad vice on per-
sonal and fin ancial matters fo r th e soldier and his depend ents,
a Personal Affai rs Division has been crea ted, with Personal
Affa irs O fficers in th e field . \ Vhen an individual joi ns th e AAF,
Pe r~o nal Affa irs is in teres ted in seein g th at :
llc is adequately protccted by V. S. GO\'cnl lllcnt inslInlllce.
Legal bCllcficia rics arc dcsign;Itcd to recci\'c gt:lt uity Pi')' in C\'Cllt
01 his death .
~,--~~~~~~~, , ASSIGNMENT ,
AAJ'i' NURSE S-A t th e present time, more th :111 6500 1I11,rscs campaign, the wound ed wcr~ ev~eu:1ted to I,lawa ii aboard
\ arc on duty with the AAF. Of this number, 500 arc flight 4-engi ned transport planes With flight nurses 11\ attendance.
n urses servino throughout th e world wherever we arc cvncuat- WASP- In cludi ng train ces, th ere are now about
ing woundel by plane. The rcmaind~r. a l~ m cmb~rs of the 1200 women pilots on active duty with the AAF'
I Army lursc Corps, arc on duty at AAl' sta tton hOSP!t.lls. as members of the W omen's Airforce Service Pi-
Training. Duties, Pay-Nurses assigned to th e AAI' . ar~ ,sent lots. This group is engaged in 1 0 different kinds of
to one of 11 different training centers for 4 wc:eks of mlht~ry non-combat fiyin g mi ssions. W omen pilots assigned
indoctrination, tmining and physical conditioning before bcmg to the Air Transport Command ferry 4 3 diffcrent
sent to AAF station hospitals in the U. S. . . types of aircraft, cverything from small PTs to our fastest
1\.tcmbcrs of the Army Nurse Corps are granted the pnvl- fighters and our heavy cargo :md bombardment planes, frO~11
lcocs of the sen 'icc as prescribed by th eir rank. They do not factorics to points th roughout th e country and to bases 111
I h ~ld ccmmissio ns as do V.; AC and male officers, but hold Ca nada. \;Vasps take meteorolog ists up for wea th er obsen;1-
appointm e,nts il~ ,t h e 1\1,cdical Co~ps. Nurses are accordcd fun tion s and fly admini strative mi ss ions in 8 dom es ti c AAF
m cmberslllp pnnlegcs 111 officers clubs. w~ath e r re~ion s; ~hey tran sp,ort eq ll!~m.el~t, break in engines
Pay ii th e same as that of Army offi~crs (sec pay tables on With slow-tun c Ayl1lg at 2 0 chffercnt I rillntng Command bases
page 5A) except in the instance of Right nurse~1 who draw and perfonn various courier du.ti es. . .
$60 per m onth extra when th ey a~e plaec.d on fiY 111~ s tatu~. " Training- Primary, intermcchate and advanced tramlll g for
Flight Nurscs-f\ftcr 6 mon.tJ~s duty 111 an AA~ h?splt<ll, th e 'Vasps is conducted at Avenge r Field, Sweetwater, Texas,
members of the ANC arc eli gible to make a!,pllea hon . for by th e AAF Training Command. ~111 e 27-week course is re-
flight llllfse training. The physical examl11atJ~)I"lS reqtllTed quired regardless of previous fl ying c.\':pcrie1~cc. It i.n clud es fl ~l ­
prior to assignment arc the same as all other flyll1g personnel ing training. ground sch ool, II1strum cnt m struch on, and IS
must pass. In addition, th e nur~es must be recoln.mcnded. by gcnerally the same as that given to aviation cadets. \Vh cn
the se nior flight surgeon of th elf comma nd as bemg partlcu- necessary. \Vasps receive additional tran sitional fl ying instruc-
larl v ada pted to duty in the air evacuation service. tion at the particular s t~ltion to whi ch th ey are assigned.
Tf th ey meet th ese requirem ents, th e nurses are sent to the Special mi ssions. such as tow target work, may require tmining
School of Air Evacuation, Bowm an Ficld. Ky. Here they ~111- at B-17, B-24, B-26, or C-60 schools.
dcrgo 8 weeks of academic, professional, milita~y and ph ysical Pay and S,t atus-Alth ough '''asp s arc on Civil Service statu s
trainin g to prepare them fo~ the strcnuous ~utJe~ ah ead . Sub- (as of Spring 1944). th e), are entitled to th e pri vileges of offi-
jec ts in which they arc requlfcd to be profiCient mcl ~ldc eme~­ cers wh en on an Army base and mu st conform to military reg-
geney medical treatment, intraveno us th erapy, tr0l?lcal m edi- ulation s wh cn on dllty. They arc paid $150 a month whil e in
cine, fl,eld sa nitation, and compass. map and aenal pho~og­ trainin g; $ 250 a month whcn placed on operation;]1 duly.
raphy ori cntation . Upon graduation , they arc rated flight \\' ASP wings arc th e st:1nci:1rd AAJi' silvcr wings with a lozenge
nurses and aTC permitted to wear gold flight surgeons' wings
in th e center (sec page 51).
with the ANC insignia superimposed. (Sec page 51.)
By the end of 1943, there were fligh t nurse units in . every Entrance Requirements-( As of Spring 1944):
tll cater of opemtions where units of the AA.F were aS~ lgncd. 35 hours' flying timc (CAA ccrtificatc)-ll eigilt : 62 ~ inchcs,
Flight nurses arrived in the Sicilian and ItalIan campa igns as ruiuimUln- Age: J 8 years 6 IIIOS. to 3S-Educ;ltion : high school
soon a~ it was possible to send transport planes to the fmn.t. or equiv,zlcnt- Persoll:ll iutcrvicw with official \VASP represcnt·
ativ(}-I\!lust pass a physica l ex;,unillatioll [or flying and avi:ltion
Within 3 days af ter the initial landing in the Tarawa-Makm
cadet qualifying exa mination.

kept th ousand s of observati? " posts up and !=lawn our coasts in

CIVILIAN PERS'ONNEL continuous 24-hour operation from th e day we cnt.ered the
wa r until the fall of '943. Wh en tluea t of cn emy aen al attack
Civi lian employees play an important role in the AAF. on our shores diminished with our offensive acti ons abroad,
I~ . 1.940 when th e AAF had 51 ,000 military membcrs, th e it was decided to reduce the burden on ex isting com m.e!cial
cl1vlhan. ~mpl.oyees. numbered 8,:0.0! today, with more than telephone facilities and to release this. large pool of mIlItary
2 ~ mllh on In ulllfor~n, AAF clvlhans total 350,000 within and civilian manpower for oth er essential war work by plaCing
the U. S. Add to th IS figure tllOse employed by the ' arms the GOC on an alert status. Since O ct. 4, 194 3, m embers of
and .servlces at AAF mstaJl atJ ons and the estimate is 500 ,000. the corps have mann ed th eir observa t!on posts at intervals f?[
An Important 18% of the AAF wear mufti; ha1f or more are tes t and training in place of the prevIOus Z4-hour-a-day baSIS.
Some J 83,000 civilians are working in Air Service Com-
mand depots th~oughout ~e country in maintenance, repair AAF awa rds for civil!an volun.t ccrs wi th - ~.
and supply o.f aircraft, engmes and radios. Over 34,000 arc
the Aircraft W arnmg ServIce. mus-
trated: (left ) J Fighter Command
connected With the procurement activities of the Matcriel (right) IV Fighter Command . Bars
C ommand. TIle ~raining Comma~d employs approximately indicate number of hours served.
64 ,0:>':'. not only tn offices but as Instructors and mcchan ics.
ClVlha~ ex£erts in the Nat~on~1 Advisory Committee for Aircraft Warning Corps-TIle Aircraft Wam~ng Corps in-
Aeronautics ( NACA) are deSlgnmg and testing the equip- cludes all those volunteers in filter and informati on ccnte.rs. of
ment of tomorrow. Our w~.t~er school programs were planned our continental fighter commands who are on th e recclVmg
and executed Jargel~ by clVlhan meteorologists. The high pri- end of, the ground observers' reports. At its peak this corps
on~ enemy mdustnal t~rgets we bomb are selected partly by num bered more than 25,000 . Like the GOC, the Aircraft
CI~I Ian economists and mdustnaiIsts who advise military strat- Warning Corps is now al so on an alert status; th ose assigned
egists. fn all phases of AAF work civilian experts act as con- to filter centers serve on the sa me days that ground observers
sultants to th e military. arc on duty. Information centers, however. differ in th is re-
spect : radar information comes in to th em 24 hc:mrs a day;
• " .'"S UTlHlC'U'
II:v::~1 I::::~:H
continuous operati on is dem anded of that porhon of the

J~s t as th e military perso nn el receive award s for outstanding
AWe required to plot radar inform ation .

AAF Women Volunteers-Som e 25,000 wom en m embers of

AAF families arc engaged in a wid e variety of volunteer acti~­
servl ~e~ ~o too do civilian employees of th e AAF. rnlis custom ' itics throughout the country. At almost every AAF base and It1
was IllItlated on December 8, 104, . Civilian decorations arc many communities a local AAF wom en' s club is th e hub
shown above. around which revolve welfare projects for AAF personn el. T o
coordinate th e work of th ese hundreds of local AAF women's
VOLUNTEERS WITH THE AM groups, the National Association of .Air Forces. ~,:~m en was
organized on Feb . 8, 1944. The maJor re.spo n~ lblhtJ cs of th e
. Groun.d .<?bscrvcr Corps-The Ground Observer C orps co n- groups serving with th e NAAF\¥ arc outlined III th e ch art on
SiSts of CIVIlian men and women of all ages wh o, with out pa y. th e following pages.


The Army Air Forces Aid Society, whose add ress is Wash-
ington 6, D. C " was inco rporated in the District of Columbia
March 9, 1942, lor th e purpose of relieving distress of AAF
, pCr\Ollnel , including those who have honorably served with HOW WE TRAI~
N ~~
ti, e AAr, and th eir depend ents.
'J1,c Society. composed of persons interested in the AAF,
113' 4 classes of membership, each ha ving the same rights and
pri vi l cgc~. the difference in tIle classes being the fce or an-
nual du es paid by the member. Patron members pay an in iti al
fcc of $100; life members pay $50; benefa ctor members and
memhers-at-large pay annual dues of $5 and $ 1 respectively.
The Board 01 Trustees of the Society is as follows:
! General llenry 11, Arnold Mr. ltobcrt A. Lovett
MT\ , /ICllrv H. Arnold Brig. Cen. BCI/Ilett E. Meyers
Ma;. Cell .,ame, M , BcvanJ Mr. Floyd B. OdIum
11011 . Joh n M . Costello Capt. Eddie Rickcnbackcr
M (f. lI oward C. Da vidson Brig. Cen. Cyrus It Smith
M ( I>. I;/Jlles /-I . Doolitt Ie Mr. T/lomas ,. Watson I n th e AAF we must be more than ind ivid uals organized into
Mr. Hohert V . Fleming Mr. C harles E. Wilsoll team s. 'vVe must be train ed indivi duals and train ed tea ms.
Lt. CCIl. 8arlll~Y A1 . Giles J\1 ore than 500 separate skill s contri~ute to the success of . a
routine bombing mission-skills. ral~gJl1g fro~ that of a dnll
All er Ihe war the Society plans:
sergeant helping to make reCTlllts 1I1t~ soldler~ to that of a
-R To assist I\AP personnel find tll eir depcnden ts in obtaining gov- bombardie r synch ronizing th c cross-hairs on his. ta rget.
CrJln:c1lt bcncfits to whic11 th ey may be JawfuJJy eJl titJed ~ Our training problem has been furth er compli ca ted by the
-trTo :lSSist in providing for education, vocatIOnal rehabilita· h ighly techni cal nature of many of th ese duties, by the ~eed
tion mel ;ob placement. for vast expansion, and by ou r oldest enemy-lack. of tlmc.
<CtTo provide finan cial assistance in wort11Y cases.
. Based on pre-l'c.:1rl Harbor fig~res, wc h.a~c expc n enced as
111C Arm y Air Forces Aid Society is at present accepti ng mu ch as a 2 0000% increase 111 th e trallllll g of somc spe-
voluntmy memberships and contriblltions for future usc to- cialists. 1n oth'c r spccialties, in which training did not even
ward the fulfil1ment of its mission when other agencies cur- begin until after 1941, th e increasc can not be measured per-
rentl y p<"1'fonning similar functions cease to operate. centage-wise. .
T he statist ics of our trall1l1lg CXP:lI1SlO n wo uld givc l?a~lse
• to an Einstein . During th e first 2 yea rs of war onc .mllilon
m en- nea rly half our total strength- were engaged 111 AAF
t raining eithcr as trainers or tralllces. Dunng the p~a.k yea r. of
1943, 120,000 aircrew train ees Ae~ I"n ore th~n 3 b!llton mtl es
in th e U. S.- as though the entire population of Savannah,

Ca., seized by an uncontrollable impulse and equipped with aviation cadets arrived at h a 1f~ com pl e t ed fields; training planes
the necessary priorities, flew 134,000 trips around the flew over bulldozers at work laying run ways. By 194 3 th e
equator. Flying Training Command 's yearly ou tpu t had rocketed to
The Training Program-The AAF training program has 6 5,79 7 pilots, 16,057 bombardi ers, 1 5,9 28 navigators.
I been a continuing experiment in. mass education. Originally Once th e Flying and T echnical T ra in ing Commands had
small, scattered and loosely coordmated, the bulk of it had in . trained individuals in their particular skills, th ere remained
early 19,4: been unified under 2 n.ew comn1.flnds-the Techni· th e final training task of tcaching th em to empl oy these skills
cal Trammg Command and the Flying Training Command. with combat equipment under combat cond itions and of
Th e T echnical Training Command used every available type welding th em into opera ti onal teams. The 4 domes tic air
of educational facility to train hundreds of tllOusands of tech- forces trained new fighter and bombardment groups and also
nicians .in duties rang~n~ from-repairing an airplane engine replacements for aircrews los t in battle or returned home
to ro:astmg a Thanksgl\rmg turkey. It leased 68 civilian me- from overseas groups.
?hamcs schools, turned factory shops into classrooms, and The T roop Carri er, Air Transport and Air Service C om-
Increased the number of its own schools from 3' to 33. It mands fused technical and £lyiilg school graduates into spe-
I bought or leased 452 hotels and converted them into cambi· cialized units. Such units as reconnaissa nce, air warning and
~ation schools and barracks. Within 2 years of its inception, fighter control were activa ted and trained. Many units were
It turned out some 600,000 graduates. Men unable to attcnd com,posed of specialists tra ~n ed by the Army Service Forces
tech~lical sch091 ~ for reasons of time and space learned on - . SIgnal, Ordnance, ChemIcal Warfare, ~ngineers, M edical,
the Job by workmg alongside training-school graduates. Finance, Quartermaster and Transportation.
FIrst problem of the Flying Training Command was the T raining Commands Merged- In July of '943 the Flying
con s truc~ion of sufficient fields to train pilots, bombardiers and T ec1:n~cal Trallll ng Commands were merged into th e
and navIgators. In the south, as training stations sprang up AAF Tralllmg Command. In D ecember th e training of all ~
but a few Arm y Service Forces~train e d specialists was taken
AAF TRAINING COMMAND ovcr by the AAF. The fonnati on of new units dro pped off
Figures below, showing total number of 544,37. and gav ~ way to a s te ppe d~ up replacem.cnt training program .
I training course graduates in 1941 and (Exception: the B-29 Superfortress umt program which got
I 1943 , reveal tremendous expansion of AAF under way late III 1'943 and IS now 111 full swing. )
Training Command program. Most im- Today, combat has replaced training as th e AAF's largest
pressive iJlcrease was production of gunners fun ction. As more and more of our men go overseas th e
and technicians, for whom there was not training program will contract furth er. Because of new 'com ~
even a formal training program in 194' .
11,515 bat Icssons, new techniq ues and new methods however it
always will be a vital factor. "

I 1941 1943 Every man assigned to AAF lea rns at th e outset t'o be
PlOT a soldier. H e takes a 5 weeks' basic military course wh ich i l1~

clndc\ 73 hours of <lrill ~ :lnd lllllrches; 15 hours of pl' ys icnl Fli ght i ll Millllll nl cd
trainin g. 54 h OUfll uf llIark ~ lllan ~ h ip; 13 hours of military pro- w hen !lltu lc'lIl , en~
ctolitd undt r C,1I1011Y,
cedure; R hours of fir!'>1 aaJ; 1 2 hour!'> of !lnni l al'ion; 3 hours of USCS in strtUllellt fl to
pcr!\ollal ildjtl ~ l m c nt : 5 h o ur ~ of cafe of clothing and equip- mallcuvt'r Ihe t..illk
011 il ll !tw ivd mOllllt.
m ent ; S hours of defense agnimt chemica l att ack; 5 hams o f N c:NI1 C 011 illlli nl c~
indi vidl1al ~ccurity :lnd camoufl:lgc; 4 Ii ours of map find photo- lor 's desk recordll the
interpretation; nnd 4 h our~ of defellse ngnin sl' air attack. Link'lI act ion .
ll:l, ic tmining for men enlisted for aviation cnd ct tr:lining
:1ho incl udc5 cx h:Hlsti vc ph ysical, psychological and 111(.:nla1
tcsh to det ermin e th eir fi tness for 1"l1C flying program and to
ascertai n til e specialty for whi ch th ey nrc best suited . After
basic Iminin g each man is rC;lciy to begin tr:1inin g in his spe-
cialty. 'TIl e individlla l I'min in g sc hedul e is di vid ed into 1 ma ~
t jor categories: Flyin g Tmining, and Technical, Adm ini s·
t"rati vc and Service Twin in g.

TRANSITI ON l~ I.Y I NC TRA ININc-Bcfore th ey hegin to train in IInil ,
I· R..... l.I GtrJ SC II OO I..- IO wecks' course: Sea and ai r recognition , )0 pilots lea rn to fl y the type of w:lrplane Ih.ey ,\'ill hand le in comh:!t;
hours; code, 48 h6ms; ph ysics, 24 hours: math , 20 hours; llIf1pS For exa mple, those marked (or 13 ' 26 amglllll cnt ta ~e a 10 weeks
and chu ts, . 8 ho urs; daily physical :Ul d milita ry trainin g. tran sit ion COllfse of whic h 105 hours are spent fl)lng 13' 265 and
1,.Ut.1 AR\' .. I.VINC SC HOOL- IQ weeks' co urse: 70 hours in 125 t·o 225 t.he rest in grollnd sch ool. 13-17 and B' 24- pil ots also ~et. 1 0~ homs
hI' Op<.1l cockpit biplanc .. or low wing m ono p lan es; 94 h ours :IC:1· 4.cngine fl yillg lim e alld ~d.ditional grol~!lc1 'i{'h~)i tmmmg III a I ~
demic work in groLlnd sc hool; 54 homs lIIilit:lry train ing. weeks' post.gmd ll:1. le tranSition cou rse . "Igili cr pilot s get :J 5 wed.. s
KAS IC FI.TINe SC IIOOl..- IO weeks' course : 70 hOllrs in a 4 50 ho rse·
power basic traine r; 94 hours ill grollnd school; 47 h ours miJital")'
tran flit ioll cOllrse; si ngle·e ngin e pi lo ts ~ Y 10 hours in P' 40S; J~.;8
pil ots take 10 hours in P' ;22S ( m o(lified p. ,Ss}. G unne ry . I~ a
Imining. By the end o( basic school tmill(:es have learned t·o ny a part of fig h ter tra nsition train ~n g . A,I .t he COI1c1l1 ~ lOn o f Iml'I\, I'Oll
plane compe te ntly. I"nrtb er training wi ll teach th em to fl y n war· t'rain ing, pilot~ report to tllllt lr:1l1l1l1g groups where th e), :Irc
plan e the AAF wa)' . Before the end of basic. trainees arc classified welded illt'o fig hting team s.
--on the basi.. o( choice and imlrllct'ors' reports -for single.
engi nc training ( fi ght er pilot ) or 2·engine train ing (OOrl"lhe r, Navigator and Uombardicr Trainin g
traml>o"j or 2 cnginc figh ter pi lot ).
ADVA NCE D )ILVINC TRA ININC- IO wecks' co ursc (sing1c engine and weeks' course: Trai nees lI tt end the "!lIn e pre-
I'lt tW Ll C I/ 'I' SC II OOL- I O
2 cuginl!): 70 h ours o( fl yin g; 60 ha m s o( ground school; 19 fli ght school. Both hOlllbard~crs and na\igators take 48 hOIlf'i of
luJt1rll military tr:linin g. Si ngle ·cngine train ees fl y 600 horsepower code' 28 hOllfS of math ellla tlcs; 24 hours uf llIaps and ch arh: 30
AT 6\ : nd take a course in fi xcd gunn cry. T wo engine tminees fl y h Ollr~ of airc raft rc{'ogn it ion ; 12 h ours of n:1\'a l recogni tion ; 12
A' I 24!., AT- 17!., AT9S, Of AT l OS. Ba \ed on pcrforma nce and hours of principles of fli ght; 20 hOllrs of aero.ph )'s ics; 9 hun rs o(
c11f)j(c, th ey arc carmarked (or hC:lVY or medillm bornbardm c n~ , a ltitude cq ll ipill ent.
tr:lII \pOlt , troop car rier or 1 engine fi ght e r. AI the e nd of ad. CUNN lmv SC II OOL-6 weeks' course: n e(':1 \l ~e ever)' I>omher ("few
\,:lI1 n~d ' rainillg th c gradua tes, <;ingJe and 2.e ngille, arc :Iwardcd the melllber III1ISI be all ex pcrt gllILll er. 1I:1 \' iga tm [l nd hOlllh:lf(licr
sihh pIlot's wing~ o( the AAF and appo inLed flight officers 0 ) tmin ee.. arc sent to a Jl ex ibJe gunn ery M:hool aft cr preflig ht M:huol.
(olllllli\~ ioned 2nd licllt cllants. Th ey iC:lnt weapo ll'>, ba llistics, turret operaliun. and II willI Cll rl ll:'e;
gl lll repa irs; flir , lIe:l and I:md rCl:ogn it ion ; ~ h O()tlll g frolll a 1II00IIIg

bHC nnd frolU n t urret ; firi ng from th e nir nt ground object's, nt' wings. ap l.oilltecl ni'h~' offi~ r~ or C~II~m i s, ion~d ::.n~l l i~'11
tow Inrgds nnd nl olher plulI cs wilh n gUll cnlll crn . Aflcl' ~ lInllcry tenant s, )0 111 I-roop orflcr IlIlItS for Imloms:'IS te.lm m~ llIbc.:rs,
school Ixuubardier and nav iga tor tra illces scparnt c nnd eneh tukes Rndl1f Observer, Night Fightcr- Aviution nd ets wl t,lI 1-op<".
n IIPCC,lllCd ad va nced course. cin l qllftlir.cntions who nrc climillul cd from Ri ght. lrui llll.'g (or
nOM IlAIlO IJlR S It OO L- ::O weeks' course: Following gunnery sc hool, reasons wh ich do not c1 bql1ulify 111 ('111 h om fur ther {l lrt'l ew
bOlllhardier Imin ees spe nd 1::0 hours i ll A'I'. \ I tmini ng plnn cs on dllties tHC eligible to Imill fl S rnd rH obs rvcrs, ni ·ht fi ghly r.
pratlicc ho mhing rllns and 7 18 h ours in gro und school. T he Inli er Becallse th eir work rcqllir S a th orOllgh kll o wl('~l g .of n ~lIll g
cO II ~iS I ~ of: nnvignlion , 96 hours; bombinG, 388 ho ms; lInvigllH olI
tCc1111iqIlC, !'II CY rnllst Il nvc had III' I co ~ t 50 honrs fiylllS III li t.' .
lind bonhi ng nnd relnted tmini ng (code, meteorology, nir lind
sen recogniti on ). 13.1 ho urs. AI I'he co nclusion of Ihe co urse Th ey firsl' toke n 6 wcd.s· SUlinery COHfSC, followed hy 9
trainees nrc [(wa rded bom bardier's sih'cr wings, nppoint cd flight weeks' radar opCl'fltions. Twini1lg is cl c~ i gn cd to cnnl?I ' them
offi cers or commiss ioned 2nd lieute nant s, find sellt on 10 unit 10 Oy wit h 0 pilot in fI l ·sca t ·d niglll' lighl cr il ild direct tllc
tra in ing. pilot to ellemy aircraft by mell llS of mdar. Rnd rll' ObSC IVCl'S
NAVICATO" SC IIOO L-10 weeks' course: Fo llowing gunn ery sch ool II rc appo int cl Oight of!l ccrs or ,C~ lIlln h,lI i on c;~1 lnd l iclll C ll :l~1I 11
navigatcr Imi nces spelld 10'1 hours ill the nir o n I>rncticni nflvi$fI ' lind lroeced to o pcra t lOnul tTn llllll ~ Will i night r. ghl cr 1I1lIt ~,
lion prohlems, nnd 781 hOllrs in g round sc hool. Th e IIIIt er III. Aircrcw, E nlisted ]\lIen- Ali cnh:-.lcd III llib rs of un :'111'
eludes : pilot:lge, 8 hours; instrum ent s, 8) homs; cl end reck o ning, crew ar ilcrinl gllnnC I:s~ onl y th e career ~lIl1n ,r. howe"er: i..
54 h OlliS; melio, 8 hOllrs; celeslinl Ilnvigl\lio ll , $'l hours; met'cor·
ex lllsivcly n gllnlll:r. 111 ", oll1(:rs :Irc tmllH..'d III n I 'chnlcn l
o logy, 47 hours; code find r ecognitiOIl , 9 hours cac h o Upon co m.
pleting th e co urse, train eesfi re aWfl rded nnvigll lor's win gs, np. sp cio lty bcfor ' Ih 'Y be ome gHllnc.;rs,
pointed Aig ht officers or cOHl missioned l nd lielll ennnts, nnd tid· ~~~
va llced to unit twillin g, ...,,--..
nOMnARD If'M, ·NAVICATOM, SC II OO I.- t l weeks ' CO\lrse: Ench 1I1 0 1lih n
specified number of gra dl1ntc nnvig:lt ors ( 180 llIonthl y On Murch
! , 1944) receive fulf bombardier's tmining, excluding nnv ign lion
III which th ey nrc :drend), profi cient. BomlxlI'Clier.nnvigator tm in.
IIIg provides th e doubly twined officers needed for n ' 29S lind for
AI '"he clld of th e b:tsic lruining P 'ri o I. 111 n cI~ (hc n to I
t rain as cu re r gunn ers fIrc eli 'iblc to cnt'er th e 6 we k~' gun
lend pl:1I1cs in mcdi um bomber missi on s.
ncry school. (For Olltlin of gunnery coursc, sec page 101i
G lider Pilols- AAF enli sted men belween th e ages of 18 uncler Na vigator unci B Olllb:nd ier:) Airplnnc n.nll orc r.gtlll1~ tr
::Ind 26 who hnve had 115 hours flyi ng lim e eith er in :l glider train ccs 1'lIke n 10 wccks' COllrse 111 1'11 ' op rn hon tlnd rnnlll
or power aircrnft nrc eligible for glider pilot '"raini ng, (Q uotas t CU:lUCC of nirpl:lnc nrm amcnt. Airplullc lllCCh:llli ~gllnn l'r
arc nl prese nt fill ed.) Th e 6 month s' course is as foll ows: tT:linccs '":IKC 27 weeks' tmining in ni rpln n in ~pcc li olt ulld
Fi rst 1 monlhs nrc el evo ted to gro und trninin g. Trainees llI nin tcn:ln c. Radio opcru lor !O cchani ·gullllcr tminces gl'l
take cOllll1l:l llcio type tm inin g in pe rson nl olllba t :md 10 weeks of combat r w rncli o opcl'll lioli :lnd r(")lair, AI the
weapo ns During the next m o ntll tllC': Y learn glider repair and cOllcl usion of th 'ir techn ical '"mini ng, spceinlisl SUIllicr Imi n-
Hlaintcnancc. The fourth I!lontll th ey Oy powered aircrnf l'; ces go 10 gunne ry scho 1.
th en spend a month i C:l l'llin g 1'0 fl y gliders nnd stucl r,i ng
meteorology, na viga tioll .1I1e1 selected nC;ldcll1ic silbie IS. I'he T E I1 N ICAL, ADMINISTRATIVE AND SE RV I :II
final 111 0,11h is devoted to ndv:l1Iccc! glider fl ying, I'Ile trai nees TRAI N IN .: Officers nud Officer Truin 's
beco ming profi cient in the tn clicai lIses of gliders, \Vhcn nd~ A....~ AIl"-tl NHn""T I V I~ Olo'''' I C I~ " S AN!) l nAI to: IOC 11 00 I ..... I 6 weeks ' ('O 'II ~(' :
v;tlleed tmining is o\'er, th ey arc (Iwn rd ccl sil ver glider pilot's 1" rOIlI Ih e nlnks of cn l i.~ l cd 1I1CI1 , both ill Ihi ~ ('0 \11111 )' nlld ()\(' I M" .I ',

come qualified ca ndidates for th is school, commonly ca lled DeS. C ommunica tions (rad io, telegra ph , teleph one, rad ar): .6
~J11e course is div ided into two 8 week pcrioru . For the fi rst 8 weeks co urses ran ging from 4 to 44 weeks; airplan c repai r and ma in-
all candida tes study the req uisites for ad ministration of AAF uni t'! : tenan ce : 15 co urses, 5 to 29 weeks; arm am en t and equ ip-
c1'lssifica tion , mil itary d iscipline, sanitation , squadron duties, voice m ent : 5 courses, 8 to 2 3 weeKs; wea th er : 2 cou rses of 11 and
and com mand, arms and marlc.sman.ship, first aid, protection 33 weeks; photogr:1phy: 5 co urses, 2 to 16 weeks; aviation en-
agailUl chem ical attack, gua rd duty. cam ouA agc, and m aps and gi neers: 8 courses, 4 to 12 weeks; motor tran sport: 4 courses,
chart!. At th e end of 8 weeks ca ndida tes arc assigned to special ized
t raining in th e type of administration for wh ich they arc best
5 to 1 0 weeks; Lin k Train er: 4 courses, 8 to 12 weeks; mis-
(Iua lified : ad jutant, personnel, intelligence, mess management, ccllanco us: 7 courses, 3 to 9 weeks.
physical train ing. sta tistical, supply, or train ing. D uring the last There arc no sch ools, as such, for th e training of AA F en-
8 weeks 1 0 days are spen t in field training. Upon gradua t ion all l isted med ical personn e1. E nlisted men qu alifi ed for med ical
ca nd ida tes 3rc comm issioned l Oci lieutenants. wo rk arc placed in AA F hospitals, train under supervision on
AVIA.TION CADETS. CROUND-~nl CSe arc selected enlisted men or offi cers th e job, arc award ed technicians' ratings wh en th ey achieve
with special educa t ional qualifications. Before th ey begin cadet proficiency.
tra in ing;. they generally have spent several mont hs in th e service.
at the very least 8 weeks of has ic tra ining. After a 12 weeks ' spc·
cial basic trai nin ~ course, they proceed to specialized t(:chnical
course!, after wh ich they afC com m issioned 2n d lieu tenants. Ca-
dets altend one of the following schools: Ph otogra phic labo ra-
tory Com manders School,. 16 weeks; Com munica tions O ffi cefs
School, 18 weeks; Armamen t O ffi cers School, 19 weeks; Engineer-
ing Officers School, 20 weeks; Weather O fficers School, 33 weeks; UNIT AND CREW
Radar Officers School (3 types), 38, 42 , nd 48 weeks.
RESIDENT CRADUATE TRAININC I' ROCRAM- MedicaJ offi cers who enter TIle second part o~ AAF tra,i ning-unit ~nd crew trai ning
the service directly from t heir fi nal yea r at medical school or from - is devo ted to maklll g coordlllatcd , effecti ve teams out ot
internship, work for the first 6 months under t he supervision of ex- sol d ier~spcci ali sts-tea m s within ai rpl anes, teams of airplanes,
pcrienaxJ medical o fficers in an AAIf hospital, T h is half yea r's tea ms of airp lan es and gro und personnel, teams of groun d
tra in ing supplies th e practica l experience nCCCS5.1ry to fulfill the
du ties of m ed ica l officers .
personnel al one.
Immedi ately after Pea rl lIarbor th ere was a pressing need
NUI.SE'l TlA ININC PROCRAM-30 days' Cou rsc . Upon ass ignmen t to the for compl ete n ew units: figh ter, bombard ment, t ransport, re-
AAF, r.ur~cs arc given a course in m ilit<l ry orga nil..a tion , 5.1nitation ,
food inspection and hospi tal proced ures, After completing the co nn aissa nce, troop ca rri cr. These ul1its were supplied by th e
Wurse, they report for duty at AAF hosp itab, operati onal unit train ing (OTU ) program. Sim ultan eously,
Mo P ENC J N'EE~ I NC SC IIOOL-3 months ' course, At W right Field , O h io,
a replacement un it training (RTU ) progra m was initiated to
t he ~ate ncJ. Command Rives a et;>u rse ill . aeron au tical engin eering prov ide replacements for overseas ai rcrews wh ich had been
for pilon WIth degrees . nle CUrric ulu m 1<; designed to make stu- lost in battle or return ed home for reassignment. By th e end
denn more valuable for Materiel Com m<l nd d uties. of 1943 most of th e auth orized new uni ts h ad been foml ed .
Stepped-up air acti on increased th e dem and for repraccmen b,
E nl isted Men- TII C preparation of enlisted men for ground and RTU becam e a larger progra m th an OTU .
(h~ty is th e AA I~'s la rge.5t single training job; 314 sepa rate T oday, except for B~ 29 units and a few oth ers, all ai r unit
skdls are taught \0 80 different types of courses. A d iges t of and crew training is RTU. Because th e low casualty rate
th e courses is listed below: am ong AAr ground perso nn el obviates th e n eed for an ex·
tcn ~i\'c replacement train ing progra m , the training of ground
at least 300 hours 4-cngin c fl ying tim e from stnrF nnd i1l
units. which have no fl yin g personnel o r airp lanes, is nlmost
strtlc to r positions at £ -17 or n ~ 2 4 tra1lsition schools or fra il I
entirely OTU,
4-cngine co rnb~l t groups. opi lo ts nrc new grncluntes of "'
Following is an outlin e of unit and crew training divid ed
engin e trn nsition scllOols. O th er mcmbers of th c B-':9 nir
into the 2 main classifications of ::lic units and ground units.
c rew arc 2. bornbnrclier navigators, nn acria l cngin cering offi-
AIR UNIT TRAINING cer,. a radi o opem toNn cchfi ll ic and gunn ers. The aircrcw:-. arc
jOined by technical, Adm inistra tive :mcl suppl y pe rsonnel who
Bombardment: Medium, H eavy and Very H eavy- Tn the h ave had t.'{ pericnce in th e gro und echelons of 4-clISl nc
days when medium and heavy bombardm ent OTU was fUll c- gro ups. Twining timc for th e whole 13-2.9 \1n it is 4 m o nth s.
ti oning. units were formed by brea king off cadres or skeleton
units from groups within th e 4 domestic air forces and sup- Fig hter, Fighter-Bomber and Night fig htcr- Fig hll:r and
plemen ting this c.xpericnced nucleus with new graduntcs of fighter-bomber RTU trnining resembl es b n1bard1ll cnt RTU
fl yi ng and techni cal schools. G ro und and fl ying personnel except for th ese 2. differences: li rs t. becal1 se all nirernft in
were trained togeth er, and the unit wa s cal)nblc of ad mini s- th ese catego ri es arc single-scaters, only pilo ts nrc tmill cd; sec-
tering, feeding, clo th ing and ho using itsc1 . The unit went ond , trainin g is m easllred in hours as well as m onth s (:1 pilot
overseas after 90 days of trainin g. mll st .get nt lca~ t 60 l~ ol1fs' , n y in ~ exp ric nec). T hi s level. how-
Under th e present RTU sys tem , fl ying personn el ( pilo ts, ever, IS eo nstnntly h ems r:1 lseel. fh e prescn t goal is 1 20 hOl1rs.
na vigators, bombardie rs, gunn ers) report to gro ups with in Alth o ugh fighters ha ve been IIscd advan tageously as fi ght 'r-
the 4 do mes tic air forces. T hey arc train ed by instructor b ombers, th eir primary role is nir lighting. Training. th cre-
crews, nlany of th em with combat experience. Administration fore, mu st accompli sh 2 thin gs: teach a pilot to pos ition h is
and mai ntenance work are don e by a ground ech elon which aircraft properly, and to aim and lire hi s g"IlS aeclIrfitcly.
is a regu lar pa rt of the group. Trainees undergo a 9o-day The fighter and fighter-bomber OTU progra m is abo llt
course, d ivided into 3 ove rl appi ng phases: First, the train ees cO.m ple.tc, but I~ ight fightcr OT U is sti!1 a~~ acti ve pro~r.1m .
in crease th eir proficiency in indi vidu al skills, lea rn to work as N ight fig,h tcr nlrcrcws take a 4 mo nl"ll s 0 ru cOllfse. rh ey I
a tea m, and become fam il iar with equipm ent and techniqu es. fly 2-cl~,glll e P-70S o,r P-61S a~ld specialize in n igh t opem·
Second. formation fl ying is stressed. F inally, train ees move to h ons. 1 he crew consIsts of a pil o t ,w el fi n observer (sec IXlgc
a training area which approximates a battle zone, fl y long 274) wh o :11so do ubl es as a gunn er. rews nre taught to seck
form ntio n bombing mi ss ions by da y and night, lea rn to live, out :mcl attack enem y planes. Th e groun d complem ent: of n
wo rk an d fight und er cOlli bat conditi ons. , ni ght fi.gh te ~ un.it jo ins th e unit halfway through th e cO llrse
When there is tim e between the date an aircrcw completes and tmm s With It fO,r th e Ii l1al 2 month s, N igh t li ghter RTLI s
its training and the date it is to report at an overseas base, - alrcrcw onl y-tr~llII 5 mo nth s.
th e crtw will often train with a ta ctical air division . Tactical Reconnaissan ce- Two ty pes of grol1ps, p ho to rceonn ni ~a l1 cc
air divisions ope rate in conjunctio n with Anny Ground and tncti cal rcconnnissa nec, arc tra in ed :
Forces in !nancuver area s, act as fl yin g pa rtn ers to the ground PIIO'I'O·RECONNAISSANCF.- Pilots wilh :I~ lClIst 40 hours' fl ying tim e:' ill
troops in war games. Fighter units also train when th ey ca n :I 1'·)8 toke an 8 weeks' co ursc. Thcy fly an F·S (eom·crt ed. \111
with tacti cal air di visions; whenever it can be arranged, fighters nrn~ cd P.· )8), practice high nltitHdc flying, lcarn the ttX'i1niQHc of
and bombers fl y together in jo j,nt training exercises. t:lk111g :nr photos and become proficicnt in evnsive nctioll. nu\
The sole remainin g bo mbardment OTU- th e format ion pl ct'e B' :! 4 crews nlso r(:ccive 8 weeks' training. III nn F. .., (COli
of 8 -2.9 ( very heavy) Supcrfortrcss units -rec ruits pilots with verted ~ ' l4) they \e:lm phol'o mappin g. In photo.ll\flppiug tlt t·
pl:lne (li es over the are:1 to be pltotogrn phed until pictures nrc

made of every sq uare foot of it. Then the pictures are mounted in CLASS ONE-S111<111, singlc-cnginc t ra incrs; CLASS 'l'WO- 2·cn-
a nnsn ic to provide a photog raphic map . gine advanced tra iners and small 2-engincd cargo pJancs; C LASS
TA CTI CAL RE CO NNAISSANCE-Here, photograph y is secondary; the THREE-heavy 2-engi ne ca rgo planes; C LA SS FOUR-2-cngine
main job is observation. Pilots with at leas t 60 hours' experience in fightcrs and mcdium bombers; CLASS FlvE- hcavy bom bers and
iI P' ?1 train for 6 wc~ks in an F-6 (converted P·S l ). 111ey-fl y at 4-engine cargo aircraft. Upon attaining the ratin g of C lass
m ~d:um. and low al titudes, become experts , in recognition and
onerl tah~n, learn to detect camouflage and how to adjust long-
Five pilot, th e ATe pilot ca n fl y any plan~ in th e AAF.
range arh~lery fire and naval gunfire. They use cameras chiefl y for From the day h e sta rts his train ing with ATC as C lass One
confirmatlo':l of, wlmt they have seell, but their primary task is to pilot, he is a stud ent, constantl y learni ng by working at his
seck out obJectlVcs on the ground. . job. He becomes steadily more proficien t through prog ressive
transition from C lass O ne to C lass Fivc, from th e lightcs t to
Combat Camera Crews-Crews of officers and enlisted men th e h eaviest type aircraft. Every Right h e makes is a t ra ining
~vith photographi c and moti on picture experience, are train ed
Right. In addition to on-th e-job training in th e air, intensive
In a 10 weeks' course. l11cy learn by taking newsreel and stilI
ground school courses in aircraft engi necring, instrum ents,
picturc:s of simulated combat action and arc assigned as cam. naviga tion and meteorology arc completed . All pilots must go
era units with overseas air forces.
th rough this entire sequence, th e length of tim e requ ircd de·
~roop Carrier .Units-Troop carrier' training is now almost pending on the ability of th e pilot to adva nce, availability of
entirely RTU . PIJo.ts mar.ked for troop carrier are graduates aircraft and Hying conditions. Pilots are trained individually
of a~v.anced . 2~eng~ne flymg schools. After taking 30 da ys ' for single-engine dom es tic flyi ng but crews are train ed as
tran~ltlon .tramIng 111 C47S, they are sent to train in a troop units for bombers and multi-engine transports. Th ese crews,
ca rner UnIt. At the e~d of 2 ~onths. th~y are joined by th eir incl ud ing pilots, copilots, naviga tors, radio opera tors and
crew m embers-:-copllot~ engmeer, rad~o operator and, in Hight cngincers; train as units for several weeks in a special-
some cases, navigator. Wh en the new crew is ready to fly as ized sch ool.
a tea m, it begins to practice dropping small units of airhorne In addition to flight personnel, ATC trains ground per-
~round fo:ces .stationed. at .adjoinin~ ~cld s. 111is troop.carry. sonnel in sllch field s as traffi c, travel and insuran ce, loading,
mg opera.tl? " Increases III size as trammg progresses. A glider flight control, wcather foreDlsting. engi neerin g, co mmunica-
e1em e~t lOl11s the crews and the troop ca rrier teams lea rn to ti ons, personnel, administration, supply and mess.
tow glIders. Working as a unit, in airplanes and gliders th ey
arc taught . th~ s'pe~ialized techniques they will empl~y in G ROUND UNIT TRAINING
c?l11bat- aIr dl sclpl1l1c, low altitude Hying, all-wea ther opera- . The training of ground units (units contai ning no Hying
b ons, wcal?ons, communications, nav iga tion, glider and para- personnel and no aircraft) is llsuall y a 2-phasc process. First.
troo~ lan~mgs? supply. by air, air evacuation (sec page 19 6 ) techni cal school gra duates report to a training base opcra ted
and IdentIfica tIOn of aIr and ground objects. W11 en the crews by a dom es ti c gro llnd group. Und er th e direc ti on of th e
have complcted training (5 months for pilots, 3 for oth er crew pa ren t group th e indi\'iduals arc formed into squad rons (no t
ll1em ben), th ey are assigned to troop ca rrier units overseas:-'" groups, as is th e ease with com hat units) and t rai n as Sti ch
Air Transport Units- Since th e planes flown by the Air during the first phase. [n the second phase the squ:1drons arc
Transp~rt Comm ~md range from bantamweight primary train- sent to domesti c bnscs whe re th ey lenrn to coo rdin ate th eir
~rs ~o giant .4 -engl11.c cargo planes, the ATC training program particular functi ons with th e wo rk of oth e r typ es of squadron s.
~s d ' v~rsc. Pilots Hymg for ATC arc classified into 5 categories Tllis is call cd co mbin ed trainin g. Followi ng is a table of
Identified by the type of planes flown, as follows: prin cipal types of ground units trained and length of trai n ing:
.... TYPE OF uN"lf- ' ~ ' ~_""_ ' _' _ _ ' _' _r _'_"
Unit COIllbined .

Airborne engineer aviation bat- Rehabilitates C:lptured airfields. COI l s trllc t ~ advance
talion airb.lses II 0
Airdrome sq uadron . special Uperates advance & auxiliary airbases 9 4
Aircraft warning unit Radar detection of fri endly and enenw aircraft 6 4
Airways detachment Maintenance of transient aircraft . 13 0
Aviation squadron Housekeeping; general labor fun ctions 9 4
Chemical company, air opera- Loads airplane spray tanks with liquid smoke. chem-
tions icals; operates chemical warehouses I5 6
Chemical depot company Stores & issues chemical ammunition & equipment 10 4
Chemical maintenance company Repairs & s.llvages chemical warfare equipment 10 4
Depot repair squadron ~ fa jar aircraft repairs 8 16
Depot supply squadron Supply for major repairs 8 16
Engineer a\'iation battalion Constructs, Illaintains, defends airbases II 0
Engineer aviation camouflage Supervises camouflage activities II 0
Engineer aviation fire fighting Fire fighting & crash crew service 6 0
Engineer depot company Operates engineer supply depot II.. 0
Engineer topographic company Prepares charts, maps, photomosaics II 0
Engineer utilities detachment Provides & mnintnins water & electric fa cilities II 0
Fighter control unit Directs aircmft by mdio·telephone; furnishes naviga-
tional aids 6 0
Headquarters squadron, service Administ ration , transportation of service group 8 16
Medical dispens.1T}', aviation Functions as dispensary 8 0


Unit Combined
~fedica l sections, service or de- Performs medical duties for service or depot groups 8 16
pot group
Medical supply platoon Stores, issues medical supplies 6 0
~Iilitary police company Guards inst.. llations, cond ucts crimin .. l im-estiga'
tioll s 10 0,
· Ordnance ammunition COIll - Stores, issues & maintain s :1I111uunition 16 8
pan y
·Ordnance maintenance com· Repairs, main tains ordnance mnterieJ 16 8
pany ,
Q uartermaster eomp..lny. service Stores & issues general supplies 8 8
Quartermaster service company Forms generaI.labor pool 5 8
Quartermaster truck company Transports troops, ammunition , equipment 8 8
Sen'ice squadron Aircraft maintenance & repair 8 16
Signal company Procures, installs, operates commllnications facilities 12 5
Signal company ~ epot Installs. does major repairs on radio & radar com-
munications 12 14
Signal construction battalion Constructs heavy wire installntions, strings cables 8 9
Signal radio interception com- Intercepts and analyzes enemy radio traffic, oper-
pany ates direction find ers 6 0
Station complement squadr~n Provides continuous operation of .. irbase 16 0
• Receive unit train ing from Army Service Forces.


The Tactical Center's t ra ining program is divided into ac~·
OVERSEAS TRAINING dem ic and pmctieal j)hases. Lectures and classes are . held 111
AAF training may be compared to assembly line produc· th e AAF Sch ool 0 Appl ied Tactics; field problem s are
tion. The parts of the machin e arc forged in the individual workcd ou t in a simulated theater of opera ti ons.
training program and assembled in the unit and crew training Cadres reporting from opera tional units take a o~ e.m onth
program . The last step is modification; makin g alterations in courSC-2 weeks of acadernic work and 2 weeks learnmg battle
c the fini shed product necessary for the particular rcquircll) cnts tactics. com muni cations, control sys tcJ?s, em ergency proce·
of each overseas th eater. :Modification is done in training cen· elures intellige nce mcthods and defenSive safeguard s.
teTs in the th eaters of opera tion s themselves. ~Ib;ny oth er courses, including some und er the Ann y·Navy
In th e British th ea ter, for exampl e, the 8th Air Force op- Staff College, are taught to oflicers from all branch es of th e
erates a combat crew replacement center to which every n ew Army Navy and tvfarines.
crew rcp:)Tts for additional tminin g before it begins combat Fo; AAF office rs, th e Ttlctical Center also condu cts several
opera tions. TIle course has 2 purposes-first, to correct any spccial short co urses: senior officers. 1 <? ~ays; .s ta~ officers, 14
flaws of individual crew members; seco nd, to indoctrinate da ys; tactical inspectors, 15 days; admllllstrattv~ I11sl~cctors, 4
every man in th e procedures and problems of th e th eater. wceks; technical inspectors, 4 weeks; c~mbat ~ntell~gencc, 8
First th e crews hear lectures which provide them with gen· week s; photo.intcrpreta~ion , 8 \~ecks; alTbase lI1t~lhgence: 4
eral infonnation about th e theater. Th ey receive instruction weeks; prisonc r of war mterrogatlon, 4 wee ks; scmor m cdl ~al
in the use and ca re of high altitude personal equipm ent, bail· officer, 6 days; staff wcather officers, 2 weeks; persona~ eqtl ~p­
ing out, prisoner of war procedure and escape techniqu es, mcnt officers (oxygen devices, electri cally h ea ted c1othmg, hfe
obsen'ation and reporting, of intelligence data , air and naval veo;;ts, etc.) 2 wecks. rvfore than ,0 other specialized courses
recognition, geography of EutOpe, and Gemla n air fighting arc oiven in th e AAF 'T actical Center,
I methods. After th e lecture session the individual crew ll1em·

I bers-pilot, bombardier, na vigator, radio operator, mechanic

and gunners-get intensive ch ecks in th eir specialties to
make sme that th ey meet the standards for combat profi.
eienc},. Faults arc corrected before th e crewman is sent to

School of Aviation Medicine- Three co urses are taught at
lil e AAF Tactical Center, headquartc red at Orlando, F la., th e School of Aviation M edicine. Randolph Field, T~x. A ?
occupies an arCil of 8000 square miles-approximately the weeks' aviation medical examiners co urse teaches AA I' m edl·
'Jize of SIcily. Here ,a threefold program is conducted: the cal officers ( men wh o wcre ph ysic i~ n s in eivili~n life) to safe-
training of cad res to form the nuclei of new units, the train· guard th e h ealth of airerews-ph yslOlogy of alti tude, effects of
ing of inGividuals in highly speciali zed duties and the testing gravity and d ccompr~sSlO.n . They a~e al so tau ght to adm l~l l ~.ter
f new ta ctics and techniques unde r combat conditions. Since
ri gid ph ysical. eXtl lTIlllatlOns to a.lrcrew members. AVla~IO!)
'ts inception in late 1942, the Tactical Ccnter at Orlando has medical examl11 crs may becom e RI ght surgeon s after a year s
um ed out more than 35,000 graduates, Illtlde about 500 expe rience, including 50 hours' Hyin g tim e, and may~ wear
ac tical te!)ts.
fl ight surgeo ns' gold wings (sec pogc 51).

A 6 weeks' aviation physiologists course trains doctors and

ph ysioJogj~ ts in research methods. TIlei! work, after ~radua~
tion. is to ascertain wh eth er new techmqucs and equipment
j sea planes. M ech ani cs take a 6 weeks' course in seaplane m ain-
tcnance. Then all flying, m edical and ground personnel spcnd
4 5 days learning to fun ction as a unit.
can safely be used within the limits of physiol~gical cnl?a~il­ Sea rescue squadrons are composed of ~F o~ce~S'. ~nd
it\". Aviation ph ysiologists also conduct the altItude tratnmg m en who have had ex tensive nautica l expenence 111 clvlha.n
program. Another 6 weeks' course trains enlisted m ed ic~!1 1ife. The training period is 24 weeks: the first 6 on the baSIC
technicians to help aviation m edical examiners in aiTerew principles of seallla ~l sh.ip and sea rescue; tl?e ~ext 1 ~ on
ph ysical examinations. instruction of cach IIldl v,d ual crew m ember III IllS partIcular
School of Air Evacuation- To teach the methods of tran s- du ty; th e final 6 on un it training ..
porting patients by air to hospitals far behind the lines, th e , Convalescent Training- The ~ed1Um. of con valescen ce has
AAF School of Air Evacuation was set up in June, 1943 , at bcen profitably relievcd in AAJ', h ospitals b~ a program of
Bowman [i'ield, Ky. In a 2 months' course, flight surgeon s, convalescent trainin g. T h e trammg program mclud~s cours~s
nurses and enlisted men learn field medical technique, care in code ch emical warfare, ca mouflage, map readlllg, calis-
of airborne patients, preparation of medical record s, camou- th enics, ' first aid, booby traps and land mines, a~rcraft id~n.ti fi­
fl age, protective measures and problems of the battle zone. cation, geo politics, weather,. arctic and . tropical m edlcllle,
AAF Staff Course- As our overseas operations expanded, a foreign languages, mathematics and ~h yS lCS.
need arose for skilled yo ung officers to ass ume staff duties in Paticnts wcll enough to leave th eIr bcds a~te~d lec tures
high er echclons-wing and above. In Ju ly 1943', an AAF Staff and training films. vVh en a patien t must rem am 111 bed, the
Course for captains, majors and, in some cases, colonels be- tra ining is brought to his bedside. Lect ures. and demonstra -
twecn the ages of 25 and 35, was establish ed. The selected tions are given in the wards; even complete aIrplane m ock-ups
officers take a 3-phase course: First, a 2 weeks' co urse at th e have been set up in hospital bays.
AAF'Tactical Center (sec page 116) to learn the duties of a Besides increasing th e soldier's kn owledge, convalescent
staff officer in a combat theater. Next, a 2 weeks' tour of sta- tT<lining has definite therapeutic advantages. It has sh ortened
ti ons to observe th e work of the ?\1ateriel Command, th e the average c'onvalesce nt period by 30 to 40 % (sc.·ulet fever
Antiaitcraft School, the Airborne Command, an amphibious conva lescence, for example, has been cut from 33 to 23 days).
force and a port of embark<ttion. Finally, 4 weeks arc spent at Hospital readmissions have dropped a full 25 % . I.n t.nany c.'lses
AAF headquarters studying personnel, intelligence, training. th e need for a conval escent furlough has been el1l11lnated, en-
operations, commitments and requirements, materiel, mainte- abling th e soldier to return m orc qui ckly to duty.
nance and distribution, and plans. Rehabilitation- Eight large con va lesce nt ~~nters have. been
Emergency Rescue Train ing- Any AAF man forced down establish ed in th e United States to reconcl1tlOll casualtlCs so
on land or sea can be sure that he wi1l be thc object of a that they ca n once more pcrfo.r~ll useful w?rk ~n. ~hc ~Ar or.
sc;u eh , A training program is dcvoted to prep:lTing special if th ey are unfit for furth er lluhtary duty, III clvll wn lIfe.
squ<lcirons for searching out and rescuing strand ed personnel. Patients sent to convalesce nt centers fro m ovcrseas h os-
'T'he pJOgram is divided into 2 parts: aircr<lft and marine, pitals are kept busy. Light calisth enics, useful work in 11l<lIlual
Members of aircraft rescue squadrons are pilots, navigators, crafts sh ops and gardenin g projects, and lectures a.nd ti cm.on-
flight surgeons, sea search radar observers, and enlisted tech - strations on milita ry subj ects arc part of th e daIly routllle.
nicians who perform lll<1intcnancc and administrative fun c- Patients who have und ergone amputations arc taught tI'~e usc
ti ons~ Pilots first repo rt to th e Navy's air training st<1 tion at of artificial limbs. By easy stages th ey m as ter th e tcehlllques,
Pensacola, Fla., where they take a 10 weeks' course in flying develop confid ence in th e11l ~clvcs and acquire a high degrce of
, profi ciency. As soon as a paticnt:s h ealth peml i ~s, he begins a TRAINING AIDS
: course of ac tual job trainin g. If It has been dC~ld cd to re~urn I
~ h im to M F duty, he is given a refresh er course In th e specialty AAF training aids are di vided into 5 classifi cati ons :
· to which h e will be assigned . If th e patient is to be honorably PUBLICATIONs-Hundreds of highly technical publications have been
I d i~charg(d, he is given guid ance:: in a skill th at will help assure printed in attractive illustrated fo rms. .. .
( h im empl oym ent in civil life. POSTERS-A staff of skilled artists prepares posters willch dchvcr Im-
portant training messages in gm l~h i c, f~rcefl~1 m a~ n cr .
: INSTRUCTORS TRAINING FII.Ms-Training films arc prod uced In conJunchon With th e AAF mo·
· Instru ctors for pilot, naviga tor, bombardier and gunnery tion pict ure un it . Comba t mov.ie:> taken by AA r overseas ca mera-
I schools are train ed at AAF centra l instructors schools. Both men are often spliced in to tnnmng films. In the .past year Ill ore
than 1 50,000, 000 feet of training film were distnbutcd to AAF
J newly commissioned officers and. aircrew members r~tllm~d
stations here and abroad.
· from comba t are taught instru ctIon method s. TIle pIlo t ~n ­ RECOCNITION DEVICES-A Rash system of aircraft recognition. has bce~l
: stru ctor course is 4 weeks, naviga tor 9 weeks and bomba rdier de,'c1oped . In the Rash method a silh ouette of, an airplane IS
• 9 weeks. Ground sch ool instructors at pilot training fields Rashed on a screen for a fra ction of a second, all owmg only eno ugh
take a 4 weeks' course in th e lates t acad emic instructi on time to pick out major identi fying feat ures. A f~er a stu?ent h:ls
i meth ods. G unn ery ccntral instructors school, the only one for learned by the Rash system. he is able to recognize any alT~a ft In
enlisted men, conducts a 4 weeks' co urse. a m inim um of time. Picture cards an d models of planes , slu ps and
Because all·wcath er operati ons require a ~o und kno\~'ledgc ground equ ipm ent are also included ~ n.der reco~ ~ i ti o n d e~ i ces. .
of instrument flying, an instrum ent central I11structors school MEc nANICAL DEVICEs-These are speclahzed tralll lOg eqlllpm ent.
Link Trainers (see page 105 ). navigation , bombing and gunnery
I was opened in ea rly '94 3. In spite 01 Hying blind th ro ugh all train ers, and all other mechanical train ing devices which are not
kinds of wea th er, stu?ents th ere flc\~ over .250,000 h ours
I d uri ng the first yea r WIth out even a Inmor aCCIdent.
act ua l operational equipment.

IFOREIGN STUDENT TRAINING Aids to training are coo rdinated and supplied th rough the
AAF Training Aids Division, loca ted in New York C ity.
In 1943 some 6500 foreign stud en ts were train ed at ap-
proxima tely 50 AA P sta ti ons in the U. S.; 2 8 00 were trai ned YOUTH TRAINING GUIDED BY TIll AAF
th e yea r before. Ea rly in th e war, about onc-thi rd of U. S.
! airfields were bt:ing used to train fo reign stud ents.
T wo civilian train ing programs. th e High School Victo~'
• Students from all pa rticipating nations cxcept th e British Corps -and th e C AP (Civil Ai r Patrol ) Cadets, are engaged '!'
tand Duteh take their traini ng, whether Hying or technic::11, preparing young men and women for future duty. In th e AA I'.
I alo.ngsid~, All1cr.i ~an trainees in regular !,-AF . t raining inst~l.
JlatJons. I he Bnhsh and Dutch usc Ml' eqlllprn cnt and au-
The AAF training organi za tion has only an ~dvlsory COlmec·
tion with both programs. M embe rs of th e Vic tory Corps are
I planes, but co ndu ct th eir ow n programs. stud ents in about 2 0,000 high sch ools who take courses
! T ra in ing of all forcign stud ents, including British and
whic11 increase th eir aptitud e for military trainin g. C rcd it is
· D l1 tch, is un der AA F supervision, wi th tra ining costs being given in th e sch ool cur riculum . AAF co urse incl udes 1.11athc-
leharged in the mai n against lend-lease. Upon completin g Ill'ltics, phYSics, phYSical tra in ing. elem entary aeronautics.
.th eir COlilses, foreign students re turn to the air forces of their C AP cadet trai ning is ~ ~ ex tracurric.ul ar progra m f? r . bo~s
low n na ti ons- except the C h i n c~e who report to tIl e C hin csc- and girls 15 to 18. In 10c.JlJb es wh ere V I?tOry C orps tram,ll1.g IS
lAm cric:l n wing atta ched to th e U. S. 14th Air Fo rce in C hina. given . a boy or girl m ust be a m em ber m order to be eligible
for C AP c:lele t training. T he cadets wear AI' nnifonns. meet


rcglll:ul y for evening classes. nrc instru ted by C P members,

RC(luirc:.l ourses nrc militnry and ph ysi al training, code, nir~
craft identificn tion. As th e stud ent prog resses, he may hegin
prefligh t train illg-c1cl1Icn tary navigation ::m d meteor logy,
first aid, principles of night. WHAT WE FIGHT WITH
The n)'in g ' .1fCly record for the last half of ' 943 IV.1' 6
fntal accide nts per l OO,OOO ho urs 0 0\\,11 , the sa me :IS th e rec-
ord for th e prewar decade 19 1- 19 40. and considerabl y less
than the ovcrn ll rotc for 1942 and 1943. T his safety recol'd
was accomplished in SI)itc of the trcrn clId ous cxpn nsioll ill
th e traiuing progrnm, t lC vast in crease in n um bers of ai rcraft
and th e in creasing mechan ical co mplexities of Ryillg.
The Ollice of I,'l)'i ng Safety ( form erly Fli gh t on trol Com-
Ill and) conducts a 5*phase flying S:1fcty program:
AC IOEN7 RBPORI'INc-AlI accident s arc reported first by rndio and
wire. 3Ild later on a standa rd question naire known as Form 14.
This information provides both nn tlp·to thc milllltc ftnd a de·
t3ilcd accou nt of the accident si tuation from which studies arc
made 10 ass ist in dctermining the nccess ity for IHc\'cnti\'c mcasures. In th e AAF we ent er in to n pnrtll crsh ip with our machin es
FIELD SM'ETY orU\TIONs-Stntist ical infonn:ltion on the nnture and and inst ru ments. It' is a losc rdntio ll!)hip, nt tilllcs condu ted
ca ll ~es of accident s i~ combin ed with the experiencc of sa fety of· vi rtunll v on a 1Il:11I·tO·1t1:l1l basis, nlld our nH:.'c hanicnl need s
ficers in the ficld . These. vetera n pilots, assist the contincnt.. l air a rc grc;it, both in quality :l1ld I1llln bers, I t takes som c 500,000
forces and the Training Comma nd in acciden t prevcntion. This scpam te items to kecp the AAF in opcrntion . nc 4< ngi nc
is accomplished through obscf\'a tioll of tmining and opcrating pro·
cedurc), resulting in corrective m ea~lIrcs :and recomlllcndations for bornbcr rC(lu ircs en o u gh alum inllrn for 55,000 coffce perco·
mod ification of :airem£! or changes in tmining policy. In tors; cnough alloy st cel to make 6800 elect ric iro ns: enough
SAl~ET Y tDUCATION- By empha sis. repetition and j" spi rahon, pilots steel for 160 w ash in g Illachines; eHo ugh rubber to rcc:! p 800
:Ind il1 s trll c tor ~ arc cncollOlgcd :lI1d assisted in obtai ning SOll11ci :Iut omobilc ti res; enough copper fo r Sso rad io receivers.
fl ying knowledge . Th e med ia for thi ~ progra m consist of training To prov ide uS with Hl c necessary airc raft und co roll ary
aids. films, posters and other educ:lliol1011 nids . c(luipm cnt, a civilian arlll Y of s 'vcntilllill io n mcn :I nd WOmen
FI.U; 1I1' cON'r ltOL- l'he fli ght control svs tem l1t ilizes nil nva il nb lc work :Iro und th e clock in mo re lhan 15.000 factories th ro ugh.
aerial nnvi~:llioll nl aids, meteorologic:"i (bta and experience, !Iud Oll t th e nation. To kccp !'h is hug' p rod uc tion whc'l tu mi ll g:.
tcchni(llIC III the di ~p:l t ching :lIId control of milita ry fligh ts. F ligllt
contro rcquiremclIt nrc determincd :l1Id night control procedures, som e 60 bi llio ns of doll ars havc hec n upprop riatcd in th '
mcthods lind practices established for t he AAF. la:-. t 1 ycnrs. Itl 19 39, a totul of 568 l'lIil ilary nil' raft was pro
1'.ljtf)ICAL S"'I~ I~ '1'Y I>lVI SloN- Openrtillg und er the medic:11 policies of dll ced in I'h e U . S. In 1940 0111' produc tion goal W~IS sct nt
the Air nrgeon. med ica l invcstign tions of nircmft rlccidel1 ts :Ire 1)0,000 pl:1 ll cs- a figure soon boost'cd 10 125,000.
Illude JpOI1 wl~ich to determinc the need for prot ective de" iccs, O ur progm m for glol>:11 nil' suprcma cy c:lll ed for planes
cmcrgcllc)' equipment and '<lfety procedures. !)lIpcri or to anyth ing trl c cll cm y ould pu t in thc nir ag'lill!)l us.
Production directives reach th e Materiel Command with
MB.lTARY AIRCRAFT PRDDUCTlOH technical instructions as to the quantity of each airplane by
type, its performance requirements and its delivery schedules.
TIle actual administration and supervision are done by 3 sec-
tions of the command: production engineering, production
control, industrial planning.
AAF procurement is administered by procurement district
offices throughout the U. S. Supervision of these districts,
(TITM WDUT If AJIfIa($III NUMOS) originally under civilian inspectors, now is conducted by
AAF officers who are also stationed at manufacturing plants.
It caned principally lor long-range bombers and fighters to Designations of Aircraft- Letters are assigned to aircraft ac-
strike deep into the enemy homeland; for land ~bascd aircraft. cording to th e mission each type is designed to perfonn; nu-
since onl¥ from land bases can aircraft carry th e great weigh t merical designations refer to particular models. TIIUS, bomb-
of explosIves necessary to produce any considerable effect on ers bear the designation "B" fo r bombardment, as t he B-17 or
strategic targets. B-25. "P" stands for pursuit, although pursuit plan es are
Along with th e war of production and combat goes the now called fighter planes (P-40, P-Sl or P-38). 111is system 01
war of experimental development, of design and research, to nomenc1ature was adoptcd in th e middle 1920'S, and th eo-
provide the planes that will be in the air tomorrow. Petically, numerical deSignations indicate th e order in which
Procurement and production of AAF aircraft, equipment designs were accepted by the AAF for certain types of aircraft.
and accessories are supervised and administered by the Ma- However, numbers are often assigned to designs which are
teriel Command, which also has the major responsibility for subsequently cancelled. Therefore the number 17 in B-17
engineering and inspection. does not necessarily identifv this model as th e 17th bomber
dcsign produced lor the AAF.
RATIO OF AIRCRAFT TYPES ACCEPTED "A" stands for attack planes (A-20, A-24 ) wh ose miSSion
is low altitude bombing, dive-bombing, or strafing. A P-; 1
1943 modified for dive-bombing is known as an A-36.
Other designations inc1ude: "c" for cargo aircraft (C-47,

fU- JUNI AUG. OCT. ole.
C-87); UC lor utility cargo ( UC-78); " F" lor ph oto-rccon-
naissa nce (F-S is th e P-38 photo-type plane ) ; " ROO lor rotary
wing aircraft; HC" for gliders ("Ce," cargo glider; ··Te."
training glider ); "0" for observation; " L" for liaison; " AT,"
"BT," "PT" for advance, basic and primary trainers; " X"
1944 indicates plane is experimcntal; "Y" is for service tes t aircraft.
Dropping of "X" and "Y" indicates p1:me is in producti on'
"z" indicates it has becn dcc1ared obsolete. '
""h en a number is followed by a letter, it mea ns th at a
productiO~1 modifi cati?n- such as a change in engine. arma-
..MI AUG. OCT. DIe. ~ent or 1l1ternal cql1l£mcnt- has becn effected on this par-
ticular type 01 plane. ne B-17G , lor example, indicates the
seventh step of modification in the production model "C"
being the series letter.
Vnltee . 0 ·49 Vigilant
Curtiss . 0·52 Owl
MILITARY AIRCRAFT Lockheed 0 · 56 (B.J4) Ve ntura
Taylorcraft 0 ·57 (L.2). Grasshopper

~1t ~ T + T ,
Aeronica .
0 ·58
0 · 59
0 ·62
(L·4 ).
(L· 5).

Boeing . B· 17 Fortress North American. AT·6 • Texan
Douglas . B· 18 Bolo Beech AT·7 Navigator
Douglas . B·23 Dragon Beech AT· IO \Vichita
Consolidated B·24 Liberator Beech AT· I I Kan san
North Americ;m. B·25 Mitchell Boeing AT· 15 Crcwmaker
Martn B·26 Marauder North American. AT-1 6 I-Ianmd
Boeing B·29 Superfortress Cessna AT· 17 Bobcat
Vega . B·34 (0· 56) Ventura Lockheed AT· 18 (A.29 ) Hudson
Douglas A·20 (p. 70) Havoc • VuJtee AT· 19 Reliant
Douglas A-24 Dauntless Fairchild . AT·2 1 Gunner
Curtiss A·25 Helldiver North American. BT·9. BT·14 Yale
Locbeed A·29 (AT. 18 ) Hudson Flcetwing BT· 12 Sophomore
Martn . A·30 Baltimore Vultee BT-I3, BT- 15 Valiant
Vultee A·31, A·35 . V engeance Steamlan I'T·I3 , PT· I 7
Brewiter . A·34 Bermuda PT-1 8, PT·27 Cadet
North American. A·36 (1'·51 ) Mustang Fairchild. PT· 19, 1'1'·23
PT-26 Cornell
FIGHTERS Ryan. PT·21 , PT- 22 Recruit
Lockheed 1'·38 Lightning
Bell P·39 Airacobra TRANSPORTS
Curtiss P-40 Warhawk Beech C·43 Traveller
Repu':>lic 1'-47 Thunderbolt Beech CA5 Exped iter
North American. 1'·5 I (A·36) Mustang Curtiss C·46 Commando
Northrop 1'·61 Black Widow Douglas C-47 Skytrain
Bell 1'·63 King Cobra Douglas C·49, C-53. Skytrooper
Douglas . P·70 (A.20) Havoc Douglas C·54 Skymaster
Lockheed C· 56, C·60 . Lodestar
Lockheed C-63 (AT. 18)
Taylo:craft L·2 (0 ·57). Grasshopper • (A-29 ) Hudson
Aeronica. L·3 (0 · 58 ) . Grasshopper Lockheed C-69 Constellation
Piper L·4 (0·59). Grasshopper Curtiss C·76 Caravan
Vultee L·5 (0·62). Sentinel Consolidnted C·S7 Liberator

Grumman OA·9 Goose
Removal 01 CamouRage- ln Deccmber '943 th e AAF or- and in the form of man h ours through voluntary payroll de-
dered the removal of camouflage pain t from almost all Its aIr- ductions. W h erever possible, the AAF makes available a
craft. It is estimated that removal of the familiar grecnish- specific plane for a dedicati on ceremony.
gray p2.in t gives AAF planes a sligh t increas~ in top speed, a The bond purchase " Buy a Born ber" plan reach ed th e
weigh t reduction in fighter types of approx Imately 15 to 20 $550,000,000 mark early in 1944. This represents more than
pounds, and in heavy bombardment types of from 70 to 80 300 0 individual planes, with requests for participation com-
pounds. The action was taken upon recomm endahons of com- ing in at th e rate of about 300 a month . Planes financed
bat commanders. Only specialized planes overseas will retain by War Bond purchases can be painted with th e nam e of the
their camouflage, and in the con t inental U. S. practically all sponsori ng community or non-comm ercial orgamzatIon.
aircraft will roll off the assembly li nes a meta l color. Quotas set for the purchase of various types of planes for
th e AAF under th ese plans arc as follows :
... _______ UtI." PLANE C ASH BON DS
8 M __ ___ _ _ $115.- T"incr $ 10.000 $ 1;,000
an _____ __ 'l1,li1.
•• ____ ___ SIII. -

1I1I _______ 1735,l1D11,1IIIO

Medium bomber
1I1I _______ II52.J14,J5I I-Ieavy bomber 250,000 300,000
1121 _______ 121,123,513 Arrangements for cash purchases arc made through the
1124-______ 112,121,lIII0 office of the Assistant Secretary of \OVar for Air. MF accept-
1121 _______ 121.&11,431
1m _______ $3I,II2,s&1 ances of War Bond financed planes are handled in coopera-
1133- ______ 125,&73)31 ti on with the U. S. Treasury D epartment.
113L ____ __ I3O,917,702 Performance and Characteristics-Aircraft characteristics,
1131 _______ 150)17,191
such as amlament instal1ations, are undergoing constant
193L ____ $62,602,127 modifica tion. In our B-25s, the bombardier and his compart-
I93L __ __ $67,308,374 ment were eliminated on some models for installation of a
193'- ____ $74,099,532 75 mm cannon and fixed .50 caliber guns. Because modifica-
1940 _____ $243,941,941 tions are constantly being made, accompanying ch art presents
1941 __ ___ $3,893,287,570 only normal equipm ent found on each aircraft type.
1942 ___ .$21,950,242,480 A plane'S performa,nee primarily is affee~ed by its, gross
194L __ $10,615,132,795 weight, speed and altitude. A bomber carrymg a maXlfllllm
bomb load of 3 tons ca nn ot fly as high as when it carries only
1944___ $23,655,998,000 onc ton of bombs. \~l hc n a fighter fl ies at h igh spced, It re-
duces its range by burning up gasoline faster , A plane has
"Buy A Bomber" Plans-The AAF has received several greater ran ge and spced at 30,000 feet, wh ere air is thin, than
thousand military airplanes through voluntary cash contrib u- at 10,000 feet where more power is expended to overcome
tions and special War Bond purchases sponsored by com- resistance of denser air, For th ese reasons. it does n ot n eces-
munities, organizations and oth er groups. sa ril y hold true !hat a bomber ca n ca,rry its m a~im um ~)omb
Under the cash plan, citizens have made outright gifts of load at its 111aXIIl1UITI speed a n d altI tudc for Its maximum
more than $3,000,000 for the purchase of planes for the range, Figures in the following cha rts nlUst be considered as
"AI". These contributions have been made both in cash presupposi ng spccific ope rational co nditions.

Wing Span Length SPEED (lbs.) CEILING

700 6000 13-.50 cal guns; 9-11 Optional; external B-17G
B-I7G l-Wright 1200hp J03'UY 74'9' 300+ 60,000 JO,OOO turrets. bomb racks.
750 6000 10 or more .50 ca.l 9-11 Cargo type: e-87,
B-24J l-P&W 1200 bp 110' 66'4' 300+ 60,000 30,000 guns; turrets. 1000 mile radius B-24J
400 2000 12-.50 cal guns; 5-6 Attack:75mmcan- B-25G
B-25G I-Wrigbtl700hp 67 '6' 53' S' 300+ 35,000+ 25,000 turrets. non; 14-.50 cal guns.
350 2000 12-.50 cal guns; 6 Provision for tor- B-26B
B-26B !-P&W 2000 bp 71' 58'2' 300+ 35,000 20,000 turrets. pedo.
Heavy armor and armament. 4-blade props. B-29
B-29 4-Wright 2200 hp 141 '3' 99' Very heavy; effective speed'
radi~ high altitude. '
250FB 2000 5 to 9.50 cal guns; 3 Night fighter P -70: A-20G
A-ZOG !-Wrightl700 hp 61'4" 48' 320+ 25,000 20,000+ 600E turrets. 4-20 mm cannon.
250FB 2000 1-20 mm cannon j 1 Photo type F-5 : P -38J
P-38J 2-Allison 1520 hp 52' 37'10" 420+ 18,000 40,000 400+E 4-.50 cal guns. belly tanks, no guns.
100E 500 1-37 mm cannon; 1 P -39Q
P-39Q I-Allison 1325 hp 34' 30' r 375 8500 35,000+ 4-.50 cal guns.
150E 1000 6-.50 cal guns. I P-40N
P-40N l-Allison 1325 bp 37'4' 33'4' 350+ 9500+ JO,OOO
250FB 1000 8-.50 cal guns. 1 P-47D
P-47D I- P&W 2000 bp 40'S' 36' 1" 420+ 13,500 40,000 350E
250:FB 1000 6-.50 cal guns. I Photo type: F-6 P-51D
P-51D I-Rolls Royce 37' 32'3' 425 10,000 40,000 600E Dive bomber: A-36
1500 hp in-line
Heavy a rmor. 3 Night fighter; twin- P-61
P-61 2-P&W radial Restricted: Long-range, effective speed tail and booms.
air cooled and rate of climb.
1-3 7 mm cannon; I Improved super- P -63
P-63 I-Allison 1500 hp Performan ce data restricted. 4-.50 cal guns. charger
in -line
800 ABBREVIATI ONS 3-4 36+ men or C-46
C-46 l -P&W 2000 hp 108' 76'4" 265 45,000 25,000+ E--escort 15,000+ Ibs. ca rgo.
radial FB-fighter-bomber
750 FLG--fixed landing gear 4 28 men or 6000 Ibs.; C-47
C-47 I-P&W 1200 hp 95' 64'6' 200+ 29,000 22 ,000 + Cant-Continental hospital,1 8Iitters.
radial Lyco--Lycomi ng
1000 P&W-Pratt and Whitney 6 36 men or 8000 Ibs. C-54A
C-MA 4-P&W 1350 hp 117'6'" 93'1()'" 250+ 60,000 20,000 + NOTE: Suffix letter after ca rgo.
radial plane denotes model on
wh ich maximum informa- 9 Pressurized cabin. C-69
C-69 <-Wright 2200 hp 123' 95'1' 300+ 90,000+ 30,000 tion cou ld be released as
radial of A2ril 15, 1944.
How a Plane Is Born-New airplanes are no t new in the
sense of being in venti ons. TIley are th e products of expcri.
mental design and engineering, constant testing and develop·
lllcnt to produce th e aircraft that will meet AAF requirem ents.
.. The AAF's aeronautical technicians decide what top speed
.~ 1 o
is required, wh at ratc of climb th e plane must have, how fa st
it may land with safety, h ow much space is required for tak-
ing off and land ing, its range, opera ti onal ceiling, and load-


300 400


1 1

--.., ...

1941 ++

including the number of crew, weight of fu el, oil, eq uipment,

bomb load and annament.
Once 3-view drawings based on established specifications
0. 0. have been prepared, a wind tunnel model is constructed. The
-" .Q
o model is subjected to high-speed flow of artificial wind pro-

duced by huge fan s, while accurate measuring equipmen t de-

ternlines efficiency of the dcsign. Next, a full-sized mock-up,
or model of th e craft, is constructed from wood and ch c~lp
materials to fa cilitate proper placement of annament and

-~ --
accessory equipment and to determin e whether or not parts
will be accessible for maintenance and repair. Final stage is
production of the first model of the experimental airp1anc.

capable of vertical flight and potentially useful in liaison, re-


connaissance and rescue work.
Whereas a conventional airplane relies on forward specd to
produce airflow over fixed wings, the helicopter flies by ro-
41511l1S--t tating a series of small wings (rotors) to induce airflow over
th eir surfaces sufficient to lift the craft into the air. Its for-
-- -t ward motion is obtained in effect by tilting the rotor disc and
its directional con trol by varying the pitch of the tail roto r.
Like a dragonfly, it can remain stationary in a hovering position
: :- - - - - - '-"-t'' '11- .1
la .m
l a _LEI
I I ..
t or fly forward or backward, or, unlike a dragonfly, sideways,
Similar in appearance, but different in operating princip1c,
is the autogiro. It differs from th e h elicopter in th at its rotor
mi la .1L£$-----------.-!-t-4,~ only provides lift as does the wing of an airplane, does not
provide forward motion . The plane obtains its forward speed
-todificatioo-Modification is the tailoring .job of the AAF from a conventional engine-propeller power plant, must main-
ch fills the gap between the time we decl~e on an altera- tain forward speed to be airbo rne. It is in capable of zero
J of a plane and the time th~ fac~ory can Incorporate the • speeds, cannot fly sideways or backward and cann ot ascend
'Ilge into production. To modlficatlO!1 centers, operated on vertically.
ttract by commercial airline co~paflles and manufacturers,/ Gliders- In towed flight, gliders are dependent fo r forward
most of oor airplanes before shlpm~nt oversea~. Here the} motion upon a powered aircraft to which they are attached
I modernized with the newest eqUipment available" by a tow-rope. In free flight th e glider maintains safe forward
~1aDes also are dressed up or stripped d~~n accordmg to motion by means of a controlled rate of descent. A free flight
:' military requirements and weather conditions. of th e the- glider can execute many of th e maneuvers don e by powered
r for which they are destined. Dust filters are Installed on aircraft and has th e added advantage of being able to land in
Ines scheduled for operation in dry co.untnes w~ 11e l~lane.s res tricted areas and on almost any type of terrain. Two types
I their way to arctic regions are winten~ed. Modlfica~lOn 15 of gliders are now in use by the AAF. One can carry 15 full y-
ltinued on operational aircraf~ by. servIce 'p~rsonncl m th e equi ppcd infantrym en or paratroopers and anothcr 30 t roops
~ters, where many modification Ide~s ~ngmate . wi th th eir h eavy equipm ent. Equi pm en t has been developcd
Obsolescence- Without our modermzatlon system, man y for pick up of gliders on th e ground by planes in flight.
our planes would become obsolete as soon as newer enemy
:uipment was developed and. befo~e similar improvement~ ENGINEERING
Iuld be made in our producbon aiTeraft, An oxygen mask
~t is reliable up to '5,000 feet is replaced by oxygen masks The airplane fund am entally is composed of 3 ma jor com-
lat are reliable as high as any of our alfplanes can fly. ponents: the ai rfram e, th e cngi nc and th e propeller (engine
eated wing de-icing developments ha,ve made our rubb~r and propeller comprise th e power plan t ) . An else on th e air-
IIOt de-icers obsolete, so changes are belllg mad e on all types plane com es under th e headi ng of accesso ries o r equipm ent.
'mremft. , Airframes- The load-carrying stru cture of an airplane-th c
i Rotary Wing Aircralt-One 01 the newes t types o f alTcraft airfram e- in clud es wings, fuselage, co ntrol surfaccs and th c
I use by the AAF is the helicopter, a rota ry wlIl g deSi gn m eta11ic or fabric skin that covers th em.

Aluminum-alloy, alclad and stainless steel arc the ~asic. ma- Plastics and impregnated plywoods have been substituted
most commonly used in airfram~. Alclad, .wlllc~ IS an for metals in some airframes. H owever, because physical prop~

erties of non -metallic materials change under radical varia-
with pure alumInum coating. IS used
skin Aluminum-alloy is used for ribs, s tructu~al tions of tempcrntuTc and humidity, plastics and simila r sub-
of wings and fuselages, cowlin ~s and longerons. Stall1- stitutes are not as reliable as metals for structural parts of
steel is used for pa rts, such as engme mounts an~ firewal1s combat aircraft.
ivh ich must withstand high tempcrature~. ~ome wmg, panels Airfoils- Technically, an airfoil is any 8at or curved surface
being huilt of stainless steel. Even wlt~m . the basIc com- designed to obtain reaction from th e air through which it
l '::l~:;l;~~:;o~;f'"the airframe th ere arc many mtncate parts and moves. The largest airfoil is the wing, which is designed to
~I details. For example, in the metal wing ~ip of a develop the major part of th e lift of an aircraft.
8. there are 14 pieces of tubing, ri.bs and sheet Skill, and The AAF today is using 2 types of airfoil cross sections:
bolts and nuts plus hundreds of nvets. conventional. and low drag or laminar Row sections. The con-
ventional airfoi l has its maximum thickness about 30 % of

a 0

0 II
"",,·WIN' BlPlANI




il • • • _ 1t1W._WI 1&. CAMIRA NOSI F·5 MODII
l __
.. t.=rr ClWAlTMm It 'WO WAY lAD" II. DROP TUI

the distance from th e leadi ng edgc of the wing Th I . lower stalling speed. The drag eflects are beneficial t.o a cer-
flow airfoil seer h . . e am m ar tain extent in slowing down the aircraft. The popular Fowler
. Jon as Its max imum thickness 40 to 60 Of
f rom the leadmg edge. 10 flap protrudes beyond the trailing edge of th e wing and hence
C onventional types are I .. increases total wing area. Other types fit into th e underside
"f d . ess sensitive to surface irregular-
lies, an ca~ be ~ore caslly produced. For extremcJ hi h. of the wing. Dive Haps, or dive brakes, applica ble on figh ters
speed and hIgh altitude performance, th e laminar Ho: airfoil and dive bombers, slow down th e airplane in its dive to gi ve
IS bemgth,dopted beca use It IS designcd for higher speeds with th e pilot more time to sight th e target accura tely, permit a
a sm oo er flow of ai r over the wing steeper dive angle and a slower pul1-out. Ma neuver fl aps may
Pressurized C . .
th . . abm~Operatjon in the substra tosphere where be lIsed as auxiliary control surfaces which facili ta te th e mak-
f e ~xygen IS lJ~sufficlCn.t to sustain life has led to development ing of sharper turns by high-speed aircra ft . Flaps are operated
o e . pressun~ed cabIn on some AAF combat aircraft A from th e cock pit.
press~nz.ed ~bm enables ai rm en to mOve about freel jn 'th e Landing G ea r- Landin g gea r, or underca rriage, is the air-
pt ane s mtenor, b reathing nonnal air at high altl d . 't • plane's means of mobili ty when it is on th e ground . In th e
C Im matcs th e need fo r individ ual oxygen supply. u es, 1 air, landing gear generally is retracted into th e plane's engine
cnr here
are z meth ods of pressurizing. One is an indepcnd- nacelles or wings to help stream line the aircraft, alth ough a

~;:[:~~~ ~f\~~~~ !;~:d~~ 1~~~:g ~I~i~ac~o~;:~~s~

fixcd type is found on liaison and trainer type planes.
the T he AAF utilizes 2 general types of landing gear on its
~ucts to th e cabm Itself; such air is of sufficient density a~d planes: conven tional gcar with tail-wheel or ski d, and th e
em pera ture to allow norm al breathing The . . I . tri cycle gear wi th a wheel extended from th e nose of th e fuse-
m~~h the same. as a hot air blower system'. The o~h:rc~P s~e IS lage. T he latter permits easier opera ti on on small fields by
utd;ze; :e engme supercharger to d ivert back into th e ~ab: eliminatin g the ground looping tend ency comm on to con-
par.O ~ e compress~~ ai r supplied to the cngine. " cntional type gears; however, on rough fields th e nose wheel
JetDlsper~ed guthn poslt~ons, crew locations a nd danger of bul- of th e t ricycle gear is more susceptible to dam age .
. pu~ctu res at m l~ht render it inoperati ve, make Retractable t ypes operate e1cctrically or h ydraulicall y.
sunza tlOn of combat aupJancs difficult. prcs- Som e gea rs retract outward and sideways into wing wells as
I every aircraft has a system of landing fl on th e B-24; others rctract inwa rd into wing wells as on the
3re . owered from. th e trai ling edge of th e wing a~~ P~ 39 ; some pull up into engine nacelles as on th e B~ 1 7.
to mCrease tile hft coellicient of thewmg ' P
and t IlllS TireS-Airplane tires wear out rap idly beca use of high land-
ing and takeoff speeds and incrcased weigh ts of modern air-
cmft. In wartime th e problem is doubl y serious because our
LANDING FLAPS comba t aircmft often land on cru shcd rock, co ral, dirt or
metal run ways. ~1any reinforcing layers of rubber, synthetic
and natural, and cotton or rayon arc rcquired to withstand
th e impact of 3o-ton bombers landing on rough strips at
~~~;r..'W~ITI~H'OUT rups speeds ove r 1 00 mi les pcr hour. Sizcs of ti res ra nge from tiny
ones that suppo rt the tails of trainin g gliders and light air-
planes to hu gc 8·foot ti res on th e B"9 "Bying laboratory."
E ngines- Before th e airplane crill Ry it must have a source
SPIU .[EDED rOR RUN 1110 SlOP of power- the engine. \ Vithout power, th e airfram e is little

nition, carburetion and supercharging. Additional fins on the

cy1inders have helped solve the cooling problem on radial
engines; installation of special dampcrs and other devices has
eliminated some vibrations; new fuel injec ti on systems and
new lubricating oils have eliminated other problems. Con-
tinual progress in solution of th ese problems has made high
horsepower engines possible without increasing th e pound-per-
horsepower ratio.
Jet Propulsion- Perhaps th e greatest development in aero-
nautical engineering of th e last decade is the jet propelled
airplane, th e most interesting feature of which is elimination
of the propcller. The principle of jet propulsion overcomes
some of the speed limitations of the propeller-driven airplane.
\Ve can reasonably expect the jet engine to add 1 00 miles
more than a ~lid er. Speed, altitude, performance and th e or mOre an hour to th e speed of airplanes.
amount of weIght that ca n be sustain ed in Hi ht de end In its practical application jet propulsion may be defined
upon the ho~sepower and number of engin es insralled. P • as any kind of reaction motor which develops forward thrust
Most e!1g1I1~ development today is concentrated by th e rearward emission of a jet of air, gas or liquid. In the
types: radial all-cooled and in-line liquid-cooled. Whil~ntll~ AAF jet propelled fighter, now in production, the engine is
quite simple. It is a gas turbine, and the gases it creates, after
larged frontal d . of rad Ial engines tends to dest roy an 1'd ea I
. area driving a turbo-compressor, are discharged through a re-
aero ynanuc eS,lg n, new radial engin es have a red uced
fr?"tal area ~nd Improved cowlings which compare favorabl stricted tail pipe nozzle, thus giving the engine its thrust.
WIth The engine is a modification of a British design; it presents
. deSign
M the bl of m-line engines of cOIn parable
< (
h orsepowerY
few new problems to the pilot other than how to fly a sim-
. alor pro ems that must be solved in aircraft engine d e~
SIgnS are devc10pment of ,more horsepower for a iven dis- pler airplane.
pJacem.ent, and m?re effiCIent and economical con~um bon Takeoff Rockets- Rockets may be utilized to assist take-
of fuel, mOre specific problems are cooling, high altitude ig- offs, are slung under th e fu selage or wings of a fighter or
bomber aircraft with conventional engine-propeller power
plant. Ignited by th e pilot from the cockpit, the rocket adds
forward thrust to th e horsepower pull of the engines, thus
permitting shorter takeoff runs with maximum loads.
Superchargers-Engines, like people, must have oxygen to
breathe at high altitudes; engines need oxygen to mix with
gasoline to obtain a combustible mixture in their cylinders.
The oxygen mask for the aircraft engine is the supercharger,
of which the AAF has 2 types: the turbo-supercharger and
th e geared supercharger. Both compress rarefied air to a den-
sity equal to air at sea level: both function at altitudes up to
43,000 feet.
Below is shown adaptation of fuels to type of aircraft:




Primary Train ers


80-octane or aJl-purpose motor ve-

hicle fuel
73-octane aircraft engine fuel
_--- CIWII(I Adv~lIced Train ers 87 to 97-octa ne
AJI Tactical T ypes 100/ 130 Performance Number
Self-sealing Gasoline Tanks--To help prevent igniting of
"l[ gasol ine tanks by enemy gunfi re, our aircraft engineers have
,,,,.m developed a gasoline tank which, wh ile not bulletproof, less-
ens danger of explosion and prevents loss of large amounts
of fuel through bullet h oles. This was accomplish ed by insert-
ing a series of linings of rubber and other materials in th e
tank. The linings are ca pable of sealing instantly multiple
TURBD -SUP[RtHARG[R punctures made by bursts from both light and heavy machine
gun fire and flak. This developm ent has saved co untl ess air-
The turbo-supercharger is operated by th e force of engine m en and aircraft.
,ex haust g3SCS upon a turbine wheel and impcl1 er or air com- Droppable Fuel Tanks--The range of fighter planes, once
g>ressor. The gases pass through the turbine wheel, spinning hampcred by limited fuel supply, has been increased sub-
it; the wheel rotates th e impeller which compresses the rarc- stantially by th e use of droppable auxilia ry fu el tanks attached
fied air. The air is then fed back into th e engine in sufficient bencath wings and fuselages. Streamlined to th e shape of a
~ uantitics to support combustion when mixed with gasoline. tea rd rop, th ese droppable tan ks enable fighter planes like the
The geared supercharger, as its name implies, is driven by P-47 and P-51 to fly long bomber escort missions. Once th e
!3 series of gea rs in train which turn its impeller, compressing fi ghter plane has used up its auxilia ry fuel suppl y, th e tanks
Ithe air ard at th e saIne ,time feeding it into the cylinders. are released by th e pilot, enabling th e plane to fight off en-
Aviation Fuels-Except for th ose airplanes which have em y attacks and return to its base on th e fuel supply in its
~ow-hor)cpower engines. aircraft must be serviced with a spe- wi ng tanks. Capacity varies from 150 gallons to 300 ga llons.
leial fuel (high octane ) and not the type of motor fucl used Some fighters carry 2 auxiliary tanks under th e wings and one
in au tomobiles. The use of an inferior anti-knock value fuel tank und er th e belly of th e fuselage.
in tactical aircraft wou ld resu lt in overheating, detonation Propellers-The power plant of any airplane is more than
nd pre-ignition which wo uld burn holes in pistons and cause just th e engine. Jt is the combination of engi ne and propeller.
ther damage. The engine is the source of power for the propcller. The
Octane rating is an arbitrary scale ad opted to indica te th c propeller tran sforms thnt energy into thru st by boring itself
omparative performance relative to th e fuel's resistan ce to th rough th e air and pulling th e airpla ne af ter it.
ctolla tion. This scale runs from zcro to 1 00 octa nc. Fuc1s Today th e AAF has propellers whi ch ran ge from small
~aving ratings above 100 arc rated on a different scale desig. wooden 2-bladed propellers less tllan 6 feet in diam eter to
rated as the Performance Number Scale. Ninety-five per cen t gia nt 4-bbded all-metal propellers 2 0 feet in diam eter. M ost
f the ga~oline uscd in U. S. combat planes today exceeds comln on in use today is the 3-bhlded propeller although 4-
he 100 oc tane number in anti-knock va lues. bbded props are becoming increasingly conventional.

maintain constant engine speed. The pT(?pelle~ revo lutions per

minute may be adjusted by the pilot dUl1ng R,gh~ . There. are. 2
types: one employing oil prcss ll1e Jrom the e.ngm~ lubnca tmg
system , the other having a selt-contall1ed hydraulIc UnIt .
The electric constant speed propelJer operates much the sa me . as
the hydraulically-controlled propeller ~ut the power lor changmg
the pitch is provided by a small e1cctnc motor on the front of the
propeller hub, which is c<:>ntrolled by a constant speed governor ad-
justable from the cockpit.
Feathering- The hydrauli c and electric constant spe~d pro-
VARIABU PITCH PROPELLER pcllers llsed on multi-en~inc a i ~pla n e~ are full~feath ermg .. A
full-feathering propcllcr IS onc m which ~le pItch changm g
I Pitch-Propeller blades are so constructed and operated that m echanism can turn th e blades to approximately a 90-degree
! they may be turned at varying degrees, to take larger or smaller angle of pitch relative tothe leading edge of th e wing, th ereby
} b~tes o~ aIr. ~creby Increasing or decreasing forward thrust. presenting a knife edge m th e dIrection of flight. ~h e a~v?n­
I Smce au densIty varies with altitude, it is desirable to vary the tages are twofold: it pre."ent~ th ~ propeller from wlTI~mllh~ g
I angle of the prop blade to maintain a constant degree of and causing excessive VibratIOn lTI. th c event of eng~n ~ fml -
I thrust. The angle at which the blade is set is called pitch. ure and. with m otion stoppcd, It presents th e minimum
A comparatively new experiment with propellers is the use amount of drag, whereas a turning propcllcr would crea te
I of reversible pitch control which enables the pilot to reverse
considerable resistance.
, completely the pitch of the blades, thereby creating nega-
tive thrust which acts as a brake to the forward movement of
: an airpl~De. Th.c re~ersible pitch ,propener is useful in slowing 1 2 3
down, aircraft In flight. decreasmg th e landing run after a
I plane 5 w~cc1s ha~c touc~ed the ground and supplementing
the flaps In reducing landing speed of large airplanes.
Propellers also are classified according to the followino
operating principles : b
1The fixed pitch propeJJer, as its name implies, has a fixed pitch E lectrical Systems--Elcctrical systems provid ~ P?wer f?r
: that is !tatiollary at all times. more than 1 00 pieces of equipm ent and ac~cssone.s III an alf-
'The ~1Ou~d adjustable propcJJer has detachable blades, the pitch of plane. These include. vari ous type~ of radiO e9Ulpmen t, all
. w/ll~h 15 c~anged. whllc tIlC planc is on the ground and the propel- kind s of lighting eqmpment, pracb~a.lly every 1?lece of arm a-
ler IS not In mohon. - ment; heatcrs, motors and other auxlhary esscntIals. .
The two-po~itio.n hydra~Jjc prop~ller has. a mechanism operated by Motors are llsed for many purposes: th e largest on cs 11ft
I a hydrauliC ~ISto~ wlHch permits tIl e pilot to control pitch during
I fa.keoO u~~ In flIght at eltlwr a predetermined low pitch or lligh landin g gcar and turn gun turrets; ~l e. smallest operate gyro-
pitch pos.hon. The low pitch position is used for takeoff and thc scopic instruments. Bc h~cen th esc limIts, m otors are llsed for
high pitcll for normal flight operations. starting engines, opcratmg .b omb bay doo~s and cowl. 8<1.1)5,
. The hydraulic .constant s~ed propeller is con ttolled in Right by a rem ote positioning of eqmpm ent, opcratI on of ventIlatmg
I governol whIch automatically changes the pitc1J of th e propellcr to fans and oth er functions_
A normal installation provides for onc generator on each SJ "
i ,.........-

engine with a rating of 6 kilowatts ( I Y3 horsepower): The

units on 100 heavy bombers generate enough electnclty to RmBlt
~ I~
/ 7-
( -
_~ .
r ',.
care fOi the requirements of a community of 1200 people.
The electrical systems of large plancs require approximately AXED ." -
6 miles of electrical wiring.
During the last 5 years, as aircraft demands on the e1ec~
trical system have increased, generators have been reduced
from" weight of 43 pounds per kilowatt to 4 pounds per
Hydmulic Systems-Hydraulic systems wind like intricate
pipe-lines throughout the aircraft, supply the extra forces
which easily and smoothly motivate the airplane's flaps, en~ FLEXIBLE GUNS are those which are installed on movable moun ts
gine cowl flaps, dive brakes, landing gear mechanisms, bomb which emJble the gun to be fired in various direct ions and to fol·
bay doors and turrets. It would b~ vir~uany impossil:1e to p.cr- low a moving target. They may be either hand-held or turret·
fonn these operations manually In fhght due to wmd resls~­ operated .
ance. For operation of the system, heavy ~etro1cum~~ase 011 .50 CALIBER MACHINE GUN-The .50 caliber gun , capable of fir ing at
a rate of more than 800 rounds per minute, weighs only 65 poun ds.
is stored in a reservoir. When the h ydrauhc system IS actu- Its projectile leaves the muzzle at a speed of over 2900 feet per
ated by the pilot, Huid pressure is built up in a hydraulic second and is capable of penetrating any and all parts of an air-
pump, then released into the proper pipe-lines; the flippin g plane including the engine. The small size and light weight of t he
of a switch or handle operates a series of diaphragms to raise complete round (shell ) permit more than 1000 rounds per gun
or lower the flaps, landing gear, etc. to be carried in some planes. Th is gun is mounted in the fuselage
or in the wings, or both, of most of our fighters. All flexib le guns ,
both han d·held and power turret mounted , in AAF bombard ment
airplanes are at present .50 caliber.
CUNSIGHTS-In the last war the ordinary ring and bead sight, comm on
to the hunter, was standard for all aircraft guns. Now the ring and
bead sight is used only on hand-held gUlls. Reflector type and
ARMAMENT comput ing type gunsights in our turrets and fighter aircra ft elimi-
Today's warplane is virtually a Hying gun platform. OUf nate the need for lining lip th e gunner's eye, front and rear sights,
P-47S• with eight . 50 caliber guns, ca n firc in salvo at th e rate and the target; the sight itself actually projects a sigh t reticle
image on a tran sparent reflector plate which, at infin ity, moves
of 6000 rounds per minute, creating 96,000 pounds of impact with the gunner's eye. Thus, alth ough the gunn er's head may be
pressure. A Hight of 13 P-47S has 3 times th e striking poweJ in continual movement in rough air, the sight lin e and target will
of a machine gun unit in a Gennan infantry regiment while remain together. New computing sights have been developed and
a formation of 13 bombers. with 75 mm ca nnon, carries twice placed in prod uction for use in all gun positions.
the firepower of the same rcgimcnt's howitzers. AIKCRAFT ROCKETs- Investigat ions and experim entation with aircraft
FIXED CUNS are those mounted in rigid position, generally fi red by rockets arc being conducted to produce new rocket projectors
remote control and set to fire in one direction in respect to the and projectiles not only as offensive weapons but for defensive
airplane. \Vith a fi xed gun the airplane itself is aimed at the target, action as well.
as in single.scat fighters.
141 109

ward under th e cockpit through the tunnel formerly used by the

bombardier in reaching his nose position; the muzzle emerges
from a concave port on the left side of the nose. The complete
rOllnd fired by this cann on weighs 2 0 pOllnds. Each projectile is
26 inches long and weighs 15 pounds. Just above the breech of
the gun is a sh ell rack holding abo ut 2 0 shells. The rapidit}' of
fire depends on th e loading technique of the ca nn oneer USlIflll y
the navigator. Th e cann on has an eff ective range of about 2000
yards but ca n toss a pro jectile several miles.
Th e 37 mm c..1 nnon, alt hough not a rapid-fire we."1pon, does fire
its shells from clips of 5 in much the same manner as an automatic
.. BAll TUlRET
pistol. A new magazin e employs a h orse-collar cl ip that can feed
30 shells into the gun. T he 2 types of 37 mm cann on in use today
are the M -4 and M -9 guns. Both hurl the same size projectile,
TURRETS-Because the high velocity of air that flows over an air- which weighs littlc marc than onc po und, but t he M ·9 has in -
plane's surfaces in Hight makes it difficult to turn guns into the creased veloci ty over th e M -4. Both have a penetrating force th at
airstream by hand, booster motors 3rc lIsed to h elp move and aim will cut through armor plate the thickness of th eir diameter. It is
Acxible gun s in aircraft. Most effective method of solving the used on the 1'-39. Smallest cannon in AA F fi gh ting plan es is the
problem has been th e developm ent of h ydraulic and electrically 20 mm rapid fi re gUll which uses a projectile 3 times the size and
operatce gun turrets. weight of the .50 caliber. T his ca nnon has a muzzle velocity of
The turret is an independ ent unit . It has: a seat; hand controls about 2800 feet per second and the projectile can pen etrate an
that tum it in azimuth and eleva tion and fire the gun s; oxygen and inch of armor plate. T he P-38 is equipped with a 2 0 mm cannOIl.
interphone communication equipment; heating units for elec-
trically heated Hying suits, gunsights, ammunition belts and con- Ammunition- Th ree types of ammunition are used in 111a·
tainers; its own armor protection; a plexi-glass dom e or enclosure chine guns: arm or picrcing, incendiary and tracer. T hey arc
to provide maximum visibility for the gunner. Other than remote
controlled turrets which at present are limited in use, there arc 6
uscd in variolls .combinations on gun belts, th e most common
basic ty?CS of turrets on AAF bombers : nose turrets, chin turrets, being 2 each of incendiary and armor piercing to one tracer.
ball turrets, tail turrets, upper turrets and training types. T racer ammun ition contai ns a chemical composition that
.EMOTE CONTROLLED TURRETs-Certain new turret installation s in - burns from the rear forward . giving the illusion of a stream
corpor.de remote control mechanisms that enable the guns to be of fire. TIl ey arc used in observing the direction of fire, for
6red electrically from sighting st1tions apart from the turrets incend iary purposes, in signalling and for th e psychological
themselves. ( By taking the gunner out of the turret , size and effect upon th e enem y.
weight of the turrets can be reduced .) Such installations permit Incend iary amm un ition has the primary pu rpose of start·
cleancr acrodynamic features resulting in increased speed and ing fi res. T he charge is designed fo r conAagration ra th er than
r AERIAL CANNON-A 75 mOl cannon now is standard armament on
pcnetrati on.
some models of the B-25 and AAF armament experts are experi- Armor Protection- Protcction aga inst gu nfire in airpla nes
menting with the installation of still larger millimeter guns. The is provided by steel armor plate, aluminu m-alloy deAector
75 mm gun is mounted in the forw<lfd fu selage and nose of the pia te, bullet resistant glass and splash shields (guards bolted
8 -15 . It is a standard M-4 cannon with a specially constructed along th e edge of armor platc). The use of ea(;h depcnds
spring that absorbs the recoil shocK. The breech of the gun is upon how mueh of th e plane structure the bullet must pass
located behind and below the pilot's seat. The barrel extends for- thro ugh before it hits the protective material, the angle at

which it hits the material, and the necessary requirements as used th e construction of th e target determin ing which is
to vision and movement. empioyed. Frequently high explosive. b?mbs are released
upon a target first, followed b~ lOcendI,anes; th en, more ex-
plosives. The result is th at Rammg debrIS and sparks are ~cat·
tered through out th e devastation caused by th e exploSIves.
Today we arc using many types of specialized bombs: Biggest of th e bombs we are usi ng today are k~own as
. incendiary. fragmentation , annar piercing, semi-annor piere- block busters. These gia nts weigh 4 000 poun ds apIece and
. ing, general purpose, light case blast and chemical. Approxi- are made with a ligh t metal casing; 77.4 % of thClf total
: mate weIghts of some of these bomb types 3fC: weight is a high explo~ive com~osl bon. The :z.ooo-pound
TYfE 80MB WEIGHT bomb has about 56 % hIgh explosIve content and the 1000-
Incendiary 2, 4& 100 Ib,. pound bomb, whose metal. components weigh about 435
Fragmentation 20 & 260 Ib,. po unds, carries a high explosIve charge of about 530 pounds.
Anti-personnel 4 Ib,.
General Purpose 100, 250, 500, 1000, 2000 & 4000 lb•. EXPLOSIVE TRAIN OF GENERAL PURPOSE (DEMOLITION) BOMBS


PRIMER initiatinl flash
usually 1/10 $econd
first hiah order detonatioll
buitds up detanation to hilber oreer
compiete detonation
1.11. _II. .n....
General purpose hom bs are designed for destruction or Des tructive force bombs varies with the size and high
demolition, the effect being produced chiefly by the violence explosive content. A l oo-pound bomb with an instantaneo us
10.£ the dctona tlOn ~ alth ough fragments may ca use addi- fuze, when dropped from a given altitude on sandy. so il~ will
bonal damage, particularly when the detonation occurs above blast a crater approximately 2 fee t deep, and 9 feet III ~lm~le­
gro~nd . Arm~r piercing and semi-armor piercing bombs are ter, displaci ng about 40 cubic fce~ of dirt. A bomb welghll1g
designed to pierce th e deck arm or of battleships, heavy con. a full ton will blast a hole approxImately 7 feet deep and 20
cretc structures, and similar highly resistant targets. feet in diameter, displacing about 1300 cubic feet of dirt.
Incendiary bombs range in size from 2 to 500 lbs. Small On the other hand, a delayed action bomb will c~use greater
types generall y are rel eased in an aim able duster th at dis. destruction. For instan ce, a 10o-pound bomb With delayed
perM.:s after leaving th e aircraft. Va rious chemical fillin gs are action fuze in sandy soil will make a crater 5 feet deep and

I 20 feet 1Il diameter, di splacing approximately 800 cubic feet

of dirt. A 2ooo-pounder will di splace more than 1600 cubic
feet, resulting in a crater approximately 17 feet in depth and
50 feet in diameter at the surface.
Bomb Racks and Release Mechanism-Internal bomb racks
are designed to carry all sizes of bombs in use except the 4000
1 pounders which are carried on special external racks. Made of
f steel alloys, bomb racks are part of the airplane structure,
: sometimes serve as reinforcements in the plane's fuselage.
1be number of bombs that can be carried on a rack de-
, pends upon the diameter and length of the bomb itself.
I That is, more l oo-pound bombs can be carried than 500-
pounders because the lighter bomb is smaller in diameter;
consequently more of these can he placed one above the
t other in bomb racks.
· Shackles hold the bombs in the racks. Inside the bomber
I the shackle and th e bomb release mechanism are like a nut
and bolt. One is of little use without the oth er; normally
! bombs are hooked onto the shackle in 2. places. The small
hooks, operated electrically or manually, will support several
I thousand pounds and, with the proper pressure, will allow the
bomb to drop. On a mission the release is operated elec·
I trically. Hand mechanisms are for emergency only. Bomb
bay doors are controlled by electricity on B-! 7S and by hy-
draulic systems on other planes. ] n both instances th ey are
· operated by a switch in the bom bardier's compartment. ]t is
mechanically impossible for a bomb to drop from its shackle
wh en th e doors are in closed position, thus safeguarding the
airplane. This safety m easure is made possible by a tiny
J switch which completes the circuit on the bomb release only
when the doors are in open position .
No bom b is considered ali ve when it is inside th e bomber.
I A special anning device arms the bomb fuzes only when th ey
• are free of th e plane. Generally spe.1 king. as th e bomb fall s,
1 a propeller, whirled by the air, unscrews itself to arm the
fuze. Upon impact of th e bomb, fu zed inst.1ntaneol1sly, the
powder train of th e fu ze detonates the explosive charge. A
time fu ze in th e bomb ca n dela y its detonati on for an y desired
t length of tim e. (CHAPTER CONTINUED ON PAGE 110)









NOSE WHEEL C- 87 (cargo version of 8-24)



lfi ...
~ ....
• ~


u.. '"
.& ID •











14 . PDl equip. gen c~' linder 43 . Fuel tank
00C~) mellt indicator.
15 . Bomb doors
29 & 30. Mani·
44. Fluoresce nt
open. fold pressure, light control.
® CDQ)0 CD ~llIiI'icm@ 16. 130 mb release. left & right en- 45. Ignition mas-
®®® f81?9\®®~:1@:@~(.;!
\V\V 33 1 ~
17 & 18. H ydra u. gilles. ter switch.
46. Switch for
lie pressure 31 & )2. Tacllom-
®®®~ 12 13. i®@ @ wam ing lights. eter, left & fuel, la nding
@@@@ 45 1 111 ~IJ§ _I @® f8 U'g J 9. Vacuum warn- right engines. gear, etc.
ing light. 33. Flap position 47. Auto pilot turn
2 0 . Volt meter. indica tor. control.
47 21 . Hydrau lic
pressure emer-
34 & 35. Fuel
pressure, left &
48. T urbo-super-
charger regu-
gency system. rigl1t engines. lators.
22 . Hydraulic pres· 36 & 37. Oil pres· 49. Lock for mIx·
sllre system. sure, Jeft & ture controls
J & 3. Carbu- 7. Marker bea- 23. Vacuum rigllt engines. and super-
retor air tem- Call. ga uge. 38 & 39. Oil tern- charger.
pcr<lturegauges. B. Mtirneter. 24 . Air speed perature, left & 50. Mixture con·
2 . A<:<:elerometer. 9. Air speed in· ~O llrce control. right engines. troIs.
4 . Radio compass dicator. 25 & 27. Pilot's& 40 & 41. CyJill- 5J. Lock lor
indicator. JO . Tnrn & bank. copilot's oxy- deT head tem · throttles.
; . Turn indicator. I J . Hate of cli mb . gen flow indi- perature, Jeft & 52 & ;3 . Th rot
6. Artificial hori· 12 & 1 3. Prop ca tor. rigllt engines. tIes.
zon or Right {cather, left & 26 & 28. PiIot's& 42 . "rce air tem- 54. Ca rburetor cur
illdica tor. right engines. copilot's oxy- perat ure. cleaner.
Instruments-Airmen depend upon instruments to get 11 B-25 Mitchel1 bomber contains approximately 12 8 in-
them off the grou nd, to keep them in the air, to keep them Ie ts- thermometcrs, docks, altimeters. etc.; th e B-1 7
st rumen
on the right course, to bomb their target and to return
h s 323 ' the P -3 8 fighter 9 0 . f
them to their base. Consequently the instruments th at go
into the modem fighting plane arc its mechanical brains,
aAuto-Pilot- The automatic pilot which enables some ou~ f
the liaison devices between man and science. Flight instru~ aircraft to maintain straight and level ~ltht, t~~ 37{ot( eisslr~f
ments, navigation instruments and engine instruments 3rc of attitude independent of manual contro y ~ )' d'
great value in ~ akjng a bom,bing run (see page 2 0 an In
equal importance to the Success of a mission. A few fund a.
mental Hight instmments are: bank and turn indicator, air
speed indicator, rate of c1imb indicator, flight indicator or
rcl~v~n~n;l:i~ P\II~~:~r~o~~g 2fl~~~~s;:
h ydraulic, usually adapted
to u 0
transpor t PI nes
pa , and ti,e electri cally controlled, usually

TIE r",1CN. mil AlWAYS
ruos 10 PIIIMI 10 IH[ TH[ OIR£ellONAI mo AlWAYS

--- --- ------ --

-- -
....... _ _


wrn~. fi r.. ....
artificial horizon, and directional gyro. They tell the pilot the
position of his airplane relative to its Own axis, the speed at AUTOPILOT SMOOIHlY RETURNS
which it is being propelled through ti,e air and its rate of SHIP TO SIRAIGHI AND LEVEl fliGHI
climb. (For illustration of instrument panel with explanatory
ley see page 1~.)
Engine instruments indude: temperature gauges, fuel mix-
ture indicators, oil gauges, coolant and press ure gauges; ad;) ted to comba t aircraft. Both contain 2 vacuum -opcrated
vacuum, fuel, manifold tachometers. p 0 es one revolving on a vertical axis, th e other on a
Navigation instruments enable Our AAF fliers to make ra~~:~n~al ~xis. Each of th ese gyroscopes has a series of ~ick-off
long-range fljghts over water and through unfavorable weather. control points which act uate im pulses that ope~lte. ~~k~~ff
lane's controls, ai1crons. elevators and rudder: lC ,P
With the aid of electronic devices, they also make possible
bombing through the overcast. are opera ted automa tically by th e changmg atlltude of
th e airplane ItSelf.
I Electronics-The unusual speed and mobility of air opera- fiber does not disintegrate with age to the extent of silk 6he,
tions have stimulated the development of electrical devices which is an animal matter. Silk chutes were limited to a usc-
r which bll within the sphere of e1ectronics_ Such devices are ful life of 7 years; nylon chutes apparently last indefinitely.
Into one nylon chute goes enough material to make 1 00
I used to obtain and transmit information needed to put com-
i bat aircraft in the right place at th e right time; they are play- pairs of ladies' hose; 4 times that much goes into the nylon
i ing an increasingly important part in combat operations and shroud line, that hang down from the fold s and support the
strategic planning. harness, which is made of a tough cotton ~n yl on fabric.
These devices are of 2 types: the 6rst includes radio as The parachute used in mos t crew positions is th e flexible
we have always known it; the second includes new locating back type. It confomlS to · th e shape of th e back, t1lCrcby
devices which are considered among the outstanding techni- allowing complete freedom of movement. The pack is thin1
cal achievements of the present war. has a minimum of metal ribs to hold its shape. It enables
Science is making great strides in giving eyes to aircraft crewmen to climb about in th e small confines of bombers and
operating in darkness and above the overcast. 111cse eyes are gives th e fighter pilot more freedom and comfort.
needcd for navigation, for 6nding and hitting the target and Some crew positions, such as ' th e ball turret on bombers,
often for landing. arc too small for th e wearin g of any parachute. Such cr ew~
The airplane, depending on the type, may have such elec- men use th e quick~a ttach able chute which rolls up in a small
tronic equipment as command radio set (relatively short- pack and is snappcd onto D-shaped ri ngs that are a part
range ) ; liaison radio set (short and long-range ); radio com- of the harness worn on the chest. These harn esses are worn
pass: electronic altimeter; devices for precision and autom atic at all times, and th e ch ute is stored nea r th e escape hatch way.
navigation; devices for locating the target; identification de- The seat type parach ute folds into a small pack and is
vices to determine wheth er detected aircraft 3rc friendly or harn essed aro und shoulders and th ighs; it also serves as a
hostile; devices for detecting enemy transmissions; devices for sea t cushion.
interfering with enemy transmissions; electronic gear to be Aerial Delivery Para chutes- Cargo parachutes, varying in
droppe<l or parachuted for special operations. diameter from small 2Y2-foot chutes for dropping messages,
Fire Extinguishers-Fire extinguishers are standard pre cal1~ to giant 48-foot chutes capable of dropping 30oo-poqnd
tionary equipment on all aircraft because of fire ha za rds from loads, are bei ng used by the AAF to supply ground troops
inftamrnable gasoline and incendiary bullets. The 2 types are wi th eq uipm ent and materi el. A 12-foot chute is one of th e
hand-held and built-in extinguishers. Hand-held extinguishers latest types used for dropping sea-rescue kits.
are located where the danger of fire is greatest in a plane. The gia nt 4 8~foo t ch utes, th e AAF's largest, are util ized for
Built-in systems are used in various parts of planes but espe- droppi ng iron matting for emergency ru nways, land-m ines,
cially in engine nacelles. The engine fire extinguisher system dem olition equipment, mortars and heavy war vehicles.
consists of high pressure cylinders containing carbon di oxide. Parachutes used fo r aerial delivery are made of rayon or
These ~ystem s are controlled from the pilot's or naviga tor's cotton, depending upon the weigh t of the equipment to be
l compartment, and operated by ca ble controls or electricity. d ropped. Variously colored canopies are used, each color
Parachutes-Three types of personnel parachutes are com- representin g a specific item of equipment or supply, to enable
mon : seat type, back type, and chest or quick attachable type. ground troops to identify parach utes when they land .
In anticipation of war in th e Pacific, th e AAF substituted Oxygen Equipment- In addition to oxygen masks and regu~
, nylon for silk in parachutes before war with Japan had cut lators (see page 244 ), th e storage of oxygen in cyli nders has
off our supplies from the Far East. Beca use it is plastic, nylon undergone a major change. Early ty pes of cylinders were

made of heavy sted to withstand the high press ure of 2000 the Materiel Command, looks like a gigantic conglomerate
pounds per square Inch. When It was discovered that such of surrcalist Hollywood movie sets: huge caterpmar-like wind
cylinders would explode with the force and effect of a small tunnels, arched hangars that dwarf the B-19, a runway that
shrapnd bomb upon being struck by bullets or Oak, new leads from the level field almost to the top of
hght-wught low-pressure cylinders were developed and a 200 foot hill, a gaping tren ch excava ted from
s~.ndardized i,n all of our ai!craft. The change-over also fa. the hillside as the practice firing range for ex-
clhtated refillmg of the cyhnders from conventional com- perimental aircraft and a maze of weirdly
mercial storage cylinders. shaped steel and concrete structures wh ere
Aerial Photography Equipment-Two of the most com- propcllers are whirled until th ey shatter and engines roar day
monly used high altitude cameras are the K-3B and the and night.
K-IB. Both are electncally operated. The K-3B has 24- in ch If the equipment at the field were put into action at one
lenses With 3 focal lengths; the K-IB is larger and takes a time, airplanes would swoop down over th e field and pick
9 by I B mch photograph. A telephoto camera is the K- 1 5 up motorless gliders, and win gless helicopters would hang in
type; l~proved versIOns of tillS cam,era are goi~g into usc. mid -air; captured Gennan and Japanese aircraft would ente r
1!te T 3A , and T-S cameras are speCIal map-makmg cameras a traffic pattern filled with heavy bombers and tiny £Odio-
With multiple lenses capable of photographing hundreds of controlled target planes; multi -colored parachutes would fl oat
square mIles m one photograph. One. camera of this type is down with dummies hangin g from them .
equipped to record on. one fil.m the time of day, date, serial In the Materiel Command laboratori es at the field are
number of the negative, aJbt1!d,e, speed, vertical angle of th ousands of activities : a civilian behind th e control room
ca~era and oth~r data pertammg to the mission which panel of the world's largest high-speed wind tunnel plavs
might be of help m working out tactical maneuvers. with 40o-mile-an-hour tornadoes; frost-<::overed men, bundled
~lgh -5peed continuous-strip cameras are installed in fast- up like Eskimos, sit in test chambers th at simulate the thin
8Ylng planes for low sweeps; these cameras have wide-open air and 50·below-zero temperatures of 40,000 feet altitllde;
lenses, the speed of shutter and plane being synchronized. volunteers sweat under intense arti ficial heat rays while floa t-
They have been used at low altitudes at speeds above 4 0 0 ing in a small rubber raft on th e sti rred-up wa ters of an ind oor
miles per hour on moving objects such as tanks cars and salt water pool; a woodcraftsman carefu ll y puts the fini shing
oth~r vehicles: One picture taken from 3 50 fe~t head-on touches on a delicate model of a secret plane; thousands of
~am st a ~ovmg, automobile on, a hi~hway was so clear that pounds of lead are piled on th e wings of a sleek-looking
e gas, rabon sbcker on the wmd shleld was plainly visible. combat aircraft until ribs and spars crumple and snap; a tech·
Spec ..1 stereoscopic processes enable photographs to be nician adju sts the fine interna l mechanism of a bombsight
rea~ ~n such a manner that experts Can tell the height of a with a wa tchmaker's ca re; a 75 mm cannon blasts a warning
bUlldmg or the depth of a trench. note to th e enemy.
Wright Field- Frequently referred to as the technical nerve Test Pilots- D espite years of expe rt gro und and paper eng i-
center of the MF, Wright Field is the home of the largest neering, only th e test pilot ca n prove wheth er the engin eerin g
aeronautical , researcl~ center, in th e world , Seven miles east of th eories behind th e airplane design are ri ght or wrong;
~ayton, OhIO, the mstallatlon was built in 19 26 and named wheth er an airplane wi1l or will no t fl y successfully. Bo th th e
In ~on?r of the J:>ioneering W righ t brothers who had Hown manufacturers and the AAF depend greatly on test pilots.
then kites, ~nd ghdcrs over thi s same plot of ground . One of th e most difficult assignments for test pilo ts is
To a VIsitor, the 7000 acre in sta1Jati on, headquartcrs of fl yin g radically different plane types duri ng a single day's
~utine. A B-29 with 8800 horsepower requires a completely
J1~erent fiymg techniq~~ than a sensitive P-51 Mustang or
light 95-horsepower 113lSon plane. Test pilots of the AAF
IY any and every type of airplane. including captured Messer-
~hmltts. Junkers. Focke-Wulfs and Zeros.
: Test pilots. are. r~sp~nsible for obtaining accurate perform- HOW WE KEEP 'EM FLYING
nce data which IS mdlSpensable to the development of mili-
~ry "aircraft and equipment. Since their findings must be as
ehable as engineering fonnu]ae, it is essential that th eir
-aining and their methods be standardized.
: Before each flight test. special project officers and engineers
cescribe the exact speed, altitude and maneuvers to be
~ecuted. Reliability of the test depends on the ability of
Ie test pilot to Oy precIsely accordmg to instructions-not
,. S miJes ,10 hour when the instructions say 355. not at
~,ooo feet when directions call for 26,500.
i Proving Ground- New combat equipment developed and
I>o~atory-tested at Wright Field must be proved for combat. ,
·ovmg IS the lob of the Provmg Ground Command, which
~ts the battle fitness of new equipment and ascertains the
lost efficient ways to use it.
i Main base of the Proving Ground Command is Eglin
.cld, Fla. Covering 600 square miles in the northwestern
The very virtues of our weapon-speed, mobility and range
- also present certain difficulties. Since th e airplane cann ot
~tion of the state. Eglin Field includes 9 airfields. scores of take along sufficient reserve supplies and cann ot adequately
Ireh?uses, laboratories, barracks, vaults, shops, hangars, live off the land, its continuing effectiveness depends upon
!mbmg and gunnery ranges. Under jurisdiction of the an uninterrupted fl ow of supplies to its base. M any of these
Fmand is the cold weather testing station at Ladd Field. supplies-fuel , ammunition, spare parts-are requi red i ~ vast
SlS~~ whe:e equipment 15 proved under frigid temperature quantities and are highly specialized. They m ust be sh ipped
ndltions. principally by surface tra nsportabon to Uni ts that are often
Proving .at Eglin Field answers 2 ques tions about equip- more th an h alfway around the world.
nt: Is It fit for combat use? What's the best way to Logrnties-whieh means g.ettin g w~ a t w~ need, \~I~ere .we
: It? F~tness for c?mbat is determined by a series of rigorous need it when we need it- IS a consideratIOn of cn h cal 1m·
Its w~lch are deSIgned to foresee, as mueh as possible, the portanc'e in all aerial stra tegy. Although a bomber and its
enCles of com~at. The best methods of using equipment crew ca n be fl own fro m th e U . S. to any th eater of opera tions
found by practical demonstrations. in the wo rl d in a few h ours, th e grou nd crews and supplies
necessary to keep the bomber in operation require weeks or
even mon ths to reach the th eater by surface transport. For
this reason, the plannin g of supply and transport must be
ca rried on mon ths in advance of major air operations, and
an error in calculations or a failure in the supply system may special supplies such as bombs. The Army Transportation
cost a cam paign . Corps, a part of th e ASF, is respon sible for Army land and
In one way or another almost every man in the AAF par- water transport and carries the bulk of AAF materiel to
ticipate~ in logistical function s. A combat aircrew. although
overseas destinations.
a tactical unit, must nonetheless check its own limited sup-
plies and even make minor repairs in 8ight. Similarly, ground SUPPLY
crews are concerned with supply and maintenance activities, During the ea rly months of the war the AAF supply prob-
while a large proportion of the personnel on every base de- lem was principally one of production. As production has
vote their full time to such duties. gradually come abreast of requirements, except for certain
The commands whi ch arc principally respon sible for AAF critical items, the suprly-d istribution problem has multiplied
supply, transport and maintenance are: many times. Most 0 our supplies are now sent overseas.
Supply levels must be maintained in each theater~nough
). AIR SERVICE COMMAND (ASC) is the stockroom and garage of
for anticipated n eeds plus a reserve, but not so much in any
the MF. Operating within the continental U. S., it receives an one theater as to handica p oth ers.
our aircraft and aircraft equipment and supplies; maintains neces-
sary' stocks upon which the using units can draw; sees to it that Types of Required Supply-Supplies required by AAF units
such itocks are in th e right place at the right time; provides for may be divided into 4 major groups. First are airplanes th em~
ov~rhaul and heavy repair work; salvages damaged or excess rna · selves. The AAF has received over 1 00,000 planes of morc
tenaJ. ASC sched ules the eq uipment and supplies which will be th an '40 different types, The supply of aircraft and their aUo-
required by units in this country and by all the overseas air forces ca tion to th e different th eaters of war are determined in the
~ th~t they may be ordered, delivered and stocked . ASC is organ- first instance by the strategic and tactical plans for the air waf.
ized mlo )) subordinate area air service commands, each operat· In tum, aircraft al1ocations detennine to a large extent the
ing in a designated area of the U. S. supply requirements lor almost aU oth er types 01 AAF supply.
2. Alit. FORCE ArR SERV ICE COMM ANDS perform within the theaters of
~he second m.ajor category inc1udes aircraft spare parts.
operations supply and maintenance functions similar to those of
the ASC within the continental U. S. While under the command mamtenance eqUIpment and certain special aviation equip.
of the air force commander, each air force air service command ment and supplies. An AAF heavy bomber consists of as
depends upon the :\SC at home for its stocks of supplies and for many as 12,000 individual parts, any of which may require
technical in s t~u ctions ~nd g~ida n ce as to maintenance. In a large replacement due to battle damage or wear. Supply require-
theater, the aIr force alT service command may be subdivided into ments demand that Air Service Command have on hand
subordinate area air service commands. and located at points around th e world where they \ViII b~
; . THE ,UR TRANSPORT COMMAND (ATe ) provides all air tr:m sport needed, 500,000 different articles, or 1 0 times the number
for tile War Department of cargo, personnel and mail -to, from of items listed in a Sears-Roebuck catalogue. Their variety is
and between theaters of operations and within the continental
infi~ite: nuts ~nd bolts., flying suits, instrum en ts, propellers,
U. S Through its ferrying d ivision it ferries plan es within the
continental U. S. and overseas. lubneants, engmes, mamtenance machinery and tools.
,. . AIR. FORCE :ROO~ CARRI ER CO.MMANDS, OR WINGS, amon g other T hi rd are th e consumable supplies required by combat
dUties, proVide aIr transportation both for air and ground per· ai rplanes: aviation fuel, bombs and other ammunition. A
sonnel and for cargo in combat areas. single squadron of 12 B -24S may expend morc than 1 6,000
In aodition, the AAF relies heavily upon th e Anny Service gallons of aviation gasoline, more than 30 tons of bom~)s on
Forces ,( ASF) , with its 7 supply services (see page 180), for a typical 5-11OUf mission. However, in modern aerial warfare,
matcnc, comnlOn to th e entire Army as well as for certain we measure our logistical requirem ents not in terms of squad-
rons but in terms of 500 and l ooo~plane missions. To equip When a unit stationed at a base requires a p~rt for a plane,
1000 hrnvy bombers for a hypothetical mission over Berlin it requisitions base supply. Base supply furnIShes the part
from Slitish bases might require as much as l'h million and, when necessary, replenishes its own stock from Its ,alI
gallons of gasoline, 3000 tons of bombs and 2 million rounds depot, or from one of the ASC spe~ialized depots whIch
of . 50 caliber ammunition. If ]000 fighter aircraft were sent maintain central stocks of certam speclahzed typ,es ~f e{U1p~
along as escort, th ey would probably require more than a ~ ment. Air depot stocks are maintained by dehvenes, rom
million gaUons of gasoline and l Y2 million rounds of ammu- manufacturers and from ASC specialized d~pots. ~onhnuous
nition . stock controls are maintained at all these mstallab ons, mak-
The 4th category of supply required by AAF units con- ing it possible at short notice to correct sh ortages that de~
sists of materials procured by the Army Service Forces, to ve10p in one area by calling on depots in another area and
fulfill the everyday needs of life such as food, clothing, blan- shipping by air. .. ..
kets, vehicles, as well as certain other special types of supply. Overseas Supply-The AIr Servlc,e Comm~nd o~ tal1ls and I S~
The major types of these supplies fall into 7 categories as sues initial equipment and supphes to umts, gomg ~verseas,
follows: and maintains supply levels in each th eater With continual re-
QUARTERMASTER-subsistence, clothing, personal equipment, general plenishments on req,uiSiti?ns from the theaters, 0x: ce suP:
supplici (beds. blankets, cooking utensils ), fuel and oil for vehicles. plies have been received 10 ,the thea,ter, how~ver, ~lrect re
ORDNANCE-bombs (other than chemica l bombs ). and other am- sponsibility for them rests With the air force air service com~
munition, weapons and general purpose motor vehicles. mand of that th eater. .
SIGNAL CORPs-communication systems (telegraph, telephone, ground The set~up for supplying combat units i,n a th eater aIr
~nd airJorne radio, radar, teletype, pigeons).
force is fundamentally comparable to dom esllc supply excep t
MEDICAL cORPs-medical supplies and equipment.
CORPS OF ENGINEER5-COnstruction equipment and supplies (graders, that th e need for mobility and flexibility is more, pronounced.
bulldozers, concrete, lumber, landing mats, brick ), sea rchlights During a tactical campaign ,wh en air combat umts may move
barrage balloons, ' rapid ly forward, supply UllIts must be prepared to leap-frog
TRANSPORTATION-rail equipment (railroad ca rs), floMin g equipment from field to field , Fixed bases with pennanent faCIlItIes are
( boats ~nd barges ) , pier equipment. found only in areas well to the rear, ,
CHEMICAL WARFARE-incendiary bombs, smoke bombs, smoke, gas . Each th eater air force includes at least one air force gen-
m~sJcs, decontamination eq uipment and supplies, eral depot which provides a w~ olesa le center for AAF tech~)i­
Domestic Supply-Near the center of each of 11 con- cal supplies as well as suppltes procured by Army Service
tinental Air Service Command areas is an air de~ Forces; it also renders h eavy mamtcnance (see page 2 0 1 ).
pot. An air depot is a large wholcsale house and Operated in connection with the air force general depot, and
warehouse, nonnal1y stocked with 2 months' also under the command of th e air force air service com~
supply of th e types of property required in its mander arc a number of branch depots wh ich store and
area, In addition it perfonns heavy aircraft main~ issue su'pplies that require s'pe~ial meth ods ?f handling and
tenance work , storage. They include an aV iatIon gas , and Oil d c~~t, an ord-
Each of the major airbases in the U. S. has a nance ammunition depot and a chenllcal ammumhon depot.
base supply organization which furnishes air supp1ies to all In addition, th e following branch ,depots, which prov~de s~l?­
units located within its jurisdicti on, Base suppl y is und er th e plies used by both grou nd and OIr forces, are. cstabllshcd If
base commander, but works closcly with the air depot in the suitable ground force dcpots are not convcmcntly located :
area. It normally carries a 30-day stock of supplies. quartermaster class I depot (for co nsumable suppli es such
of equipment. Sections may be separated from the service

center and assigned to advanced fi elds or may work as a
unit at the service center. A servi ce center may service
as many as 8 combat squadrons. Its supplies arc replenished
PORT OF OESAWliON by deliveries from the air force general depot and branch
(and blse depots) depo ts.

.6 The general pattern of overse.1S supply sys tems is adapted

to the peculiar military and geographic fcatures of each

theater. In England. service center personnel are merged with
the supply and maintcnance sections of combat units; air
AIR FORCE force general depots are not located far to th e rea r and,
GENERAL indeed, are sometimes in advance of combat units. Service
• ccnter organizations in th e Pacific have bcen adapted to th e
DEPOT island campaigns by splitting into sections for rapid move-
mcnt to advanced bases.
AAF' supply and maintenance organiza tions contain ele-
ments thoroughly familiar with the equipment and suppli es
procured by th e Arm y Service Forces. The service center
provides for supply and maintenance of materiel originally
procured by Army Service Forces for AAF use as well as AAF-
S£RVICE CENIER procured materiel. Likewise. the AAF furnishes th e rest of
,,--I - -.... - - I 8TO 8 CDMSA.T
1--0+ the Army with such aviation supplies as parachutes liaison
airplanes. aeria l del ivery containers and cargo ch;ltes. In
/ ~, ~ ................. advance areas or in th eaters in which no grou nd establish-
/" '#,.,1'$ Sltt\''' ments exi~t. the air force air service command is responsible
~ / \ ~
" " lYS
for all duties normally performed by th e Army Service Forces.
The Supply System- To the maximum possible extent, AAF
supply procedures have been standardized and Simplified . On
the basis of stud y and experience, standard tables have been
lilt: WPW flOll OfPCIts lA' n ·,ASS SOYIC( prepared sh~wing ~hat equipmen~ each man, each airplane
CEImIS AlII 10 Dll£CT TCI COMIAT SQUADlOIIS. and each umt req UIres. Consumption data is constantly ana-
lyzed so that rates of consumption may be used in predic-
as food ). quartermaster class 11 I depot (for motor fuels). ti ons of ,future requ~rem ents. Combat supply tables based
engineer depot (for construction, camouflage materials). upon esttmated req UIrements for units in combat are em-
The retailers of supplies are th e service centers which cor~ ployed in th e initial s~lpply of such units overseas. Through
respond rough ly to the continental base supply organizations. the u~e of perpetual lI1,ven~ory s¥s tems and records. supply
Service centers, located closer to th e front lines than depots, agcnclcs are ablc to mam~all1 then stocks at a safe level.
furnish supplies and provide repair servi ces for al1 types Due to ever-changi ng situations in the theaters and to
improvements in plan, design and tactics. supply tables and

procedures are under constant revision. No table, no matter and coord inated transportation by land and sea for all U. S.
:how perfect. will solve the supply problems faced regularly Army troops1 their equipment and supplies; and the AA 17,
combat areas. Unlike the ground forces whose supply through its Air Transport Command, operates the greatcst
lou)ve, forward gradually with the attacking army, air force world·wide air transportation service ever achieved.
advance in a series of jumps. Between such jumps sup- Mediums of Transport-Mediums of transport for the AA F'
operations at a base may be reduced to routine, but when and the characteristics which determine their use are essen·
new base is captured from the enemy, movement of supply tially similar to those affecting th e civilian traveler carrying
forward areas becomes a feverish activity of the highest on his norm al business. "Vhen he is in a big hurry, or in
cases where other means of transport do not exis t, he fl ies.
Off the Land- As far as possible, supply personnel 'Vh en he is traveli ng overland for a relatively short distance,
materiel available within th eir theater. Such sup- he goes by motor vehicle-automobile or truck. For long
may take the form of food, clothing, raw materials, fuel trips ovcrland 1 he travels by rail. To go across an ocean, he
even annament and other equipment. Allied countries normall y goes by ship.
which OUf troops are stationed, such as England and :Military transportation differs from civilian transportation
have provided us millions of doBars' worth of sup- principally because of its tremendous mass movements, the
facilitated by the appJication of reverse lend-lease. In grea ter urgency and speed req uired and the necessity of
and China, native labor has been trained to p roduce operating in littlc·developed areas of the world under natural
of our req uired supplies-even to airplane parts and obstacles and those imposed by the enemy. "Vater transporta·
115Se1T1 blie~ tion, though relatively slow1 is economical of manpower and
fuel 1 and essen tia l to move the bulk of our men and 111a·
teriel overseas (see table). Rail and truck are equal1v in·
dispensable for inland transportation 1 though inland water.
ways are preferable for the movement of bulky goods when
speed is not a prerequisite.

In term, of world logistics, the U. S. is an island, serarated TUR NA ROUNDS

eve£)' active war t11 ca ter by th ousa nds of miles 0 water.
effectiveness as a fighting air force has rested from th e Turnaround time is the time required to load a ship, to move it to
~~~:~~~ upon th e ability of the United Nations' transpor- destination. unlond and reload , and return to home port and unload .
~ reS<Xl£ces to ship our personn el and supplies to the com· with an allowance for normnl repa irs. A\'cmge turnaround times be·
areas. An war transportation agencies have joined together tween U. S. ports and maj or theaters, based on AAF experience,
the unprecedented development of transportation facilities are:
in their operation against all obstacles the enemy could TRA NSPORT SHI P CARGO SHIP
~r,es<'nt. The merchant marine and the shipbuilders are over
hump of early shortages and submarine losses; the AlTIeri. New York· North Africa 49 days 79 days
and British navies have overcome the threa t of the Ger· New York·Engbnd 42
.. 75

undcr·water fleet; our railroads and other commercial Snn Francisco·ll nwaii 30 39
p rriers arc satisfying th e heavies t dema nds in their history;
Army, through its Transportation Corps1 has regulated
San Francisco·Australia
West Canst, USA-Ind ia
210 .
Seattle-Alaska 30 " 45 "
mechanical equipment- and transport,ing it intact t~ another
Fastest of all mediums is air transport. The quantities locality hundreds or, th?usands of ",lIles away. ~nhkc most
I which cm be handl ed by individual airplanes are limited and other military orgam zatlOlls, many alI comba,t umts must b e
air transport is therefore reserved for movements of the high- split for movement; part of a bon~ber umt, for example,
est urgency-such as key personnel, emergency supplies and flies in its own airplanes; the remamder uses other means
equipment, rapid evacuation of the sick and wounded, and of transport.
mail. H Jwever, air transport is vital out of all proportion to A heavy bomber group consists of. about 179,0 persons and
the mocest capacities of th e ca rgo airplane. It provides access 4 8 B-1 7 S or B-24S. Its ground eqUIpment weIgh s 830 ton s
to regions where surface transportation is blocked by enemy of which approximatel y three~four~h s are trucks and oth er
control, as in Burma; by natural obstac1es, such as the I-lima- vehicles. The airplanes thcmsel~es Will tran,sp.o rt al1 crew m em~
laya moun tains; or where roads and railroads do not exist, bers and about 32 tons of eqUlpm ent. If It IS nec~ssary to. fly
as in New Guinea. By the employment of many cargo air- the remainder of the air echelon (see page 19 ) whI ch con sists
craft, 13ige quantities of supplies can be moved over mod- of 222 persons, 13 cargo airplanes n:tt1 S~ .b e p rovided for
era te distances with the grea test speed. this purpose. 'TIlis leaves about 11 00 mdlvlduals and about
790 tons of ground equipment to b e m oved b y other mea,ns.
If th e distance is not more than a few hun dred miles
and roads are available, th ese probably will travel by motor
transport. TIle group's own vehicles include more than a
dozen 2Y2 ton trucks and a large num ber of small t rucks,
trailers and special vehicles, capable of moving supplies an ?
equipment. To th ese must be added about 30 or more a~dl~
""I ..... 1 tional 2 112 ton trucks from a motor transport pool, makll1g
a total procession of over 250 vehicles. E~en th,ese will not
take care of 8 tractors ass igned to the umt, whIch must bc
sent by rail, water or special motor carriers , . '
If th e distan ce is too grea t for motor tra nsportatIOn or If
road s are not ava ilable, all of the ground ech elon 's personncl
and equipment may travel by rail. Sucl~ a movement wo uld
require a total of 173 ra ilroad cars of va n ouS types, as follows:
107 40' Hat cars
17 ;0.5' automobile cars
9 40,S' box cars
Rough, undeveloped areas call for morc prim itive means 30 sleeping ca rs (or 22 coaches)
of transport- wagons, beasts of burden, even human car- 5 baggage aus
riers. In th e Pacific islands, nati ve carriers play an important 5 kitchen cars
part in su pplying advanced and otherwise isolated units. If neith er road nor railroad is available, and if it is abso-
Moving an AAF Unit-~1oving an AAF unit from one base lutel y essential to fly th e unit, it will ~eqllire abou~ ;25 cargo
to another means picking up an entire comm unity- its in- airplane loads in addi tion to th e ca pacity of the umt sown 4 8
habitants. their personal equipment, their industries, their

mbers. (Assuming an average capacity of 6250 pounds, being successfully employed is the constru ction of light sp"'
r 27 pasrengers per cargo airplane.) Even these, however, decks several feet above the decks of oil tankers; 2 0 or m ore
",ill not take care of the unit's vehicles, which must be shipped fighters or other small p1anes can be mounted on th ese
some other manner or left behind. decks. Propellers, wing tips and certain other parts are re-
Require:nents of AAF non~ flying service units are even moved and the surface of the rest of the plane is treated to
peater than combat units since they have no assigned air- protect it from moisture. As a res ult, th e long and expensive
craft. For example, a depot supply squadron of 137 men process of disassembling, crating and reassembling the air-
uires 3" railroad cars to move entirely by rail. If it is plane is avoided, while th e fuel-ca rry ing capacity of the
I own to its destination, 44 cargo airplanes are required for
tanker is not materiall y affected , th anks to th e light weigh t
rsonnel .nd equipment other than vehicles. Approximately of the planes.
00 tons of vehicles then have to be handled in some other Procedure for Overseas Movement-For the purpose of h an-
yav. dling, directing and processing th e tremendous volume of
Moving an AAF Unit Overseas--When the training of an equipment and numbers of troops en ro ute to overseas th ea-
MF unit is completed and it is ready for com bat operations tcrs, the War Department, through its transportation corps,
m one of the theaters, it is processed for movement overseas. has es tablished 8 large installations known as ports of em-
n the case of a bOl;nbardment unit, heavy or medium, the barkation which are supplemented by a num ber of sub-ports.
hews usually By their planes over while the rest of the unit These ports, which are loca ted adj oin ing key harbors such
, shipped by boat. Alter arrival in the theater, ground and as N ew York, N ew Orleans and San Francisco, are huge
aying personnel reunite at an asJigned airbase. Fighter planes installations whi ch include staging areas for troops and large
,nd other planes having limited ranges must normally be numbers of depots and wareh ouses for storage of suppli es.
I:h ipped; air and ground echelons both go by water transport. All AAF personnel, supplies an d equipmen t not flo wn to
The volume of shlppmg reqUIred to move an AAF unit th eir destination pass through one of th ese ports en route
aepends upon whether its equipment is dismantled and th eir th ea ter destin ati on. Troops are carried by rail or truck
i:1'ated ?~ ~) ship~d uncrated , and this in tum depends upon to a staging area nea r a port of embarkation where th ey
the faCilities available at the destination. Shipments are nor- are ch ecked and inspected on all such matters as ph ysica'l
.,ally crated to save space if destin ed for an establish ed area conditi on, inoculati ons, pay. personnel records, insurance
u~h as ~ngland, where facilities for uncrating and asscm- and individual equ ipment. Onl y after it is determi ned th at
plmg equipment are ampl e. However, equipm ent bound for every man meets all Anny requirements for shipm ent does
, newly captured atoll in the Pacific is generally shipped th e port command er assign th e uni t to a specific ship.
rully assembl~ and ready for immediate operation. V ehicles, M ost equi pment sent overseas is shipped direct to th e port
r.hlch compnse the bulk of a unit's equipm ent, take up of embarkation by th e procuring service. In th e case of un its
~bout 3 times as much shippin g space un cra ted as crated . bound for the U nited Kingdom, materiel is p re-s hipped , new
me. ground equipment . of a heavy bomber group, crated ,
'equlfes betweel~ one-thud and one-haH the usable capaci ty
equipm ent b eing assign cd to units after th ey reach the th ea·
ter. Aviation equipment, parts and spares require special
.f the average liberty ship. In add iti on, the group's person- care in handling and packing. Nea r th e major ports of em-
lei, other than fl ying crews, requ ire more than haH the barka ti on th e Ai r Service C ommand opera tes in tra nsit depots,
pacity of an av~rage Army t roop t ra nsport. whi ch ca rry small stocks of AA F technical supplics and
. Because of their relatively. light weight and bulky shape, where all such supplies arc processed and chccked before
Juplancs prOVide a special shipping problem. A meth od now th cy arc shi pped .
Procedure for Moving Air Echelons Overseas-The AAF is
: responsible for processing and monitoring al1 air shipments
; to overseas destinations. For this purpose, the Air Transport
Command operates 8 ports of aerial embarkation and a
: number of sub·ports, which perform essentially the same
functions as the water ports but on a very much smaner
: scale. Aircrews passing through these ports 3rc checked,
: processed and then briefed for their overwater hop. At each
: port of aerial " embarkation, the Air Transport Command
: operates an air freight terminal which handIest stores and
. repacks air cargo.
, Debarkation-At the end of their journey overseas, troops
,and supplies leave th eir ships at theater ports of debarkation,
I which may be regarded as ports of embarkation in reverse .
.At a number of such ports of debarkation, air depots, some~ ARMY SERVICE fORCES
: times called extransit depots, are maintained by the theater AIR SERVICE
air force air service commands. @JQig~~
Shipment of Supplies and Replacement Equipment-Once I TRANS. II C.Of Ell CHEM. I
lthe air unit has been moved and established at its theater
I base, it requires immediate and continuous support in the
Ifonn of consumable supplies and replacement equipment.
:As our forces in the theaters grow, these replenishment sup~ INTRANSIT
lplies consume an increasing proportion of total shipping re· DEPOT
;quirements. Except for gasoline and oil, which 3re usually
ishipped direct from refineries, such supplies pass th rough
'ports of embarkation, water or air, and arc handled like
ioriginal shipments.
Nonna] supply requirement for units overseas- other than
.aviation fuel, bombs, ammunition and aircraft-may be
:roughly averaged at one ship ton per man per month. Thus
:to keep an air force of 100,000 men supplied with food,
:clothing, replacement vehicles and their gasoline, parts, and
:similar items for one month requires about 100,000 ship
I Present consumption of aviation fuel by our th eater air
forces is nearly 150 million gallons per month, or 35 oil
tanker loads (assuming average tanker capacity of 1 00,000
barrels). It is normally shipped by tanker to theater destina-
tions which are equipped with pumping and storage facilities. TO THEATER OF OPERATIONS

· In the case of newly established bases, however, immed iate limited, the movemen t of supply to an advanced ~os t may in·
· fuel requirements are met by gasoline shipped in drums 111 volve a combinationof ship and barge transport, air transport,
cargo vessels. wagon, pack animal and human carr~er. .
Transport Within Theaters-As far as possible, existing To a considerable extent the eXistence of transportation
transportation lines-railroads and highways-are employed facilities determin es the location of depots, service centers
in the movement of supplies and equipmen t within the and advanced airbases. For a large·scale action it is alm?st es·
I theater. However, conditions vary so widely in the different sential that rail or highway lines connect the d epot w.th all
theaters of operations that there is no standard pattern. In its service centers, and that the service centers be located at,
Great Britain, distances arc relatively short and railroads and or be within a few hours motor distance of, the bases th ey
highways arc well developed. The North African offensive support. Where such facilities .are limi ted or. w~ere distances
I was material1y aided by the existence of the railroads skirting are great, the imp.ortance of. alI tran spor~ wltlun. the th ea ter
I the northern and western coasts. The campaigns in the Pa- increases. Cargo alIplane umts are s~metImes. assl~ned to ~l e
· cific islands must rely largely upon air and water transport. ai r force air service command to provide fast au frelgh~ service
i In India and Bum13, where rail and highway facilities are between depots and service centers and between service ce n·
ters and bases.
-- ,
The amount of transport required to keep combat units in
operation may be gauged by the fact that a heavy bombe r
~i2>-- ... , ( group, averaging 10 missions per month, calls for .average dally
deliveries by more than fifty 2Y2 ton trucks. Estimated trans·
c-..r.... "-
~ port requirement for one B-17 group ~o operate one h ypoth eb·
cal mission with 1000 pound bombs IS about 130 loads of 2 V2
ton trucks with one·ton trailers. Of th is total, about 40 trucks
and trailers are loaded with bombs, about 10 with oth er am·
munition, and about 80 with aviation gasoline drums.
Ferrying of Aircraft- Princil?al mea~s of t~a nspor~ fo~ our
major item of supply- th e auplane .tself-IS ferrymg .t to
destination under its own power. M on ths before Pea rl H ar-
bor, we began ferrying lend -lease plan.es for th e Bri~ish and
ferrying our own planes from factones to ~omestIc. bases.
Since th en, ferrying operations have grown with the mcrcas-
ing production of aircraft and with the wor1?-wide develol~­
ment of our th ea ter air forces. AAF ferry pdots of the Au
Transport Command pick up new planes at the factory and
deli ver th em to domestic bases, to overseas bases, and, 111 th e
case of lend-lease aircraft, all the way or part way to the using

....... ..
. . . oA6 ...... _ lOAr nation. In a typical mon th , ferry deliveries may be as h igh
... . . . . - TIUCI PORT OF ~ as 8000 planes, total ferrying miles between 10 and 15 million .
O[lUKAT10N ~
- \"-~
In add ition to ATC ferrying operations, many combat planes
are flown to overseas desti nations by their combat crews.

· Air Tlansport-The AAF, through its Air Transport Com· e
· mand, is responsible for all transport by air of cargo and per·
sonnel for the \VaT Department. In addition, it provides air
transport services for other governmental agencies and for co
governments of the Vnited Nations. The ATC's principal CI
I transport functions are the operation of air transport services z:
• within the V. 5., between the V. 5. and all of the theaters of :=IE
operations. and between different theaters of operations. It op- :=IE
I erates over air routes in the U. S. totaling 35,000 miles and co
: overseas air routes tota1ing more than 95,000 miles. More
than 1 00 bases along these routes have been established by
the AAF as wen as a world-wide communications network ....
· and essential weather forecasting units. During December
t 1943, ATe operations totalled more than 35,000,000 ton
' miles of cargo and almost 100,000,000 passenger miles, of
I which more than 9 0 % were on foreign routes.
The development of ATC has been materially assisted by
the use of existing civil air Cc1rriers. \Vith the need for mili~ / -e

tary air activity to all parts of the world it was found neces- =
sary to militarize many of the existing commercial airlines -

extending overseas. A number of civil carriers entered into ~
contracts with the Government under which
they operate scheduled transport services with ....>-a:
planes allotted to them by the AAF. L"ge co
numbers of th e flight and ground personnel of
the air carriers have been absorbed into th e
AAF, and th e carriers also have rendered an
important service in the training of military co
· pilots for air transport operations.
I ATC operates scheduled flights over AACs routes, but <:>
I much of its unique importance arises from the speed and
mobility with which it can mcet em ergency demands in com ~
I bat operations. Air transport can bc L1sed to capitalize on th e
opportunities, avert the threats and minimize the s et~ backs of =>
battle. For example, when Rommel was making his deter- :=IE
mined thrust at Cairo, Allied suppli es of antitank ammuni~ :=IE
tion were running short. Tons of it were flown to Cairo from
the V . 5 through bad weath er and deli vered within 3 days,
which helped turn th e tid e in th e battle for Egypt.

An ontstanding operation of the Air Transport Command CLASS 2. Traffic whose movement by air is absolutely necessary to ac-
is the supply of vital. materials to the armies and air units op- complishment of a missioll necessary to prosecution of the war
erabng III Chllla. Smce the closing of the Burma Road in (aircrews to combat theaters on scl1edule, bomb fuzes necessary for
April 1942. the only link between China and the other combat operations).
United Nations fighting Japan has been the air route over CLASS 3. Traffic vital to the war eflort and of urgent nature, but less

the hump of the Himalaya mountains. (See page 29 6 .) so than class .2 (person nel necessary for maintenance of equipment
Troop Carrier Operations-Air transport of in an active theater; radio tubes).
CLASS 4. Traffic of sufficient importance to justify air transport, but

cargo and personnel by troop carrier units has not so urgent as classes I, .2 or 3; or overseas, specially needed per-
~en an ~mportant ,element in combat areas, par- sonnel or materiel moving to destinations accessible only by air.
bcularly In the PaCIfic, Mediterranean and India-
Bum13 theaters. 111csc operations include the Priorities vary with circumstances. Medical supplies rate a
carrying of key personnel and troops and rush high priority. and parts for grounded airplanes generally re-
":s;._ •

orders of freight to advanced units, both air and , ceive class 2 priority. In early 1944. electrically h ea ted gloves
ground. Wh,crc ot,her means of transport are too slow or afC and boots for aircrcws, essential for high altitude missions,
bl?Cked, ~n bre umts may be carried and supplied by air. Sup- were assigned class 1 priority to meet a critical shortage in
pltes, eamed to places before landing fields a TC available are the United Kingdom . In one theater, a mimeographing ma-
specIally packed and dropped from a low altitude usually by
parachute. In Me~iterrancan operations, troop ca'rrier planes
; , chine, badly needed for preparation of orders, was given
higher priority than ammunition because of greater urgency.
enabled fig~ter ,umts ,to leap forward rapidly to advanced air- Priorities apply also to return flights from theaters. Serious
fields by flymg m engmeer and maintcnance units first. It was casualties, urgently needing special treatment, are flown to
their job to prepare the landing field s and service the aircraft. U. S. hospitals. Critical cases from India have reached \ Vash-
Evacuation of casualties from the front lines is another im- ington, D. C., in 5 days. High priorities are assigned to some
portant function of troop carrier aviation. During 194 3 more crucial raw materials-mica from India, tungsten from China,
than 113 ,.000 wounded and sick were evacuated by air by platinum from Persia, crude rubber from Brazil.
troop carner and other AAF units. Air evacuation provides the
greatest possible speed in carrying casualties to hospitals where
they can be properly cared for, and at the sa me time relieves
vehi.cular equipment and hc1ps keep the roads c1car for
tactical movements overland. Troop carrier units 11ave also
80wn hospitals into combat arcas. MAINTENANCE
Air Priorities-Be~aus~ o~ !im!tations in capacity of air tran s- To keep an airplan e opemting, even und er the best condi-
port, a sys tem of aJ[ pnonbes IS employcd by which space is tions in peacetime, calls for continuous maintenance. In war-
. ~l1oca tcd in accordan~e w!th. ~he de!?ree of urgcncy of each tim e the job is many times multiplied. Few aircmft return
I Item and passeng~r. Au pnonbes, wh ich apply to dom estic as from a major combat mission without som e battle damage
wen ~s. ()ver~eas alT transport, both military and commercial, from fl ak or enemy aircraft. One sh ell through the fuselage of
t are diVided mto 4 c1asses of relative urgency:
a bomber may damage th e hyd rauli c sys tem, gu n control
j CLASS 1 .. Traffic whose movement is required by an urgency so acufe mechanism, a number of instrum ents and wiring systems.
: that'~ sJlOuJd I~n.der no circumstances be delayed emoute (or As an illustration of th e demands of wartime maintenance.
collecholl of acldJtlollal passengers, mail or cargo. consider one hypothetical daylight bombing attack against a
well-defended target by a force of 150 bombers and 75 escort Echelons of Maintenance
fighters. A fair assumption of losses and damages would be:
FIRST ECHELON-Maintenance performed by the air .~he1on . of the
10 planes lost over enemy territory; 6 forced to land in loca-
combat unit. Responsibilities. consist of servlcmg 3uplanes
tions 3",ay from th eir bases; 2. 5 extensively damaged; 50 mod-
erately c:a magcd; 25 with minor damages; and )09 un scathed.
(fueling) and equipmen.t; prefh8~t ~ V
and daily inspections; mmor repairs ~
The 6 forced landings would require about 7200 man -llOUTS for (tightening of nuts and bolts, hose ::!!A _ : ~ .
maintena nce; the 25 extensively damaged would average about clamps ), adjustments and repla?c-
450 man-hours each, making a total of 11 , 250 man-h ours; ments. All essential tools and eqUlp- !Ii!II1t),
the 50 moderately damaged, at an. average of 300 man -hours, mcnt are transportable by air.
would require 1 5.000 man -ho urs; and the 2. 5 sligh tly damaged , SECOND ECHELON-Mainte nance performed by t~e ground crew of
averagi ng: 15 0 m,m -h ours, would total 3750 man -hours. The the combat unit, and by airbase ~q."~~rons, a~rways det~c~men.ts
total maintenan ce for repairs alone (110t service) would be and airdrome squadrons. Responslblhtl~ co.nslst o~ servlcmg au-
37,200 man -ho urs, or a 48-hour wo rk week for 775 men. lanes and equipment, periodic preventive mspecbons, and .such
~d·ustments, repairs and replacements as may .be accom~hshed
AAF maintenan ce problem s are aggravated by purely geo-
I graphic and climatic conditions in man y of our th ea ters. In
wi~h hand tools and mobile equipment authonzed for thIS pur·
pose. Most repair equipment may
Alaska and the Al eutians maintenance is a continuing fight be transported by air, but certain
I against the cold-against freezing batteries and carburetors, items necessita~e surface transporta-
icing on a plane's surface as well as in the controls and tion . Second echelon maintenance
mechanisms, frost and snow. Abrasive sand is the chief foe of includes checking timing, adjusting
the maintenan ce man in the deserts of North Africa and th e valves, engine changes, etc. .
Ncar East. With out constant vigilance and care, sand will THIRD ECHELON-Maintenance performed by the base ~amtenance
get into evcrything- wi1l ruin valves, cylinder wal1 s, and all orgamza. t·Ion In
. the U . . S and the service
. dcenter1 In overseas
moving parts; will clog up filte rs and will pit propell ers. In theaters. Responsibilities consist of repalfS .an rep a~emen s r~
the tropIC areas of th e So uth Pacific, maintenance wages its quiring mobile machinery and equipment wh ich n~essltate groun
tough est battJe agai nst humidity---corrosion of m etal sur- means of transporta tion. It includes field repairs and salvage,
faces, condensation of moisture within instrum ents, leakage removal and replacement of majo.r
unit assemblies. fabrication of 1111-
and shoJt circuiting of wirin g and electronic sys tems. The nor parts and minor repairs to air-
abrasive effect of dust in the Pacific islands and in India is craft structures. Normally, 3rd eche-
another major problem for maintenance men. lon maintenance embraces repa irs
Echelons of Maintenance-The AAF maintenance system which can be completed within a
has 2 main objectives: first, Jetention of maximum mo- limited time.
bility for airplan e and combat unit; second, economy in FOURTH ECHELON-M aintenance perfonned by the air depot. Re-
. the use of specialized personn el and repair equipment. AAF sponsibilities include complete rest~ration of won~ or da~l~a~cd
I maintenance is divided into echelons, or levels, ranging from aircraft, periodic overhaul of assemblies and accessOries, fabrication
. repair work do ne by the aircrcw to complete overhaul by an of such parts as may be required to
air depot. These echelons may be compared roughly to the supplement normal s~l pply, a~o m ­
I maintenance with which th e ordinary automobile owner is
plishment of techmcal Ill()(hfic.a.
tions as directed, and the final (lis-
I familiar. As th e driver, he is abl e to make certain repairs him -
position of recla imed and salvaged
,self on the road slIch as cha ngin g a (Continued on page 200) materials.

tire (ISt echelon); to fix the punctured tire he goes to a echelon repair in lieu of the ground personnel of th e combat
service station (2nd echelon); for a major repair job he takes unit. It is used in leap-fragging operations to provide imme-
his car to a garage (3rd echelon); and if the engine needs a diate service and repair for combat units without waiting for
complete overhaul, it is sent back to the factory (4th echelon) . the regular ground crews. It is capable of supporting one to
The maintenance echelon organization is Bexible, espe· 3 combat squadrons for a week or 10 days.
cially under combat conditions on quickly changing battle Maintenance Methods-The importance of rapid and effi-
fronts. Aircrews sometimes must perform both 1St and 2nd cient maintenance can be demonstrated easily by an analysis
echelon maintenance. Where bases are stable as in England. of some hypothetical statistics. Assume that maintenance
ground crews and service center personnel may be integrated keeps each plane of a combat group out of commission an
and perform all echelons of maintenance except 4th echelon. average of 45 % of the time. If, by imp roved maintenance
Aircrews have done vital maintenance work in Hight. methods, this percentage can be reduced to 20%, th e effec t
Aboard a B·24 on an overwater flight it was discovered that is equivalent to a 50% increase in the number of effective,
the pump would not transfer gas from the bomb bay tanks to flyable planes.
the wing tanks. With only 3 hours of wing tank gas left, the As far as possible, AAF maintenance is sys tematized ac-
engineer of the aircrew dismantled the pump, found its cording to sound industrial practices. In 1st and :m d eche-
valves corroded, repaired the pump in 2 hours and got gas lons, ground crews are grouped into specialties so th at maxi-
into the wing tanks one hour before the plane would have mum use can be made of specialized training and many can
crashed for lack of fuel. work on each plane at the same time. Thus in servicing, one
MobDity in Maintenance- Service squadrons, which are a group may check the spark plugs while an other is checking
part of the service group, may operate at the service center radios, another landing gears, anoth er fu el. Furth er speciali za-
base, or with the combat squadrons at forward bases in cer~ tion in both men and equipment occ urs in 3rd echelon m ai n te~
tain instances. In some cases, service center functions may be nance, and where possible, 4th echelon maintenance is set
earned out at permanent instaHations with hangars and fixed up on a production line basis.
machinery, but under a rapidly~moving combat situation such In India one air force general depot operates a prod uction
conditions are the exception. Service center organizations are line on C-47S. The airplanes run through th e shop in reverse
I able to move rapidly and to operate in the field, away from of th e way th ey were built; one de-assembly line tears th em
their headquarters sometimes for extended periods. The down; th e pieces are reconditioned; and th e plane reassem-
service Kluadron includes mobile units which have th e func- bled . Such meth ods make possible th e simplification of jobs
tion of taking 3rd echelon repair to planes which have so that th ey may be easily tau ght to native labor. In th e U. S.
crashed or for any other reason can't get back to their base or and in the large th ea ters of operations the depots are special-
which operate in ad vance areas or at dispersed fields. It may ized . O ne will handle the overhaul of engines, or of certain
consist of one or more of the fo11awing: a machine shop to types of el~ gil1 es, while oth ers will overhaul particular parts
~ake spare parts and an instrum ent repair shop, both hOl1sed or acceSSOrIes.
In heavy duty vans; an electric shop; a paint and fabric shop; Under battle conditions, however, maintenance depends
a propeller shop; a sheet metal shop; and a cabinet shop for he<1 vily upon the ingenui ty and inventiveness of ground per-
woodwork. Most af these shops are hOllsed in tents and can sonnel who ca nnot wa it for overh aul or replacemen ts. In
be transported by tru ck and set up qui ckly. C hina a service squadron needin g insulators fo un d that carv-
Units devised to increase the mobility of aircraft mainte- ing th em out of the base of a water buffalo's hom served th e
nance include the airdrome squad ron, which performs 2nd purpose. In New G uin ea a 2 Y2 ton truck was needed at a new
maintenan ce metllOds for all th e various skilIs and trades re-
field but it wouldn't go through the door of a C-47- Mainte-
quired in aircraft maintenan ce. Four T ech Orders are issued
nance men dismantled it and cut the larger pieces with acety-
lene torches, loaded them into the plane, and welded them with each plane as it leaves th e manufacturer's assembly line :
together again after they had been fiown to the new field.
Gasoline drums are improvised into washing machines, out~ HANDBOOK O F SERVICE INSTRUCTION; 3. HANDBOOK O F OVER-
door showers, etching tanks for propeller blades. In North
Or~ ers are constantly revised to keep pace Witll improved
Afnca the bomb release on an A-36 would not always free its
bombs. A % th inch spring was needed to provide the nec- maintenance methods and modifications in aircraft and equip-
essary extra kick. There were no springs in stock but it was ment. Thus, speed is essential in th e distrib ution of Tech
discovered that the springs under the saddle of a German Orders; some are microfilmed and flown to th ei r overseas
motorcycle would do perfectly. Every captured motorcycle destinations. Tech Orders also are known as TOs.
was stripped and springs supplied for the A-36 bomb releases. Manufacturers' Representatives-Aircraft, engine and air·
Preventive Inspection-The basis of the AAF maintenance cra ft accessory manufacturers arc under contract to the AAF
system is ~nspection of. all parts to prev~nt accident, damage to furnish technical personnel in the th eaters of operations to
s up~rvi se and instruct in th e maintenance and operation of
or/art f,t1lur~ ~fore ~t occurs. For ~IS purpose a detailed
an systematic inspection procedure IS prescribed, and defi- eqUIpment. TIl ese men are responsible to th e air force air
~ite respon sib~lity is fixed for d~fferent phases of each inspec- service commander who usually req uests th em, and to whom
tion. The Maintenance Inspection Record is a complete Jog- th ey are required to make weekly reports.
book of each airplane's operations and maintenance. It con- Manufacturers' representati ves arc subject to military law
tains the record of fiying time and tells when engine should and ~ re lawful bel1igerents. They are treated as prisoners of
be changed, when 011 IS to be changed and similar items. In- war If ca ptu red . Their privileges are the same as those of
. spections are made before every Bight; daily; after 25, 50 and commissioned officers and th ey wear th e same uniforms wi th-
100. hours of 8lght; at bme of engme change; 15 hours after out insignia of grade, arm or service. At present th ere are over
800 m.mufa:turers· technicians in the thea ters of operations.
~glDe change, and at special per!ods as required by the par-
ticular ~el of airplane. These mspecbons are progressively . Reclamation all:d Salvag~D~e .to th e value of th e m ilitary
more detaIled and thorough, and by the time a plane has arrplane and all Its p~ rts, It IS Im portant that nothing be
completed 500 hours ",:ery part and every accessory has been thrown away. In fact, III most theaters, a principal source of
checked. Upon th ese tnspechons dcpend the lives of the technical. supplies is from planes dam aged in action. \ Vher-
crews,ttx: success of the missions. A 2,.hour inspection of a ever p.osslble a. wrec~ed or damag.ed. plane is repaired and put
baek III th e aIr agam. When thiS IS not feasible, the usable
B-1 7 requires about 100 man-hours, and a l oo-hour inspection
! mav take,400 man.h<?urs. . . parts are st ripped off and either used immcdiately on oth er
. tecb~callnstru~ons:-To di sseminate adequate, autllentic planes or are stocked. l1lis is known as reclamation. What·
an~ umform techlllcal mstructions for the operation and ever is left after a plane has been stripped for parts is return ed
mamtc:nance .of all AAF equipment throughout the world, to the depot where it may be mel ted down for use in fabrica-
the Air SQvice .Command issues a series of publications. tion or s~l d fo r its basic I~l ate ria] s. 'TIlis is known as salvage.
known as Techmcal Orders. These range in size from one Recl a lll ~ tiOn and salva~e I.n some theate.rs assume, such la rge
page to a book; a complete set consists of about 190 volumes. p roportions th at orgalll1. atlons are sometimes detmled for the
Tech Orders cover .evcry tyl?e of .plane, every part and ac- purpose. Thcse units follow th e path of war to pick up re-
cessory. They prOVide detailed, Illustrated instructions of claimable material and glea n iln y parts lef t.
We had only 200 bases on Dec. 7, 1941. Two yea rs later
our airmen were Bying from 1400 bases, 800 of th em overseas.
Types of Bases-Because an airbase is a military es tablish-
ment designed for the landing and takeoff of airplanes, its
core is necessarily the landing field. This consists of one or
more runways and connecting taxiways. A runway is the
WHAT WE FIGHT FROM ground over which a plane begins its takeoff or concludes its
landing. A taxiway is the path on the ground which a plane
takes in leaving or approaching a runway. The landing
field is located on ground as nea rly fiat and level as it is possible
to obtain in an area free of obstructions in the directions by
which airborne planes approach or leave.
AAF airbases vary as to purpose, size, strength and pcr-
i manence of landing field, and nature and number of installa-
ti ons. For example, a base within the continental U. S. whose
prime purpose is training, does not ordinarily possess the
/ dispersed layout, camouflage, antiaircraft and other defense
f ~~i...
-- -
installations characteristic of an overseas base, whose prime
purpose usually is combat. Nor does a base built to accom-
modate transient planes have the same aspect as one calling
J ust as a boxer demands a solid footing to deliver his blows, for the permanent station ing of planes.
I we must have airbascs from which to initiate our attacks. Maintenance and repa ir f,]cilities of a permanent heavy
I Because of its global responsibilities and the geographic posi- bomber base are far more extensive than those of a stagi ng
tion of the U. S. in relation to the fighting fronts, th e AAF, field , which is a forward base used for assembling and refuel-
rmore than any other air force, is dependent upon a wor1d~wide ing an air striking force whose components are regularly based
network of bases. elsewhere. Again, a base used by F1ying Fortresses or Libera-
Airbascs are the stepping ston es of our offensive. Full- tors or B-29 Superfortresses has runways much longer and
Hedged campaigns- involving ground, naval and amphibious stronger than those of a fighter base, because of the greater
forces-are often waged to establish heavy bomber bases • weight and takeoff roll of th e bombers .
within range of the enemy's factories and interior com~ Furthennore, the location of some bases is dictated by
munications. th e necessity to meet the contin uing demands of war and th e
OUT bases at home serve for training and national defense, eventual commercial requirements of peace. Others, the
for th e development of planes and th e ge neral Sllpport of our product of th e chance geograph y of battlelines, and short-
' air estab.lshment. Intermediate bases between home and lived as to usefuln ess, are located in remote places.
front are links in a world-wide chain of airlanes over which Offensive Base-A completely equipped offensive base for
we transport vital supplies and ferry combat planes and air- a combat group consists of runways, dispersed parking fa -
Icrews to th e battlc zones. . cilities and con necting taxiways, control and operations
204 buildings, service and maintenance fa cilities, defense and
cmno uflage instal1ati bns, housing, and necessa ry utilities,
:such as ...ater, electric 1ights, and roads. However, ~n ad·
vanced landing strip for liaison flights might contain only a
.single runway, and that merely a crudely cleared piece of level
r In order to avoid presenting an easy bombing target, a
combat base, following the principle of dispersal, scatters its
airplane parking places (commonly designated as hardstands),
its gasoline and bomb storage units, its housing and its
· runways. If there is only one runway, its direction is that
lof the prevailing wind. Additional runways follow th e diree·
· t~ons of the nex~ most frequent winds. 'Depending on the
ISize of planes usmg them, runways are from 2000 to 8000
· feet long at sea level. Sea level lengths are normally increased , ' . ' ~
: by 500 feet for each 1 000 feet of elevation, since the thinn er .-=<'W..........~~ ~~~.J!?
air accompanying increased elevation requires greater speeds ?V-~""'";.::"'*
and consequently longer rolls for a plane to become airborne. IlAIIISTlIIO LOCATION
Standard minimum width of a runway is 150 feet, although a
Width o.f 1 00 feet has been used successfull y in at least one of Dispersed h ardstands are additionally protected by conceal-
the active theaters. The runway proper is surrounded by a ment- under trees, along hedge lines and occasionally bv
I cleared zone of prepared ground.
revebnents. A revebn ent is a breastwork or embankmen't
The surfacing of a runway may he one of 4 kinds or a to protect planes from bomb splinters and strafing. T axiways,
combin~tion.: NATURAL, .which sometimes calls for br~aking ~urfa.ced like runways and hardstands. are at least 30 feet
· up. mOls:enmg ar:d rol~mg the ground for added finnnessj III Width. and are bordered by cleared zones on each side equal
STABILIZED SOlL, m which asphalt or cement is mixed with
to at least half the wingspread of the types of aircraft opera tin g
the ground and compacted and rolled; PAVED, which involves
from them.
a series of earth -moving . and earth-treatment operations, plus
asphalt ()[ concrete pavmg; and LANDING MAT, which is an Mai{1te_" ance and Conhol- ll1e principle of dispersal is
I annor of linked metal plates or grids laid over the ground. als~ followed in. ~aring out ,an overseas base's servicing and
\Vhen not fl ying, planes must be parked off the runways. • mamtenance facJl1beS- repaJr shops, installations for wea th er
In th e U. S., where attack is unlikely, th ey are often parked observation and communica tions, access ro.::, ds. fuel and
111 c~mpaet array on spaces along the hangar line known as bomb storage. Bombs, along with ammunition and ch em i-
r parkmg apro.ns. At. ove~seas combat bases, however, planes cals, are stored in th e open and protec ted by revetm ents
are parked sll1gIy. 11~ pairs, or, at most, in threes, at widely where possible. Incendiarv bombs, however, are stored under
separated spots 111 dispersal areas ad joining the runway arca. sh elters with roofs. Gasoline and oil are usually stored in
!hc ground or hardstand on which an airplane is so parked bulk at permanent and semi-perm anent bases, but limited to
IS surfaced to the same extent as the runway. Single ha rd stands
operating quantities at temporary bases. Drums and ca ns arc
arc at least 450 fect, triple ones at least 600 feet apart. Hard- used for storage of reserve fuel and oil supplies at adva nced
~tand s are placed at least 500 feet di stant from the centerline
or remote airfields or for sup ply du ring in itial stages in a
of a runway. •
comb'lt area.

Bulk storage can. for large tanks, either underground or

partly dug into the ground and partly revetted, spaced at
least 1 00 feet apart and '50 feet from the nearest plane.
Existing buildings 3re used when suitable for maintenance
facilities; sometimes a hillside is dug out. When a new
building is needed in a hurry, the answer is a portable hangar
made of canvas and light steel ribs. Two skilled men and 30
unskilled men can erect a portable shelter 80 by 120 feet in
12 hours. Nose hangars, smaller portable canvas-and-steel
units, afford enough shelter for working on engines. Housin g
may vary from shelter under airplane wings to a community
of buildings and utility installations which, on a base for a
, heavy bomber group, accommodates more than 2300 men
and women.
Nerve center of the base is the operations building where
assistance and control of flying operations are focused. A
necessary adjunct to the operations building is the control
tower through which the operations office controls al1 air
traffic in the vicinity by ground-to-air communications. Since
traffic direction is visual, the control tower must command
a view of the entire landing field.
Access roads are of the utmost importance in keeping a
base supplied with necessi ties. These sometimes run to as-
tonishing proportions. During a peak period, a single heavy
bombardment group in North Africa required 174 tons each
day of fuel, ordnance, spare parts and rations. Inadequate
access routes can cripple an entire base.
A complete base is often surrounded, at varying distances
up to several dozen miles, by a number of less complete bases
toward which it occupies the position of a parent base. O ut-
lying bases, dependent upon th e parent base for advanced
maintenance and repair facilities, in tum provide enhanced
dispe"al and alternate fiying facilities in the area of the parent
IJISPOSD) AJAfIElD Defense-The defense of an airbase begins long before any
oo--©--- attack. The defensive measures fall into 2 ca tegories: active
and passive. Active defense is handled in th e air by intercep-
tion fighter planes and the related aircraft warning system (see
~-@.... - - page 274), and on the ground by ground fighting and such
mstallations as antiaircraft gun emplacements road blocks and bases in the sense of this chapter. Others were depots, of
"n positions. The latter command not dnly the key ap· which th ere were more than 300 of various kinds--<:ontrol,
w,roach<s 10 key mstallations bllt also neighboring areas which storage, special storage, intransit and subdepots. 111 cre were
1"'< enemy mIght use for landing airborne troops. Alternate more than 15 0 college training detachments, more than 50
rand dummy posItions are sometimes prepared. For active war service training detachments and well over 100 technical
efense, the base commander normally has at his disposal schools covering a wide ra nge of subjects from welding to
an l\lP co~pany (aviation); antiaircraft artil1cryj a chemical meteorology.
rfaTe service detachment; and an aviation engineer mainte- 111ere were 18 modification centers and 8 government-
nance dClachment. A sentry system guards against sabotage owned assembly plants. At 23 other AAF stations, air depot and
rand sneak attacks and acts as a cOl~trol factor. service group training was carried on. Besides these th ere were
numero us miscellaneous stations, such as bombing and gun-
nery ranges, searchlight stations, rest and redistribution centers.
Beca use of th e grea t variety of th ese stations, some of
which are referred to in other chapters, and because of the
changing status of some of them, due to the requirements of
th e war, a more detailed discussion or listing of AAF Stations
is not possible in this guide.


A LANDING STRIP or LANDING for use in case the unit field or

FIELD is a field or strip of airbase has become unfit for
ground specially prepared and service, or for dispersal and
maintained for lan ding and training.
takeoff of airpancs. A SUBBAS E is an alternate field
BASE FACILITIES is a collective which has been placed under
term covering fuel and ord- the jurisdiction of the com-
nan ce storage and service fa- manding officer of an airbase.
cilities; maintenance and re- An AI R BASE AR E A is an area of
1. Measures for passive defense (which do not involve fight. pair facilities over and above responsibility fo r admin istra-
ling) mclude slit trenches, revebnents underground or those provided by airplane tion, supply, maintenance and
mounded-over splinterproof and g!1sproof' shelters, dispersal, tool kits; and wea ther and reclamation, charged to the
camou8age (see page 221) radio silence, smoke screen bar-
7 communica tions facilities and air base, and possibly includ -
rage ball~ns. and such demolition preparations as mi'ning. living accommodations. ing a number of alternate
Rehabllttation measures at an ai~base include the filling in An AIR8ASE, in its exact sense, land ing fields.
is a fie1d to which a su1xlepot An AAF AI RWAYS STATION is a
1of bomb craters, removal of debns, replacement of twisted or service squadron shop has milita ry establishm ent consist·
Ia~ mat and. patchlllg up of landing surfaces in general. been added . ing of a landing fi eld and serv-
I Installation ....Not all AAF stations are airbases At A SATELLI TE F I ELD is a field icing facili ties, used primarily
Ithe . peak of expansion there were more than 1200 AAF whose base facil ities are nor- as a refueling station for tr:.l11 -
stallons In the U. S. alone, only about 600 of which were air. mally very limited, intended sient aircra ft .
end of '943 made available some 500 bases to the AAF
Unlike the CAA bases, which were undertaken with an ey<
to eventual commercial use, these were mostly new establish
ments constructed solely for military purposes.
Our defensive airbase network was extended to foreigr
. . AllBASE PROGRAM territory in September '940 by the destroyer-base deal witll
On A'g. 28, '939, 3 days before Gemlany set off World England by which 50 over-age U. S. destroyers 01 Worl,
War II by invading Poland, the AAF was regularly using War I vintage were traded to Creat Britain in return fO I
Ii9 airbases. . U. S. rights to air and sea base sites in 8 British possessions i fj
To appreciate the expansion of the AAF airbase system the Western Atlantic, the Caribbean, and South Amerid
&om this nucleus to morc than 1400 bases ;0 months later, The Corps of Engineers at once began construction of air;
it must be realized that figures do not tell the whole story. bases in these areas.
For one thing, all kinds of airbases, from a temporary landing Another important addition to our airbases consisted 0 ]
strip in New Guinea to a great permanent base in Hawaii, commercial airports developed by Pan American Airway~
count "'lually as one base. For another, today's standards for (PAA) in Latin American countries. Since Pearl Harbor
airbase construction arc notably more rigorous than those of nearly every South and Central American country in whid
1939· these fields are located has declared war on the A'Xis and h3:
Increase in weights and landing speeds of planes has neces· made its bases available to the AAF.
sitated longer, stronger runways. The B~ lZ, our largest plane Another PAA·built system 01 delensive airbases came II
in tactical use in the 1930'S, weighed 16,500 pounds with us as the result 01 our pre-Pearl Harbor policy 01 sell·delcns.
JrulXimum permissible overload and landed at Ii9 mph; today's through aid to Britain. In 1941 negotiations were completec
Liberator (B-24D) weighs 56,000 pounds loaded and lands at between the British Government, the ' Var Department an(
105 mph. Another factor affecting runways is the develop. PAA for a chain of bases extending across the African in
ment of blind fiying by the AAF since '939. This makes it terior from Accra on the Gold Coast to Kh ar toum in Anglo
posSIble for • pilot to land in weather which is nearly zero- Egyptian Sudan, thence north to Cairo, with connections t<
zero, and requires- longer and wider runways by way of com- the Middle and Far East. Necessary clearance lor flying acros
pensation. French Equatorial Africa was secured by consultation witl
Expansion for Defense-Defensive bases were acquired in Free French authorities. Britain made available all existinl
the lJ. S. and its possessions before Pearl Harbor. facilities along the route. In 1942 these bases wen
Domestically, the Civil Aeronautics Administration ob- militarized.
tained funds from Congress for the general development 01 Offensive- The AAF began to acquire offensive bases iJ
aviation and in 1940 prepared a civil airport expansion 194 2., when the ,British Air Ministry turned over 77 bases il
program caning for the building or improvement of some the United Kingdom to the 8th Bomber Command. Man y 0
4000 public airports in the U. S., its territories and posses- these were either complete or in advanced stages of construe
sio'.lS. Out of this grew 543 airports lor defense purposes, 01 tion. In other cases, sites were released to us and AAF engi
, which the AAF regularly uses approximately 200. neers did the build ing. On Aug. 7, 1942, the invasion 0
Another contributor to domestic airbase growth was the C uada1canal by the Mari nes yielded us our first base capturec
Army Curps 01 Engineers which between mid"940 and the from the enemy-Henderson Field. Since then, many 01
fensive bases have been obtained by force. In this, U. S
avv, Bri:ish and Australian units, am ong others, h elp os calling for 3·way teamwork, has been a continuing relation-
ship in the Allied conduct of th e war. .
tablish and construct bases.
An excellent example of th e battle for airbases is th e
inIE BArnE FOR A1RBASES Solomons-New Guinea fighting, which is illustrated on pages
AAF ofensive combat bases fall into 2 classes, strategic 216-17. The Solomons-N ew Guinea principle of struggle for
nd tactical, corresponding to the 2 major ways in which
airbases has been extended to larger areas. Capture of th e
e AAF uses airpowcr offensively.
G ilbert and Marshall Islands bases, along with th ose in New
Strategi: bombing (see page 256 ) , translated into tenns of Britain and th e Admiralty Islands, Hanked and isolated the
bases, means that the heavy and very heavy bombers used Japan ese air and naval bastion of Truk in a pincers-like
by the AAF for strategic operations can be effectively based movement.
m areas SO distant and in so many directions from enemy The Italian campaign provided us with invaluable airfield.s,
rwnes of the interior' that the enemy's ability to act offensively such as Foggia, for a deeper penetration by our strategIC
and defensively is impaired by division of his forces and his bombing forces into Nazi indust ry. An airbase built in ead y
1943 by the aviation engineers on th e outer Aleutian island
~elatively long-and therefore vulnerable-lines of com-
of Amchitka, 70 miles from Ki ska, during the Japanese oc-
, In tactical operations (see page 257), where the targcts are cupation of Kiska, so jeopardized the enemy position by th e
the enemy forces and air and ground installations opposite threat of isolation that eventually he evacuated th e island.
our lines, as well as enemy naval installations and sea supply
Iroutes in the vicinity, range does not play the same part as HOW WE BUILD AIR BASES
:in strateg:c operations. And since the enemy, by choice or Temporary AAF forward fighter and light bomber bases
I"ecessity, is likely to shift the disposition of the targets with in combat theaters often have to be b uilt quickly. In th e
I~anges in the tactical situation, Bexibility is essential. Since case of an amphibiOUS invasion, for exam ple, airbase con·
~the AAF goes in the van of surface offensives, there is a struction after a successful landing on a h ostile shore ideally
nstant struggle for forward and Hanking airbases from confonns to th e following sched ule :

fwhich air supremacy can be most confidently sought.

An advantageously located tactical base cuts down the
consumption of gasoline and thus makes for increased fire~
power and bomb loads. However, all sites with similar ad·
vVithin 36 hours of th e establishing of a beachhead, land-
ing strips must be ava ilable for figh ter planes for purposes of
refueling and range extension. During the 3 or 5 days be·
tween capture and consolida tion of th e beachhead, landing
'vantages of position are not al ways equally suitable for bases. field s must be provided on which to base figh ter and sup-
Other factors affecting their value in volve such considerations porting plane units; some of th e original temporary strips
as prevailing weather, problems of defense and supply, the may be converted to this purpose. O nce th e advan ce from
amount of work, materials and equipment needed for th e beachhead commences, landing grou nds have to be pro-
lconstruction. vided for fighters not more th an 50 to 75 m iles behind the
1 Althoud> offensive airbases are often won by ground and vanguard .
lDaval surface forces, these depend on friendly air forces for In charge of th is construction are aviation engineers who
initial ail supremacy. And while supply lines on which air form part of an air task force. There are always heavy de·
.and grolDJd and naval forces mutually depend are chieHy mands on beachh ead commun ications ro utes and a h igh
surface lines, no surface force can maintain them without premium on in vasion shipping tonnage, so priorities rarely
the protection of friendly air forces. TIlis interdependence, penn it an engineering battalion to begin construction with
~~ ~ MUVT ,DMBW, u.s.

~ "+' MED. IOMB£JS : u.s, lW,lIIlAf

T nmEls, F!;IITEl·IDMBW: u.s. Wf, IIIlAf

2.. 400
L __ 1 I

~'"i N



!l.t '+- ..t~ Two campaigns are shown up to the end of 1943--ooe from the
...,.....\1. east, advancing up the Solomon Islands, the other from the west,
moving up New Guinea. Captured bases converge like pincers on
Rabaul and Kavieng.
The prime objectives of Allied battle strategy were airbases.
Operating from these, Allied land-based planes:
1. Reduced ground fighting, by isolating enemy occupying forces
through destruction of communication lines, thus preventing
the enemy from accomplishing reinforcement, supply or evacu-
1, Cut down the scale of surface offensives. since only small areas
needed to be sei7..ed and held for bases from which air opera-
tions could isolate thousands of the enemy.
3· Enabled the Allies to by-pass Japanese positions.
The triumph of the Bismarck Sea Battle, in which a Japanese
convoy of 2.2 ships carrying an entire di"ision with supplies was
virtually destroyed by land-based aircraft, would have been diffi-
cult, if not impossible, without the Allied advanced base at
Dobadura, New Guinea. The battle was fOltf:ht March 1-4. 1943 .
Air strips at Dobadura, seized by the Allies In January and subse-
quently improved, served as a staging field for AAF bombers based
at Port Moresby, thus nullifying the obstacle of the Owen Stanley
fum~t:. Duwuula·J.,;.,.,)cu ligh lcl.) IJlo~iucJ caccli~c v\clhcaJ t:UYCf
which enabled our hombers to carry out operations virtually un:

'T molested. Allied planes shot down SO enemy fighters, lost only
one 8 -17 and 3 P-38s. Aliled eround forces had one less Japanese
division to fiaht.
pany reconnaissa nce party to stak~ out ru~way~ and p.r~pare
full equipment. Thus. aviation engineers must employ key rough plans. Next come intemledlate partl:s With adchtlOnal
equipment resourcefully. Wherever possible captured enemy equipment, and finally the rest of the umt. Because an ad·
fields are used. Steel mat may be used for surfacing runways, vance base is often only temporary, and because of th e speed
but since even the lightest type of metal runway surfacing for with which it has to be built, it devotes a minimum of con·
a fighter strip occupies 800 ship tons of space, it is not gen- struction to storage units for fuel , ~)[dnance and c1~ emicak
erally available. Engineers do their best with existing surfaces, Its access roads and defense installatIOns are neeessanly hasty,
taking every possible advantage of the terrain. Minimum and its camouflage consists largely of a judicious a~oidaDce
standalds are the rule. of the conspicuous. For housing it depc~d s on what IS found
Because of th ese limitations, thorough engineering prepa~ at the site, what can be brought to It and what can be
rations have to be made prior to a landing. The air force improvised on the spot.
engineer. who commands the aviation engineers, and the
air force commander must agree on definite standards for
all est~blishments. The air force engineer must study po- RUNWAY CONSTRUCTION AND DRAINAGE
tential sites, using all available information from maps,
charts, reconnaissance photographs and intelligence reports.
The number of engineering battalions and the essential
equipment needed must be detennined on the basis of the
time it takes one battalion to build one airbase, the number
of advmced fighter bases needed for operations, and the
estimated rate of ground progress.
Once a landing has been made, these factors are recon·
sidered in th e light 01 actual conditions. Final choice of each
site is :he joint responsibility of the air force engineer and
an experienced AAF operations officer whose opinion as to
the be,t available flying .leatures in both site and landing
® ·PAVEMENT COMPOSED OF '"':::~_ 1101 OiJWN 10 StAll

field layout is consulted. Although aerial reconnaissance may ® SHOULDER: COMPACTED SELECT MATERIAL
be used to eliminate unsuitable sites, no base is finally ap·
proved until it has been surveyed on the ground. © STABILIZED SUBGRADE IN 9" COURSES
Actual construction commences only after consultation CID FOUNDATION OF NATURAL SOIL. GRADED & COMPACTED
with the ground forces commander (corps or division) in
whose orca the projected landing field lies, who determines Bomber Bases-Considerably more ex tensive constructi on
whether the tactical situation permits it. This liaison--cal· is requircd for mcdium or heavy bom.ber bases, some. of
culated to avoid conflict or duplication in the use of com· which have been built in such remote regIOns as the Aleutians
munications routes, plans for defense, location and scope of and th e jungles of New Guinea. Beca use of th eir range,
supply dumps-is a continuing lactor at every phase 01 con- bombers can be based some distance behind th e lines. T hey
use the same b~l ses for long periods, so construction is gen·
Once construction of an advance fighter base is to be erally on a permancnt or scmi·permancnt basis. Enginc?rs
started the engineering battalion in charje moves up to the working on bomber bases nonn ally have complete eqUip·
site in ~everal echelons, beginning with a headquarters com·


mcnt. and sometimes access to special materials. 'Vhercver " ... --..... ®
possible, th.ey hire natives to assist them. Compared to engi·
neers working on fighter bases, they have adequate time. l•• f l \J•
Runways on bomber bases cannot be makeshift, must be \ ".........' "
strong and durable. First step in runway construction consists
of soJ stability tests which detennine the bea ring ratio of ". ~::::::::
, the ground. This is measured by the weight necessary to
I force a standard plunger a given distance into the soil. It
I dcpct1ds upon the soil's moisture content and compaction-
l the degree to which it is packed. Thus mud and dry sand
I both have low bearing ratios, while sand which has been
moistened and packed has a fairly high bearing ratio. Mud
and dry sand are unstable; moistened, compacted sand is WOUIT-51' LIS-I'D st. n.
Soil stability tes ts, taken by sampling material at variolls PlEII1:ED PlAIIK UNOING liT SHOWING: - I - lIllNU OF JOINING WITH LatKING
depthi on ,and aro und the projected base, enable the engineer
to dctennme what sort of runway he must build. He may

h ..'e to strip th~ top soil down to th e best available founda- shipped overseas, and 300,000,000 were on order for 1944.
Resea~ch on magnesium alloy and aluminum mats, designed
tion and build the runway from th ere up. Such a runway
consis~ of a stabilized subgrade and a pavement. The pave.
to weigh less with out sacrifice of strength and durability, is
ment IS a smooth" hard, weather-proof surfacing rigid enough currently und er way.
to support th e wClght of a plane as concentrated in the small CamouAage-The ob ject of camouflage is to concCc11 and
contact areas of its tires. Since importation of select material d~ceive. Since man is not naturally equipped to Oy, his in-
even over a short ~istance. involves a treme~dous outlay of stm cts do not help him to foil aerial observation or attack.
man.h0':lrs and vehicles, SOIl survey plays a vital part in site Every vestige of human activity on the ground-trampled or
reconnaIssa nce. t racked earth, scars from digging or fires, the regular outlines
Landing Mat...The landing mat most widely used by th c or shadows of man-made ob jects--conspires to betray his
AAF is pierced steel plank or Marston mat (see accompany- presence. Thus a fundam ental requisite of camouOage is
mg dl3wmg) .. ~hough ngld enough to bridge over small camou flage discipline, which t rains every member of an air-
surf~~e mequalltles of the ground, it is used to bes t effect on base complement to cover him self and his traces for th e
stab~hzed subgrade. T his combination providcs an adequ ate safety of the entire es tablishment.
scml·permanent runway, as exemplified by those at Kualoa Plans for camouAnge begin with plans for th e airbasc.
and Haleiwa in th e Hawaiia n Islands, which we re laid in The natural outlines of the terrain are left undisturbed or
January 1942 and are stiB in use. are imitated as well as possible. Existi ng structures are used
. Although transportable in compact bundles, Marston mat to th e utm ost, as being least subject to suspicion. Since
IS ,heavy; enough for a 3000 foot runway 150 feet wide texture differences are more easily discernible from th e air
~elghs. nearly 1200 tons. Jy. runway this size ca n be put down th an color differences, violent contrasts in texture of terrain
an 9? nours by 1 <:>0 unskIlled men, As of Jul y 1, 1943, ap- are avoided or minimized. Every object alien to th e settin g
proximately 1 75,000,000 sq uare fee t of mat had becn -airplanes, tenting and supplies-is co ncealed in hillsides,

IN NORTH AFRICA, where mud and sand constitute a problem. long.

wide strips of sand are moistened and compacted by rollers. French
troops and Arabs have helped out short-handed aviation engineers.
IN THE UNITED KINCDOM . heavy bomber bases, costing an average of
$3,000,000 each and taking sC"eral montlJs to build, have required
the importation of AAF aviation engineers because the thorough
absorption of civilians in the national war effort has not left
enough trained British civilian contractors to do the job.
IN ASSAM, native wom en working for native contractors hired by the
British but supervised by the AAF, mix concrete by hand and
carry it in trays on their heads, passing it from one to the next

... -::


l .... CItSSItADS
. ~!!II!!III

C. ~
l .....
every few yards until it reaches the forms. Supplies and equipm ent
must travel f~om Galcutta over inadequate railroads of man y
different gauges.
IN CHINA, as many as 1 00,000 natives have worked on a single air-
basco At a word from Generalissimo Chiang Kai -shek and under
the direction of Chinese engineers, who are capable airfield build-
ers, the Chinese will build a huge base in 3 months. Runways arc
under trees or beneath garnished nets resembli ng continuation )' crushed stone bound by mud and are 2 or morc feet thick. Rock
of foliage, grass, sand or other natural surface features. is quarried by hand pick, crushed by hand hammer and transported
Deception includes construction of dummy installations in wheelbarrows and baskets_ Mud cement is mixed with bare
or simulated destruction after an air attack. Such construe. feet. Runways are laid by hom e-mad e concrete rollers weigh ing
tiOD must ~. far enough away for safety but not so far as to 3 Yz to 1 0 tons and dragged by 150 Chinese.
arouse SUspIcion; 3 to ,5 ~iles is about right. Roadways or
paths leadmg to key bUlldmgs are continued beyond them in OUR AVIATION ENGINEERS
a cons:stcnt system known as a track plan. The Aviation Engineers, charged with providing airbases
o Camouflage need not be refined in order to succeed. for the AAF in th eaters of operations, were established in
Smce other agencies of airbase defense, such as fighter planes June 1940. The original unit consisted of some 800 officers
and antiaircraft fire, leave th e enemy only seconds to locate and men. However, aviation engineers' expansion quickly
the target, momentary con fusion or misleading of an enemy followed that of th e AAF in general, and by Nov. " '943,
bomber usually is sufficient. the organization, although still not up to its authorized
strength, totaled about 80, 000 troops, of which more than
65,000 were overseas.
Aviation engineer units include airborne construction bat·
~mtructiOIl Facts and F igures-A full account of the rna.
talions and companies whose eq uipment is specially designed
tcnals, methods and. native labor used in building AAF bases
for movement by transport plane and glider. The first of
all over the world IS beyond the scope of this guide. Here
are a few Sidelights: th ese, th e 871St Airborne Aviation Engineer Battalion, was
activated at Westover Field, Mass., on Sept. 1 , '942. The
IN NEW CUINEA. na.tives under Am~rican en~in eers build landing Troop Carrier Command promptly furni shed planes and
fields for ca rg~ airplanes by cleanng the high kunai grass, and pilots for th e intensive training which followed. Twelve
tram p out run ways with their bare feet. weeks later, 2 airborne engineer companies were in N orth

Africa ride by side and sometimes in advance of the invading

Allied troops. Today, aviation engineers, both regular and air-
borne, are permanently stationed and trained at MF bases and

lagoon on Adak Island in 8 days. The lagoon. bed! whIch be-

came a creek bed at low tide, was dried by dwerbng It at Its

built a fightcr strip on the sand-and-marsh bottom 01 a tidal

copstitute an integral part of the MF. head and building a gate at the seaward end. A landmg mat lor
A re~ar battalion's equipment consists of »0 pieces and the runway, 3000 by 1 00 feet, was put down In 1 days.
146 vehicles. Mostly devoted to landing field construction,
these include many road-building and agricultural-type ma-
chines, ranging in weight up to 32,000 pounds and in ca·
pacity to 8 and ,. yards, which handle earth moving, soil
treatment and paving. All are power-operated, either by their
own engines or by attachment to gasoline or diesel units.
Trailer.mountcd compressors power a ' yariety of pneumatic ,
To defend itself and its projects, a regular battalion packs
more fire power than a World War I brigade. Its weapons
mclude multiple M mobile machme guns, .50 caliber anti-
aircraft machine guns, mortars and bazookas, rifles and car-
bines. lULU IA!
~irborne equipment, on the other hand, was desigued to
fit IOto the C-47 cargo plane and CG-4A glider. This limits
the load to 4500 pounds for the plane and 3200 pounds for CO.S11UCTIDI Of 1011 ..l _
the !:lider. The limiting width is 80 inches and the maximum
height 60 inches. An airborne battalion is equipped with track- In 3 weeks, starting July· 10, '943, an airborne battalion
laying (caterpillar) and rubber-tired tractors, scrapers, graders, at Tsili T sili, 40 miles lrom Lae, New Gumea, bUIlt a landmg
,heepsfoot rollers, dump trailers, 2 ~ ton trucks, jeeps, air field 01 2 runways, one 6000 leet long and ti,e other 45 00
compressors, electric generating sets, welding sets and a pool feet, as wen as hardstands. Between August . 17 and 21 th IS
I of organizational items. It takes 79 C-47 ·cargo planes to move base was used as a staging field for a stnkmg force which
a battalion and its equipment, or a smaller number il gliders destroyed or totany incapacitated 309 Japanese planes at
are usc:<'. The CG-4A glider carries 15 men or any major piece Wewak. One fighter group based at T sili Tsili proVIded the
of equIpment; a loaded C-47 can tow 2 loaded CG-4A gliders. same support for operations agamst Lae as would have re·
An ~irbome battalion's bantam equipment is too light for quired 3 fighter groups based on Port Moresby, the other
. operations on the scale attainable by a regular battalion', side 01 the Owen Stanley Range.
heavy and more abundant apparatus. Airborne units are used This same battalion moved in mid-September to Nad zab.
in special cases only, as. w~pons of opportu nity. Thcy are just outside Lae and behind enemy lines, after its capture by
approl?nately .employed m SItuations calling lor airbases in Allied vertical envelopment. It was lomed th ere by another
areas maccessl ble except by air. airborne battalion, flown in from Port Moresby. Togetl~ er
Here aTe a few notable aviation engineer accomplishm ents th ese units reh ab ilitated the fonner Japanese base, which
culled from many: ' became a maj or AAF bomber base. .
In the Aleutians in September '942, a regular battalion At Sbeitla, in Tunisia, a regular battahon took only 3 days

to build 5 landing fields requested by an AAF commander drone. Mechanics apply kill-frost to wings, clean and dry
Part of this battalion built a 6cld in no man's land . guns. Squadron arming and servicing crews arm and service
During 10 days of September '943, Baker I sla~d-a tiny the planes, obtaining their materials from storage units main-
PaCIfic landspot 650 mIles west of Tarawa, which was then tained by specialists.
held by the ]al"'nese-was transformed by a regular aviation Aircrcws are wakened about 4 A.M ., ride to th e base messes
~gmeer battalion mto a complete forward bombing base, in vehicles fumishcd by the motor pool. Base kitchens hoard
WIth • 3700·foot steel mat runway which was subsequently their eggs to give them a good breakfast. Diet is watched to
expanded to 5500 feet. avoid foods causing distention at high altitudes .
.At Ben Aro~ba, Tunisia, aviation engineers removed 17 88 Next they draw their personal fiying equipment from th e
!l1 mes from a ~mgle runway of a captured German basc. The supply room , where a personal equipment officer sees that
,ob was done In BVz hours. with no casualties. their oxygen units, elcctrically hea tcd flying suits, Mae Wests
Two days after the 5th Army landed at Salerno, a fighter and flak vests are in top condition . 111is is followed by briefing,
field was ready on that narrow beachhead. ) I which consists of an organized presentation of all infonna-
tion bearing on the successful completion of the mission-
HOW WE lISE OUR COMBAT AlRBASES maps, target charts, analysis of target and reason for its selec-
The ultimate in AAF combat bases is the heavy bomber tion, weather infonnation, most recent information on flak
base, . such as a typIcal base of the 8th Air Force in Great J, and fighter opposition to be expected, procedure ord ers, and
BntalD. It bases 48 to 72 Flying Fortresses or Liberators, each the supplying of communications ciphers on edible rice
a hIVe of In.t ncate c!1gincs, delicate instruments, and thousands paper. This information is the joint product of such installa-
of par~ Wh.lCh reqUire constant replacement, repair, adjustment tions as the group intelligence library, th e signal office and
or cahbrallon because of the wear and tear of flying and the the weather office.
damage of enemy shells. The bombardiers obtain th eir sights from the base bomb-
The base also houses nearly 1700 officers and men of the sight vault. Cameras and film s are installed in one of evel)'
bomber group, a base maintenance detachment a service 4 to 6 planes by thc photographic officer. Ready in th e planes
group and administrative pcrsonnc1-a total of ~ore than are. parachutes, life rafts, flares, an oxygen system, emergency
1.30? men and women. At the base they eat sleep receive rations, manual radio equipment and navigation instruments.
med",. 1 care, get their I)lail and pay, shop at the px, 'carry on Responsible for this equipment is a seri es of base specialist
th~r religIOUS, social, athletic and recreational activities and shops charged with maintenance and replenishnlent.
~elf l1ever-en~ing trainin~. Airplanes are worked on da; and The grea t planes trundle out of th eir parking area and
m~ht fOf fCJ>3lf, overhaul, Improved functioning. Men, besides marshal along the taxiways and at the runway ends. A flare
bemg lept m the best health and spirits possiblc, arc constantly from th e control tower signals th e lead ship into its takeoff
Instructed In methods, purposes and results. and th e rest follow at 30-second in terva ls.
I~ ~e .case of a da~n miss jo~ by the 8th Air Force, the Base area controls now go into effect, implementing plans
parhClpatJng group will be nohficd of its rolc the previous for escort rendezvolls and diversionary missions which have
evenmg, when h~gher headquarters, having waited 00 the been initiated at sco res of base operations offices through out
weather, has decIded to stage the mission . Dctailed field th e base area. Aircraft forced to drop out of formation bv
orde~s Come throug~ around oo~ or two A. M., and during the Aak or fighter damage receive high and medium frcquenev
remamder of the night the tunlllg IIp. . of engines at dispersal sigl~a ls f~om a series of stati ons all ovcr th e base arcn , each o'f
places by ground crews envelops the base with a heavy wh ich gIVes a specified signal during a specified time in ~IC-
corda"ce with the rice paper schedule of ciphers. Planes
whose radios are knocked out ean get " talked in" on com-
mand radio sets from positions near any British base. Crews
foreed to ditch in the Channel are quickly spotted and picked
up by the British air-sea rescue service. AWARDS AND INSIGNIA
r Planes returning from a mission are met by ambulances
and fi re trucks waiting at the runways with engines turning
over. Red flares fired from th e incoming planes indicate
wounded personnel and give these planes landing priorities.
Blood plasma has been wa rmed at th e base hospital; th e
operatmg room is ready for immediate surgery.
Motor pool transportation also meets each plane as it fo11s
to a stop. After the removal of injured crew members, th e The Military Aviators Badge, recog~izin~ "coura~e
rest ale ru shed to th e briefing room for the all-important and ability to complete h az~ rdous qua li fica tion tests I~l
interrogation. Red C ross workers supply hot coffee, dough- military aviation" was authorized on May 27. 1913. ThiS
first decoration for miJitary airmen was awarded to !4
nuts and cigarettes. Then all airplanes are taxied to their officers then on aviation duty with the Signal Corps, JO.
dispersed hards tands, 'except those too seri ously damaged, eluding General (then Lt.) H. H. ArnoJd, now com-
which are moved aside for later transfer to base hanga rs and manding General, AAF.
major repair or salvage. At the dispersal point the photo-
graphic officer removes camera and film s from the planes to DECORATIONS-Deeds of high valor, wounds received in
th e base photographic laboratory. action agai nst the enemy, military achievcments 1I1 .actIOn.
At the interroga tion, trai ned intelligence officers get first honorable service over a period of years-all are recogmzed by
hand reports from the ' aircrews. When the interrogation is the President of the United States who, through the \Var De-
over. the film s, still damp from processing, are stud ied in the partment, awards appropriate deco rations. Ribbons, represent-
photo lab. A period of suspense th en ends, as th ese are th e ing the medal awarded, are worn on the left breast of the
unmistakable evidence of the success of th e mission . uniform . .
Immediately fonowing a mission, maintenance and repair Two awards arc granted specifically for achievement 1~
of the participating planes is resumed. The crews are en- aerial flight- the Distinguished Flying Cross and the A"
couraged to rest and relax. Al ready th e facilities of th e base Medal. These are in addition to numerous other War De-
are concentrated on sending the group on its next mission. partment awards for which ~Af' pcrsonn~l are eli~ible. The
Medal of Honor, hi ghest mIlitary deco ration of thIS country,
has been awarded to both officers and m en of th e AAf'. .
Units, organi za tions and detachments, .as well. as the 1~­
dividual soldier, may be cited for outst:mdlllg ac1l1evement. m
action, a device bcing iss u€d to all members of .such umts.
This device is worn on th e right breast of th e umform .

None of the decorations authori zed is issued morc than BRONZE STAR· F or heroic or smaller raised bronze st ar. the
once to any one person (except a posthumous award of the meritoriolls achieveme nt not center lines of all ra ys of both
Purple Heart). but for each succeeding achievement suffi~ involving participation in ae- stars coinciding. Reverse: " He·
rial combat (but not warrant- roic or Meritorio us Achieve·
cient to justify an award, a bronze oak leaf cluster m<ly be ment" and space for the re-
awarded . One sil ver oak leaf cluster is authorized for wear in ing the Silver Sta r or the Le·
gioll of Merit), ~nd ~mls t have cipient's nam e to be il1scri be~.
place of 5 bronze oak leaf clusters.

j been ac11ieved m dIrec t com-
bat or in support at comba t on
Ribbon is glory red with verh -
cal blue stripe in center . Bl ue
stripe and ribbon ends are
the ground . The medal : ~ronz.e
star in center of whIch IS piped in white.
MEDAL OF HONOR · Highest of ed by sprays of laurel and oak
our military decorations. Es- leaves. Th e words "Soldier's FOR AC HIEVEME NT
tablisl;ed in 1862, it is M edal, For Valor," and the DISTINGUISHED SERVICE MEDA L · outstanding officers and en-
awarded in the name of Con- recipient's nam e, appear as in- For exceptiona lly m erit orio ~ s listed m en of the arm ed forces
gress '0 an officer or enlisted scriptions. service to the G overnment m of the U . S. for exceptiona 1Jy
man who, in ac tual conllict AIR MEDAL· For meritoriOIlS a duty of great responsibility. m eritorious conduc t in per-
with the enemy, distinguisl1 es achievement while participat- LEG ION OF MERIT· Like the Pur- tonnance of o utsta nding serv-
himse!l conspic uously by gal- ing in aerial flight, not war- ple H eart this decoration ices. It is a lso awa rded, in sev-
lantry and intrepidity at the ra nting award of the Distin- stems from the Badge for Mil- eral degrees, to personnel at
risle of his ljfe above and be- guisll ed Flying Cross. May be itary Merit, America's oldest the arm ed forces of friendly
yond the caJl of duty . a wa rded for single actions or decoration , and is awarded to foreign nations.
DISTJNGt rJSnED SERVICE CROSS · sustained operational ac tivities.
For extraordinary heroism in PURPLE HEART· OriginaJly es- SE RVICE MEDALS
conne:::tiol) with military op- tablished m J 782 as the Service awards and current cam- who, on or aft er Dec. 7. 1 94 2 ,
erations against the enemy. Badge tor Military M erit this paign medals denoting theater honorably com pleted one year
SILVER STAR· For gallantry in award was not issued for many of service are represented, at at ac tive F edera l military serv-
action which does not warrant ye:lrs. Today it is awarded for present, by ribbons only. Ap- ice and who a.re recom men ded
the award of the Distinguished a wound which necessita tes propriate medals for these t or the award by their com-
Service Cross. treatment by a m edical officer awards will be ma nufac tured mandi ng officers for exem-
DISTINGUISHED FLYINC CROSS · and which is received in ac- a nd distribu ted after th e war. plary behavior, efficiency and
For lieroism or extraordinary tion with an enemy of the AMERtCAN DEFENSE MEDAL · Is- fidelity.
achie\'ement during aerial U. S. The medal : all a pur- sued to military pcrsonnel THEATER CAMPAICN .MEDALS ·
tfight while serving with the ple enameled heart within a who e ntered on a tour of d uty For 30 davs, co nsccu tive or 60
AM. bronze border is a profile head at J 2 months or longer and days, no~-cotlsecll tive service
SOLDIER S MEDAL· For heroism of Geneml George \Vasllillg- who, in discharge of such in th e presen t war in the fol-
not involving actual conflic t tall ill military uniform ; above, service, served at any tim e be- lowing theaters: Eu rope:1l l:
with the enemy . The medal : in green enamel is his coat tween Sept. 8, 1939 , and Dec. African-Midd le Eastern; ASI-
on a bronze octagon is dis- of arms between 2 sprays of 7, 1941. atic· Pacific; America n T hea -
played an eagle standing on a leaves. On the reverse, below COOD CONDUCT MEDAL · Aut hor- ter- for service with in the
fasces between groups of stars a shield and leaves, is a ra ised ized for award to those e n- Ame rica n th ea ter outside COII-
and above a spray of leaves. A bronze heart with the inscrip- l isted men of tile U. S. Army tinenta' U. S.
shield on t he reverse is in- tion "For Military M erit ," Note: FOR PICTURES Of' Til E ADOVE DI':CO RATIONS AND RTlIlIONS
scribed "U . S." and support- :md th e name of tile recipient.

S qtH!dron . insignia were adopted during the last war by the

first U. S. airmen to fight for the American flag.
Above are the ea rliest of these insignia- th e Indianhcad
of the Lafayette Escadrille, fam ed American volu nteer squad-
ron which fought with the French before our entry into
World War I; and the Hat-in-the-Ring of Capt. Eddie
Rickenbacker's 94th Aero Pursuit Squadron.
Today the tradition is a part of the AAF- a tradition that
is being carried to all our global fighting fronts by you ng m en
like ~he aviation cadet shown on the opposite page saluting
Old Glory at retreat.
Official insignia have been adopted by morc than 800
AAF squadrons. In the U. S. these are widely used on air-
planes and equipment. Overseas, supply and tactical con-
siderations limit th eir use; h ere identifying insignia may be
found on crewmen' s flight jackets and stati onery, and on
plaques hun g in m esshalls and sq uadron huts.
Like th e coa ts-of-amls emblazoned on th e armor and
trappin gs of olden-day knights, AAF squadron insignia shmd
for more than identification; they represen t a mission and a
goa l.
For a few samples of AAF combat unit insignia, turn the
next pag~.
718th Bombardment 532th Bombardment

1st Elstern U. S. 2nd W.st.rn U. S. 3rd S. Eastern U. S. 4th Far Western U. S.

344th Flpte r 338th Bombardment 20th Tlct R.connllnnce


.~'lst Service 425th Bombardment
5th SW Pacific 6th Canal Zan. 1th C.ntrll Pacific 8th United Kin,dom

9th Unit" Kilt,dom 10th Indla·Burma 11th N. Pacific 12th M.dite"ane.n

114th hmba,..ttt 6th Weather 310th Fllhler

13th S. Pacific 14th China 15th ltal)' HQ. and Commands


Th. present Ins 11111. Is vlslbl. at 60 perc,nt ",.ter
4I1t1i rlpt.r 551th; Bomb.rdm.nt 17th Troop Carr!er renp than the previous AAF marklnl. The red dllc
was removed to pr.vent confusion with Japanese ,
marklnc. ,Dates show when chlnles were made.

42. Iombardmaot 25th Ualsoo 528th Iomb. riment

I"R i 'D")' a". 1. 1Q" I..... "Q 1"_'

The air is our battlefield . It provides not onl y th e field of

action but al so, in itseH. a number of positi ve hazards. To
minimi ze th ese we co ntinuall y enlist th e elements of th e
atm osphere as allies, but th e sa me elements often become
formidabl e enemies.
Our machines are bu ilt to withstand th e trem endo us
stresses of th e air, but we who fly th e machin es are <lCC U S~
tom ed to th e natural forces at th e ea rth 's surface. Our ph ysi-
ology is designt:d to work on th e ground . Airhorn e, we are
di"orced from our natural habitat. Before a m ission Celll be
flown or a bomb d ropped , th e basic pro blem s of air ad apta-
bilitv mu st be mastered .
~rh e act of Hyin g through th e air is a temporary truce with
gf<wity. :M an and phlll c mu st eventuall y C0111 e down . Oreli·
narily th e landin g is dclilx ;rate an d safe, but som etim es it is
unexpec tedly abrupt. T o th e problem of return ing s~lfd y to
C'•.lTth th ere is frequen tly add ed th e problem of survival in
areas unnatural tu us.
High -velocity winds .whi ch pu~h a p~an~ off its set cOl~ rse
WEATHER necessitate cons tant adJustments 111. na\'lgatlo~ . Greatest w ln~
menace is a h eadwind blowing dlfectl y agaIn st the plane s
The atmosphere, terrain of the air war, is the most fickle front. Bucking such headwinds, a p,lane SO~lct~mes cO,n sl~m es
and treacherous of all terrai ns. If a ground commander were so mu ch fuel that it falls short of Its dcs tmH~lOn . Tal.l wmds,
\ confronted daily with mountains changing h eight, rivers on th e other hand, push th e plane more qUickly to Its goal
altering their course, ground moving up and down like an and make it possible to reduce the fuel load. Updrafts and
elevator and oceans going dry, his terrain problems would downdrafts may move at speeds up to 2 00 mil es per ~ ~ll r.
begin to resemble th ose of an AAF tactician. In places wh ere an updraft passes a downdraft, a conchh on
I '"Inc atmosphere is like an ocea n extending nearly 2 00
miles above the earth's surfacej through it move deep masses
f:~ )~~ ;h
\...l9"" . .1) . JJ I "-

JI/I\~t?/\\~ "'\~
'/", »~ ~l _~
I { / '\ (~
of air, like currents in the ocean, Cold air masses travel from ~
th e polar regions, warm air masses from the equatorial belt.
i TIle velocity of air movement va ries from a gen tle breeze to callcd turbul ence res ults. Turbulence ca n toss a plane about
like a cork-even rip its wings off,
Fog lies close to the ground, can reduce visibility to zero,

make landi ngs and hlkeoffs extremel y dangerous. Snow and
a heavy wind. ''''hen warm air and cold air meet, clouds are rain can seriou sly curtail visibility in th e air. llail ca n blast
formed which often result in rain, snow or storm. Within holes in a plane'S wings 3119 fu selage. l ee ~nd ~ros t can sh ca t~
the air ma sses there is constan t m otiorr as h eated air rises a phmc in a matter of mmutes, reduce Its lift and make It
and cold air drops. Above all this is the intcnse cold of the ll11manageable.
upper air.

mean trouble. They affect visibility and stability of th e air.

- On occasion we must combat th e dark towering cumul onimbus

( thunderhead ) , most dangerous of clouds, a center of ex-
trem e turbu1cnce.
Such is the dynamic terrain of th e air battlefield.
Communications Network- All over the world radio navi-
gational aids are provided to AAF and Allied airplanes by th e
AAF's Army Airways Communications System, whose stations
are located in al1 48 states and in 52 foreign cou ntri es and
territories. It is now possible for a plane to fly blind all the
a•••_LI$ way around the world guided entirely by AACS rad io na v iga ~
tional aids. In addition to direction bea ms, AACS sends out
) , signals warn ing against mountain barriers and enemy aircraft.
II IICU.UllS \Veather data supplied by th e AAF 'Weath er Service is tran s-
mitted by AACS.
Weather Service- Like AACS stations, wcather service bases
,HC loca tcd in th e far reaches of th e world, in lonely outposts
• in th e arctic and tropics wh ere weather is born. Reports
from these stati ons are transmitted to Headquarters in vVash-
ington, D. C., wh ere wea th er maps are made and forecasts
M:nt out al1 over th e wo rld . To provide on-the~s pot short-range
foreca sts, wea th er servi ce units accompany tacti cal, transport
and t roop carrier un its. ~Vherever there is an AAF base, th ere
<l re wea th er personn el to interpret and forecas t climatic condi-
tions. Often th e wea th er stations <lrc mobile; in the landing
;It Salerno, for instance, a jeep fitted with weather observing
t:quipmcnt was with one of th e first units to make a landing.
\Vc<1ther rcco nnai s~ance airplancs regularly fly long di stances
to ga th er data before fighters. bombers or transports take off.
Foreknowledge of th e weather is more than a protective
meaSlHC. I t is a tactical weapon. A typical instan ce was dlH-
ing an attack on \ Vcwak. New Gui nea. 'T'h e planes which
eLMS . . _ " . atta cked were based at Port ~ I ores by . Between the airhase
and the target hly th e 16,ooo-foot Owcn Stanicy Range. Over
Clouds m ay. be both friend and foe to the Rier, wh o all
the Owcn St;mlcvs th ere ,He I.lsnallv banks of thund erhcads
through Ill S flight traming is taught h ow to interpret and
rising as high as 40,000 feet. T he attack co uld not he carried
make U S~ of them . Fr~m s?mc doud s he ca ~ learn the stability
Ollt while th e thu nderheads blocked the wav. The weather
of th e alT and the dlfcctlOll of approachmg storm s' he can
employ douds for cover in air battlc. Often, howcve~, doud s '1e n 'ice was asked to predict a cloudless d:1Y. Seven da ys
daps<.:d before th e wCHth cr officer decided that proper condi-
hom. were on the way. He issued a forecast 24 hours in ad-
,anec. pledieting just the type of weather desired. The attack
wa\ timed precisely to the forecast and 309 planes which the
Japs had th ought safe were destroyed.
Sometimes, in combat, had weatller is advantageous. In an
attack on Trondhcim, Norway, for example, bomber aircraft
b:1scd in Britain took advantage of a blanket of overcast that
extended almost to th e edge of the target before it opened.
TI,e bombers flew undetected to Trondheim, dropped their 13IIIID' - - I
bombs on the perfectly visible targets and made their journey
home protected by the overcast.
1 - - - 41Il00'

·111lI0II' - - I ~o 35IlOO'
IlOOO ----- ,
On the ground the human bOdy- with the aid of proper
food, clothing and shelter-is well adjusted to such natural As th e altitude increases, th e pressure falls and the abnosphere
,forces as air pressure, gravity, temperature and inertia . But becomes more and more rarefied . As th e air contcnt of the
when man goes up in the air 10,000 feet or more, these same lungs becomes progressively smaller, so does the oxygen con-
forces may run to extremes far beyo~d the body's breaking tent. This condition is primarily responsible for th e oxygen
pomt. want which develops with increased altitude. Its effects begin
Yet every day air operations are being conducted at alti- to be felt when an altitude of 1 0,000 feet is exceeded .
tudes far above 10,000 fect. The answer is that aviation medi- The medical name for oxygen-want is anoxia . To combat
cine has made discoveries that compensate for the strains of anoxia, we rely on the oxygen system, which increases th e
.high altitode-discoveries that adjust earth-accustomed physi- oxygen content of the air that th e fli er breathes at high alti-
ology to aerial activity. tudes. At 18,000 feet, for eX3lnple, th e oxygen content of th e
lungs has fallen to one-half its ground level wlue. At this alti-

. Anoxia- The air we breathe is 78% nitrogen, 21 % oxygen
.nd I % oth~r .ga.ses. Ox~gen is necessary to sustain human tud e th e oxygen system wises the pcrccnhlge of oxygen in th e
Ifc. When air IS IIlhaled mto the lungs, oxygen is picked up Hir breathed by Hiers from 2 1 % to 4 2%, thus raising th e oxy-
by the blood stream and delivered to all parts of \he bOdy. gen content of th e Il1ngs to its normal gro und level valuc. At
Carbon d iOXide, a waste product, is transported back to the 34,000 feet, 1 00% oxygen Illust be brea th ed; above 3 4 ,000
lungs, exh.1led along with the other unused gases of the air. feet, even 1 00% oxygen does not providc a sufficient quan-
tity of oxygen, although th e defi ciency does nO.t bec.o me criti-
: The amount of oxygen which can be absorbed by the
-,1ood-strcam depends on the quantity of air present in the I cal until an altitude of 4 0,000 feet. Above thiS altitude, th e
press ure is so low that even pure oxygen will permit con-
iungs; this is detennincd by the outside atmospheric pressure.
sciousness only for short periods.
All aircrew mem bers are instructed to wear oxygen masks
Iwhen Bying above l O,OOO feet. Masks are fitted to the con- escapes rapidly in the form of bubbles. The same type a~f
tours of the 8ier's face and have a small built-in microphone thing can happen wlthm the body flUIds 10 the upp<!r . .
to facilitate interphone and radio communication . The ~asks Nitrogen gas (and small quaptities of oxygen, carbon dIOXIde
re connected by hose to a central oxygen system . There are and water vapor) is normally found dlssol~ed 10 .t he blood
• types of oxygen systems in usc by the AAF; the demand and other body fluids. These gases are kept 10 soiubon by th e
ystem and the continuous flow sys tem. In the demand type, pressure of the atmosphere. At high altitudes the mtrogen
n autorr:atic mixer steadily increases the oxygen content pressure within the body may exceed the 11It,rogen .pressure
of the ai ~ as the airplane gains altitude in order to main - in the air outside. The gas in the blood, seekH~g eXI~, form s
tain the quantity of oxygen equal to that present at ground bubbles in the joints and fat tissues an~ sometIm ~~ mothe r
evel. This sys tem is fuHy automatic, saves oxygen by func- parts of the body. The result is a very pamful condlbon called
·tioning only when a man is actually inhaling. and adjusts aeroembolism, known as the bends to deep sea dIVers and
litself to the speed of breathing; it supplies all the oxygen sandhogs.
ceded when exertion causes faster breat~ing. The continu- The occurrence of aeroembolism is infreque~t., It usu~ny
ous How oxygen system is an old er type and is not regulated happens at 30,000 feet and above, and th.e maJonty ?f filers
utomatically. The flier himse1f adjusts a valve that governs are not susceptible to it even at th ose altitudes. A filer \~ho
the amount of oxygen flowing into the mask. This system has had tro uble can guard against re~urrence by breathmg
las largcl:t been replaced by the demand type. pure oxygen for 45 minutes before takmg off and then co~­
In bombers it is often necessary for men to walk around bnuing to breathe 1 00% oxygen from th e ground up. Thl,s
inside the airplane while performing their duties. In planes method, called denitrogenatIon, reduces the pressure of 111-
equipped with demand systems, th e flier disconnects his mask trogen in the lungs to zero and allows a la rg~ part ?f th,e gas
lOse from its fixed oxygen outlet and plugs it into a walk- in th e body to escape painlessly. When a~ am:nan IS stncken
rou nd bottle which can be rcfilled from the main lines. A with aeroembolism, he normally can obtall1 rehef by descend-
mall type bottle lasts about 5 minutes under average condi- ing imm edia tely to ~ 5,000 feet or, low~r.. D escent t? a ,level
tions, while a new and larger type lasts between a half hour 'of higher pressure Will prevent senous InJury to ;.t fher In all
and an hour. With the continuous flow system, the walk- cases if it is done in tim e.
round bottle contains an hour's supply, is non-refil1able , Blackouts and Redouts-The symbollC represents the force
For parachute jumps from high altitudes, bailout bottles which is exerted on an object by the pull of gravity. \ -Vhen
are provided. TIley are usually strapped to the legs, and con- the body is subjected to a prolon~ed pull greater t1, an the
tain a 10 minutes' supply of oxygen, sufficient to al10w a para- force of gravity, it may not funcbon properly. Such a pro-
chutist te descend safely through the upper air. In an older longed pun is measured in term s of numbers of GS, such as
type bottle, the oxygen is sucked through a pipestem, while . Cs, 3CS, 4CS, depending upon the degree of force exerted.
'n a newer type it is delivered into the mask. Centrifugal force, the force that th rows an object outward

I In night operations, fliers do not wa it until they reach when it moves in an arc, may be grea ter than I C, When a
10,000 feet to ut on their oxygen ma sks, They wear th em flier loops, or pulls o ut o f a dive or cl~mb. centrifl1g~1 force
from the time t~cy
take off, for the first effect of anoxia, even affects the body. Inside looping or pulhng out of a dIve (sec
Islight anoxia, lessens the ability to sec in the dark. diagram ) forces the blood toward the lower part of the body.
Aeroerabolism- When a bottle of soda pop is un capped, the The blood, forced away from the head, ,leaves th: ,bram wl ~h­
gas which has been imprisoned in th e liquid under pressure out sufficient oxygen. TIle first effect 1S gray \,I s~ on, An 111 ~
crease in force results in a blackout. U sually th e Alcr does no t

become unconscious during blackouts, but he may if the desired comb ination. Tight fi ttin g clothing is avoided, b e-
force continues. cause adequate ci rcul ation is also essential to keep the hands
During outside looping or term ination of a climb, the blood and feet warm, H owever, measures wh ich mcrely insulate th e
rushes in th e opposite direction- toward th e head . If th e body against loss of h ea t are insufficient for long cxpo s t~re t~
force is strong enough, th e head ·throbs with pain, th e eyes extreme cold. T h e ideal solu tion is cabin hea ting, which IS
feci as though they arc bulging and vision becomes red. effective in fighter planes and th e closed com partm ents of
~lackouts and redouts are of sh ort duration, rarely have last- bom bers, but not feasible in the exposed porti ons of th e fuse-
mg effects and occur only under highly acccle ra ted gravity lage. E lectrically heated suits, gloves and boots are necessary
puns. To red uce th e danger of blackouts and redouts, Riers to protect tail, waist and turret gunners.
learn to level off gradually from dives and climbs. An oth er Night Vision- T he retina, an area at .the back of th e eye
aid is tensing the muscles and yelling to help slow th e fl ow wh ich does th e actual "seeing," is made up of tiny cells called
of blood. rods and COll't!S. The cones, wh ich distinguish colors and
st ructural detail, are used when bright light is ava ilable. Since
th ey are principally grouped in th e center of the retina, an
object is best seen wh en we look directly at it. H owever, th e
cones are unable to participate in vision at n ight wh en th e
light is very dim . We are th en dependent on th e rods. which
• enable us to see th e general form of objects in va rious sh ades
of gray. Since th e rod s are distributed arollnd th e ou~ e r sur-
faces of the reti na. objects are best seen on a dark mgh t by
looking at them a little off cen ter. T o do this accurately re-
qu ires constant practice.
Abil ity to see in th e dark can be lost quickly if th e eyes are
exposed to a b right ligh t. A period of protection from bright
ClITllflfCAl 'lICE (Cf) light is required to adjust the eyes to n ight vision . Ad apting
th e eyes to th e dark can be accom plish ed by spend ing 30
Cold- Normal tempera tures at alti t udes of 2 5,000 to 3 0 .000 minutes in a darkened room before a Right or by wea ring red
feet range from 30 to 50 degrees below zero. Consequently, goggles for th e same period . Red goggles shut out all colors bu t
I body warmth ran ks nex t to oxygen supply as th e most im- red. wh ich least affec ts n ight vision.
portant need of the airm an for effiCiency at high altitude. A Pilots read their instrument boards rapidly during n ight
hand exposed to 4o-below tempera ture becomes frostbitten fligh t, thus exposing th eir eyes to th e lighted panel for th e
withi~ 1 few minutes, and a severe frostbite of one finger is sh ortes t period possible. T o further minim ize the period of
suffiCient to ground a gunn er for days and sometim es weeks. ad justm ent back to darkn ess after reading an instrument
The AAF's fl cece-lincd lea th er fl ying suit and th e im- board, panel ligh ts are kept as dim as practicable. Fluorescent
proved alpaca type flying suit have bccn designcd to provide ligh ted instruments reduce eye fatigue, h elp nigh t vision .
the airman th e maximum pro tecti on from cold with th e A norm al supply of Vitamim A. found in all green and

minimum restriction of movemcnt. The winter flying suit in- yenow food s, is essen ti al to night vision . \¥h en airmen are
cludes felt boots and leath er gloves, both of whi ch ca n be unable to get sufficient V itam in A in th eir diet, a concentrate
worn o\'er additional layers of wool, Reece or rayon in any IS given .


I Diet-The gas in an airman's intestinal tract expands as the ground might have serious consequ ences in the upper. air
, altitude increase;. Effects may be painful, but ordinarilv may where th e ears and sinuses are und er ex tra stresses. The Hight
· be quickly relieved by passage of excess gas. Some men are surgeon prescribes all m edi cation ..Simple. drugs like aspirin
, sensitive to foods which produce excessive amounts of gas. can have undesirable effects at high altitudes. A personal
Onions, cucumbers, radishes, cabbage, soda pop, dried. beans, equipment officer is also assigned to e~ch squa~ron. With the
~ apples. melon, cauHAowcr and fat or rich foods are taboo for flight surgeon he checks oxygen e~uipment, IIl st~t1cts cre~s
such men while on flying duty. in its use and conducts an educatIonal program III first aid
· Fatigue-Flying fatigue is a double problem: immediate fa· in flight. . . ..
I tigue is induced by the hard work, extreme cold, possible All flying personnel are kept In top ph YSical condition at
accidental anoxia, constant alertness and emotional strain of all times. A healthy body is tlie best safegua rd agamst the
a single mission; chronic fatigue, or staleness, is brought on air's physiological hazards.
In· the accumulated nerve-wear of a series of missions.
. For the fatigue of a Single mission a good night's slcep, a EMERGENCY LANDING
: little diversion and a satisfying meal are tlsually cure enough. No matter what we have done in th e way of equipment
'The intensity of such fatigue is rcduced by comfortable seat· and education to reduce the hazards of activity in our battle~
· ing. proper oxygen and cold weather equipment, adequate rest field, there is always the chance that a plane will be forced
Ibetween operations. out of the sky either by enemy action, mechanical failure or
Chronic fatigue is mainly a mental condition. When it oc~ human failure. Proper precautions must be taken. Our planes
'curs, it is best treated by complete rest, frcedom from strain, are equipped for all eventualities and every man who Bies is
: & change of sccne and rdief from arduous duties. AAF sur~
trained in th e procedures of emergency evacuation and the
'geons ha\'e been able to reduce the occurrence of chronic fa- techniques of survival anywhere on earth.
tigue by a program of preventive mcasurcs: 24 hours' rest Bailing Out- When it becomes necessary to bail out, the
I between missions when possible, a period of Icave and alter-
ideal way is to set the plane on a level course and slow its air
:nate duty after a ccrbin number of hours of flying, and ath· speed. In a bomber crew, members use bailout exits located
·letics and recreation.
Aviation Medicine-The peculiar medical problems of
:a\'iation have given rise to the special science of aviation
:mcdicine. Since ''''orld War I the AAV has studicd and ex·
,- ....
/ ' ",,>~-
Ipcrimented with the ph ysiological difficulties resulting from
.8ildlt. Today the office of the Air Surgeon supcrviscs all medi·
.caT activities in the AAF. Every mcdical officcr who wears the
'golden wings of a flight surgeon has studied at the AAV's
School of Aviation Medicine, has worked with flying per·
:sonnel, and has had many hours of flying time in which to
bmiliariu himself with the air.
A Right surgeon is assigned to every flying squadron . IIc miNT HATCN IW HATCII
watche, over the daily health of the mcn and determincs 1 NAY1&ATOI
1 CO·PllOt
I. UPPD tuun 'UU[I
tWIO Gf'WToa
when they are 6t to fly. lIe may ground a man with a slight 1. PIlOt
cold beeause a cold which would cause little trouble on the
in easily accessible sections 01 the airplane. Fighter pilots
tum the" planes over il possible, dump the cockpit canopy,
release salety belt and thrust themselves out with their leet.
II there is danger 01 enemy fire, the airman employs a long
nee fall-that is, he opens his parachute only alter he has
fallen well below the level 01 enemy planes. At high altitudes
: the free fall also is advisable because it speeds the airman's
descent through the intense cold and rarity 01 the upper air. .."
A bailoul oxygen bottle (see page 244) is provided lor high
altitude j'lmps. ]n a jump from a medium altitude where th ere 'l i----- I~ /jJ/ '" ~
is no enemy 6re, th e ainnan waits 2 to 6 seconds before
pulling h iS ripcord. The delay minimizes danger ollouling the
parachute with the airplane and serves to slow the para-
. chutisfs downward speed, thus reducing the shock when the
lparachute billows open.
Alter the paracllUte opens, the airman descends leet down,
trelaxed and, if possible, with his face in the direction he is
(lrifting. He lands with Hexed legs and attempts to run lor-
ward with the wind behind him, while pulling the shrouds
o help collapse his parachute. Should the parachutist land in
ta tree, he crosses his arms in front of his head, burying face
F. l1li10 111'• •
~ 4 - _ __ • ~ _~

.-.; --- _ _

i n forearms; feet and knees are held together_ If an airman C. NAVIGATOR H... WAIST
~nds in water, he releases his parachute harness just before O. 8OMBAROIU I. L WAIST
is feet touch the surface and quickly inAates his Mae West L FUGIIT II&. I. TAIL
"Ie vest. Pilots of single-place aircraft are usually equipped
"th one-man life rafts containing emergency rations ' and
uipment. Both life ralts and Mae Wests can be instantly
Hated by attached carbon dioxide cylinders.
Ditching-If a bomber pilot decides his plane must be
itched-landed on water- the crew immediately takes pre-
ratory measures. All loose equipment like guns, aml1luni-
.on (or anything that adds weight) is thrown out. Bombs and
epth cha rges arc jettisoned or disarmed. Emergency equip.
ent (including a radio set) and supplies arc placed near the
pe hatches. Bomb bay doors are closed to prevent an in-
!,sh of water upon landing. The radio operator sends out a
eady distress signal.
The pilot brings the plane down und er power if possible
thcr than in a glide with th e engines off. When th e plane DITCHING PROCEDURE
comes to rest, the mcn exit rapidly through their assigned
ditching hatches, carrying equipmcnt with them. There are
different ditching procedures for each type of aircraft, but in
all cases every man has his specific job, a specific exit. Rubber
rafts are released from the fuselage and POP out on to the
wings. The rafts are loaded, the crew boards th em and they
shove off. The rafts are tied together in the water.
As long as the plane stays 3803t, the rafts remain near it,
for a plane on the water can m OTC easily be spotted by rescue
aircraft. When the plane sinks, the crew strikes out in a di-
rection that has been detennincd after calculation by the
navigator. The pilot is in command. H e plans a course of
I rationing for the food and water stores. It is desirable to re-
main clothed to avoid sunburn and excessive exposure.
Rafts are equipped with rations, fishing tackle, first aid kit,
• Very (ftare) pistols, an apparatus for making sea water drink-
able, and a sea markcr-a chemical which forms a large yel-
lowish-green spot on the water making the raft's position
visible to a rescue plane. There are 3 types of rafts in use: CRASH lAIIDINa
2500-pound capacity, loco-pound capacity and one-man raft. The AAF has long studi ed th e p roblems of survival . in
Stories of raft survival have become commonplace. Life on jungle, desert and arcti c. The .results .of t~ e. studies .are IlTI-
a raft in th e open sea is not pleasant, but it is possible to exist parted to aircrew members dunng th el: trammg a~ld 111 com-
if the men use their equipment and provisions as th ey have bat zones. An Arctic, Desert and T ropiC lnf~nnabon ~cn tc~,
been trained to use them. Hope of rescue, probably the great- sct up in the AAF, is cons~antly ac~tuTIulabng ~nd dlsscnll-
est sustaining force for men adrift, need never be given tip. nating new survival informatI on . Ava ilable to all 31rcrew mem-
Emergency rescue units, devoted solely to searching for and bers are concise fully illustrated casy-to-carry manuals
rescuing lost personnd, keep looking for men as long as th erc cramm ed with inf~rmation for emcrgencies. rn lC man uals tell
is even faint hope that they can be found. Boats, long-range how to signal for help, h ow to build sh elter, wh at foods to
amphibian planes and land planes equipped with ftoats are eat and which to avoid, h ow to t.reat ai lments and sa f~guard
sed for sea rescue. In theaters of operations air-sea rescue is health, h ow to deal with natives, ~lOW to travel over d Ifficult
abelted by the work of the Na vy and Allied naval and air terrain and scores of oth er useful Items. .
forces. Search operations are also conducted for men forced Crewmen are equipped with all-purpose emergency ~Its
cown in jungle, desert or arctic. containing sun glasses, jackknife, needle an? thread, fisl~ 1I1g
Forced Landing- 'Vhen in di stress over jungle, desert or ta ckl e, first aid supplies, water and food ratIOns, an d \"an~)U s
arctic, it is usually better to try t!o crash-land an airplane than tools and implements. T he kit is in th e foml of a seat cushIOn
10 bail out. The advantages are that the outline of a grounded and is wrapped in a zipper-fast~n ed .canvas cov~r. A .smaller
lane can be spotted from th e air and th e airplane itself pro- kit fits snugly aroun d th e body h ke a Jackct. A qUIlt, ohve dm b
·ides shelter, fud and material for fashioning improvised on one side and blue on th e oth er may serve as a slccp1l1g bag,
·capons and signaling devices. a hamm ock, a rai ncoat, a pu p tent or a signaling device.

. te t 0 st r~ te gy , so is technique
ust as tactics are s ubordm~ ,
subordinate to tacti cs. T echmque consists of the manner In
which tactics are perform ed ,
. force , em Ploys strategy', a form ation
An aIr '0 of aircraft exe-
cutes tactics; individual aircraft l1,se techlll q ~e, ur c,?m _
operations fall into 2 major ca tegones-strateglc ant tachc~~ h
l oth of which can be iden tified wi,th th e terms rom W IC
:he wcre derived . Strategic operati ons, based on 10ng-~al:ge
y .
plannmg are d·eSlgned to prevent th e enemy fromd obtammg I '
he wea 'ons he must h ave to make war, ~n d to es~roy liS
:m to K ht. :N[ain objecti ves of AAF tactical operatJol~s are
to achiev~ and maintain air sup~ema~y, to dest roy or ~I~ruft
enem su ly and communica tIOn lmcs, and to partl clpa e
ma y bl'Ped effort of th e air " ground and sea forces tontthe
comm '
immediate battlefront or adj acent to It. However, s ra eglc



·Combat operations bring into concerted action the various

. AAF eJements-personnel and equipment, organiza ti on and
I training. supply, maintena nce and bases. All are welded to-
gether in a united eftort aga inst th e enemy. Beca use our
. weapon can be empl oyed effectively in many ways, our com bat
operation) arc fairly complex. 'The foHowing basic definiti ons
:may lead to a better und ers tanding of how we fight.
Strategy involves long~ra nge planning, dctennincs th e
manner in which a war is to be fought. All our .acti ons are
:condition ed by the strategy governing our nati on's conduct
of the war.
Tactics arc the meth ods we employ in our operations
against the enemy; th ey constitute th e mea ns by which we
Implement existing strategy and apply it locally to achieve
ietory in a battle. Strategy may bes t be th ought of in terms
f a war, tac tics in tcrm s of a battle. STRATEGIC OPERATlOIIS TACTICAl OPERATlOHS

opcrations may entail the destruction or neutraliza ti on of the Another important considerati on i ii th e selection of. targcb
enemy's airpower as a first prerequisite to th e primary strategic most likely to be disrupted by bomb da ma~e . Factories pro-
objective. ducing material for which no ready substitute can be de-
Strategic Targets-Th e targets of stra tegic operations are velopcd serve as an exa mple. Stratcgy may ?all fo r concen.tra-
th e sou;ccs of prod uction and maintenance of the enemy's ti on on onc phase of cnem y ma nufa~turc-al ~cra ft p roduction.
for instan ce. But sometimes cffccb ve bombmg dlfccted at a
I»K 1[101£
singlc vital item, stich as ball bearin gs,. docs morc ~arm to
cnemy aircraft produ cti on th an destructl on of factones mak-
ing th e planes themselves. .'
Tactical Ta rgets-Tacti cal ta rge ts .co nsl.st m,a1l11y of enemy
forces and supplics. Rapidly changll1g Situations may ca~se
th ese targets to change from da y to day. On land, th cy 111 -
elude communica ti ons, aircraft and alfficlds, troops, t~an ..,­
portation and ba ttl e emplacements. If th e battle area IS ~t
sca they include shi pping and naval surfa ce craft. In th e air
-~vcr land and sea- th c targets are enemy aircraft . B~t tl~e
prerequisite of tactical operations is to establish and mam ta lll
air superi ority. ..'
Basic Weapons-Bcca use stra tc~l c au opera tions are cha.r-
acte ri zed by long~ra n ge and sustained mass attack, th.e basIc
weapon is th e hea vy and very heavy b~ln bardmcn t aIrplane.
Such opera tions, however, also usuall y Ill volve l?ng-rang~ re-
conn aissance aircraft and esco rt fightcrs. St rategic operatIOns
place great emphasis on complete intelligcnce. of the activities
of an enemy nation; they are furth er charactenzed .by the nced
for long-range wea th cr forccastin g, and by relative freedom
from enem y at tack on ib. bases of operation. ..
Tactical air operations demand a h igh ~egree of mO~l l.1 ty
, and th e cmployment of specific types of aircraft for stnkl1lg
wa r 1IIachine. TIley incl ude rea r bascs ;md supply lines out of at th e enemy's front line strength, such as supply and ~om ­
reach of tactical air units; key indust ries engaged in producing mlln ications, and for actua l contact on th e ba ttlefield . 1 hese
aircraft, other machines of war, amm llnitiol\ and critical raw opera tions may in volve th e following corllpon~n ts: med ium
materials. electr ic power, transportati on and fuel systcms. bombardmen t aircra ft, ligh t bombardm ent aircra ft, figh t~r
They arc selectcd only after careful, expe rt analysis which and fi gh ter-bomber aircraft, rccon~l:1 i %ancc al~d phot?graphlc
takes every conceivable factor into considerati on . For ex- aircra ft , an tia ircraft artillery and aIrcraft wanl Jll g SCrvlC~S .
ample: How vitall y will th e destruction of a given plant affec t Most types of aircraft can pe rform ?oth . strategic ~nd
the enemy's fron t line figh ti ng abi lity? Wh ich plants should tactical operations; and, a'i mi lita ry ncccsslt~ d ictates, tactlc:11
be selected as in volving, ill th e event of their dcstructio n, th e and stra tegic air units may be operated aga lllst the same ob-
l i hortest time-lag in maki ng their destruction fd t? jecti ves. Stratcgic air forces arc combat components of th e
Another important consideration is the selection of targets
most likely to be disrupted by bomb damage. Factories pro- type of bomb in regard to its weight, fuzing and eont~nt.
ducing material for which no ready substitute can be de- (See page 150.) Attacks ca nnot follow an~ set formula, smee
veloped serve as an exa mple. Strategy may call for concentra- they may be delivered at high or low altItudes, dunng day-
tion on one phase of enemy manufacture- aircraft production, light or at night, by means of preCISIOn or area bombmg, and
I for instance. But sometimes effective bombing directed at a may be opposed or unopposed by the enemy.
single vital item, such as ball bearings, docs more haml to BOMBING ALTITUDES
enemy aircraft production than destruction of factories mak- MINIMUM.... ... . . .. ... ................ . . up1000 to 1000 leet
to 7500
ing th e planes themselves. LOW . . . • • • ••••••••••••••• •••••• •••• •••• ·· 7500 to 15 000

Tactical Targets-Tactica l targets consist mainly of enemy MEDIUM .•••• - • •••• •••• •••••••••••••••••. i 5 000 and ' u .
HI C H . . . . . . . • • . . . • . . . . . . • •. ••. . .• .. •• .. •. , P
forces and supplies. Rapidly changing situations may cause
r these targets to change from day to day. On land, they in- Bombing Problem- A target which in.eludes many str~ctur~s
clude communications, aircraft and airfields, troops, tran s- may sometimes be di vided . an~ so aSSigned to atta ckmg ~Ir­
portation and b.lttle emplacements. If the battle area is at craft that if each structure IS hIt by one. bomb of proper size
sea, they include shipping and naval surface craft. In th e air the entire target will be destr.oyed. StIll other targets may
I -over land and sea- the targets are elle!TIY aircraft. But the require a uniform pattern of hits over 3. glv~n area:
prerequisite of tactical operations is to establish and maintain An important consideration in bombmg IS th e size of th e
[ air supefiority. force which a mission must employ to assure a .rcasona~le
Basic Weapons-Beca use strategic air operations are ch a r~ chance of obtaining the required number o~ hits. vVln Ie
acterized by long,ra nge and sustain ed mass attack, the basic economy dictates the use of th e smallest p~acbcabl e ~umber
weapon is the heavy and very heavy bombardment airplane. of planes and crews, th e chance of success m cr~ses W ith the
Such operations, however, also usually involve long~ran ge re- size of th e force. These 2 factors plus th e csb~ated enemy
connaissance aircraft and e~co rt fighters. Strategic operations opposition to any particular mission must be weighed for final
place grcat emphasis on complete intelligence of th e ac ti vi ti es detennination of th e number of planes to be u~ed. .
of an enemy nation; they are further characterized by the need Day and Night Bombing Operations-DaylIgh t bombmg
for long.range weather forecas ting, and by relative freedom constitutes the core of AAF combat operatIons. Its effective-
I from enemy attack on its bases of operation. ness lies in th e ability to sight the target, and thus employ
Tactical air opera tions demand a high degree of mobility th e synchronous bombsight. Th IS pennlts hIgh al tItude pre-
and the employment of specific types of aircraft for striking cision bombing; also, dayhght operations all?w u~ to t~ke
. at the enemy's front line strength, such as suppl y and com- adva ntage of fonn ation ~ H yin g. Night ope rab ons, In 'yh~ ch
munications, and for actual contact on the battlefield . These AAF men also arc trained, involve such problems as l oc~tmg
operations may invol ve the following components: medium the target, morc compli.catc.d. na vigation, .grcate: operatIOnal
bombardment aircraft, light bombardment aircraft, fighter haza rd s and the impractI ca bIlity of formation flymg. .
and fighter~bombcr aircra ft, reconnaissa nce and photographic Formations-Flying in a prescribed pattern , or formatIon,
; aircraft, antiaircraft artillery and aircraft warning services. increases offensive and defen sive strength . Arra~ge~e.nt of a
~ Most types of aircraft can perform both strategic and form ation is usually based upon th e s trengt~ , dISpOSItion and
: tactical operations; and, as military necessity dictates, tactical employment of th e indi~idl1al combat UllIt. As a rul e, all
, and strategic air units ma y be operated against the same ob- planes in a given formation .a r~ o~ the same typ~ o~ have
i jectives. Strategic air forces are combat components of th e similar performan ce cha racten stI cs 111 ~rder to mallltalll the
formati on pattern . There arc no prcscnbed types of bomber

formations which must be rigidly followed . Each formation
~ -

must meet the requirements of the specific situation pre-

sented. must be sufficiently flexible to adapt itself during
8ight to changing situa tions. The possible types of forma- SQUADRON STAGGER FORMA11ON
tions 3fC many.

ELEMENT • ••.• • • • • . . . . . • • • • • • . . . . . • . . . . . . . . 2 to ... aircraft
FLIGHT •..•.•. . . . . . • • . ...•• •••• ••• ••••• 2 or more elements
COMBAT BOX (OR CROUP) •••••••••••••••••• 2 or more flights
COMBAT wINe ..............•.•• ........•. 2 or more .groups

Bombardment Attack-Targets generally are classified as

fixed, transient, or fleeting. Fixed targets are immobile- ~

factories, dams, dock installations. Transient targets are those

capable of being moved- supplies, ammunition dumps, con-
I centratio:1s of motor equipment. Fleeting targets 3rc those in

motion- shipping, navy craft, tanks, motor transport.

Heavy Bomber- The ability of heavy bombers to drop ••
bombs with accuracy from altitudes in excess of 30,000 feet
is directly attributable to precision bombsights and Auto- ~ 1-
matic Flight Control Equipmcnt-a device which actually
Bies the plane during the bombing run (see page 171). To- SQUADRON JAVELIN DOWN
gether they solve extremely difficult and complex bombing
problems in a matter of seconds. The bombardier, who is a
specialist doing his calculations in split seconds, must deal
,with such problems as the speed of the plane. correct altitude.
airection of the wind in relation to the aircraft, identification
of the taIget at extreme altitudes, the inevitable di scomfort
~ue to cold and the use of oxygen. and the fact that the
mber may he under enemy attack.
I Although low-level bombing is seldom performed by AAF
cavy bombers, they have been used on occasion in low level
ttacks when 1ittle ground opposition was expected, or in the
nterest of complete surprise. Because of their size and relative FID"T VIEW
ack of maneuverability and speed, heavy bombers arc ex·
dingly vulnerable at low levels.
Bombsight-As new models of our bombers have attained
ighcr altitudes and greater speeds, the problems of precise
mbing have become more complex. Improvements in
All is BOMBING RUN. B is computation will calise the bomb to faB short of, or go be-

the point of bomb release. C is
the posi tion of the airplane at
yond, the target.

- the time the bomb strikes the TI,e second problem solved by th e bombsight is deflection.
t,eget . RANGE ANGLE which An error in calculating deflection wi ll cause the bomb to fall
--<~ determines proper relea~ point to the right or left of the target. The bombardier, looking
is established by altitude and dis~
-- "'" '-
'-'- ,,- tance from target. In calculating
for bombing, wind, which affects
th rough th e telescope of the bombsight, can detect the direc-
tion that the plane is drifting. The aircraft is lined up with
th e target by mea ns of Automatic Flight Control Equipment,
the path of the plane and there-
fore the trajectory of the bomb or by a device which enables the pilot to fly by directions
must he taken in to consideration : received from the bombardier. \Vhen th ese 2 operations are
SOLVING THE BOMBING PROBLEM performed, that is, when th e correct range has been esta b-
lished, and deflection error h as been eliminated, th e bomb
sight is said to be synchronized. TIle bombs will then be
bombing eq~ipmcnt. and, accesso ries ha\re been necessary to released automatically when th e ai rcraft reaches th e bomb
keep' pace ~lth engmeermg achievements which have mad e release point as calculated by the bombsight.
plsslbl~ altitudes of more than 7 miles, speeds greater than Automatic release of the bombs, indivi dually or in an y
300 mIles per hour, bomb loads of over 8000 pounds. number, is don e by th e intervalometer. This device, when set
The synchronous bombsight, an instrument not much by the bombardier, releases th e bombs as desired. Bombs may
larger t.han a typew;iter, makes possible the placement of be released to fall every 25 feet, 50 feet, or at whatever interval
bombs m th.e. most vItal areas of a target. As a result, difficult the targe t may require. In an emergency, either th e bombar-
targets requmng a concentration of hits in a small arca ca n dier or pilot can release all the bombs manually. This operation
be !>omhed eifcctivcJy. In general, the tactics cmploycd in is caned the salvo. Bombs ca n also be released "safe:' (so they
honz~:mtal bo".'lbardment rely on the increasingly efficient use will not explode on impact) in case they have to be jettiso ned
of thIS bombSIght. over friendly territory or in non-combatan t areas.
The bombsight, with data computed by the bombardi er Target. is sighted.
set mt.o the mechanism, dctcnni nes the correct point in space Bombardier observes aircraft
is drifting as indicated by
at which a specific type of bomb must be released to st;ikc target " moving " across ver-
3. scle~ted target. The fundamental data set into the bomb- tical cross-hair.
C(1Urse ~o' target is established.
sight I!. determined by th e altitude of the plane above the Bombsight telescope begins
target, Its rate of speed ~c1ative .t o th e grou nd, and the typc TRACK ING target. This is
of bomb to be used. This data IS figured by the bombardier DEFLECTIO N.
----~==t-- The horizontal cross-hair is
bcfo~e the plane reaches t~e . target ~rea. Once ~l C bombing placed on the target and
run IS beglln, the b?mbardler s technique dctermlllcs whether prope r RATE of telescope
or not the bc:>mb Will reach its objective. movement is established to
determi ne RANGE .
. Through Its telescopic mechanism th e bombsight estab- When the target remains in
lIshes .m ~ngle bctwee~ the . position of th e plane and th e the intersection of the ver-
ti ca l and horizontal cross-hair , the bombsight is SYNCHRONIZED .
t~rgct. This angle, varymg with the altitude, determines the When the aircraft reaches the release point , the bombs will automati-
distance fro~ the tar~ct at which the bomb must be rel eased . ca lly be released.
The computing of thiS distance is caJl ed muge. Errors in s~lch BOMBSIGHT TElESCOPE
from above a fonnation of bombers requires a precision diffic.ult
Area Bombing-Area bombing is employed when the ob- to obtain in view of the high speeds of both the attackong
it-ctive is large and contains a multiplicity of targets. The enemy fighters and the bombers. . ' .
attacking formation remains intact, forming the p~ttcm de- High altitude flying is our baSIC defensive measure ~gamst
sired for bomb coverage. Usually the lead plane wIll usc the antiaircraft fire; the greater the altitude, th e less effectIve th e
~ynchronous bombsight, in which case the bombardiers of ground defenses. Most antiaircraft fire (commonly called
the other planes will release their bombs upon visual observa- flak) is controlled on the ground by a predictor system . It
tion th.t the lead pl.ne has dropped its bombs. consists of devices which determme the altItude and .spe~d
Overcast Bombing-A special method of hombing is em- of attacking bombers and a ttemp~ to predict the pomt III
ployed to overcome complete cloud coverage when no visi- space where projectile and p~ane w~ll meet.
bility of the ground exists. Bombs arc dropped on the target AAF aircraft employ evaSive action to con~~se the ~a1cula.­
bv mClns of electronic ' devices which locate both the main lions of antiaircraft g,.unners. The most en tIcal penod for
objective .nd the specific target. Accurate high level bombing bombers during an attack is during the bomb run, when the
has been accomplished by this means through morc than aircraft must be Rown straight, level and ~t constant .speed.
25 ,OOC feet of overcast. In attempting to stop a large attackong form atop n of
Defensive Action- Enemy opposition to our bombing oper- bombers enemy antiaircraft batte.nes ~ay fire flak barrages,
ations is concentrated chiefly in fighter aircraft and anti~ forming a concentration of fire Ju~t In front of ~he bomb
aircraft fire. The AAF continually develops tactics to le!'l sen ,If release line. This method of fire IS much more . mac~urate
the etlcctiveness of such encmy defenses. The great concen~ than predicted fire but is used as an attempt t~ Im pau the
tration of fire power on our heavy bom bers has been de~ .. accuracy of bombing, as wen as destroy th e a~tackm g b?mbers.
vcloped solely for their protection during the performance of Medium Bomber- The medium bomber IS th e m311l com-
their mission. A bomber never initiates an attack in the air, ponent of tactical ?p~rations . .Highly flcxible, it operates from
and wIll avoid an engagement with enemy fighters if possible. medium, low or mlmmum alti tud es and can releas~ torpedoes
Enemy 6ghters are attacked by a bomber only as a b y~product as well as bombs. It is well armed for defense ~gam st e:,en~y
of the bomber's defense of itself. fighters. Its speed and maneuve rabili 9-' add to ItS ~ec~n ty 111
lbe best bomber defense against attack from enemy flight . Because of th e variety of tactocs employed on Its use,
fighters is close formation Rying. By remaining in formation modifications and developments add mg to Its effectiveness
the fire power of a]] the planes may be concentrated to m eet have been frequent. .'
attackers from any direction . If, during an attack on a target, Medium Altitude Attack- In medi um altitude attack, for
the enemy fighters disengage and antiaircraft fire begins, the most part, th e medium bomber uses the same tactics ~s
the bombers may loosen up their formation . Should the th e heavy bomber. During th e release of bombs th ~ plane 1.S
fighters attack again, the bombers must return to close their vulnerable to fire from automatic weapons and .1.lgh t an tI~
fonnation. aircraft gun s. T he grea ter. spced . a n ~ maneuverabilI ty of the
Use by th e enemy of rocket projectiles and air-to~air bOll1b~ medium bomber govern Its tactI cs m ~ tta~k .
ing calls for evasive tactics-varying altitude and speed, weaves, Low Level Bombing- Low level bomb1l1g IS one of the most
turns and dives. Rocket tubes instalkd on the wings of effective uses of th e mcdium bomber. T he el em ~n t of sur-
enem~ fighters permit them to remain out of range of the prise is very great. Using the cover of trees and 11Ill.s, attack~
rn.nnber's guns but by the same token make it diffi cult for ing planes often reach the target and release th eir. bombs
the: fighter!! to fire accuratel y. Rocket projec til es Illust cx plodc before th ey are detec ted by th e enemy. Even clcct rot11c wa rn-
dOM! to :I bomber to be effec ti ve. Similarly, air~ to-air bombing
ing devices are fallible in trying to pick lip planes flying at
low altitudes. During the bombing TUn the heavy annament

b ecause drift can cause

the b omb to miss its ma rk. The
hich th e bom b is released is a

of the medium bomber is used both to damage the target distance from th e target .at IV t f th e required distance
and to prevent enemy ground defenses from going into . f t Accurate IU dgmen 0 ..
prnne ac or. . < 1 after much practice an d t rall1lng.
can be accomplIshed on y ft
As a variation, bombs are °. cd so as to skip on th e
en aim
surface and thus into th e target.
-- --------- --


---- -- ----- --


action. 1110ugh very effective, low level bombing requires
tactical precision in operations, because th e planes are ex.
trernely vulnerable to ground defen ses if StIch defenses are
able to open fire. Generally, bombers mllst fly through a ®
cross·6re set up by the enemy. However, antiaircraft guns in
most cases cannot be directed effectively against bombers
flying .t extremely low altitudes.
Minimum Altitude Attack-Employed both on land and
sea, the attack is usuaJly made from as Iowa level as possible,
with a pull up to the necessary bombing altitude as the
- - - - 2 1 I 5 O F T. ---~,
b b release fro m 50 feet at a moderate
target IS reached . Delayed action bombs enable the airpbne Example A shows a om . I le is traveling at a higher speed;
to escape the danger area of bomb bursts. ~/(inimllm altitude speed. In Example B tl~e aIr) a~ed fart her from the ship . Ex-
attack requires a high degree of skill and technique in aiming
the bombs and in flying. TI,e planes used for this type of
here the bomb must t re ~~ackin~ a hewily armored vessel,
ample C shows how, w lel~ ~ .' Iftude s~ the bomb will sub-
the aircra ft must be at a lI g le T a I
attack usuaBy have a great concentration of forward fire merge an d detonate. beneath the water. .
power to destroy targets and minimize ground defenses.
·1 r 1 t b mbcr supplements the mcdlUm
Sine< the bomb is released so close to th e target, great Light Bombcr-l. le 1 11' tarOets as enemy perso nnel, cncI.n y
accuracy results. The bomb ass umes the flight path of the bombcr, and attacks su~ tank~ railway equipm en t and roll Ing
plane and therefore the direction of th e wind is important aircra t· S r~quiring precisio n attack and
mo tor
ransPb?r 1
0 Jee 1\ e

aircraft ca n ca rry bombs; some are capable of carrying a

bOlnb load of 2000 pounds or morc. The size and weight

of the bombs ca rri ed va ry with the type of aircraft. \Vhen

carrying bombs, the fighter is less maneuverable and for pro-
r tection may be escorted by other figh ters_

Fighter aircraft are today an important component of AAF
offensive power. D evelopments in both armament and per-
form ance have enabled fighters to perform added duties.
High speed , superior rate of climb and man euverability
are essential factors; the flexibility of fighter aviation is per-
~- haps grea ter than in any other type of air combat.
_ .....u. AlIITIII( ....., -3$..- The unit possessing superior airplanes and equipment can,
wh,cedh athfe su.sccptihJe to destruction by slllall bombs II · ·1 within limits, choose the time and place for initiating a fight
ann e light bo be f - eav, y - 3 distinct advantage. The relative maneuverability of air-
bo b-' In r ca n stra e the enemy as it makes "t
b·o'n" bomg bTun. Usual)]y parafrag~ and delayed ac tion demo'l,' craft materially influences the tactics employed in air fight-
m s are emp oyed to bt · . - ing. In fighter planes, equipped only with fixed guns, ma-
allows the aircraft 0 am ~ sca tter.lOg of fire which
tactic has been hi t~l escape ~oncusslO.n. 11l1s strafe-bombing neuverabi lity is of ex treme importance as it governs th e case
th e Southwest Pac&c.Y successful against enemy airfields in and speed with whi ch th e guns can be aligned and held on
th e target; it also makes evasive tactics possible.
Fighter-Bomber_-I11C fighter-bombe r f Accuracy of fire is dependent primarily on th e following:
gen<.:raJ fun ction as th e light b
b l pehT Orms the same ( 1 ) The sh orter the range, the more nea rly will th e projec-
om er. n t c AAF all fighter
tiles co nform to their mea n trajectory and hit at th e point
indicated by direct sighting. ( 2) The shorter the range the
greater th e accuracy of fire, since if the target is man euve rin g
it may move out of the cone of fire while th e projectiles are
in fligh t. (» The greater the individual skill the more suc-
cessful th e ai r figh ting, since co rrect estimati on of range,
accurate aiming, and, for fixed gun installation, skillful pilot.
ing are essential.
Tactics-Tactics employed by fighter aircraft vary with the
combat theater in which th e fighters are opera ting. with the
design and characteristics of the particular aircraft used, and
with th e tactics of the enemy. Beca use the tac tical situation
and th e geographical location of our forces vary, different de·
mand s arc imposed on our fighter aircraft. Basically, the fighter
is exceedingly adaptable, and with a min imum amount of
modifica tion C'1I1 be adapted for use in a specific locality.

. Unlike combat aviation in World War I, the glory of indio tage of position in offensive air fi ghting, and at the same tim e
Yldual combat has little place in today's air war. No longer does be able to interpose elements b~tween an attacker .and the
a SIngle plane go out seekmg to engage an opponent. Fighter formation itself. Fighter formations must b~ readIly con-
planes are organzzed into units trained to fight as teams. TIlcre trollable. This requirement is effected by mdoctnnation,
may be ~, 4. 6, 8 or any number, but always more than one visual signals, or radio. . .
(except in night fighting). There are 2 types of baSIC fighter formations: close or
i . By renaining in formations, or by flying in pairs, the en- nonnal forma tion, and search or extended formation. In close
tire compODe~t can train its. combined fire power on the fonTIation , aircraft are spaced only far enough apart to all?w
I enemy. Also, It ~an ~or~ easl~Y maneuver the enemy into freedom of maneuver while remaining within close supportlOg
effectiv~ range. Flghtmg In UOits rather than singly enables di stance of each other. This fonnation is used in combat.
each pilot to cover the other, and provides more eyes to In the extended formation, the sub-units are beyond sup-
search the sky for enemy fighters. port of each other but are still undcr tacti cal control. Adja-
cent units maintain visual contact at all tnnes. 11llS type of
formati on is used for patrols and sea rch missions.

I Weather conditions and the presence and location of the
: 5U11 have consi?crable influence on air fighting, both as ad-
'yantages and dISadvantages .. Small units of fighters approach-
. m~ an obiecbve from t,he direction of, th,e sun arc sometimes
a~ e to launch a surpnse attack. [n tImmg an attack imme-
[dzately after sunset ,or immediately before sunrise, th e ad-
vantage of approacl1Jn~ a silhouetted target is gained.
The fact~r of VISI~llity plays contrasting roles in offensive
~nd defensIve operations. High visibility favors fighter pilots
on I~tlllg targets for attack. Low visibility aids defensive
~onnatJom, or small units, in evading fighter interception. Combat Operations-Fighter combat operations have 3
, <?Iouds afford an excellent place for concealment from phases: approach to combat, the combat, and , withdrawal.
!WhIch su~pnse att~cks may be bunched against enemy planes The approach to combat phase h as a greater mH~ence on
~nd ,proVide effect!ve cov.er enroute to and from an objective. the result than any oth er phase of fighter operations. Ap-
: Fighter Fonnations-Flghter formations call for a sufficient proach toward the most vulnerable or blind sector of the
de~ee of ftexi~ility to J?<:nnit sudden rearrangement to meet hostile formation confuses the enemy and delays p rol,er
.~pldly changlIlg condi tions. Maneuverability is important counter action. Fighter pilots must be thoroughly famlhar
~n order that the planes of a formation may retain th e ad van- with the characteristics and the most vulnerable sectors of
enemy aircraft and fonn ations. \Vhen the enemy is sighted . In escorting bombers on long-range missions over h eavi.ly
the attack or maneuver-for-attack position should be initiated defended territory, as many as 6 or 8 separa te figh ter mIS-
without delay. sions may be employed , in volving a complex system of pr~­
The first blow is very important. Sustained fire begins as cision timing. Air speeds, fuel .consumpt lOn, wea ther c~~d l­
soon as th e . en~my planes are within range. Every effort is tions (especially cloud formations) and enemy oppoSI tion
made to mam ta In th e pa ttern of the attacking force and pre- must be taken into conSide ration. .
vent a m~Jee of indiv id ua.l engagements. An attack on a target 500 miles away normally reqUires at
The withdrawa l phase In volves a determined effort to take least 4 separa te fighter esco r.t missions. Figl~ter es~orts
ad\'a ntag~ of any confusion and dispersion of th e enemy rendezvous with bombcr formations at predetennmed pOlll tS.
force which may result from th e initial attack. If th e attack Since fighters ca nnot h old down th eir speed to th at of
h3~. ~eell indecisive or unfavorable, a withdrawal is effec ted bombers, they must weave ba~k and forth or Circle, th us
utillzmg . speed and evasive tactics to minimize losses. An using fuel and cutting down th etr range. O ne relay of ~ghters
attcl.npt IS th en made to ~cga in ad vant~g~ by regrouping. escorts th e bomb ers fo r th e first leg. an oth er replaces It, and
Fighter Escort- Range IS the de tennmmg factor in the em- finally the lon gest range figh ters furnish escort to th e tar~et
ployment o~ fighter planes as escort for bombers or fighter- and for th e first leg of the return trip. If figh ter fuel supplies
bombers. Fighters. lT~ay escor~ ~omber formations through are dwindling on th e way back, th e long-range fighte.rs may
all or part of a mission, furmshmg a screen against enelny be relieved by an oth er long-ra l~ ge fighter escort wh ich ac-
attack and augmenting defensive firepower.
companies the bombers to ~ POIn t where sh ort~range fighters
T o be most effecti ve, fighter escort must be able to con- meet th e formation, escort It back to h ome tern tory.
centra~~ ~r.e in any. ~ irection . ~ela tive speeds, escort strengtll Fighter Sweeps-Fighter diversionary swe~ps fr~q~ently are
and vIsibili ty conditions predicate th e dista nce from whi ch flown over enemy airbases prior to a bombmg m iSSion to act
fighters nonnally cover bombc~ fonn ati ons. Escorting aircraft as decoys. This action brings up enem y .fighte~s and exhaust.s
counter-atta~k only when hostile fighters make direct attacks
on a {onnatlon. th ei r fuel, enabling th e bom bers to st~lke With less OppOSI-
ti on . In this type of mission fighter aircraft ha ve co~ pl e te
Rum !SCOII freedom of action and normally engage any enem~ aircraft
enco untered. The effectiveness of figh ter sweeps h as Increased
th rough the use of fighter-bombers. Even th ough th e enemy
knows th at th e sweep is d~ ve rs ionary, h e c~nn ot Ignore th c
threat of fighters armed With bombs. H e IS therefore co.m-
pelled to in tercept. 'n lese missions are generally flOWI.l at high
altitudes. Figh ter sweeps also arc fl own at oth er altitudes ~o
clear th e air of enem y aircraft and to cover ground fo rces 111
Intruder Raids- In truder raids usuall y are fl own at n igh t b y
individual n igh t ai rcraft to harass th c enem y. T h e in trud er
may join an enemy fonn ation . an~, u.ndc~ected, By to an
enemy airfield , strafin g or bombmg It. 111c mtrud er also may
penetrate deep into enemy territory un detected, and bomb or
stra fe targets of opportuni ty.
In escorting bombers on long· range missions over heavily
defended territory, as many as 6 or 8 separa te fighter mis- - Fighter Control in Tactical Operations-Each tactical air
sions may be employed, involving a complex system of pre- d~vision has a tactical cont rol center which in a given area
cision timing. Air speeds, fuel consumption, weather condi- d.lrects the fighter, fighter-bomber, and reconnaissance opera-
tions (especially cloud formation s) and enemy opposition bons by direct radio communications. Such centcrs are hubs of
must be taken into consideration. wire and radio netw.orks.connected to airbases, military ground
An attack on a target 500 miles away normally requires at ?bse~ers, radars, dIrcctJ~n -finding stations, air-parties operat-
least 4 separate fighter escort missions. Fighter escorts mg With gro~l~d trooP.s, hlghcr headquarters and other milita ry,
n~ va l and CIVI] agenclcs. The centers are furnished with map

rendezvous with bomber formations at predetermined points.
Since fighters cannot hold down their speed to that of dlsp!ays which sl1m~ari ze th ~ air picture minl1te-by-minute.
bombers, they must weave back and forth or circle, thus Fighter Co.ntr<:>] In StrategIc Operations-Aircraft warning
using fuel and cutting down their range. One relay of fighters and .com.mulll~~tlOn e~ ements serve to warn AAF pilots of
escorts the bombers for the first leg. anoth er replaces it, and hostile aIr acttvlty which our bombers may encounter while
finallv the longes t range fighters furnish escort to th e target proceeding to a target.
and for th e first leg of the return trip. If fighter fuel supplies Ground control of fighter escorts is anoth er factor. For ex-
are dwindling on the way back, th e lon g-range fighters may 31:np] e, 2.bombing missions, both escorted by fighters, head for
be relieved by another long-range fighter escort which ac- different targets. One mission reports no aerial interceptions'
companies the bombers to a point where short-range fighters the other that it has run into more enem y fighters th an ex:
meet the fannation, escort it back to home territory. pected. TIle fighter controller, acting from th e ground di verts
Fighter Sweeps-Fighter diversionary sweeps frequently are som ~ of the fighte.rs from onc flight to th e other. '
flown over enemy airbases prior to a bombing mission to act Air Defense-Air defense constitutes those meaS ures neces-
as decoys. This action brings up enemy fighters and exhausts sary to prevent, to interfere with , or to reduce the effec tive-
their fuel, enabling the bombers to strike with less opposi- ness of hostile air action after hos tile aircra ft have left their
tion. In this type of mission fighter aircraft have complete own airfields or carriers.
freedom of action and normally engage any enemy aircraft
encountered. The effectiveness of fighter sweeps h as increased
through the use of fighter-bombers. Even th ough the enemy
knows that the sweep is di versionary, he cannot ignore th e
threat of fighters armed with bombs. He is therefore com-
pel.led to in~crcept. These missions are generally Hown at high
albtudes. FIghter sweeps also are flown at other altitud es to
clear the air of enemy aircraft and to cover ground forces in ---'~
. I~truder Raids-Intruder raids usually are flown at night b y
mdlVldual mght aircraft to harass the enemy. The intruder
may join an enemy form ation and, undetected, fiy to an
enemy airfield, strafing or bombing it. 111e intruder also may
penetrate deep into enemy territory undetected, and bomb or
strafe targets of opportunity.

. TIle most effective measure is to send fighter aircraft ~ to AIRBORNE WARFARE-Airborne Forces are Army Ground
Intercept enemy planes and knock them down or drive them Force units specially organized, trained and equipped t.o utilize
off before they rcach their target. Antiaircraft artillery, auto- air transportation for en try into combat. Included 10 these
mat!c weapons, barrage baBoons and an aircraft warning units are parachute and glider-borne ?lement~. .
service arc other weapons used to defend AAF instalIations Troop carrier forces are AAF ~Oits specially orgamz~d,
against air attack. trained and equipped to transport aIrborne troops and eqlllp-
Active air defense comprises all measures which aim to ment into combat. Troop carrier units should not be confused
destroy, or threaten destruction of, hostile aircraft and their with the Air Transport Command whose primary mission is
crews in the air. transporting personnel, supplies and mail between theaters.
Passive air defense comprises other defense measures un. Employment- Airborne troops ordina,rily are employed . as
dertakcl1 to make our surface objectives less susceptible to part of a combined effort undertaken 10 ,close coordm.atlOn
o?serv~tion and bombing- air raid precautionary measures, with oth er military and naval forces. Tramed and eql1lpped
d ispersIOn, blackouts, suppression of aids to the enemy. camou- to accomplish specific missions, they arc employed only on
flage and concealment. missions that cannot be performed more expeditiously and
Air defense situations are never exactly alike. The ob ject to economically by other forces. The geographical inaccessibility
~ defended may be a recently captured airfield in enemy ter- of an object to a ground force is a major fa ctor in considering
ntory, a harbor where our supplies arc bei ng unloaded, im- the employment of airborne forces. These troops nonnally
J1:Ortant battle positions, communications lines, an island are not employed unless th ey can be supported in a very
aubase. the Panama Canal, or one of a score of other vital areas short time or unless th ey can be withdrawn after their mis-
or installations. sion has been accomplished.
Two systems of defense, with many variations within each, Airborne troops are employed in mass and landed rapidly
have been developed to meet the requirements of different in as smal1 an area as practicable. Since air superiority is a
militaf) situations, These systems are known as fixed or mobile prerequisite for successful airborn e operati on s, th e degree of
characterizing respectively the type of aircraft warning and air superiority and th e amount of small arms fire to be ex-
control equipment used . pected arc factors in determining wheth er airborne operations
A fixed air defense system is one used for the strategic ai r should be initiated during daylight or at night.
defe!lse of a s~eci fic area; it is custom-built to defend one Instead of avoiding antiaircraft fire by altitude or evasive
parbc.ular locality and no oUler. The warning equipment action, routes are selected which avoid it entirely. Pathfinder
use~ IS ~ more or less pennanent type and cannot be moved aircraft with highly trained crews are employed to precede the
easlly_ F,xed defense systems are used for defcnding tI,e United leading troop carrier Hight to th e dropping or landing area _
States, Panama Canal, Iceland and Alaska, and areas removed In order to prevent early detection, th e initial approach to
from the actual front line fighting. hostile positions is made at low altitude. In th e selec tion of
Mobile and air transpo rtable defense systcms are established landing areas, usually one close to th e objecti ve is ch osen to
and operated by a tactical air force and used in forward battle insure surprise. C over near the landing area is important.
area~. Both of these are extremely Rexible and can be sent illl- Suitable terrain for defense is required .
medl~tely to any forward areas into which our troops and All land, sea and air forces in th e areas involved must bt:
sU~les may be moved. inform ed of scheduled airborn e opera ti ons. C omplete coor·
. hichever type is used, the mission of air defense systems dination and mutual understanding are imperative; airborn<
IS the same-: to deny the enemy the usc of the ai r. troops must be advised of the identification means used b}

the grOlmd troops with whom they may operate. The objec- gation is not an independent form of ail naviga tion but is
tives of airborne forces are: to seize, bold or otherwise exploit employed to veri fy or correct th e other form s.
important tactical localities such as airdromes, bridges, high Radi o navigation makcs usc of the dircction from which
ground and crossroads, in conjunction with or pending ar- radio wavcs arc received to determine, by means of a loop an-
rival of other military or naval forces; and to seize areas which tcnna, tl~e direction of th e transmitting station . The loop
the enemy cannot readily hold or reinforce. antenna IS so constructed that when coupled with a suitable
rccci ~e r, beari ngs may be taken on a distant radio stati on by
AUXILIARY OPERATIONS rotatll~g th,e loo p until th e signal is of minimum strength .
Reconnaissance Aviation-The mission of reconnaissance At thiS POll1t th e pl311e of th e loop is perpendicular to th c
aviation is the securing of enemy information from the air. dIrect IOn of th e transmitting stati on. Knowing the location of
Both photographic and visual means are used. Two types of the tran~mitting station, the aerial navigator is enabled to cal-
reconnai,sance arc employed for the procurement of such in- culate h~s position in relation to that stati on. The plane may
formation. One is photographic reconnaissance which operates also fly m on the beam direct t.o the station.
nomlally at high altitude and at long-range in cooperation with .Intelli~ence-Com ba t intelligence provides material for
organizations operating strategical1y. The second is tactical re- bne fi l~g alrcre\~s-a n action in which the airercws receive perti-
connaissance which normally operates at medium or extremely nent l~format~on from officers in charge of many phases of
Jow altitude in cooperation with organizations operating tacti- opera ttons. Bnefing takes place immediately prior to an air-
cally. Reconnaissance should precede operations of striking crcw's takeo~ ~or a mission. It deals with target infoml atio n,
units to recure infonnation necessary for planning the employ- enemy opposItion th at may be encountered both in th e air and
ment of iI striking force, thus supplementing other intelligence from ground defenses, what to do in th e event of ca pture, im.
agencies. portan ce of the target to th e enem y, and any informa ti on that
Navigation-Air navigation is the art of determining geo- may apply to th e successful accomplishm ent of the mission.
graphical position and maintaining desired direction of air- , Upon return from th e mission the interrogation of the
craft relative to the earth 's surface by mcans of pilotage, dead aucrcws takes place. From this is lea rn ed what tactics th e
reckoning, celestial observations or radi o aids, enemy cmp~oyed , ~ ow many cnemy fi.~hters we re destroyed,
Pilotage is the method of conducting aircraft from onc ex ten ~ of direct luts on target and estUllate of damage, ob-
point to another by observation of landmarks either previ- servatIOns made of troop movcments or conce ntrations in
ously known or recogni zed from a map, This form of naviga- encmy territory, location of enemy ground defenses and
tion is used when the pilot or na vigator has good visibility strcngth, and ,a ~y otl~ er inf~r11lat~on co ncernin g the cnemy.
and the terrain ft-atures are such that recognition of objects Pho.tographlc mtelhgence IS den ved from th e interpreta tion
can be made from the altitude flown . of aen al ph otographs taken primarily DY reco nn aissance ai r-
I?c:ad recko.n ing is th e m et~ od of determining geog raphi cal craft, .a nd s~eo.nd a rily ,by cam e.ras on bombing aircraft during
poSItion of aircraft by applymg rate of speed to the Hight bomblllg miSSIOns, Highly tram cd photO-interpreters analyze
path of th e aircraft as esti matcd or calculated ovcr a ce rtain th e ph ~ tograph s to prepare factual rcports on damage assess-
period of tim e from point of departure, or from last known ment, mdustry, transportation, airfield activi ty, ground an d
position It is employed when flyi ng overwater in the daytime, coa,s t defenses, ca mouflage, dllllllllyS and decoys, communi-
or when poor visibility makes pilotage impossible. cations! ground f,orce aet~vity,. shipp!ng and ship building.
Celestial navigation makes use of th e sun , stars, planets Most Im portant lI1fo~m a tIo n .IS ob talll e~1 by comparison of
and moon to determine geographi cal position, Cc1csti al navi- recent photographs With preVIOusly obtamed photographs of
the same area. Great advances have been made in the field
of aerial photography in its military application through the
developmen~ of va~lOus types of .cameras for specialized jobs

Inclu~mg hIgh albtude, low alt,tude, high -speed, infra-red,
Ol~ppmg, color and night photography. Photographic recon-
lal~sance .~ontnbut~s. the larges t portion 6f intenigence upon
IVh1c.h mlbtary decIsions ca n be based. InteJ1igence is also
Jbtamed from captured enemy personnel, equipment and
'ocuments taken from enemy ai rcraft. •
Commlmications-The vario us communica tion devices and
ystems developed by the AAF have contributed greatly to
ts effectiveness. Without communications, coordination
...ould be impossible. I

J Interph one communica tions enable each crew member to be 7 O'ClOCK BElOW
() constant contact with others in the same aircraft. It is
r sen.tial during an ~ ttack that . t?C pilot be inform ed of th e
F hon of. enemy ~I rcra ft,. anhaucraft fire, and th e position Clock system used to fi x direction of attacks by enemy fighters.
if other fnendly ancraft In the formation, so th at he can 12 o'clock is nose of bomber, 6 o'clock tail.
lan~uver th e p.lan~ for more effec ti ve fire power. Gunfire from an airplane differs from ground fi re prin-
I Au .commumcahons enable p!anes in flight to communi. cipally in relatjon to the speed of th e plane and its altitJlde.
~te WIth each other. The formation leader can talk wi th oth er The trajectory of a bullet is affected by ti, e speed of an air-
rcraft, and they in turn with each oth er. However, en route plane. Altitude increases the speed of a bullet beca use thm
~ the target radio silence is th e rul e. air offers less resistance to a projectile on its course. T h cse
I Air·groulld communications are essential to all types of facto rs have brought about a new set of gun sighting rules.
'anes. By mea ns of th is system planes are cleared for takeoff Neverth eless, th e gunsight doesn' t do it all . T racki ng and
!Id instructed in l~nding, wea.t her infonnation is given to ranging, the 2 main factors in aerial gunn ery th at detennin e
ots, and fighter ancra ft arc duected to areas where enemy th e accuracy of gunfire after computation, must be calc ulated
tackers are operating. by the gunner himself. Unless h e tracks smoothly and ra nges
Gunnery-The success of a mission and the lives of a crew precisely, the computing' gun s.ight will a~sor~ inaccurate d~ta
te in a large measure depend ent on th e accuracy and effec- on wh ich to base its calculatIons. Trackmg Involves keeping
:veness of :he gunner. th e gunsight precisely on th e targe t. Ranging involves m anip-
.Downing one airplane by another with gunfire is COrn - ulation of th e sight's range·m easurin g mech anism to keep th e
"cated by th e problem of keeping a fast-moving target in correct range constantly in the computer.
ge. In one sense the quality of th e equipment provided Just as gun s on th e ground must be elevated to co mp ~n sat e
t aenal gunner ca n be co nsidered a potential of his fire for th e trajectoral curve of th e projec til e, so guns on airc raft
.wer. The ballistic beha vior induced wh en a projectile is also must be tilted upward- since after th e pro jectile leaves
td from a~ .airplane, the human element, and the specd and the mu zzle of th e gun th e bullet follows th e sam e rela t ive
neu.verab:hty of th e airplane target make aerial gu nn ery a curve at an elevation of 4 0,000 fcet as it does at 1 000 fee t. •
phcated procedure.

iThis explains the slight elevation of fixed forward firing guns

; on both fighters and bombers. Conversely, attack planes, de- •
signed specifically for ground strafing, have their fixed guns d- '~ ' .~
' aimed slightly downward. viZ - - +
lOUT strategy, tactics and techniques are translated into rc-
sults through the operations of strategically located combat
air forces which blanket the battle areas of the world.
The accomp1ishments of these organizations must be ex-
amined i:J. perspective. Military necessity gives priority to
:certain enemy objectives at the exp.cnse of others; our air
Estrength bas been apportioned accordingly. Its achievements
tmllst be j:.tdgcd on the basis of planes and men available in a
19iven area at a given time. ESTAn LISHED : Jan. 28, 194 2 •
In the early months of the war it was a taxing feat for th e AREA OF OPERATIONS: Germany and occupied Europe.
fAAF's lone heavy bombardment unit in the Southwest Pacific . COMMAND: Lt. Gen. Carl Spaatz, May 2, 1942, to Nov. 1.8,
.to Oy a mission with the Hrength of half a squadron. Today, 1942; Lt. Gen. Ira C. Eaker, Dec. 1, 1942, to Jan. 1~ 1944;
'11 at least one theater of operations. squadrons tend to lose Lt. Gen. James H. Doolittle, Jan . " '944, to date,
their identity, become swallowed up in groups; groups are SUMMARY OF OPERATlONS-Augu s t 1942 to March 1, 1944 t
massed in wings and wings in air divisions. The Aleutian TONS OF BOMBS _PLANES L O ST I N AERIAL eO MBAT_
.island of Kiska was retaken from the Japanese only after the DROPPED ENEMY AAF
J 1 th Air Force, in several thousand so rties flown over a period 92,468 5304 1509
107,00 1
Iof '4 months, had dropped some 3000 tons of bombs on th e t Includes 9th A ir F o rce, beginning Oct ober , 19 4 3.
rget. Gleat as this accomplishment was, the same tonnage PRINCIPAL OPERATIONS: The 8th Air Force is the daylight
",f bombs is dropped today in a single 8-hour mission over strategic bombing force of a combine~ Briti~h -based air . of-
Europe. In turn, a fun-fledged military campaign elsewhere fensive against Genna ny. In coope.rabon wlt.h the Itah al~­
'n the world might not equal in strategic importance a sing1c based 15th Air Force, and th e mght-bomblll g Roya l Au
assed ail attack on Germany. Force, its objective is the de~truction of th e G ennan war
AAF SUMMARY OF TOTAL OPERATIONS-ALL THEATERS machine and of the G erm an win to fight.
December 1941 to March 1, 1944 In its first mission against th e enemy in Occu~ied France
on Aug. 17, 1942, the 8th 's str.ikin ~ fo~c~.cons l s ted of .11.
B- 1 7S . By early spring of 1944, ItS au ~hv ISlOn s, hamm cnng
525.954 285,350 12,656 • 4217 decp into Gcnnany, represented an Increase of n early a
• AAF plane. have a lso destroyed a ve r ified total of 1873 enemy planes 011 hundredfold ,
around. In the intervenin g month s, th e 8th. ~1ad achi~ved th e size
Following arc brief introductions to th e combat air forces demanded for its task; acquired th e al)lhty to deh ver repea ted
nd to a few signifi ca nt complementary organi zations. • Military rank s throug hou t t his St'c t ion a s of Ma y 1. 1940\ .
ass attOCKS; surmounted the most formidable aerial and Frankfurt with 806 bombers escorted by 634 fighters. On
ntiaircraft opposition encountered in any theater; with the Jan. 30, Brunswick and Hanover were attacked in strength .
heT of the 9th Air Force built up the 6ghter escort required; These operations heralded a plan of attack, on a scale long
n perfected Its tactical employment for continued deep projected but hitherto beyond our capaCIty, dlfected toward
penetrations against priority targets. the No. 1 objective-the German air force and Its mdustnal
The time required to mount these massive attacks was means of survival. Between Feb. 20- 25, while the RAF struck
subject to military necessi.ty. The experimental phase of German factories and defen ses with night assaults, the 8th
operabom against targets In Occupied France was hardly Air Force de1ivert:d major blows against more than a dozen
begun before the demands of the African invasion gave the airplane factories in Germany. Simultaneously, anoth er arm
latter first priority to the products of our aircraft factories. of the AAF aerial pincers reach ed up from Italy for th e first
Moreover, the heavy loss of shipping to submarine attack time as the 15th Air Force sent bombers against Regen sburg.
made V-boat manufactu~ing an? docking and repair facilities, Clear warning of things to come was g~ve n to Gen:na ~y
lather than the German mdustnal system, the primary 8th Air early in March when the 8th Air Force 1I1vad ed Berhn m
Force objective through late '94' and early '943. I repeated daylight attacks. All throu~h M arch th e assaul t on
WhIle the Casablanca directive of January '943, assigned Gennany continued, day and mght, 111 good weather and bad .
that mdustnal system as the objective for the strategic air Even greater assaults were in the making.
offensive, months were to elapse before means would be
available for the required deep daylight penetrations. Mean-·
while, . m '943, the July attacks on the Heroya magnesium
plant m :-Iorway and the mid-August attacks on Regensburg
and. Schwemfurt, Germany, established the destructive po-
tential of daylight precision bombing. Virtually each attack
became a maJor a.lf. battle. Early in August, 8th Air Force
B-2.4S and crews lomed those of the 9th Air Force in an
attack from the l\liddle East on Axis oil refineries at Ploesti
Rumania. '
Lat~ September saw the first use of instruments permitting
bombm.g through . cloud covcr. Soon a significant change ap- 15TH AIR FORCE
peared In the chOIce of targets: after the Oct. 4, '943 assault
on Frankfurt, targets in Germany proper became the rule ESTABLISHED: N ov. 1, 194 3.
AREA OF OPERATIONS: Germ any and Aust ria, th e Balkans,
lather than the exception . At the same time, the bombing
N orth ern Italy and th e M editerranea n Coast of France.
pace was stepped up : planes dispatched on mi ssions in No-
COM MAND: Lt. G en . Jam es H . D oolittle, N ov. " '94 3 to Jan .
vember showed a 58 % increase over October; December
1, 1944; M aj. G en . Nath an F . Twi ning, Jan. l , 1944 to date.
~ed November by another 53 % ; and in January, de- SUMl\:fARY O F OPERATIONs-Novem ber 1943 to March 1944
Iplte normal bad weather, the December gain was not only
maintained but exceeded by 7 % . (Opcrn tions are incl uded in total for 12th Air Force.)
By Iare January '944, the combined 8th Air Force-RAJ? PR IN CIP AL OPERAT IONS: Wi th th e occupation of th e south ern
bombing offensive was in full swing. On the night of Jan . • 8 porti on of th e Italian peninsula and especially the airbase at
the RAF attacked Berhn; the next day the 8th Air Force hit Foggia, th e 15th Air Force was activa ted as th e strategic

el~ment. ~f th e Mediterranean Allied Air Forces to Cooperate SUMMARY OF OPERATIONs-November 1942 to March 1, 1944 •
With, BntJsh .base~ air units. Its place in th e overall strate SORTIES TONS OF BOMBS _PLA NES LOST IN AERIAL COM8AT_
of al~ attack agams~ Germ~ny finaJl y became integrated YI; FLOWN DROPPED ENEMY AAF
late February ~hen It took Its turn with the 8th Air Force in 199,179 106,567 2959 1473
attacks on 3ITcraft factories in Regcnsburg, Steyr and • Includes operations of 15th Air Force s ince November, 19<43.
O~c~traublu~g. The program began with the 15th's maiden
~Isslon aga m s~ the Messcrschmitt factory at \ Vicncr PRI NC IPAL OPERATIONS: Ever since the first landing of Ameri-
eustadt, Austria on Nov ' 2. 1943 •' subseq"u ent mi"SSIOns were can troops on North African soil, the lz th Air Force has
d ' t"'d ' .
uee w agaltl~t 3lfcraft . fac~ories in Augsburg and KIa enfurt coordinated its primary activities with th e movement of
~~d b l: bcanng factones m Turin and Villa Pcrosf Italy' Allied ground forces in North Africa, Sicily and more recently
ost 0 th e 15th 's efforts during the winter of l' .< • in Italy.
?07 c \:er, Tweec .devotc~ to facilitating the ground ca~~;a~;;
n ta.y. 0 thiS end It made repeated attacks on marshalin
In its initial encounters with the Gennan air force over
Tunisia in late 194 Z, fighters and bombc!rs of the lzth re-
y~rds thr~ugh ou t the peninsula and on th e bases of Genna~ pea tedly achieved destruction many tim es that of their own
air operatIOns. For special missions it also ra"gcd to To I 10sses on th e gro.und and in the air. In a 3-month period th e
and 1\1 "II F ' U On
. fi ld a r~el fS, rance, to Sofia, Bulgaria, and repeated ly to lZth accounted for more th an 400 enem y planes. On Feb .
al~ ~ s m t le Athens area. On March 15, in the effor't to 18, 1943, to achieve the maximum utility of air strength, th e
Ch~l~~e ~enna~ .ground resistance in Cassino, pianes of the 12th merged with oth er Allied air units to fonn th e No rth -
~5 d f' orce ,omcd by those of the 12th, dropped hun-
re S 0 tons of bombs In that area. In th e ea rly months of
west Africa n Air Forces (see page 24 ). Four days later it
contributed to a heavy concentration of airpower that re-
'944, the 15th was the fastcst growing air force in the MF. lieved a dan gerous situation at Kasserine Pass for ground
units moving toward the coast . M ounting concentrations of
air strength were utilized for the March 1943, break-th rough
at the :Mareth Line and for the final assaults on Tunis and
The striking power built up for th e African campaign was
used to reduce resistance on the Italian island of Pantelleri a,
which surrend ered after 1Z days of relentless attack by air-
craft of the lzth and 9th Air Forces and th e RAF. \"'hen our
armies moved across th e Mediterranean to in vade SiCily, and
throughout the ensuing campaign, the 1 zth maintained al-
12TH AIR FORCI~~ most unchallenged air superiority. In early September, when
a 1arge gro und force was in jeopardy on th e Salerno beach-
ESTABUSJJED: Aug. 20, 194 2. head, aircraft of th e 12th were instTlllnenhll in th e air action
AR E A 0M0dP~RATIONS: Italy; formerly North Africa the \"'est-
that made the beachhead secure for continued ground move-
ern e Iterranea n and Sicily.
j ' ment northward in Haly. TIle lzth has maintained air su-
COMMAND: Lt. Gen. Jamcs H . Doolittle, Scpt. 23, 1 2 to
Feb. 23, '94 3; Lt. Gen. Carl Spaatz Feb. 18 ' 943
I , ' 944; Ma, . Gcn . John K. Ca nn on' Jan 26 "94 t
J i: , premacy over most of th e Italian peninsula and has attacked
th e enemy's supplies, communications and troops in th e
, . , 4 0 (aatne..
I battle zones.
Battle of E1 Alamem, w r e I rO 'r t
h ·l ·t t 0 carrier unit transported
the forward battle arca.
amm unition, gasohn~ an~ s~;~~;~n 0 of enemy resis~ance in
In the cours.e. of t e . ~s . arc of the 9th Au Force
Tripoli, TUOIsla an~ SIcily, l~:~ian oints such as Naples,
attack widened to. mclCde dil; ated ~ttacks by th e 9th and
Palermo and M essma . oor urrender of Pan tellena.

'2th Air Forces brought abouttt thle d to the 9 th Air Force
B-24S a ac Ie . R
On JU Iy 19, 1943 I' f tl ' r on military targets m ome
made th e first assau t O le. Wf,1 ceel I,y B-24S of thc 8th Air
_~ _: S~~~_-sz;:e... . " t 0", Aug 1 rem or
and VICIIll y. I ~ . , the Ploesti attack, and on. Aug. 13,
April S, 1942 as Middle East Air Force; Nov. 12 ,
ESTABL1S II ED: Force, th e 9 exe~uted struck at the strategically Important
'942 as 9th Air Force. slITIllarly rem force • It W· Neustadt Austria
I 'tt I nt at lener ' , " f
AR EA or OPERATIONS: The occupied countries of France, H ol- M essersc. H~ll pal d with the successful concluSIOn ?
Its mISSion coml~ etc tl Air Force was relocated 1O
land and Belgium; formerl y the Middle East.
COMMAND: Lt. Gen. Lewis H . Brereton, June 2 8, 1 9 42 , to 1
the Afric~n . C~lInpatgl.1 · fthe f~r its present tactical duties.
Great Bntalll and rem orce

SUM>fARY OF OPERATlONS-Nov. 1942 to Oct. 1, 1943 •
27,000 20, 127 610 227
• Later operations are included w it h those of t he 8th Air Force.
PRINCIPAL OPERATIONS: As the tactical force of the AAF
based in England, th e 9th Air Force by early '944 was engaged
in a ca:npaign agai nst enemy fortifications 0 11 the Channel
coast and against airbases and other military instal1ations in th e
occupied areas. Fpr most of these operations it employs me-
dium bombardment. The 9th also provides fighter aircraft lor 5TH AIR FORCE .
1 as Philippine D epartment Au
long escort missions with th e 8th Air Force. ESTABLiSHED : Sept. 20, 19 4 E t A·r Force· Feb . 5 1942 as
In th e preceding Mediterran ean phase of its activities, Force; Oct. 28, 1941 as F' ar as I , ,

from June '942, to the Fall of '943, th e 9th prevented 5th Air Force. I' 'fi
supplies and reinforcements from reaching the Africa n ai r F OPERATIONS : South west aCI c. t
and ground forces of the Axis by attacks on docks, ports and
AREA o LtGcn L eWIS . 1-1· Brereton , Dec. 7' 1941\ 0
COMMAN : . ·C C H Brett Feb . 23 to hug.
shipping. For 4 months prior to the brea k-through at EI 8 ' 94 2' Lt en eorge., I t
Alamein, when it rarely had more than 25 planes in the ai r J4.<In1942;
. 1 , ' · C · C Kenn ey Sept. 3. 194 2 to (a e.
Lt. Cen . corge. ,
together, the 9th attacked targets in the harbors of Tobruk ERATIONs- December 1941 to March 1, 1944
and Benghazi, Navarrino Bay (Creece), and on the Mediter- SUMMARY OF. OP _1'LANF.S LOST IN AERIAL COl'.'II\AT-
ranean; it destroyed some 60% of th e fuel, food and am- SORTIES TONS 0 1' BOMBS

munition sen t to th e Axis forces. In th e same period, its FLOWN DROI' !'E!)
34,249 21 7Z 524
medium bombers and fighters supported th e 8th Army in the 11 7,076

·n a and New Britain has enabled Allied ground
PRINCIPAL OPERATIONS: ~nl e 5th Air Foree ' wa s form ed by N ow G Ul e I th th's stnkmg
offieus and men who had been forced to retreat from the forces to advance northward . By ear y 1944 e f5 h ·b ·
wcr had been instrumental in ~le success 0 . amp. I 10US
Phili?pines and the East I ndies and by the first U. S. air
6ndings and the resulting occupatIOn of strategIc [01l1\S non
rcinforccmenh to arrive in the Southwest Pacific. Its initial
Ca Gloucester and in the AdmIralty Islands. Is P a os
operations were from Australian bases.
hafalso struck far overwater to Java, Borneo and Truk.
\Vhen the defense of Au stralia was assurcd, the 5th ini-
tiatec a struggle for air superiority against Jap units based to
the north. In Augu st 1942, it supported surface forces in the
initia: landings 011 Guadalcanal. Dcspite lack of aircraft and
su ppl y problems, it gradually widened its arc of operations,
served as a spearhead for surface offensivcs northward, helped
prevcnt the supply and reinforcement of enemy bases.
Tactical achievements include a refinement of low-level ,
strafe·bombing attacks, and the employment-overwater-<)f
mast-head and skip-born bing. In the destruction of parked
aircraft and airba se installations, the 5th has specialized in
the p:nning down of ground defenses with massed forward
fire followed by delayed-action and parachute bombs.
On Nov. 4, 1942, the 5th began sustained action agains· ESTABLISHED: Jan. 13, 1943· . k A h· I
Jap invaders in the Papuan tcrritory of New Guinea. Units AREA OF OPERATIONS: Solomons, and Blsmarc' rc Ipe ago .
of the 5th transported an Allied ground fo rce by air from COMMAND: Maj . Gen. Nathan F. Twining. Jan. 13, 1943 to
Australia to the battle area in New Guinea, subsequently Dec. 2B, 1943; Maj. Gen. Hubert R . H armon, Jan. 7, 1944
combining with the ground forces to drive back the Japanese. to date.
On repeated hazardous hops 'over the 14,ooo-foot Owen SUMMARY OF OPERATIONs- January 1943 to March I, 1944'
Stanley Range, the 5th transported to forward areas 2 U. S.
regiments and an Au stralian company along with their equip- SORTIES TONS OF B AA"
ment. It protected these with fighter cover, kept them com- FLOWN DROPP ED ENEMY

pletely supplied from the air, eventually evacuated their 33 085 11 ,638 739 198
.I:cludes operations of AAF units ill S. Pacific prior to January 1943 ..
wounded. Thanks to coordinatcd air-ground action, 14,000
enemy troops wcre annihilated. PRINCIPAL OPERATIONS: Throughout 1942 several AAF lI111tS
In early March 1943, clements of the 5th sighted a » -ship o crated in guerrilla fashion from islands nort~ca~t of Aus-
enemy. convoy cnroute from Rabaul to reinforce Japanese tralia . Alth ough numerically weak and funch onmg under
troops III the Lae-Salamaua area of New Guinea. After some separate base commanders, th eir B- 1 7~ were on CO~lst~ nt
·20 missions employing '74 planes the 5th, with some RAAF atrol guarding Am erica n supply ro utes ~n thc South I aClfic:
support, virtually wiped out the convoy with its 15,000 p Satisfying the obvious need for ccntrahzcd comm?nd, th~se
troops and many ton s of equipment at the cost of only one separate umts . were com b me
· d III
· Jan l lary 1943 'WIth
actJva -
B-17 aod 3 P-3BS. Throughout 1942-43 th e 5th Air Force tion of th e 13th Air Forcc. H eadquarters was es~abl1sh ed on
continually blasted the enemy's supply base at Rabau\. Espiritu Santo and reinforcements were broUg~lt 111 . So.o n .th ~
Heavy pressure maintaincd by th e 5th on Jap bases on 13th moved its hcadquarters to New CalcdonIa. By thiS t1lll C
shipping lanes were secure from attack, and a large part of
Guadalcanal was in Allied hands.
Initial objectives of the 13th were to gain air superiority ............... - -- --....-:-
and to support land and sea offensives in the Central Solo- t~ ..
mons, destroy enemy supply lines in the Northern Solomons.
'nlOUgh organized resistance to ground forces on Guadalcanal
ended in early February, the Japanese continued to operate ~~
offensively against it from the air. A decisive blow to end this
threat was struck in June when in a single day airmen of the
..... ~-""-~~
13th, together with Navy and Marine fliers, intercepted an 7TH AIR FORCE
enemy striking force of 1 2 0 planes, shot down about 75 . ESTABLISHED: Nov. 1, 1940 as Hawaiian Air Force; Feb. 5,
In Jnly the 13th moved its headquarters to Henderson 1942 as 7th Air Force.
Field, Guadalcanal. With the combined Allied ollensive AREA OF OPERATIONS: C entral Pacific, no~th ~f the Equator.
COMMAND: Maj. Gen. Frederick L. M artm, ~o~. 2, 194 ~o
gaining strength, th e 13th began to neutralize enemy airfields
and adler installations on Bougainville; support and protect Dec 18 1941; Maj . G en. Clarence L . Tmker, De~. 1 •
amphibious operations in the Northern Solomons. ]n Decem- . t 'J 7 1942. Mal·· G en . H owa rd C. D aVidson,
1941 0 une, , W ·ll · H H I
ber the entire campaign was intensified. June 7. 1942 to Jun e 20, 1942; M,a j. Gen. I IS . a e,
Early 1944 found the 13th part of an ollensive force com- June 20, 1942 to date.
bining aircraft of the Army, Navy, Marine and Royal New
Zealand Air Force. The main objective was Rabaul, the SUMMARY OF OPERATIONs- D ecember 1941 to March 1, 1944
enemy's supply depot for reinforcing Jap bases in the Bis- _ P LANES LOST IN AER l AL COMBAT-
marckand Solomon Island groups. Rabaullonghad been a target DROPPED ENEM Y AA F
of the AAF. Planes of the 01\1 19th Bombardment Group at· 3326 11 0 60
tacked It as early as Jan. 25, 1942; throughout 1942-43 it had
been hit continually by bombers of the 5th Air Force. By the PRIN CIPAL OPERATIONS: The aerial .striking force across t~e
cnd of 1943, bases were established close enough to Rabaul Central Pacific to Japan is the 7th Air Force. Its trans~o~eamc
to permit fighter escort; the 5th had transferred its operations search missions keep th e enem y under constant ~Ig~lance;
to the west; Rabaul was left to the 13th. long-range heavy bomber attacks soften up strategIc ISlands
The 13th concentrated on this target, meanwhile serving for amphibious in vasion; med IUm bombers .and figh ters mov~
as a spearhead for surface forces which took islands and parts up to bring greater weight ag~in st th e pernneter defens~s 0_
of . isl~nds, built airfi~]d s on them, movcd up planes and th e Japanese; ga ins are consolidated, a~d th~ pr~cedure IS ~e
shipping, took more Islands, moved up again, cut off the ea ted from newly won bases. T h e au action mvolves. PIl1-
Japs hom supplies and support. When Green Island was ~oint targets and some of th e longest overwa tcr operational
taken, the first half of the flanking movement on Rabaul was flights in th e AAF. b
The 7 th felt the first blow of th e Japanese at Pearl Bar or,
accomplished. In March, occupation of principal airbases
in th e A~miralty lslands, northeast of Rabaul, und er cover
o! 5th Au Force planes, completed the encirclement. Stra-
suffered several hundred casualties and th e loss of many.
craft. The remaining fighters and b~mbers were qUick y
tegjcal~y, ~baul ceased to exist as an enemy base. Rabaul and marshaled for the air defense of H awa ll.
Jap umts III the Solomons were left to suffer milita ry starvation.

Its fir~t off~nsive opportunity came in June 1942, when an PRINCIPAL OPERATIONS: Offensive operations against Japa-
enemy invasIOn Aeet ventured within land-based bomber nese supply ports and transportation facilities in Burma have
range of Midway Island. B-17S of the 7th attacked the con- been the ehief concern of the 10th Air Force. As part of the
voy and aided Marine and Navy aircraft in routing it with larger strategy to defend India and maintain the aerial supply
heavy losses. . route to C hina, this program has been pushed despite handi -
Bombers of the 7th attacked W'ake Island in uly and r ca ps of supply and difficult flying during the monsoon season .
again in December of 1942 .. In earl~ '943 they struck Jap Targets of th e loth h ave included dock and shipping fa·
bases at Nauru and Tarawa In the Gilbert Island chain but cilities at Rangoon, lVfoulmcin and Akyab; storage facilities
it was not Wltil Fall of that year, with the constructi~n of at Lashio and Henzada; rail junctions at Rangoon, Mandalay
advan~e bases ~ar out in t~e Central Pacific, that sys tematic and Sagaing. It h as attacked nearly 150 enemy targets, has
operabons agamst the GIlberts could be undertaken and ' prevented th e enemy's use of much of the rail facilities in
their invasion accomplished . After h eavy aerial attacks on Burma, and has sun k an appreciable amount of shipping. The
the Marshall Islands from late November, '943, through air route of supply over th e Himalayas to China was first flown
January 1944, surface actIOn agamst these positions was under direction of th e loth Air Force. When this operation
beg~n. ~hus furnishing more advanced bases for deeper pene- was taken over by the Air Transport Command, the loth and
tration mto the system of Japanese island defenses. 14th Air Forces shared responsibiJity for protecting the route.
Other achievemen ts of the l oth include extremely long-
range attacks on objectives in Thailand .
By early sprin g of 1944 the 10th was cooperating closely
with allied ground forces in the combined operations against
th e Japanese in Burma.


ESTABLISHED: Feb. 12, 1942.
AREA OF OPERATIONS: India, Burma, Thailand and th e Bay of
COMMAND: Lt. Gen .. Lewis H. Brereton, Feb. 25. J 942 to
June 23 , 1942; MaJ. Gen. C lay ton L. Bissel, Au g. 18, ' 94 2,
to Aug. ' 9, '943; MaJ . Gen. Howa rd C. Davidson, Aug. ' 9, ESTABLISHED: March 10, 1943.
'943 to date. AREA OF OPERATIONS; Southeast and Central China, the
SUMMARY OF OPERATIONs-AprjJ 1942 to rvlarch 1, 1944 South China Sea, H ainan, Formosa, North Bunna and
FLOWN DR OP PED COMMAND: Maj. Gen. C laire L. Chennault, March 10, 1943
21,233 11 ,407 75 to date.
511MMARY OF OPERAT IONs- February 1913 to March 1, 1944
10,:86 2026 477 126
PRINCIPAL OPERATIONS : Our China·based air force which
wears the insignia of the Flying Tiger grew out of th e C hina
Air Task Force which in turn originated in the Flying Tigers
of th e American Volunteer Group. Th e latter, made up of

fanne r AAF, Navy and Marine pilots, had been at war
against the Japan ese for some 5 months before the atta ck on
Pcarl Harbor. 11TH
In presen,ing Chinese territory as a base for Our future at. ESTA~LISHED: Jan. 15, 1942 as Alaskan Air Force; Feb. 5. 1942
lacks on Japan itself, th e 14th Air Force has worked closely as 11 th Air Force. .
with the Chinese army, has engaged the Japanese air force AREA OF OPERATIONS: North Pacific from the Aleutians to
for cO;ltrol of the air in central C hi na and ha s devoted itself th e Kurile Islands.
to a steady campaign of attriti on against Jap shipping. Its COMMAND : Col. Lionel H . Dunlap, Feb. 17, 1942 to l\'larch
activities have persisted despite its meager stren gth and despite 8, 1942; Maj . Gen . William O. Butler, March 8, 1942 to
th e fact that everything it utilizes-men, materials, fuel and T
Sept. 6, '943; Maj. Gen . Davenport Johnson, Sept. 6, 194 3
ammunition- has to be brought into China by air transpor t to date.
over th e Himalayas (see page 19 6 ).
SUMMARY OF OPERATIONs-December 1941 to March 1, 1944
Long composed almost entirely of fighter aircraft, th e 14th
P • 'NES
gradually added medium and heavy bombers. These have FLOWN DROPPED ENEMY AAF
attacked lIankow airdrome, th e H ong Kong harbor area and 5971 3542 75 35
Jap bases on the island of H ainan and Fonnosa. TIle initial
attack on stron gly-defend ed Form osa, trans-shipm ent base PRINCIPAL OPERAT IONS: \ V'hen a Japa nese in~ading forc,e
for the enemy's Burma and Pacific bases, was an example of struck at Dutch H arbor in ea rly Jun e. 1.942, I ~ the war S
perfect timing and execution . With a force of only 14 B-2 5S first threat to the No rth America n c0':ltmcnt. It ~xpectcd
and 1; escorting fighters, the 14th destroyed 42 enemy air- little or no opposition from land-based 'lIfcraft. The mvadcrs
craft and probably dCShoyed or seriously damaged 12 mOre. were turn ed back after continu ous attacks by fi g l~ ters and
The atlack was conducted without loss to thc 14th. As a medium bombers of the 11 th Air Force operatmg from
result of its steady attrition of Jap shipping off thc South secret adva nce bases.
China Coast (274,939 tons in a yea r ), traffic has been WI; en the enemy had es tablish ed positions ?ut on ~hc
forced away from the coastal waters to regions wh ere it is Al eutian l slalld chain th e 11 th moved aft~r hll11, makmg
much more accessible to Our subma rin es. An innova tion of its first atta ck on the enemy's ma in base at K, s~a on June 1.1.
the 14th Air Force is its C h inese-Am erican Composite Vving The last attack ca m e 14 m onths later, after ~ tnkes and sortlCS
composed of Chinese airmen train ed in th e U. S. who Ay our conducted in some of th e worst weather 111 th e world. So
8 -2 5S and P-40S. In its early actions th e wing successfu lly cffec tively did the I I th persist in its attack on Jap bases that
bomtx'<f and strafed enemy grOlfnd troops, supp ly installations th e enemy rarclr had a score of planes ope ratave at o~e hme.
and shipping. Construction 0 advance bases 011 Adak and Amchltka pcr-

mittcd action at closer range and made possible air assistance hun dreds of th ousa nds of patrol miles have been Bown by
to our surface forces when they occupied Attu in May 1943. 6th Air Force fli ers in their wa tch over the Canal. During
After feeling the effects of 3000 tons of bombs, dropped by th e cru cial period of the U-boat th reat they participated in
the 11th In 3609 sorties up to July '9, 1943, and after their antisubmarine search and attack missions in cooperation
supply hnes had been cut by th e occupation of Attu the with the Antisubmarine Command and the Antilles Air
enc~y ~va~uated Kiska without a struggle. ' Command. The 6th is responsible for protecting the southern
E hmlnatlon of th e enemy from th e Aleutians enabled the air transport route, wh ich is in itself a year-round task. Hun-
] 1th to consolidate Its hard-won gai ns, build up new bases, dreds of reconnaissance and photographic missions have been
st~en~then others and improve its supply lines. Operating fl own by the 6th incidental to the establishment of our chain
r.nnclpllly from Attu, heavy bombers of the 11 th bega n of new bases in Central Ameri ca and through the Caribbean
ong-range attacks Ol~ the enemy's bases in the Kurile Islands. islands. More than a score of bases, and a number of auxiliary
By early 1 94~, desp,ltc ~Il~avorable wea ther conditio ns, th ese ai rfields are utilized by the 6th Air Force. In a typi cal month,
attacks were l1l crcaslIlg 111 In tensity. February 1 944 , nea r1y 1000 sorties were flown as part of
their operational program. A number of squadrons now
serving in overseas thea ters have had operational training as
part of th e 6th Air Force.
ESTABLISHED~ June 1 , 1943.
AREA OF OPERAT IONS: Caribbean Sea and Antilles Island
chain from Florida to th e South American Coast.
COMMAND: Brig. Cen. Edwin B. Lyon, May 13, 1943 to May
31, 1943; Brig. Cen. W. P. I-Iayes, May 31 , 194 3 to date.
PRINCIPAL OPERATIONS: Aerial protec tion to th e arc of islands
known as the Antilles, wh ich form th e outward defense to
£STABUSIIED: Oct. l O, 1940 as Panama Canal Air Force' Aug the Panama Canal, has been provided by the Antilles Air Com-
~or'c:,:1 as Caribbean Air Force; Feb. 5, 1942 as 6th Ai; mand . O perating under the Antilles Departm ent, which is a
component of th e Caribbean D efense Command, it is separa te
A.~A OF OPEIlATIONS: Panama Canal Zone, Caribbean ad-
,"cent areas of Central and South America ' from th e 6th Air Force although its obiectives are largely th e
same. Operations of the Antilles Air Command have involved
COMM4ND: Mai· Cen . Davenport Johnson, Sept. 19, 1941 to
2 areas: th e Trinidad Sector, which covers Trinidad, Aruba,
Nov. 23, 1942; Mal · C en. Hubert R. Harmon Nov 23 Cura~ao and Santa Lucia Islands; and th e Puerto Rico Sector,
194' to Oct. 27, 1943; Brig. Cen. Ralph H. W~oten 'Oct' covering Puerto Ri co, Jamaica and Antigua. Most impor tan t
31, 1943 to date. ' .
function of th e Antilles Air Command has been its anti-
PRINCIPAL OPERATIONS : Responsibility for defense of th e submarine acti vity. Although th e U-boat no longer is a
~namil Canal •. Our most strategic military possession in th e serious threat in th e area, for th e fi rs t 18 months of wa r it
estern HemISphere, has kept the planes of th e 6th Air was an ever-present mena ce to shipping th roughout th e Ca rib-
force on a round-the-clock alert since th e war started, and
or months before. Thousands of operational hours and
bean . Squadrons of the command, usually using obsolete B-18
aircraft, flew continuous missions aga inst U-boats.

ESTABLISH E D: Oct. 1 5. 1942; inactivated Aug. 24 . 1943 .
AR EA O F O PERATIONS : North and Middle Atlantic O cean,
from Newfound land to Trinidad; Bay of Biscay and the ap-
proach es to N orth Africa.
CO.M \ fAN D : Maj. Gen. Westside T . Larson. Oct. 15. 1942 to
Aug. 24, 1943· .
SU M M ARY O F OPE RATION S-OCt. 15, 1942, to Aug. 24, 1943
FLOWN ATTAC KED ( Inc. Proba bles) DAM AGE D
14 2,842 52 10 13
PRI NC IP AL OP E RATIO NS: The only unit of th e AAF based
within th e contin en ta l U. S. to have a major operational
mission h as been th e An tisubmarine Command . In th e 1 0
mon ths of its existence it opera ted from 4 continents in an ex-
pansion of functions form erly perform ed by th e 1 St Bomber
C omm and .
, .vhen the Antisubmarine Command was activated, th e
curve of Allied shipping losses by U ~ boa t action was rising
dangerously; it reach ed a high level 01 700,000 tons 01 sh ip-
ping in December' 1942. By th e Ian 01 ' 94 3 U-boa t losses
were down to a tenth of th at tonnage; the comm and had
contnbuted ma terially to th e decrease.
During th e period of its operations, th e percentage of
U ~boa ts sunk by air acti on rose from 10% to 50 % of all
U-boats sunk in that tim e.
'TIle Antisubm arin e Command used B ~ 1 7 and B ~24 heavy
bom bers, B-25, B-18 and B-3 4 medium bom bers, and A~ 20
and A~ 29 light bombers. Its principal wea pon was th e B~ 2 4 ,
specially eq uipped with de tection instrum ents, capable of
seeking ou t an d attacking submarin es ] 000 miles at sea. TIle
ted ious patrol work, cond ucted for long h ours, wi th occa~
sion'II short bursts of action, called for special traini ng and
the development of special techn iq ues of air wa rfare. 1n
Au gust) 943, with th e main U-bO'lt th reat over, furth er AAF
anti-su bmarine act ivities were ret urned to the 1 st Bomber
C ommand, and th e N avy increased its operati ons agai nst th e

• .•



Our combat air forces are no stronger than their component
parts. Their effectiveness against th e enem y can be mC"Jsurcd
in temlS of unit strength, unit pride, unit solidarity. TIle result
is greater battle efficiency, greater daring, greater success in
th e accomplishm ent of their missions.
Battle honors, or ullit citations, are awarded "in the name
of the President as public evidence of deserved honor and
distinction." You ca n distinguish members of cited units b)
the blue ribbons framed in gold over their right breast pockets:
a bronze oak leaf cluster is awarded for each citation in addi·
tion to the first. (See color plate facing page 237. )
As of March " '944, World War Il battIe honors had
been awarded to ) 5 different AAF units and to 3 other mili·
tary organizations in which AAF units were included ..!\
report on AAF unit citations foll ows:
THE ; Tn INTER CEPTOR COMMAND, part of the Far East Air Force
wh ich had been heavily damaged by the Japanese surprise air at-
tacks on Clark and Nichols Fields in December 1941, helped pro-
long the defensc of Bataan and Correg idor against an cnem;.r
superior in numbers and resources. The 5th withdrew to Bat:mn
for a stand wi th other U. S. and Philippine forces in early Jan-
uary 1942. There, beyond reinforcement and supply, it operated
from inadequately defended airfields, between Jan . 6 and March 8,
1942. repeated ly carrying ont perilolls reconn:lissa llce missions.
Tim e and again it executed surprise attacks against the enemy's
ground, air and naval elements.
T il E 1 9 TH BOMBARDMENT CROUP (heavy) has been
twice cited, once for its performance from January I
to March I , 1942, and again for the period August
7. 1 2, 19 4 2 .
During the hrst period the 19th opposed the nu·
mcric.'ll1y superior Ja panese during thc enemy drive through th e
Philippines and Netherlands East Indies to Java, cmployed all
availablc aircraft to strike wh erever the enemy co uld be found .
Despite ad verse wea ther and lack of adequate maintenance per-
sonn el. the 19th dail y inflicted grea t damage upon the enemy.
The second citation recognizes th e accomplishm en t of rcpc:tted
long-rangc hom bing attacks on heavily defend ed Jap:lIlcse ground,
air and naval elements near Raooul, New Britain. In the fa ce of OUR AIR FORCES IN ACTION 319
ha7.ardous wCo:'1ther. interception by superior n umbers of enemy
fighters, and intense antiaircraft fire on practically every mission , en emy over a wide are.1 including New Guinea , New Britain ,
damage to enemy targets was extensive. ( Also cited twice as a New ' Ireland and the Solomo n Isl:m<1s. lIampered by ad\'erse
unit of 2 organiza tion s engaged in defense of the Philippines, and weather which necessitated low fl~'in g for observation, and by
again as a unit of U. S. Papuan Forces.) host ile antiaircraft fire and fighter attacks, the 43 5th sec ured
Til E 1 7 TII P U RSUIT SQ U ADRON (provisional ) in the and tran smitted accurate information on enemy shipp ing, made
defense of Ja\'a and other South Pacific islands from valuable photographs of im portant en emy-held bases and areas,
Jan. 14 to f\1nrch 1 , 19 4 2, took part in combin ed and damaged enem y aircraft, gro und installations and shippin g.
operations that checked th e Japanese and saved the Notwithst:mding man y ho urs of Right and repe.1 ted combat d:Ull ·
Allied Reet at Soercbaja . While escorting A-24 dive age. th e ground echelon main ta in ed 80% of the aircraft in combat
bombers, the li th repeated ly entered into combat again st a nu- cond ition at all tim es. (TIle 435th was also cited as a un it of the
merically stronger enemy. In less than one month the squadron , 19th Gro up for action Aug. 7-12, 1942, and as a unit of the U. S.
undef great difficulties, destroyed 38 enemy planes. (The 17th also
was cited twice as a unit of 2 organizations which saw action dur-
ing -he defense of the Philippines.)
THE 7TH BOM B.... RDMENT CROUP (heavy) from Jan . 14
to March 1, 19 42 , threw all ava ilable aircraft against
Papuan Forces.)

" ...
Til E 11'1' 11 BOMBA RDM ENT CROUP ( hea\'y) from July
3 1 to N ov, 30, 194 2, continually attacked super ior Jap·
an ese ai r units during the enemy attempt to gnin a
stronger foothold in the Solomon Islands. It inflicted
outnumbering Jap forces, hit the enemy wherever and heavy damage upon enemy airfield s, storage and Slip-
whenever possible during his drive through the Phil. ply areas, seaplane bases, troop positions and other installation s:
..... ippin es and the Netherlands East Indies to Java. Out· 5.1nk 4 Japanese sh ips, damaged 15 mo re and probably da m:lged
stand ing performance was ach ieved despite unfavorable weather, 9 others. Thro ughout these operations, the I I th fnced and solved
hazardous landing field conditions and persistent fatigue on the extremely difficult problems of logistics and made long, ha7. .1fdous
part of combat crews exhausted by unremitting operations. Handi- overwater flig hts to reach enemy objectives wh ich frequently were
capped by shortages of manpower and supplies, ground units, located at th e extrem e fl ying ra nge of its airplan es.
work:ing under enemy fire, successfu lly ha ndled an excessive main· T HE 374TH TROO P CA RRIE R GROUP, taking part in the Papuan ca m-
tenance and repair burden . pnign , New G uinea , from Sept. 19 to Dec. 22, 194 2, flew an avcr-
TH E 49TH FICHTER CROUP defended the area of Darwin, in north · age of 1 00 tons of supplies dail y to troops in forward areas :md
western Australia, during the time of grea test threat to t hat vital da ily evacuated casua lties. Using vario us types of IIna nned aircm ft ,
port. In Ma rch 1942, Darwin lay directly in the path of the Japa- th e 374th succcssfull y accom plished its assigned mission in the
nese as they swept down the Netherlands East Indies . From face of ntt;lck by Japanese warplanes, incl uding the transport to
Malch 14 to Aug. 25 th e 49 th intercepted the enemy on everya t· ba ttl e areas of several thou5.1nd t roops. (Also cited as a unit of
tempted attack. Although greatly outnum bered by the att:ld ers, U . S. Papuan Forces.)
the 49th exacted a toll from the foe fa r out of proportion to its Til E 44TH, 93 RD , 98'1'11 , 3i6TlI .... ND 389'1' 11 8 0 MB .... RDlo.·IENT CROUPS
own losses. Its combat record and the numbcr of airplanes it (he:l\'Y) carried Ollt th e mass low-level ;lttad on the Axis oil re-
kept in action under difficult field conditions were major fa ctors fi neries ;lt Ploesti, Rumanin, on Aug. 1, 1943 .
in the successful defense of Darwin . (Also cited as a unit of U. S. f;"lying from Midd le East T he lter bases witho ut fighter escort,
Papuan Forces.) th ey cO\'ered a ro und .trip dista ll ce of more than 2400 miles over
Til E 435'1'11 BOMB .... RD M I~ N'r SQU .... ORON (heavy ) , a unit th e Mediterranean and defended enemy territory, Th e planes were

O of the 19 th Bomba rdment C roup ( heavy ). between

Sept. 10 and Oct. 10, 19 42, fulfill cd frequent recon·
na issance and photograpllic missions with ull cscorted
Flying Fortresses, inRicted sevcre damage on th e
prep:u ed by the ground echelons of the 5 groups, inc1 uding 3
which arrivcd in tIle theater with insuffic ient service and mainte·
nan ce personn el . Confronted with an in novat ion in aerial combat,
the air echelons trained un tirin gly for this ha:r..1r<1o us and ex-
perimental m ission, committing to memory details as to tnrgcts,
exp<:cted cn<:my defenses and land mnrl.:s along th ei r long Right .
daunted bravery," and "com~lct~ contempt fo r personal
THE 4 80TH AN TISUBM AR I NE CROU P, pioneer AAF organ ization for da nger," all common to the clta ho~s, arc not wholly a~e­
oifensi,'c antisubmarine operations in the Eastern Il cmisphere, quate. Each heroi c deed sp~aks for Itself; sooner or later Its
from Nov. 10, 1942 to Oct . 28, 19 4 3. played a significa nt part impact is fel t by every Amenean. .
in winDing the battle of the Atlantic and in United Nations' op- The nation's highest military deeorabon, the Medal of
erations in N orth Africa, Sicily and Italy. Operating from bases
H onor, is bestowed by the President of the United States m
in the European and North Africa n theaters, it covered Atlan t ic
shipping lanes with m issions extending as far as 12 $0 mil es from the name of Congress for deeds of surpassing valor, of devotion
base and last ing as long as 17 h ours. Flying alone, airplanes of far above the call of duty.
the 480t h attacked and defea ted Ju-88s and FW' 200S. and al - Up to I'vlareh " '944, th e following AAF officers and Illen
though outnum bered in an average ra tio of 1 to 3, destroyed 2 had received the M cdal of H onor In thiS war:
enemy lirplanes for everyone lost. T he unit's killed and m issing
( n umbered 10 1 offi cers and men , nea rly 50% of its strength of 2 4 0.
TOE IN DIA·CIII NA W ING, Air T ransport Command, d uring D ecem ber,
APRIL 1 8, 1942: For 3 months before they
J94 3. S'Jbstant ially exceeded the tonnage quota set for tra nspor-
tation ()f vital suppJies to C hina by air, a quota which itself ex- took off from the deck of the aircraft ca rrier,
ceeded the tonnage of lend-lease cargo moved in a mon th over Lt. Gen . ( then Lt. Col. ) Tam es H . Doolitt~e
t he Bunna Road before its dosing by the Japanese in April 194 2 . trained his 16 volunteer aircrews at domestIc
The wiDg made t his record by fl ying contin uously at altitud es of bases. Day after day th~y had lift~d their
from J 8,000 to 22 ,000 feet, under trc.1ch crous weather cond itions, B-2;S from n m wa}'s the size of a ca rner deck ,
through territory patrolled by en emy fig h ter aircraft . had bombed dumm y Jap cities. By th ~ time
they were on the carrier H ornet ste.1 mmg to-
ward Japan , they knew their targets as well as CEN. DOOLITTLE
t he palms of their h ands.
The plan was to take off about 4 00 miles from Tokyo. A!><>,ut 800
MEDAL OF HONOR miles away the Hornet encountered a Jap trawler. TIle carner s gu~ s
sank the 'boat but there was no way of knowing whether a radiO
signal had b~n Aashed to th e mainland. An il~stant dec.ision was
made: Gen . Dool ittle and h is raid ers left the ca rner 4 00 11lIles ahead
of schedule_
They came in over Japan by da)'light at a few hundred feet . TIle
Japs were caught Aat-footed. TIley scurried wildly through the s tre~ ts
as the B-2;S laid th e first bombs of the war on the J ~pnncse I1lnl~l '
land . Gen. Doolittle's pain staking orgnnizntion and danng leadersillp
he massed power of our· ai r forces and the figh ting strength had pn id off.
f their units are built upon the accomplishmcnts of indi- On 1c.1ving the targets, th e planes ran into strong h eadwinds and
'dual AAF crewmen. Although virtually every move in com- storms which exhausted their gas supply. All were forced to make
t is related to th e operation of a machi ne, our mach incs arc crash or par:lchute Inndings. Although most o~ the crews came down
less without men to ru n them-men who arc willing to in friend ly territory and eventuall), made their way to 5.1 fety, a few
ut their lives on the line when th e situation demands. of th e crewmen were forced down behind enem y lines. Among these
lIeroism cannot be measured solely in terms of official latter were th e AAF airmen wh o were executed by the Japanese .
ognition. Such phrases as "conspicuous gal1antry," " Ull -
( reported mis<;ing in this action) (posthumous: killed in this action)
AUC. 6-7. 1942: There were good reasons why COL. PIERPO T M. HAl'"IlLTON
Capt. HarI Pease, Jr., might not have par-
ticipated in the Rabnul mission : he was not NOV. 8, 1942: The troopship stood offshore
scheduled to go; he had just returned from at Port Lyautey, French M orocco. Col.
a grueling att.1ck on a Jap New Guinea base; Demas T. Craw asked permission to land with
his own plane was not fit to fly and the best the first assault boats. He wanted to try to
replacement he could find for it had been de· penetrate the French lines, reach the French
c1ared unserviceable for combat. commander and persuade him to cease hos·
CAPt'. PEASE tilities. Col. Craw was told that it was too COL. CRAW
Capt. Pease took off from AustraJia and dangerous, but he insisted he could do it.
joined his group at Port Moresby, New Guinea, starting point of the Permission was finall y granted .
Rabaul miss ion. He had been fl ying continuously for almost a full Col. (then Major ) Pierpont M . Hami lton "ohmteered to accom.
day. Before they left , he snatched 3 hours' sleep. pany Col. Craw . TIley neared the shore in the first wave of aS5..1ult
Near Rabaul about 30 Zeros hopped his formation. For 2; min- boats. French batteries bracketed their land-
utes a '1iolent battle was fought. Capt. Pease's airplane-the same ing craft with shells. The boat was forced
that had been called un serviceable for combat the day before-was to withdraw, attempt a landing at another
one of those which bore the brunt of Jap attack. Capt. Pease got beach . Here they made shore in spite of un-
through to the target (Ius gunners knocked down several Japs ) and broken strafing by 3 enemy airplanes.
dropped his bombs. Col. Craw and Col. Hamil ton got into a
bantam truck and proceeded toward Port Ly-
On the way home his crippled airplane fell behind. Zeros were autey. As th ey approached, a concc.11ed ma-
waiting for stragglers. \Vh en last seen, Capt. Pease's plane was chine gun nest opened fire at them from
droppin~ a flaming ga s tank ; the Japs werc closing in. point blank range.
Col. Craw was hit and instantly killed. Col. COL. H AMILTON
BRI C CEN . KEN N ETH N . WALKER Hamilton was taken prisoner but managed to complete the hazmdous
(reported mlss mg in this action ) mission success full y.
SEPT . 5. lQ42 · JAN . 5, 1943 : During th e
months he was did of the 5th Bomber Com-
mand. Brig. Cen. Kenneth N . \Valker habit- ( posth umous: killed in this action )
uall y accompanied his fhers on missions deep MAR C il 18, 19 43 : The bombi ng accuracy of
into en emy temtory . vrom personal combat the en tire squadron depended on Lt. Jack W .
expenence he developed a highly efficient Mathis. As bombard ier of th e lead plane in
tec hnique of bombing in the face of enemy an attack on Vegesack, Germnny, his job was
CEN. WALKER fighters and antiaircraft fire. to ma ke the calc ulations for th e first run over
On January 5, 1943. Cen. Walker led a da ylight bombing att:lck I:he target . The rcst of th e planes in tIle s'l uad-
on Rabaul. In spite of swarms of Jap interceptors which rose over ron would bomb according to his sighting.
the harbor to meet them. Cen. Walker's bombers should ered their As Lt. Mnthis was begin ning to make his
way through to the target. planted their bombs squarely on 9 en emy run , he was hit by a German ack·ack shell. LT. MA'f I1lS
ships. The Japs turned the full force of their attack on Cen . Walker's His r.ight. a r ~n was shnttered above the elbow, a Inrge wou nd wa s
airplane. They were too man y. His plane went crasll in g down. t? rn III IllS Side and abdomen, :lIl d he was kn ocked from his homh
Sight to the rear of th e bombard ier's compartment.
fought them off with bursts from his nose guns, making it pos'iihlc
, Although Lt. Mathis was mortally wounded, he crawled ba ck to for the mapping to be completed . 11lCn a coordinated fr ontal a~·
!he b?mbsight. He relea sed the bombs directly on the target. Follow- tack by the Japs blasted holes in the bomber, wounded Lt . Sarnosl.. I,
109 Ills lead. other bombardiers scored hits. Lt. Mathis died slumped
Maj . Zeamer and 5 crew members.
over his bombsight.
Lt. Sarnoski continued fi rin g. T wo Jap
S/ SGT. MAYNARD H. SMITH plan es fell to his guns. A 20 mm sh ell ex-
MAY I, 1943 : On the way home from Sgt . ploded in the bombardier's com partmen t. Lt .
Ma ynard H. Smith's 6rst mission over Europe Sarnoski was hurled out on to the cat walk
his B-17 ran into a hotbox of German Aak below the cockpit. M ortally wounded , he
and fighter planes. Antiaircraft and fi ghter crawled back to his guns and fi red un til h e
cannon s hel1~ ripped through the FortreSs. was dcad .
Two crew members were badly wounded, the The- battle blazed on . M aj. leamer was
oxygen system was shot out, several vital sh ot in both arms and legs. O ne leg was bro·

control cableo; were severed and fires broke
out sImultaneously in the waist section and
radio compartment. Three crewmen bailed out
" . ken. But he stayed at th e controls, stead fastly
refusing medical aid . H e maneuvered the
plane to help his crewmen sh oot down at

into the comparative safety of the sea. least 4 enemy fi ghters. M aj. Zeamer got onc h imself .
Sgt. Smith went into, a~tion. He .rushed from his waist guns to Not until the Japs broke combat did M a j. Zc..1mer relin quish the
fight th e flame~, to admlOls.ter fir st aid to the wounded tail gunner, controls, Even then he con t inued to exercise comman d . The 580-
tI.-en back to h~ s guns to dnve off enemy fighters zooming in for the mile journey home was made un der his direction .
I kill. T~e e!lcaplOg oxygen fanned the fire to such intense heat that
the radIO, gun mount and camera melted. Ammunition stored in the
fuselage ~gan to explode. 2ND. LT . JO H N C. M O RG AN
Sgt. Sm.itlt .threw ammunition overboard, fought the fires until J ULY 28. 19 4 3: Contin en t boun d , a B-1 7
all fire . eI~lOgUis hing ~lId() were exhausted . He gave further first aid formation was nea ring the German coast.
to the t,ul gunner. J-f~ manned the workahle guns until the N azi The Fortress in wh ich 2nd Lt. ( th en Fl ight
fighters &ave up purSUit. Then he wrapped himself in a protecting O ffi cer) John C. M organ was fl ying as co·
cloth and batted out the fire with his hands. pilot was beset by a swarm of Nazi fighters.
The pLlne go t home . Germ an guns knocked out the oxygen sys·
MAJ . JAY ZEAMER , JR.; tem that supplied the tail , waist and radio
gun posit ions. Cann on sh ells smashed into
LT. JOSEPH R. SARN OSKI the cockpit. The pilot's skull was split open .
( pm thumous: killed in this actio n ) He fell over h is steering wheel, grasped it
tigh tly. The plane began to waver.
JI }~ E 16, 19 4 3: Every crewman in the bomber
Lt . M organ seized the controls on h is side and b y sheer st rength
Whi Ch , flew the photographic mission over
pull ed the plan e back in to format ion , T he pilot , not conscious of
B~lIka m the Solomon Islands had volunteered .
wh at h e was doing. t ri ed to wres t the controls away from Lt. M or-
1 hey wcre told it was go ing to be tough . gan . A sha ttered interphonc made it im poss ible to call for hclp.
The bombers fl ew back and forth over the
M ean whilc the top turret gunner, severely wounded , fell fro m his
Jap base tak ing pictures. \Vh ell th ey were al· position. The waist , tail and radio gunners were unconscio us from
M~J . ZEAME_~ . lIlost fini shed, 20 enem y airplanes took off to
a~tac:kd- th.c11ll I J he PI~ot, M aj. ( th en Capt.) Jay Zcmner, Jr. , can- lack of oxygen ,
tmue \''It 1 t l C lIIappmg run. Lt . M organ had to dec ide whether to turn back im med iately and
risk get ting th rough the en cm y fi gh ters alone or to try to fl y all the
N the fir!lt Jap!l closed in, Lt . Joseph R . Sa rn oski, the bom ba rd ier,

Maj. John 1. Jerstad was due for a leave


way to the target and back within the protection of the formation . after completing more than his share of mis-
In spite d the wild efforts of the (atan), wounded pilot to take over sions and he was no longer connected with
the controls, Lt. Morgan chose to make the long flight with the the group scheduled to make the attack. But
formation. he believed that his long experience would be
For 2 hours he held his position-flying the big bomber with one helpful. vVhen the crews were being picked
hand, fighting off the pilot with the other. At length the navigator for the Ploesti mission , he volunteered.
entered the compartment and relic\"cd the situation. Lt. Morgan 's A burst of 8ak caught his plane 3 miles
airplane got through to the target, dropped its bombs and flew safely from the target. It began to bum immedi-
back to home base. ately. Rather than jeopardize the formation :MAJ. JERSTAD
BRIG. GEN. LEON W. JOHNSON; COL. he was leading by dropping out, Maj. Jerstad ignored the level land-
JOHN R. KANE; MAl. JOHN j. jER- ing ground below, stayed on his course. The flames in his plane
STAD (reported missing in th is action ); spread but he managed to get his bombs away accurately. Then his
,NO. LT. LLOYD H. HUGHES (posthu- plane plummeted, blazing, into the target area.
mous: killed in this action); LT. COL. AD· Second Lt. Uoyd H . Hugh es was in the last
DISON E. BAKER (reported missing in this formation to hit the target. By the tim e he
action) was ready to make his run, the Nazis had
AUC. 1, 1943: Every man and every group that all their antiaircraft in action and the target
participated in th e mission to Ploesti , Ru- was a seething mass of flames . Lt. Ii ughes
mania , was cited for gallantry. Of all the feats came in low, dodged skillfully through bar-
of valor that day. 5 merited awarding of the rage ba11oons. Then ack-ack hit his plane.
nation's highest award: Sheets of gasoline streamed from the bomb
I Brig. Gen. (then Col.) Leon \V. Johnson and Col. John R. Kane bay and left wing.
both led 8'24 formations that were delayed by weather on the way Between Lt. Hughes' airplane and the
to Ploesti; both arrived late and found that target lay acres of table-top meadow. He had LT. HUCHES
their objectives had already been hit by other plenty of room and ample time to land safely. But he chose to make
airplanes; both were denied the element of the bombing run.
surprise that is vital to a low-level unescorted Into the 8ames he piloted his Liberator, gasolin e washing from its
attack.. sides. When the plane came out, the left wing
Nazi flak was ready and Nazi fighters was ablaze. Only then did he make an at-
were in the air when Gen. Johnson and Col. tempt to land; it was too late.
Kane re..1ched their respective targets. TIl e The airplane crashed and burned.
refineries and tanks which they were to Lt. Col. Addison E. Baker's B-24 was set
bomb from minimum altitude were blazing afire by antiaircraft bursts 3 miles away from
and exploding from previolls attacks. De- his objective. He could have dropped out
layed action bombs, likely to explode at any of the formation he led and have landed in
l moment , lay scattered through the burning rubble. Over all hung a
the flat coun try below, but he refused to
pall of dense black smoke.
place the other planes in danger by breaking
I <:;en. Johns?n and Col. K.1n~ attacked . Down they led their flights COL. BAKER
unhl flames hck~d at the bellies of their airplan es. Flak and fighter ""ith the wind-fanned flamcs spreading rapidly o,'er his plane. Col.
. plane ~unts wlustled around them , their planes were rocked by oil Baker led his flight expertly into the target . lIis bombs hit true .
. explodmg close below. TIley dropped th eir bombs into the inferno. \Vhen he tried to gain sufficient alti tude so Ihat his crew could bail
l11eir mi~ion 'i were completed as planned.

out, the fire ra,"aged plane would not respond. Skillful1v, with what
was left of the controls. he maneuvered his plane Ollt' of the path WAR CALENDAR
of the rest of the fomlation . A Chronological Report on the AAF Since Pearl Harbor
Then the plane crashed in flames . (For a chronologi cal report on mi litary aeronautics f rom April 19.
MAJ. R,\LPH CHELl 186 1, to Dec. 7, 1941 , see H istorical Hi gh lights, page 339.)
(reported missing in this action ) II)·H ; DE C. 7. Japanese attack OEC. 17. Lt. Gen. D. C. Emmon:-
Pearl Harbor with about 10 5 replaces L t. Gen. \Val ter G
Aue . 18, 1943: \ Vith Maj. Ra lph Chcli in carrier· based planes , strike Short as commander of Hawai ian
the lead plane, the formation of 8 -25S nosed Hi ckam and Wheeler Fields, Department.
down and began their dive on the Japanese Hawaii, destroy 97 U . S . pla nes DEC. 18. Maj. Gen. C. L. Tinker
including 23 AAF bombers and assumes command of the H awa i ~
airbase at \Vewak, New Guinea. Enemv fight.
ers swooped in, centered their fire onMaj.
66 fi ghters ; 226 officers and en·
listed men are killed or later
ian Air Force.
DEC. 20. At least 4 Japanese bomb·
CheJi 's plane, which burst into flames. d ie of wounds ; 39 6 more a re ers are downed near Kunming,
The target was sti11 2 miles away. Maj. wounded. AAF fi ghter pilots Ch ina. in first action of Ameri -
s hoot down more t ha n 20 J ap can Volunteer G roup (AVG).
Che1i could have pulled out of the formation planes. DEC. 22. First U. S. bombing mis-
MA ,. CHELl and gained enough altitude to parachute to DEC. 7·8. Japanese land and car- sion f rom Australia flown by
safety. But he knew a broken formation would give the Japs a great rier-based pla nes in heavy force B·17S a ttack ing ships in Linga·
attack Army installations and yen Bay and off Davao, P . I.
advantase. He stayed . aircraft at Clark and Nichols Distance: 4000 miles.
\Vitll flames streaming from his airplane, he led the low·level Fields, P . I., and the P·40 base
bombing and strafing attack. ""hen the mi ssion was completed, he at lba, P . I. , destroying a ll but
told his wing man to take over as formation leader. Th en he cra shed 72 of t he possible 293 planes in
the Islands .
into tht: sea. DEC. 8. First duel of war bet ween
U . S.·ma nned heavy bomber and
COL. " EEL E. KEARBY enemy fighte r reported during
OCT . 11 , 1943: Col. Nee! E . Kearby's mis· Jap attack on Clark F ield, P. J.
DEC. 9. First U. S . bombing mis· DEC. 24. 4th Air Force bomber re-
sion was completed . He had led a Hight of sion of war is flown when B-17S ports sinking of U-boat off Cali -
4 P ' 4 7S to reconnoiter the heavily defended of 19th Gp attack on enemy ships fornia .
Jap base at Wewak , New Guinea. Fuel was off th e east coast of Vigan , Lu· DEC. 24. Eastern Theater of Oper-
running low, and they were on their way zon, P. 1. Several hits are ations created and assigned the
scored ; one sh ip believed sunk. 1st and 3rd Air Forces.
home. Suddenly Col. Kearby sa w an enemy DEC. 9. A B· 17 of the 19th Cp DEC. 31. AAF casualties in Philip-
fighter below him . He dived. TIle Jap went scores hits on a 29,000-ton J ap- pines for month of December:
down burning. a nese battleship of H aru na class; 122 officers and men dead. 16 2
pilot, Capt. Coli n P. Kelly. wounded. Enemy air losses: 40
Then the 4-pl:me formation sighted 12 DEC. 10. 16 B- 17S of 19th Cp con- planes destroyed.
COL. DARBY enemy bombers escorted by 36 fi ghters. Col. stitute entire bombardment strik- 1942: JAN. I. AAF strength :
Kearby ordered an attack. Leading the way, he dove into th e midst ing force of AAF in the Far 360 ,2 16 officers and men.
East. About 30 fighters remain JAN. 13. Sikorsky XR-4, si ngle
of the Japs, shot down 3 in quick succession . He knocked down an- rotary wing, 2-man helicopter,
in t he Philippines.
other 2. who were on the tail of one of his comrades. D.:C. 11. Western Defense Com- makes first s uccessful flight.
The Japs broke form al-jon to make a multipl e attack on Col. mand designated a Theater of JAN. IS. H q and H q Sq, Alaskan
Kearby's airplane. i Ie made one more pass before seeking cloud pro- Ope rations and assigned the 2nd Air Force. aClivated at Elmen-
and 4th Ai r Forces. dorf Field , Alaska.
tection , Back in the c1e.1r, he called his fligllt together and led th em DEC. I S. AAF submits "A n Esti- JAN. 23. Flying Training Com-
to a friendl y base. mate of the Situation and Rec- llIand establ ished under the Olief
ommendations for the Conduct of A ir Corps,
of the War" to the War De- JAN . 23- 25. AA F B- 17! and ot her
I)artment. Allied bombers join with U. S.
planes and fighters of the 11th JULY 2J. First 8-245 of the 98th
naval ttrils to sink 8 to 12: ships Lt. Gen. H. H . Arnold, Com- Air Force help turn back Japa- Gp arrive in Middle East Theater
in Battle of Macassar Strait. manding General, AAF. nese task force from Dutch under comma nd of U. S. Middle
\ J"N . 28. Hq and Hg Sq. 8th Air )fllR. 20. Eastern T heater of Op- Harbor in l ap assault on A leu- East A ir Force.
Force. activated at Savannah. Ga. erations redesignated Eastern tians. AUG. 3. In their first combat action
n •. J. First operation of P-40S in D~fense Command. J UN E J-7. Seventh A ir Force 11th Air Force P-38s down 2
Netherlands East Indies: I lap ANt. 2. Andaman I slands attacked B-17S and torpedo-armed B-26s Jap fly ing boats.
f bomber and I fighter downed. by 8- 17S in fi rst mission o f 7th aid in repuls ing Jap in vasion AUG. 4. l\-[aj. Gen. G. C. Kenne y
"n. S. Alaskan Air Force redesig- Bomb Gp from India. fleet during battle of Midway . succeeds Lt. Gen. G. H. BreH as
nated 11th Air F orce; Caribbean .... PR. 4. New plan permits college JUNE I I. E leventh Air Force commander, Allied Ai r Forces.
Air For.:e redes ignated 6th Air Illen to enlist in the Air Corps bombers make first attack on S W Pacific area.
Force; !iawaiian Air FOl"ce rc- Enlisted Reser ve on deferred K iska, main Jap Aleutian base. AUG. 14. First German airc ra ft de-
de5ignattd 7th Air Fol"t':e; Far basis and continue college course J UNE 12. Twelve AAF B -24S at- stroyed in combat in Iceland area
East Ai. Force r edesignated 5th until graduation unless previ- tack oil fields at Ploesti, Ru- by the AA F is a FW -Kurie r s hot
Ai r Force. ously call~d by Secretary of War. mania. down by a P-39.
rita. 9. IOlst aerial victor y re- APR. 8. loth Air Force begins fly - J UNE 20. Ferrying Command is AUG. 14. Foreign Service Concen-
ported b! A VGs. ing suppl i~s over the Himalayas reconstituted and redesignated tration Command becomes the
t o Yunnan Province, China. Air Transport Command with 2 AAF 1St Concentration Com-
APR. IJ -14 . 3 Australian-based divisions: Ferrying and Air mand (ceases ope rations D ec. 5.
B-17S and 10 B-25S, Brig. Gen . Transportation. Original Air 1942).
R. Royce commanding, attack Transport Command is redesig- AUG. 17. Railway yards and s hops
Japan~se installations and ship- nated Troop Carrier Command. at Rouen, France, attacked in
ping off Phi lippines. · JUNE 28. Maj. Gen. L. H . Brere- fi rs t mission flown by 8 th Air
APR. 18. Tokyo. Nagoya, K obe and ton a rrives in Cairo from I ndia Force in their own aircraft ; 18
rEII. u. About this date tail guns Yokohama attacked by 16 B-2Ss and assumes command of U. S. planes participated, 12 over the
(.so caLI first used by B-liS in from USN Carrier HOR NET, Lt. Army Middle East Air Force. target, 6 in a diversionary sweep
SW Pacific. Col. ]. H. D oolittle commanding. JULY I. Hq AAF Foreign Service along French coast.
,.~ •. u. loth Ai r Force activated APR. 23. Brig. Gen. I. C. Eaker ap- Concentration Command estab- AUG. 18. Brig. Gen. Clayton Bis-
at Patterson Field , Ohio. pointed Ch i ~f, U. S. Army lished. seH assumes command of 10UI
PY.II. 23 • .'\ ir Corps Officer Can- Bomber Command in Europe. JULY t. Brig. Gen. Claire L . Air Force.
dida te School established at Mi- APR. 24. Operations of the 1st Fer- Chennault assumes com mand of
ami Beach . Fla. rying Gp, known as the Trans- newly formed China Air Task
rEB. 25. Maj. Gen. L. H . Brere- India and the Assam-Burma- Force which makes its fir st op-
ton assumes command of newly China F~rrying Commands re- eration on thi s date.
formed loth Air Force at N~w ported under way. J ULY 4. First U. S.-shared attack
D~lhi, I ndia. APR. 28. 22 J ap planes reported is made on German occupied ter-
........ First 4-~ngin~ C-S4 ( Doug- downed over Lashio by A VGs . ritory in Europe; 12 RAF Bos-
las) troo? a nd cargo transport is )fAY 2. Maj. Gen. C. Spaatz t ons, 6 manned by AAF airmen,
d~liv~red to the AAF. assigned command of 8th Ai r dro p bombs on airdromes in H ol- AUG. 19. Fi rst German aircraft t o
".u. lotI: Air Forc~ begins to Force.
WAY 4-9. Allied air units in Aus-
land. be shot down over E urope by a
cooperate with AIIi~s in evacua- J ULY 4. 2Jrd Fighter Gp, lot h Air U. S . fi ghter pilot is des troyed
tion of Eurma. tralia mcluding U . S. planes par- Force. takes over AVG (F lying ove r Dieppe.
"oU. 8. Col. W. O. Butle r assumes ticipate in Battle of Coral Sea. Tigers). AUG. 20. Hq and Hq Sq. 12th Air
eommand of 11th Air Forc~, WAY u. Units of 8th Air Force J ULY 8. Flight Officer Act au- F orce activated at Bolling Field ,
Alaska. arrive in England. thorizes title of flight office r. D.C.
" All. 9. In a reorganizati on of the MAY 26. Gulf Task Force, 1St JULY 10. First plane of ATC lands AUG. 2S _ AAF Cold Weather T est-
War D~llartment, the A rm y Ai r Bomber Command, ~g in s active at Ascension Island on new S . ing Detachmcnt activat ed at
Forces, Army Ground Forces and antis ubmarine warfare. Atl antic route . Ladd F ield. Alas ka.
the Services of Supply are estab- JUNE 3. Flight trai ning fo r West JULY 10. Maj. Gen. C. Spaat z ap- SEl'T. I. Joint A A F - RAF fi ghter
lished or a coordinate footing. Point cadets begins, fi rst Major pointed Chief, U . S. Army Ai r sweep ove r N orth French ca., St
The reorlanized G~neral Staff is elective in his tory of the acad- Forces in E u rope. marks firs t operational flight fo r
composed of approximately so% emy. Training is given at JULY 12. Activation of followi ng P -J8s in European th eater.
Air COTPl officers. Functions of Stewart Field, 12 miles north ATC wings : North At lantic , SEPT. I. First airborne engineer-
the Commanding General, Air of West Point, with first class South Atlantic, Pacific. Africa - ing unit activated at \Ves tover
Fnrce Combat Command and numbering more than 200. Middl e East . Carib1.x:an . reidd , Mas s.
Chief of Ai r Corps a re vested in J UNE 3 & s· Bombers, torpedo

SEPT. 3. U. S. un it s of Allied Air East Air Force. Lt. Gen . G. H . JAM. 14. European Wing of ATC B - 17S a nd 24 B-24S over Vege-
Forces in Australia become 5th Brett replaces Lt . Gen. Andrews activated. sack, Germany. One submarine
Air Force. Lt. Gen. G. C. Ken~ as Olief of Caribbean Defense capsized, 6 damaged; 52 enemy
Dey assumes command. Command. planes s hot down, 20 probables,
SEPT. 12. First u se of parafrags NOY. 12, Middle East Air Force, 23 damaged.
(parachute fragmentation bombs) redesignated 9th Air Force. MAR, 19. Lt. Gen. H. H. Arnold ,
by 5th Air Force against Buna NOV. 17, AAF School of Appl ied Commanding General, AAF,
airbase; force of heavy, medium Tactics established at Orlando, nominated by Pres. Roosevelt for
and attack bombers w ith fight er Fla. promotion to full general; he be-
I escort destroys I ' lap planes on NOV. 22 . Japanese-held rail center comes first airman to win thi s

I ground.
SEPT. 20. About this date B.175
are fitted with external wing
at Mandalay , Burma . attacked by
largest formation of U. S, bomb-
ers to operate from airbases in
JAN. 21. In first U. S. bomber at-
tack on Germany, 53 B-11S of
ra nk,
loIAR. 26. Test of first B-25 armed
with 15 mm ca nnon is completed
bomb racks. India. 8th Ai r Force strike Wilhelms- by AAF Proving Ground Com-
SEPT. 23. Brig. Gen. J. H . Doo· :Sov. 26. Attack on Japa nese-held haven: 2 B-17S hit Emden, and mand.
little assumes command of the Thailand made by nine loth Ai r 23 B-24S bomb area near Zuider M AR, 29. In AAF reorganization ,
aewly fonned 12th Air Force in Force B-24S. Distance: more Zee. Hq directorates aboli shed. their
England. Ihan 2000 miles to Bangkok and FEB. 4. Lt. Gen. Frank M. An- functions being assigned to Com-
OCT. 2. DSM awarded Lt. Gen. H . retu rn . ) drews becomes Commanding mands and Assistant Chiefs of
H . Arnold, Commanding Gen- NOV. 30. About this date Lt. Gen. General , European Theater of Air Staff.
eral , AAF, for conspicuous dem- C. Spaatz arrives in North Af- Ope rations. MAR. 29. Flight Control Command
onstratior. of leadership upon rica from . London to reorga nize n :B. 18. 12th Air Force and RAF establ is hed,
completio::l of flight from Bris- All ied Air Forces. units in North Afri ca merge as APR . 4. Renault Works at Billan-
bane. Australia to Bolling Field, Df·:C. I. Maj, Gen. 1. C. Eaker as- North west African Air Forces cOllrt, France , attacked by 85
D. C. sumes command of the 8th Air (NWAAF), Lt. Gen. C. Spaatz B- I 7S of 8th Air Force.
OCT. 9. tn heaviest U. S. d aylight Force in England. commanding-Maj. Gen. ]. H . APR , 17. Focke-Wulf airc raft
attack to date, industrial plants DEC. I , Air Transport Command Dooli ttle commands Strategic A ir works near Bremen attacked by
at Lille. France, attacked by 8th takes over operati on of ferrying Force; Air Vice Marshal Sir over 100 B ~ 1 1S of 8th Air
r Air Force heavy bombers. and supply to China. Arthur Coningham, RAF , com- Force droppi ng 265 tons of
I OCT. IS . Anti subma rine Command DEC. 4, In first U . S. attack on mands Tactical A ir Force. bombs; 63 enemy planes shot
activated at Mitchel Field . N. Ita lian mainland, twenty-four 9th MA R. I. First group of students be- down . IS probablt:s, 11 damaged .
Y .. with Brig. Gen. W . T . Larson Air Force B-24S attack Naples gins pre-aviation cadet training APR. 18. Catania Harbor in Sicil y
commandIng. and harbor. under the AAF College Training bombed by t 2 B-24S and by 48
OCT. I'. Alaskan Wing of ATC DE C. 7. P-40S go into action for P r ogram, P-40S of 9th Air Force ; 74
mh·ated. the first time in Tunisia. MAli. . 1-4, In Bismarck Sea action, German trans ports and escorting
DE C. 22. In longest offensive 174 planes of 5th Air Force and fighte rs des troyed. 21 enelllY
massed Right made to date . 26 RAA F drop 213 tons of bombs, planes damaged,
B-24S of the 1th Air Force stage wiping out virtually an enti re APR . 29 . Civ il Air Patrol made a n
midnight surpri se attack on con voy and its supplies as well as auxiliary of the AAF.
\Vake Island. Distance: 4300 nearly a divison of troops, pro- M AY I. B-24S, B-25S , P-38s and
nautical miles. wi th onl y stopping ceeding from Rabaul to L..'le, P -40S make 104 sorties to Ki ska
point being Midway. MAR. 10. P-47S of 8th Air Force, and Attn.
",OY. 1. North African campaign DE C. 25. F irst Air Evacuation in their initial combat employ- M AY 3. Lt . Gen. Frank M. A II-
Gpl!ns. For landing operations of Transport Sq leaves for North meln, engage in a sweep off drews killed in plane c rash , Ice-
U. S. troops in North Africa , Africa. Walche ren Islands, Netherlands. land .
paratroopers are Bown to scene UE C. 28. P -38s make debut in New M AR . 10. H q and Htt Sq of 14th MAY 7, With aid of heavy support-
In 47 AAF transports on 1400- Guin ea. Air Force acti vated at Kunm ing, ing aerial barra~e. Alli